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Title: Oats on Florida farms
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084594/00001
 Material Information
Title: Oats on Florida farms
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Smith, J. Lee.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service,
Copyright Date: 1944
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084594
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 222325041

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
Full Text

(A Revision of Circular 72)



OATS
On Florida Farms


Florida 167 oats yield well on the high sandy
lands of the central part of the state. This field
is on the Experiment Station farm.

Grow
50 Bushels
to the Acre

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Circular 78


June, 1944






Oats on Florida Farms

Bv J. LEE SMITH
Extension Agronomist

WHY GROW OATS?
1. They are an excellent early grain
feed.
2. When cut in the dough stage they
produce good hay that is harvested at a
season when curing is usually surest.
3. They provide green grazing for live-
stock on the farm during winter and
spring.
4. They provide the earliest grain feed
that can be harvested with hogs.
5. They are harvested in the spring,
permitting the production of another crop
on the same land during the year.
6. If planted early they prevent exces-
sive soil erosion of rolling land from win-
ter and spring rains.

SOIL ADAPTATION
Any land which will grow a good crop
of cotton or corn will produce oats, though
best results are to be expected from the
heavier, more fertile soils. A fertile sandy
loam or clay loam soil well filled with
humus will generally prove most satisfac-
tory. Light sandy soils will most likely
produce poor crops. Oats use a large
amount of soil moisture and respond well
to fertility. Good drainage, however, is
essential. Winter-killing and diseases are
most likely to occur on infertile and poorly
drained soils.

PREPARATION OF LAND
Though the preparation of a good seed-
bed is not as essential for the production
of oats as for some other crops, it is de
11






sirable. The soil's previous treatment and
its character will determine the best
method of preparation. If the land was
well plowed and the cultivation for the
preceding crop was reasonably clean, a
double disking is likely to be sufficient, ex-
cept on hard dry soils. Plowing 5 or 6
inches deep, turning vegetation under well
a month in advance of planting, may be
desirable. A disking or harrowing should
then put it in good condition. If fertilizer
is to be broadcast it can be applied just
prior to the last disking or harrowing.

FERTILIZING

A good crop of green crotalaria or other
summer legume plowed under in late sum-
mer or early fall, particularly in central
Florida, prepares the land for a greatly
increased yield of oats. It also takes the
place of part of the top-dressing fertilizer.
Regardless of previous fertilizer treat-
ment, oats are profitably top-dressed with
approximately 150 pounds of nitrate of
soda or 75 to 100 pounds of ammonium
sulfate per acre or its equivalent around
the 15th of February in northern Florida.
When used only for winter and early
spring green grazing and planted the last
of September or early in October, oats
should be top-dressed the first weeks of
December.
If the preceding spring or summer crop
did not receive an application of a com-
plete fertilizer it will be advisable to ap-
ply 200 to 400 pounds of 2-8-8, 3-8-5 or
4-10-7 fertilizer per acre to the oats at
time of planting unless land was recently
well fertilized. If a good growth of crota-
laria or peanut or velvet bean vines has
been turned in, 300 pounds per acre of
0-14-10 or 200 pounds of 18 or 20 percent
superphosphate and 50 pounds of 60 per-
[2]






cent muriate of potash will suffice. This
fertilizer can be drilled or disked in at or
just prior to the time of seeding.

VARIETIES
Prevalence of crown rust in past years
made the production of oats for grain im-
practical and unprofitable on most farms,
and the principal Florida oats acreage a
few years ago was for grazing. However,
a number of new varieties have been de-
veloped which are rust-immune and which
produce high yields of grain under Flor-
ida conditions. They are suitable for both
grazing and grain.
In the area west of the Suwannee River
the following varieties are recommended
for hay or grain: Florilee, Quincy Red
(No. 1), Quincy White (No. 2), Hasting's
Hundred Bushel and Nortex. Both Flori-
lee and the Quincy varieties are immune
to crown rust and therefore are the surest
producers. All these varieties are mid-
season to late in maturing.
For central and southern Florida the
most promising grain producing varieties
are Florida 167, recently released by the
Florida Experiment Station, and Suwan-
nee Blackhull and Fulghum, because of
their earliness. Florida 167 and Suwannee
Blackhull are the surer grain producers.

