Title: Aquatic weed control
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084554/00001
 Material Information
Title: Aquatic weed control
Series Title: Circular, Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 219B
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Harrison, D. S.
Blackburn, R. D.
Wldon, L. W.
Orsenigo, J. R.
Ryan, G. F.
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: August, 1996
Copyright Date: 1966
Edition: rev. of 219
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084554
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 214084389

Full Text



AQUATIC
Weed Control


S. HARRISON
D. BLACKBURN
W. WELDON
R. ORSENIGO
F. RYAN


'4'


SI-


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
CIRCULAR 219B Gainesville, Florida AUGUST 1966


,--











Authors of this circular are D. S. Harrison, associate agri-
cultural engineer, Agricultural Extension Service, Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville; R. D. Blackburn, research botanist and L. W. Weldon,
research agronomist, Crops Research Division, Agricultural Re-
search Service, USDA, Ft. Lauderdale; J. R. Orsenigo, associate
horticulturist, and G. F. Ryan, assistant horticulturist, Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agri-
cultural Sciences, Belle Glade and Lake Alfred, respectively.






ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This publication is based on the results of latest research on
aquatic and ditchbank weed control by the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations and the U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Crops Research Division, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
The information was compiled by the Florida Agricultural
Extension Service. Also, suggested control measures were pre-
viously printed as CR 56-63, by USDA, ARS, Crops Research
Division, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.



Printed January 1962
Revised June 1964
Revised August 1966








COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director











AQUATIC WEED CONTROL

IN PONDS, DITCHES, CANALS, AND STREAMS

Obnoxious aquatic plants which confront the user of water in
canals, ditches, ponds, streams, and reservoirs may be classified
into three broad groups based upon the plant's growth habit.
These are floating, emerged, and submersed.
Floating aquatic plants are completely free, or floating in
the water, and not rooted in the soil. Examples of the more
common of these troublesome plants are waterhyacinth, water
lettuce and salvinia.
Emersed aquatic plants are rooted in soil below the water sur-
face. They grow up through the water, with a major portion of
the plant above the water surface. Examples of emersed aquatic
plants are cattail, maidencane, cutgrass, spatterdock, waterlily,
sawgrass, smartweed, rush, pickerelweed, and water primrose
or primrosewillow.
Submersed aquatics may or may not be rooted on the bottom.
They grow entirely beneath the surface of the water. This
group of pest plants probably causes the most serious weed
problem in drainage and irrigation channels and ponds. These
weeds may retard the flow of water by as much as 90 percent
in some areas of the state. Examples of the more common
submersed aquatics are southern naiad or head wool, coontail
and bladderwort.

CONTROL METHODS
Special dragline buckets such as the hyacinth bucket are
effective in removing submersed and floating water weeds. How-
ever, the few plants remaining after removal will spread, mak-
ing an annual maintenance program necessary. Another method
of removing submersed and floating weeds is by dragging chains
down the channel and then pumping the refuse into a reservoir.
Boats equipped with power-driven cutters have been somewhat
effective in the south on cattails, rushes, sawgrass, and tule, but
rather ineffective on other plants. Underwater mowing must be
done repeatedly to obtain control. The cutter bar is operated
12 to 60 inches below the water surface, and the plant growth









is mowed at that depth three to five times during a growing
season.
All of the above methods are generally more expensive and
often less effective than chemical control. The proper chemicals,
in combination with the right method of application, must be
used to obtain most effective control of aquatic weeds and
grasses. The following discussion and the table of recommenda-
tions in the Appendix are devoted to the more recent research
findings for chemical control of aquatic and ditchbank weeds
found in Florida.


