• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Title Page
 Safety precautions
 Factors concerning pesticide...
 Pesticide residues and toleran...
 Insect control
 Disease control






Title: Commercial vegetable insect and disease control guide
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 Material Information
Title: Commercial vegetable insect and disease control guide
Alternate Title: Circular 193 G ; Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Brogdon, James.
Marvel, M. E.
Mullin, R. S.
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: June, 1970
Copyright Date: 1970
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084553
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: 78542025 - OCLC

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Safety precautions
        Page 2
    Factors concerning pesticide applications
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Pesticide residues and tolerances
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Insect control
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Disease control
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
Full Text
JUNE 1970
CIRCULAR 193G
Revision of
no. 3F




COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE

INSECT AND DISEASE


CONTROL GUIDE
HUME LIBRARY
JMAR 17 1T71

I.F.A.S. Univ. of FIorida


J. E. BROGDON, M. E. MARVEL, R. S. MULLIN


:IDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
ITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
IERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE









CONTENTS


Page


SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


FACTORS CONCERNING PESTICIDE APPLICATIONS


PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND TOLERANCES

INSECT CONTROL ...................................

DISEASE CONTROL ..............................


PEST CONTROL MEASURES ......................

B ean s .... ..... ............... .... ..... ..
C carrots .. .... .... ... .. .. ......... ..... .
C elery - ......- .. .. ......................
Corn, Sw eet .... .....- ........ ....- ...- ....
Crucifers
Cabbage .. ..-........ .......... .. .....
Broccoli and Cauliflower ................ --..
Brussels Sprouts and Chinese Cabbage ..........
C ollards .................-- ... .... ... ........
Turnips and Mustard .. -............ .. .........
Rutabagas ..................- ......
R dishes .. ..... ..-..-- .........- ... -
Cucurbits
Cantaloupe, Cucumber, Squash ..............
W atermelons ............-- ..- ... ..
Eggplant .............-.
Lettuce ........ ------ .. .... ......... .
Endive (Escarole) . ...-- ..-- .. .......
O kra ..... ...... -- ... .. ..... ...
O onions .. ..- ....-- .. .......... .... ...... .
P eas .. .. .. .. ..... . ...- ... .. ...
Peas, Southern (Cowpeas, -Black-eye, Crowder)
Peppers ................. . ..... ....... --- ..--.
Potatoes ............--------... .....
Potatoes, Sweet ........... ......- ...... ...


Spinach ........
Strawberries
Tomatoes ...


COMMON, CHEMICAL AND TRADE NAMES OF INSECTICIDES ....

COMMON, CHEMICAL AND TRADE NAMES OF FUNGICIDES ......


POISON CONTROL CENTERS .....


.......... ................. ..... 6

. -............. ................. 8


........ Insects

....... 10
..... 12
..-... .- 12
-..-.- .. 13


--.... 14
-...-. 15

.... 1
-....- .. 15

.......... 16
-..- .... 16

--..... 16

-.-.-. 16
.... 16
-...-. 17
.- .... 18
..-.. 18
-...- 18
19
.......... 19
.-.-....- 19
........ 19
......... 20
.......-.. 21
......... 22
.. .... 22
..-.. .- 23
-.....-. 23


Diseases

26
28
29'
31


31
31
31
31
33


31


34
35
37
37
37
38-
38
39


39
40
41


42
43

......... 24


.................... 25


.


Inside back page










Commercial Vegetable Insect

And Disease Control Guide


J. E. BROGDON, M. E. MARVEL and R. S. MULLIN


Prepared in cooperation with the following workers in the Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences:

Central Florida Station, Sanford: J. F. Darby, G. L. Greene, H. L.
Rhoades, J. D. Strandberg

Everglades Station, Belle Glade: R. D. Berger, W. G. Genung, M. J.
Janes, T. A. Zitter

Gulf Coast Station, Bradenton: J. P. Crill, J. P. Jones, A. J. Overman,
S. L. Poe, J. W. Strobel

Indian River Field Laboratory, Ft. Pierce: N. C. Hayslip, R. M. Sonoda

Main Station, Gainesville: A. A. Cook, P. Decker, W. G. Eden, D. H.
Habeck, L. C. Kuitert, V. G. Perry, D. E. Purciful, D. A. Roberts,
N. C. Schenck, G. C. Smart, R. E. Stall, R. E. Waites, C. H. Van
Middelem, F. W. Zettler

SPlantation Field Laboratory, Fort Lauderdale: H. I. Borders

Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings: D. P. Weingartner, R. B.
Workman

South Florida Field Laboratory, Immokalee: C. H. Blazquez

Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory, Dover: C. M. Howard

Subtropical Station, Homestead: R. M. Baranowski, R. A. Conover,
R. T. McMillan, Jr., B. Villalon, D. O. Wolfenbarger

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Leesburg: W. C.
Adlerz, J. M. Crall, D. L. Hopkins

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of pro-
viding specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the products
named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion of others
of suitable composition.