RATE OF SEEDING

Nature of the soil, time and method of
planting and the main purpose for which
oats are to be grown will influence the rate
of seeding, yet no good yields are to be ex-
pected without a good stand. It requires
stalks to produce grain. It is generally
safer and more dependable to use at least
2 to 3 bushels of seed per acre on fall
plantings. When planted on fertile soil
in early fall and not intended for grazing
[3]






the lighter seeding can. be used, since good
stooling and growth can be expected. Win-
ter and spring grazing will be increased
and soil erosion better prevented on rolling
lands if a heavier seeding is used. Late
plantings will require more seed.

TIME OF SEEDING
The time or date of seeding oats is very
important. Spring-planted oats are com-
paratively light producers. Rust-immune
and highly resistant oats can be planted
in October with safety. Usually for the
best yields of hay or grain they should
be planted during October and early
November. For most winter and early
spring grazing or erosion prevention, rust-
immune or very resistant varieties should
be planted the last of September or early
October.
METHOD OF SEEDING
Oats may be seeded successfully by any
of several methods. Where proper imple-
ments are available, drilling is advisable
because it gives a more uniform depth
and rate of sowing and a more even germi-
nation of seed. Sometimes oats are planted
in small, close, shallow furrows opened by
the use of a fertilizer distributor or
planter. Fertilizer and seed may be put
in together. Drilling by any method gives
protection from drought and cold.
Oats may be sown broadcast, turned in
shallow with a small plow or disked in
with a disc tiller or plain disc harrow. The
tiller or harrow will not put them in at
an even depth or in a depression. In cover-
ing seed by plowing the land can be left
slightly rough, giving some protection,
and the depth can be gauged to fit the
land, assuring the depth of planting to suit
the land and the normal prevailing
weather. By any method the fertilizer
can be put in prior to or at time of seeding.






HARVESTING


Oats may be harvested with the com-
bine, binder, mowing machine or cradle,
or by grazing the green or mature oats
with livestock. In harvesting grain the
combine is the most desirable implement.
It does the job of cutting and threshing
quickly and leaves a lot of litter on the
land which gives protection to the soil.
For combining the oats must be thor-
oughly mature and dry. This requires
that they remain standing in the field for
a week or 10 days longer than if cut with
cradle or binder. The binder leaves them
in bundles for shocking and feeding but
requires a much longer time in harvesting
and more handling than if harvested with
a combine. The bundles must be well
shocked and left in the field to dry. If it
is desirable the grain can then be threshed
and stored. The mowing machine can be
used for cutting oats while in the dough
stage if a combine or binder is not avail-
able. They can be raked and threshed or
fed in the straw.

UTILIZATION

Oats are an excellent feed for all kinds
of livestock as green grazing, as hay or
grain. Their high value as a part .of the
hay and grain ration of horses and mules
while working during hot weather is well
known. Because they have a high pro-
portion of ash bone-forming material
- and of protein muscle-forming ma-
terial-they are very valuable for feed-
ing to young animals. When cut in the
late dough or early maturity stage with
binder, mower or cradle and fed in bun-
dles, or when cut loose and fed loose, oats
provide an excellent grain and hay feed.
Thus, they make a good cow feed.
Grazing mature oats is becoming more
[5]






popular each year. They are the earliest
maturing grain crop that can be pro-
duced. In the headed or grain stage oats
will furnish good grazing from late April
to early July. The Coastal Plain Experi-
ment Station of Georgia reported produc-
ing 362 pounds of pork per acre from a
production of 27.2 bushels of oats per acre.
The most popular use of oats in Florida
at present, however, is for temporary
green grazing for all kinds of livestock.
Seeded heavily early and top-dressed about
the first week in December, they produce
an abundance of green grazing for winter
and spring. If hay or grain is to be pro-
duced, grazing should be discontinued
sometime between the middle of February
and the middle of March, depending on the
number of animals grazing them. It is
believed by some that any grazing of oats
will reduce the yield of grain. This green
grazing in winter and spring provides an
abundance of protein and vitamins badly
needed at that season.
Poultry may pick the grain out of the
bundles or hay may be threshed and fed
in a mixed scratch grain.
Oats are also being used as an erosion-
prevention crop on rolling lands. They
fit well into a rotation with other crops.
The same crop of oats, therefore, may
serve many purposes.















































Here is one of a number of Florida Ex-
tension Service publications of wartime
importance.

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