SUBMERSED WEEDS


Most submersed aquatics can be successfully controlled with
emulsifiable solvents, acrolein, or sodium arsenite. Submersed
aquatic weeds can be controlled by chemicals at a cost of one-
third to one-fourth that obtained with mechanical means. The
control also lasts for longer periods.
Only aromatic and some other unsaturated hydrocarbons are
satisfactory solvents for control of submersed weeds. Emulsi-
fiers must be added to the solvents at a volumetric concentration
of 21/ percent. This is 21/2 gallons of emulsifier per 100 gallons
of solvent. Commercially available preparations already have
the emulsifier added. Diesel oil, kerosene, mineral spirits, tractor
distillates, and similar aliphatic materials do not control sub-
mersed water weeds. For directions on mixing weed-killing
chemicals, see Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Cir-
cular S-97.
In drainage ditches in sandy soils, where there is consider-
able seepage and velocity, apply solvents at 80 parts per million
by volume for best control. On the organic soils, complete
control may be obtained with 20 parts per million by volume.
Because of fire hazard resulting from low flash point of the
solvents, make application under or directly on top of the water,
and with the use of carbon dioxide as a propellant rather than
positive displacement pumps. Pressure must be adequate-30
to 40 pounds per square inch. The spray nozzle should be suf-
ficiently small to give good mixing of the chemical in the water.
Sodium arsenite, diquat, endothall and acrolein are chemicals
that give satisfactory control of submersed aquatics. Effective









control has been obtained by using sodium arsenite at rates of
4 parts per million by weight. Use EXTREME CAUTION when
applying sodium arsenite; it is toxic to humans and animals.
However, it is not toxic to fish at rates of 3 to 5 parts per million
by weight.
Acrolein has also been effective against submersed aquatics
at rates as low as 4 to 7 parts per million. Control may last
from three months to one year. Acrolein has been more effective
than the aromatic solvents when applied in comparable situa-
tions.
Certain algae may be controlled with copper sulfate and
endothall.
Amount of Material Required.-Formulas given on page 15
show how to calculate the amount of material required for a
particular application.
Water Control for Best Results.-Proper water control is vital
for best results in using herbicides for submersed aquatics.
The water level in the canal or pond should be normal or just
high enough to cover the weeds. The herbicide must contact
all plants to kill them. The water in the canal, ditch, or pond
should be controlled with little or no flow for at least 24 and
preferably 48 hours after treatment. This allows the herbicide
sufficient contact time for good penetration and kill of the
plants.


FLOATING WEEDS


The most common of these is waterhyacinth. Waterhyacinth
is most economically controlled with an amine formulation of
2,4-D. Low volatile esters, such as propylene glycol butyl ether
and butoxy ethanol esters, also give good control. These esters
are more volatile than the amine salt formulations and should
not be used in areas where there is any possible danger of drift
of volatilized fumes. Highly volatile esters of 2,4-D should not
be used. Waterhyacinth is killed more rapidly in warm weather
than in cool weather. A poor kill may result if rain occurs soon
after treatment.
Rates of 2,4-D as low as 2 to 4 pounds acid equivalent
per acre have been used to control waterhyacinth; however to
obtain 100 percent control, the use of at least 4 to 8 pounds
per acre of amine salt or low volatile ester is recommended.

5









Apply the spray at a rate of 100 to 200 gallons per acre to wet
the foliage thoroughly. It is generally more efficient if the area
is patrolled periodically, spot-treating small patches of water-
hyacinth, rather than waiting for the problem to become severe
before treatment.
Complete removal of floating aquatic weeds may encourage
growth of submersed weeds, and measures should be taken to
prevent or control subsequent infestations of submersed weeds
by the methods described above.