A Revision of Circular 193 F
This revision June 1970









SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


Read and Heed the Precautions on the Label.-Relatively few
deaths have occurred among workers handling poisonous agricultural
products or economic poisons. Those that have occurred can be traced
to disregard of even the minimum safety directions and precautions
found on product labels. Some violations occur through ignorance or
misunderstanding of the available information. Many more violations
result from plain carelessness-or what is worse, recklessness on the
part of workers who have been adequately informed. The key to safe
handling is understanding coupled with the diligent practice of safe
working habits. Accidents with pesticides can be prevented. Some
of the major causes are (1) leaving the material within reach of
irresponsible persons; (2) failure to read and follow the use precau-
tions on the label; (3) carelessness in the disposal of empty con-
tainers.

ORGANIC PHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES*

The organic phosphate group of insecticides includes parathion,
phosdrin, malathion, dibrom, demeton (Systox), Guthion, dimethoate
(Cygon) and others. Some of these are highly toxic while others are
relatively safe. All of them, however, can be used safely by following
the precautions on the label.
Early symptoms and signs of organic phosphate insecticide poi-
soning include headache, giddiness, blurred vision, weakness, chest
discomfort, nervousness; a little later-nausea, cramps, diarrhea,
sweating, tears, salivation.

CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON INSECTICIDES*

Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, which include DDT, lindane,
chlordane, aldrin, dieldrin and others are generally less hazardous to
man than many of the phosphatic insecticides. However, these also
must be handled with proper precautions.
Symptoms and signs of poisoning by chlorinated hydrocarbon in-
secticides include headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and prostra-
tion. In more severe cases convulsions may occur with or without
warning symptoms. Coma may follow.

If a worker suspects excessive exposure to any insecticide, he should see a
doctor immediately.







A Note from the Authors


Control measures recommended here are the most effective within
limits of research results and observations with approved pesticides.
Information is given on pesticide tolerances and minimum days be-
tween last application and harvest. There will be changes; therefore,
the user is strongly urged to keep abreast of developments through
county agents, experiment stations, industry, etc.

FACTORS CONCERNING PESTICIDE APPLICATIONS
Careful planning, close observation, coordination and supervision
are essential in developing and maintaining an effective vegetable
pest control program. Constant consideration must be given to sani-
tation, potential incidence of diseases or insects, weather, economics,
correct identification, proper timing, nozzle placement, spray pressure
and agitation, wind direction and velocity, uniformity and layout of
field, stage of plant development in relation to other plantings, speed
of equipment and thorough coverage.
Sanitation.-Destroy crop remains following last harvest as well
as control volunteer crop plants and weed hosts in unused fields, along
field edges and in the production fields. It is a good practice to rotate
vegetable crops with cover crops or other crops that are not suscep-
tible to the same pests. Fallowing and clean cultivation reduce many
pests in fields not being used. So does flooding with water for 6 to 8
weeks once a year. These measures might be considered where sod is
not needed to reduce plant bed erosion and sand burn.
Sanitation practices will aid in the control of many hard-to-control
pests as leaf miners, aphids and certain diseases.
Weather.-Weather factors have tremendous effect on the inci-
dence of plant pests, the tolerance of-plants to damage by the pests,
the effectiveness of pesticide treatments and the likelihood of damage
to the plants from pesticide treatments. Some pesticides are ineffec-
tive at low temperatures; some are effective for very short periods
at high temperatures. Rains will often wash pesticides from the
plant, making an additional application necessary. Wind will decrease
the effectiveness of sprays by blowing spray droplets or dust particles
away before they are deposited upon the plant.
Compatibility.-Most spray mixtures perform satisfactorily. There
can be many suitable mixtures of chemicals, but a given application







must meet several requirements, including: (1) each component must
be fully effective and (2) must not be harmful to crop; and (3) the
materials must mix readily and cause no difficulty in operation and
maintenance of equipment. It is advisable not to mix insecticides
and/or fungicides with soluble fertilizers. In case of questionable
compatibility of a mixture of chemicals, do not attempt the combi-
nation.