DITCHBANK GRASSES
Paragrass, napiergrass, and certain other perennial grasses
along ditchbanks may be controlled with 5 to 10 pounds per acre
of dalapon per application in 50 to 100 gallons per acre of water.
Apply two to three times at intervals of one to two weeks be-
tween applications. The use of a wetting agent is helpful.
When grasses, broadleaf weeds, and woody plants or brush
are growing in combination, 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T at 2 to 4 pounds
per acre can be included with the first application of dalapon,
and this mixture will give effective control of all three types
of weeds.
OTHER AQUATIC WEEDS
Alligatorweed was first reported in the United States as
early as 1897. Only recently, however, has it been observed to
cause serious difficulty in Florida. This plant is particularly
dangerous, since it is capable of growing rooted or free-floating
in water and it may also invade nearby croplands.
Repeated applications of silvex have given control of alli-
gatorweed. At the present time, repeated applications of silvex
offers the best control.
Other emergent weeds which cause difficulty in moving water
through drainage and irrigation channels are spatterdock, pick-
erelweed, cattails, waterprimrose, and certain brush species.
Controls are listed on pages 9-13.

SPRAYERS FOR APPLYING HERBICIDES

Space does not permit a complete description of all the spray-
ers used to apply herbicides. Instead, a few of the more common
ones used in Florida will be mentioned. These are compressed
air sprayers and portable tractor or boat sprayers.
6








For treating large areas of ditches, and ditchbanks, the trac-
tor-mounted or trail-behind sprayer with handgun or portable
boat-type sprayer is the most economical to use. These rigs are
either power-take-off or auxiliary-engine operated.
The most common pumps used are nylon roller, gear, or piston
type. Rotary pumps with Ni-Resist cases and nylon rollers have
much more resistance to wear than other type rotary pumps
when spraying with wettable powder herbicides. Piston type
pumps specifically designed for weed control are also satisfactory.
Pumps should have 30 to 50 percent more capacity than that
required for the boom output to provide for by-pass agitation,
unless agitation is otherwise provided.
A popular rig in southern Florida for treating large areas of
ditches or ditchbanks consists of a portable sprayer and tank
which may be transported and used in a boat. The pump is
powered by an air-cooled engine, and a 30 to 55 gallon drum is
used as a supply tank. A single hose connected to the outlet
side of the pump runs to a handgun having single or multiple
nozzles. A diaphragm or spring-loaded regulator is used so
pressures may be increased or decreased as needed. For spraying
above the ground or water, use pressures in range of 25 to 200
pounds per square inch.

CARE OF SPRAYERS

Clean the sprayer thoroughly after each spraying operation,
since many herbicides are corrosive and may cause rust to form
in addition to damaging parts of the pump, pressure regulator,
and nozzles.
When 2,4-D esters or oil soluble materials have been used:

1. Rinse the sprayer system with kerosene.

2. Add 1 to 2 pounds of washing soda or 1 quart of house-
hold ammonia to 30 gallons of water.

3. Allow this to remain in the sprayer for several minutes,
start the sprayer and circulate it through the system.

4. Rinse the sprayer with 6 to 8 ounces of liquid detergent
in 30 gallons of water and drain.

5. Rinse the sprayer with water and drain.





When 2,4-D amine or other water soluble salts have been
used:
1. Rinse the sprayer system with either 1 to 2 pounds of
washing soda or 1 quart of household ammonia in 30
gallons of water.
2. Allow the solution to stand in the sprayer for several
minutes; start the pump and circulate it through the
system.
3. Drain the sprayer.
4. Rinse the sprayer system with 6 to 8 ounces of liquid
detergent in 30 gallons of water and drain.
5. Rinse the sprayer system with water and drain.
To prevent rust or corrosion, flush the sprayer system by
pumping through a solution of automobile radiator rust inhibitor
in water (1/' cup per gallon of water) and drain. Kerosene or
fuel oil will not prevent rust or corrosion.
CALIBRATION OF APPLICATORS
Accurate calibration of herbicide applicators is essential for
safe, economical and effective weed control. Check calibration
prior to use and periodically during operation.
Extension Circular 275A, dated September 1965, available
through your local county agricultural agent, covers most appli-
cators' calibration and procedures.

SUGGESTED CONTROL MEASURES
FOR COMMON AQUATIC WEEDS OF FLORIDA
Suggested control measures for common aquatic weeds of
Florida are presented in the following table.
Recommended (status "R") and suggested (status "S") con-
trol measures are based mainly on aquatic weed control investi-
gations in Florida. Only commercially available herbicides are
recommended or suggested for use.
This information is provided for the benefit of those who are
informed about the general nature and use of herbicides, and
are familiar with the equipment and techniques employed in
the application of such herbicides. Space does not permit a full
discussion of the properties of the herbicides mentioned in this
report. Users are advised to read package labels carefully and
to heed all directions and precautions printed there. Persons
not familiar with herbicides and their use should seek competent
advice before proceeding with any of the control measures sug-
gested. Herbicides should not be applied to water that is used
for domestic purposes.




99 eed Status norbw.wto*-.-


ALGAE
PLANKTON:
(Microcystis,
Anabaena, and
Aphanizomenon)
FILAMENTOUS:
(Spirogyra,
Oedogonium,
Hydrodictyon,
Pithophora, and
Cladophora

HIGHER ALGAE:
(Chara and
Nitella


R Copper sulfate
R do.


R Copper sulfate
R do.

R Endothall (amine salt)

S Sodium arsenite

R Copper sulfate
R do.

S Sodium arsenite

S Dichlobenil (granular)


0.25 ppmw Soft water
1.00 ppmw Hard water


0.5-1.0 ppmw
1.0-2.0 ppmw


Soft water
Hard water


0.25-1.0 ppmw TOXIC to fish


4 ppmw


CAUTION: TOXIC to mammals
Follow label directions


1-2 ppmw Soft water
2-3 ppmw Hard water


4 ppmw


CAUTION: TOXIC to mammals
Follow label directions


6-10 lb/A Broadcast over weeds


SUBMERSED WEEDS
bladderwort
(Utricularia spp.)


R diquat


R acrolein
R endothall (amine salt)



R aromatic solvents
R sodium arsenite


0.25-0.5 ppmw Inject or apply on surface of non-
flowing water.
1-2.5 ppmw Inject or apply on surface of slow-
flowing water.
Do NOT apply diquat to muddy
water.
4-7 ppmv Inject underwater; toxic to fish.
1-2 ppmw Inject in non-flowing water; toxic
to fish.
2-4 ppmw Inject in slow-flowing water; toxic
to fish.
20-80 ppmv Inject underwater; toxic to fish.
4 ppmw CAUTION: Toxic to mammals.
Inject in ponds or lakes.


* Status: R Recommended for satisfactory control.
S- Suggested for possible or partial control.
** Herbicides referred to by common name. Chemical names are on page 16.
t Abbreviations used listed on page 1;.
t Where foliar application is recommended, mix herbicide in 150 gpa water unless otherwise specified.


Applications


Kemarksft


" """


""""""






Rate of
Weed Status Herbicide Application Remarks

coontail R Same as for bladderwort
(Ceratophyllum
demersum L.) S endothall (disodium or 2-4 ppmw Inject in ponds or small lakes;
dipotassium)
eelgrass R endothall (amine salt) 1.5 ppmw Inject ponds or small lakes; toxic
(Vallisneria spp.) to fish.
S Dichlobenil (granular) 10-20 lb/A Broadcast over weed area.
elodea R acrolein 4-7 ppmv Inject underwater; toxic to fish.
(Elodea canadensis R endothall (amine salt) 2-4 ppmw Inject underwater; toxic to fish.
Michx., Elodea densa R aromatic solvents 20-80 ppmv Inject underwater; toxic to fish.
(Planch.) Caspary) S sodium arsenite 4 ppmw Inject in ponds or'lakes.
CAUTION: Toxic to mammals.
S diquat 1-2 ppmw Inject or apply on surface of non-
flowing water. DO NOT apply
diquat to muddy water.
naiad, southern R Same as for bladderwort.
(Najas guadalupensis
(Spreng.) Magnus)
pondweed R Same as for bladderwort.
(Potamogeton spp.)
widgeongrass R diquat 0.5-1.5 ppmw Inject or apply on surface of non-
(Ruppia maritima L.) flowing water. DO NOT apply
diquat to muddy water.