Formulations.-Pesticides may be applied as emulsions, wettable
powder sprays, dusts, granules or baits. The effectiveness of a pesti-
cide and its potential for damage to crop plants is partly determined
by the quality of the emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, dust
or granule used.
WP is the abbreviation used for wettable powder formulations;
2E, 4E, 6E and 8E are designations for liquid concentrates contain-
ing 2, 4, 6 and 8 pounds of active ingredient per gallon.

Dusts.-For control of insects and diseases, sprays are generally
more effective than dusts; however, there are certain times when
dusts are more practical. Under those conditions when it is desirable
to use dusts, the amount of active ingredient per acre recommended
is, in most cases, the same as with sprays. For example, if 2 lbs. of
a material containing 75% active ingredient is to be applied per acre
this would be 11/ lbs. active ingredient per acre. If a 5% dust were
used, 30 lbs. of the dust would contain the 112 lbs. active ingredient.

Amounts.-Spray materials are shown in amounts of the listed
formulation per 100 gallons of water unless otherwise indicated.
There may be several formulations; for example, parathion is avail-
able as 15% and 25% wettable powders and as liquid concentrates
containing 2, 4 or 8 pounds of active ingredient per gallon. To save
space only one formulation is listed for a particular pest under a
crop. Wettable powder formulations are given in most instances, but
equivalent amounts of liquid concentrates can be used. Suggested
acre rates should be adjusted to insure complete coverage; in general,
20 to 35 pounds of dust, 50 to 150 gallons of spray or 20 to 40 pounds
of bait are accepted amounts from which adjustments may be made.

The following table can be used as a guide in determining equiv-
alent amounts of other insecticide formulations that may be used
instead of those given in this publication:








Insecticide Amount of Formulation (at left) needed to obtain
Formulation the following amounts of active ingredient:
14 lb. 1/2 b. % Ib. 1 lb.


1% dust ......... ......
2% dust ......... ... .....
5% dust ..........................
10% dust ..... ... .......
15% wettable powder
25% wettable powder ...
40% wettable powder ......
50% wettable powder .....
23-25% liquid concentrate
(2 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) ................
42-46% liquid concentrate
(4 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) ..........................
60-65% liquid concentrate
(6 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) ....................
72-78% liquid concentrate
(8 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) ........ ..... .....-


25 50 75
121/2 25 371/2
5 10 15
1/2 5 71/2
12/ lbs. 31/3 lbs. 5 lbs.


1 lb.
% lb.
1/ lb.


1 pint


/z pint


1/3 pint


2 lbs.


3 lbs.


62 lbs.
4 lbs.


1/ lbs. 1% lbs. 21/2 bs.
1 lb. 11/ lbs. 2 lbs.


1 quart 3 pints 2 quarts


1 pint 11/2 pints 1 quart


2/ pint 1 pint


11 pints


14 pint 1/2 pint 3 pint 1 pint


Certain pests of vegetables, for example


aphids and serpentine


leaf miners, are more numerous and more difficult to control in some
areas of the state and some seasons than in others. These differences
frequently make variations in the dosages necessary to control the
same pest. Where there is a range in amounts in this publication,
the higher dosages should be used where control is most difficult. For
instance, the higher amounts will usually be needed to control aphids
and serpentine leaf miners in the southern part of the state, while
the lower dosages may be adequate in the northern part.

Spraying pressure should not be excessive. Excessive spraying
pressure causes spray droplets to be broken down so small that they
drift and are not deposited on the plant. In addition, high spraying
pressures cause undue wear on engines, pumps, nozzles and other
sprayer parts. If fog is formed at the nozzles, the spraying pressure
is too great.

The speed of the sprayer should not exceed 5 miles per hour.
Greater speed results in poor coverage.







PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND TOLERANCES
Most of the residue and tolerance information below was taken
from Leaflet No. 6, "Protecting Crops and Consumers," Food and
Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health, Education and
Welfare.
Some of the chemicals used on vegetables may remain when they
are harvested and marketed. In excessive amounts, many are in-
jurious to humans. Any contamination of vegetables and other
agricultural foods is a matter of concern to growers, shippers, the
chemical industry, agricultural and public health authorities, law
enforcement officials and the consumer.
WHAT IS A TOLERANCE?
To avoid harmful amounts of residues of agricultural chemicals
in or on our foods, regulations for their safe use are provided by
law. One such regulation concerns "tolerance."
Tolerance is the amount of a chemical that scientists have deter-
mined may safely remain as a residue on the food crop without injury
to the consumer. Tolerances for specific chemicals in or on crops are
established by regulation. The Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) first considers evidence of safety and the amount of residue
that will remain if the product is used according to directions on the
label. FDA then sets a tolerance that is safe and can be met by
growers if directions are followed. If a tolerance is not necessary
to protect the consumer, FDA may exempt a particular product from
requirements for a tolerance.
A limited number of chemicals have been officially declared safe
and do not require either a tolerance or exemption. Except for these
products, no amount of residue of a particular chemical on a specified
crop is permitted if (1) there is no tolerance or exemption or (2)
the tolerance is zero. However, the absence of a published tolerance
or exemption does not necessarily imply that a chemical may not be
used. Some pesticide uses-for example, certain dormant sprays and
soil treatments-do not result in residues of the chemical on the har-
vested crop. Uses that leave no residues do not require tolerances or
exemptions and do not have to be passed upon by the Food and Drug
Administration.
THE LAW AND CONSUMER PROTECTION
Under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, a food contain-
ing a residue in excess of the tolerance is defined as "adulterated"
and must not be shipped across state lines. Most states, including
Florida, have laws to deal with crops produced and consumed within
their own boundaries.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration checks on conditions and
practices during the growing season of each crop, and on any spray-







removal practice by shippers. If vegetables from, a particular area
are suspected of having excessive residues, samples are examined
from outgoing shipments of the crop. If residues in excess of toler-
ance are found, the shipment is removed from the market by a state
or federal court order. The law also provides for action against
persons and business firms responsible for violations.
HOW GROWERS CAN AVOID EXCESSIVE RESIDUES
Generally, growers can avoid residues in excess of tolerances on
harvested crops by applying pesticides only on the crops specified, in
the amounts specified and at the times specified in this publication or
on the label. It is not safe to reason that "if a little is good, more will
be better." The recommended amount as well as the recommended
time of application should be observed. Growers should be especially
careful in measuring and applying the higher concentrated chemicals
to be sure not to exceed the recommended amounts. Examples of high
concentrate materials are 8 pounds per gallon parathion, 8 pounds
per gallon toxaphene, 93% nabam and 20% toxaphene dust.
The labeling for all pesticides shipped interstate must be regis-
tered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal
Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. All applications for
labeling submitted to the Department of Agriculture are thoroughly
examined to remove or modify any directions for use on particular
crops that do not appear to fulfill the requirements of that law.
Among other considerations, USDA determines if a chemical is likely
to leave excessive residues on the harvested raw agricultural com-
modities. If a crop is not named on the label, this may mean that no
residue of that chemical is permitted on that crop; and hence the
treated crop could not be shipped if it contained a residue of that
chemical.
Drift of pesticide onto adjacent crops should be prevented. Con-
sideration of the wind direction and velocity, adjoining crops, and
methods of application is extremely important.
Growers are urged to consider carefully the locations of various
crops when planning their farming operations. Special consideration
should be given to planting in the same general area those crops
likely to receive the same approved chemicals. Do not locate a crop
adjacent to another if either is likely to be treated with a chemical
not cleared on the other. Also, two crops should not be planted next
to each other if one will require insecticide applications during the
time of harvest of the other crop.
Application of chemicals with ground equipment results in less
drift than application by aircraft under similar conditions. Sprays,
especially coarse sprays, drift less than dusts. Higher spray pressures
result in more drift than lower pressures.
Each grower should plan and follow a control program that will
assure him of vegetables without excessive residues. Vegetables







marketed with residues exceeding tolerances set by Food and Drug
Administration are potentially injurious to consumers, may result
in serious financial loss to the grower, and may reduce public ac-
ceptance of fresh Florida vegetables.
RULES FOR THE PACKER-SHIPPER
How can the packer-shipper who handles the produce of many
individual growers make sure that he does not ship a product con-
taining excessive residues? Here are two suggestions:
1. He should pointedly ask each grower about his practices and
satisfy himself (during the growing season, if possible) that all
pesticides were used only in accordance with registered label direc-
tions or other highly authoritative recommendations.
2. He should follow good commercial practice for the area, the
crop and the pesticide used, with respect to removal of excessive
residues-by washing, brushing, trimming, etc.
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN EXCESSIVE RESIDUES OCCUR?
If FDA finds residues in excess of tolerances on shipments, the
first action is to protect the consumer by seizure of the goods, if
possible.
If a shipment is seized, the owner may choose one of three
courses of action:
1. He may admit the violation as charged and ask the court for
permission to take the goods under bond for removal of excessive
residues. This must be done under supervision of the Food and Drug
Administration. If reconditioning is successful, the goods are re-
leased.
2.. He may deny the violation as charged and have the case tried
on its merits in the federal court.
3. He may do nothing, in which case the goods will be destroyed,
or otherwise disposed of as determined by the court.
Because of the highly perishable nature of most produce, the
owner should act promptly (a return date of 10 days is usually speci-
fied) if he wishes to act under 1 or 2 above.
Prosecution and court injunction are additional legal measures
that may be taken against persons or business firms or both.