FLOATING WEEDS
duckweed R diquat 0.25-1 ppmw Foliar spray or inject in non-flow-
(Spirodela polyrhiza ing water. Do NOT apply di-
(L.) Schleid; Lemna minor quat to muddy water.
L.; Wolffia spp.)
salvinia R diquat 1-2 lb/A Spray on foliage.
(Salvinia
rotundifolia Willd.)





Rate of
Weed Status Herbicide Application Remarks

water hyacinth R 2,4-D (amine salt) 2-4 lb/A Spray on foliage.
(Eichhornia crassipes R 2,4-D (low-volatile esters) 2-4 lb/A Spray on foliage using water or
(Mart.) Solms.) fuel oil.
R diquat 1-1.5 lb/A Spray on foliage.
R amitrole-T 1-1.5 lb/A Spray on foliage.
S 2,4-D (oil-soluble amines) 2-4 lb/A Spray on foliage.
water lettuce R diquat 1-1.5 lb/A Spray on foliage.
(Pistia stratiotes L.)
frogbit R 2,4-D 4 lb/A Spray on foliage.
(Limnobium spongia)
R Diquat 1 lb/A Spray on foliage.

EMERSED WEEDS
alligatorweed R silvex (low-volatile esters) 8 lb/A Spray on foliage. Repeat appli-
(Alternanthera cation when regrowth is 4-6
philoxeroides in. above water surface.
(Mart.) Griseb.) R silvex (granular) 20-30 lb/A Use only on rooted alligatorweed
growing in 6-8 in. of water.
Broadcast over weed surface.

arrowhead S 2,4-D (low-volatile esters) 4-8 lb/A Spray on foliage using water or
(Sagittoria spp.) fuel oil.
S silvex (low-volatile esters) 4-8 lb/A Spray on foliage using water or
fuel oil.

bulrush S 2,4-D (low-volatile esters) 4-8 lb/A Spray on foliage using water or
(Scirpus spp.) fuel oil.
cattail R dalapon 15-20 lb/A Spray on foliage.
(Typha spp.) R dalapon + 5-10 lb/A Spray on foliage.
diesel oil (emulsifiable) 10 gpa
S amitrole-T 4-6 lb/A Spray on foliage. Two applica-
tions 1 month apart.








Weed

parrotfeather
(Myriophyllum
brasiliense Camb.)
pennywort, water
(Hydrocotyle spp.)

pickerelweed
(Pontcderia
cordata L.)
primrosewillow
(Jussiaea spp.)
rush
S (Juncus spp.)


--


sawgrass
(Cladim jnamaiccnse
Crantz)

smartweed
(Polygonum spp.)
spatterdock
(Nnphar advena
(Ait.) Ait. f.)

waterlily
(Nymphaea spp.)


watershield
(Brasena schreberi)


Status

S
S
S
S

S
S
S

R

S

S

R

S

S

S
S
S

S
S


S


10-20 lb/A+
20 gpa
4-8 lb/A

30-40 lb/A
2-4 ppmw
2-4 ppmw


4-6 lb/A


Spray on foliage using water or
fuel oil. Repeat frequently.

Same as for spatterdock.


Herbicide

2,4-D (low-volatile esters)
2,4-D (granular)
Silvex (granular)
2,4-D (amine salt)

diquat
silvex (low-volatile esters)
silvex (granular)

2,4-D (amine salt)

silvex (low-volatile esters)

2,4-D (amine or emulsifiable
acid)


Rate of
Application

4-8 lb/A
20 lb/A
1-2 ppmw
2-6 lb/A

1.5 lb/A
4-8 lb/A
20 lb/A

2-6 lb/A

4-8 lb/A

6-8 lb/A


Remarks

Spray on foliage.
Broadcast over weed surface.
Inject ponds or small lakes.
Spray on foliage using 0.1% v/v
surfactant.
Spray on foliage.
Spray on foliage.
Broadcast over weed surface.

Spray on foliage.

Spray on foliage using water or
fuel oil.
Spray on foliage.

Underwater mowing.

Spray on foliage.

Spray on foliage using water or
fuel oil.
Broadcast over weed surface.
Inject ponds or small lakes.
Inject ponds or small lakes.


dalapon +
diesel oil (emulsifiable)
2,4-D (low-volatile esters)

2,4-D (granular)
silvex (low-volatile esters)
silvex +
endothall (1:1 ratio)
Same as for spatterdock.
2,4-D (low-volatile esters)


Same as for spatterdock


--------~-


~---




Weed

AQUATIC AND DITCHBANK
GRASSES
cutgrass, southern
(Lecrsia hexandra Sw.)
knotgrass
(Paspalnitn distic/lnu L.)


Status Herbicide


dalapon

Bromacil

Diuron


Dalapon


5-20 lb/A


20-40 lb/A

20-40 lb/A


5-10 lb/A


Spray on foliage. Repeat applica-
tions.

For muck; 1/ rate for mineral
soils.
For muck; / rate for mineral
soils.
(Both R are soil sterilants)
Spray on foliage using 0.1% v/v
surfacants. Repeat applica-
tions.


lication
Application


maidencane R Same as for knotgrass
(Panicain hcmitonmon
Schult.) R dalapon 15 lb/A Spray on foliage. Repeat applica-
tions.


paragrass R Same as for knotgrass
(Panicinu pirpiraIcc.ns R dalapon 5-10 lb/A Spray on foliage. Repeat applica-
Raddi) tions 2-3 weeks apart.


reed, common S dalapon 20 lb/A Spray foliage at pre-flowering
(Phragomites conimmnis stage.
Trin.)
torpedograss S dalapon 15-20 lb/A Spray on foliage. Repeat applica-
(Panicuni repens L.) tions 2-3 weeks apart.
water paspalum S dalapon 5-10 lb/A Spray on foliage using 0.1% v/v
(Paspablm flitans surfactant. Repeat applica-
(Ell.) Kunth) tions.
watergrass, southern S Underwater mowing.
(Hydrochloa caroliniensis
Beauv.)


--


Remarks










Rate of
Weed Status Herbicide Application Remarks

DITCHBANK BRUSH AND
TREES*
castorbean R 2,4,5-T 4 lb/A Spray plants when small or treat
(Ricinus communis L.) resprouts from stumps.
guava, common R 2,4,5-T 4 lb/A Spray entire plant or resprouted
(Psidium guajava stumps.
Raddi L.) R fenuron 20 lb/A Very toxic to all plants.
pepper tree, Brazilian R 2,4,5-T Same as for
' (Schinus terebinthifolius common
Raddi L.) guava.
R 2,4,5-T (ester form) 16 lb/100 gal Cut down tree and paint stump.
oil.
pine, Australian R 2,4-D or 2,4,5-T 16 lb/100 gal Use as a frill or stump treatment.
(Casuarina equisetifolia oil.
Forst.)
seamyrtle R fenuron 20 lb/A Very toxic to all plants.
(Baccharis halimifolia L.)


* For mixed ditchbanks, grasses, brush and small trees:
R Amitrole-T 2-5 lb/A
* CAUTION: Do not contaminate water when applying herbicides to bank weeds and brush.


Split applications











CALCULATIONS FOR AMOUNT OF MATERIAL REQUIRED

The following formulas may be used to compute the amount of herbicide
required to obtain a desired final concentration in the water of a ditch
or canal:

1. Concentration based on parts per million by volume (ppmv).
V=A x LxCx 7.5
1,000,000
V = number of gallons of herbicide required.
A= cross-section area of channel in square feet.
L = length of channel in feet.
C = desired final concentration of herbicide in ppmv.

2. Concentration based on parts per million by weight (ppmw).
W=AxLx C x 62.5
1,000,000
W = number of pounds of herbicide required.1
A = cross section area of channel in square feet.
L =length of channel in feet.
C = desired final concentration of herbicide in ppmw.

The following formulas may be used to compute the amount of herbi-
cide required to obtain a desired final concentration in the water of a pond
or lake:

1. Concentration based on parts per million by volume (ppmv).
V=A x Dx C x 0.33
V = number of gallons of herbicide required.
A = area of the water surface in acres.
D =average depth of the pond or lake in feet.
C = desired final concentration of herbicide in ppmv.

2. Concentration based on parts per million by weight (ppmw).
W=Ax D x C x 2.72
W = number of pounds of herbicide required.
A = area of the water surface in acres.
D= average depth of the pond or lake in feet.
C= desired final concentration of herbicide in ppmw.


1For liquid herbicide formulations with active-ingredient or acid-equiv-
alent concentrations given in pounds per gallon, the number of pounds of
herbicide required may be divided by the pounds per gallon to obtain the
number of gallons of herbicide formulations required.





1- 3 EL 31975 FEB 11980,- ":
- '- 9""'FED 2 4 ,


LIST OF HERBICIDES


Common Name
acrolein................
amitrole-T .........
aromatic solvent
sodium arsenite-
bromacil
dalapon.............
diuron . .
dichlobenil
diquat ................

endothall.--..........

amine salt.......

fenuron................
fuel oil ..............
emulsifiable ...
silvex....................
surfactant............



2,4-D...................
2,4,5-T..................


s ....


Chemical Name or Description
........ acrylaldehyde
..........3-amino-l,2,4-triazole-ammonium thiocyanate
....-...emulsifiable mixtures of xylene-type solvents
..........sodium arsenite expressed as arsenic trioxide
. 5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyl uracil
.........2,2-dichlooropropionic acid
3 (3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l,1- dimethyl urea
2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile
.........6,7-dihydrodipyride (1,2-a:2',1'-c) pyrazidiinium
salt


....... ......disodium or dipotassium salt of 7-oxabicyclo-
(2.2.1) heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid
.................mono-N,N-dimethylcocoamine salt of 7-oxabicyclo-
(2.2.1) heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid
.................3-phenyl-l,l-dimethylurea
................kerosene or No 2 diesel oil
................fuel oil containing 1-5% v/v nonionic emulsifier
.................2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid
..................a material which facilitates and accentuates the
emulsifying, dispersing, spreading, wetting, and
other surface-modifying properties of herbicide
formulation
..................2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
................ 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid


Formulations of 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, and silvex
alkali salts ...................sodium or potassium salts of the acids
amine salts.........................alkylamine (e.g. di- or trimethylamine) or alka-
nolamine (e.g. di- or trimethanolamine, di- or
triethanolamine), etc.
low-volatile esters -............ isooctyl, butoxyethanol, propyleneglycolbutylether,
etc.
volatile esters....................methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, butyl, etc.
granular--................... salts or esters impregnated on granules or pellets
of clay and other materials
oil-soluble amines.............. tertiary fatty acid amines


ABBREVIATIONS USED

gpa gallons per acre
lb/A pounds of active ingredient or acid equivalent per surface acre
ppmv parts per million by volume. This final concentration of herbicide
formulation in the treated body of water is usually expressed in
gallons of formulation per million gallons of water. (See calcu-
lations on page 15.)
ppmw parts per million by weight. This final concentration of herbicide
in the treated body of water is usually expressed in pounds of
active ingredient or acid equivalent per million pounds of water
(See calculations on page 15.)
v/v proportions by volume
psi pressure in pounds per square inch




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