INSECT CONTROL
The amounts of insecticides recommended below as sprays are
for 100 gallons of water unless otherwise indicated. "Minimum Days
to Harvest" means the minimum number of days that should be al-
lowed between last foliar application and harvest. The intervals that







follow are based on Florida Agricultural Experiment Station research
where available. The other intervals are based on USDA informa-
tion. If the dosages recommended in this publication are exceeded,
the minimum days given may not be applicable and a longer interval
should be allowed. NTL is the abbreviation for "no time limitation."

GENERAL SOIL INHABITING INSECTS
Insecticide recommendations are constantly changing. New uses
are being added and old recommendations may be withdrawn, espe-
cially for insecticides applied to the soil. Growers should make sure
that the insecticides they plan to use are approved and recommended
for the crop.
Cutworms.-Apply toxaphene, TDE, or chlordane at 2 pounds ac-
tive ingredients (5 pounds of 40% WP or 20 pounds of 10% dust or
granules) per acre to the soil surface before planting if cutworms
are known to be present. Do not disturb soil for three to five days.
A 21/% toxaphene or 2% chlordane or 5% Dylox bait can be used
as above at 20 to 40 pounds per acre. If cutworm damage to young
plants is noted, baits should be used at once. Regular applications
of approved pesticides, including parathion, toxaphene, etc. for con-
trol of foliage insects will prevent the establishment of cutworms.
Use only those recommended for the particular crop.
A home-made bait can be prepared by thoroughly mixing 5 pounds
of 40% chlordane WP or 6 pounds of 40% toxaphene WP with 100
pounds of wheat bran. Moisten bait slightly with water and apply
in late afternoon. Use freshly mixed baits.
Mole Crickets.-Broadcast aldrin or diazinon at 2 pounds or chlor-
dane at 4 pounds active ingredient per acre as a spray, dust, or
granule, or a 2% chlordane or aldrin or 5%5 Dylox bait evenly over
the soil surface at 20 to 40 pounds per acre before seeding or trans-
planting if insects are present. After plants are up, use a fresh bait
on soil (not plants) in late afternoon when soil is moist and warm.
See Crops-Use any of the above insecticides, except where specific
materials are listed. Do not plant root crops in soil treated with
aldrin.
For seedbeds use a bait; or drench with one of the above materials
at the rates given. Treatments should be made a few days before
seeding.
Wireworms.-Apply parathion or diazinon at 2 pounds active in-
gredient per acre on mineral soils; on organic soils apply parathion
at 5 pounds or diazinon at 4 pounds active ingredient per acre. Dis-
tribute evenly over the soil surface 2 to 3 weeks before planting
and immediately mix into the upper 6 inches of soil. Also see Sys-
temic Insecticides for Soil Application under Potatoes.








BEANS
Bush, Lima, Pole

MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Diazinon 4E, 1 pt. 7
Demeton (Systox) 2E, 11/2 pts. 21
Dimethoate 2.67E, 1 pt. NTL
Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Armyworms, Sevin 80% WP, 11 lbs. Sevin 5% NTL
Corn Earworm Toxaphene 8E, 1 pt. Toxaphene 10% 5
Cowpea Curculio Toxaphene 8E, 1 pt. Toxaphene 10% 5
Thiodan 2E, 1 qt. 3**
Bean Leafhopper Dimethoate 2.67E, 1 pt. NTL
Bean Leafroller Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 7*
Parathion 4E, /2 pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 1
Sevin 80% WP, 1' lbs. Sevin 5% NTL
Toxaphene 8E, 1 pt. Toxaphene 10% 5
Mexican Bean Diazinon 4E, 1 pt. 7
Beetle Malathion 25% WP, 5 lbs. Malathion 5% 1
Parathion 4E, 1 pt. Parathion 2% 3
Sevin 80% WP, % lb. Sevin 11'-2% NTL
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E, 1/-1 pt. 7
Cucumber Beetle Dimethoate 2.67E, %-1 pt. NTL
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 7*
Thrips Parathion 4E, 1/2 pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Stinkbugs Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 7*
Parathion 4E, /2 pt. Parathion 2% 3
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Sevin 80% WP, 1% lbs. Sevin 5% NTL
Thiodan 2E, 1 qt. 3**
Saltmarsh Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 1
Caterpillar Toxaphene 8E, 1 pt. Toxaphene 10% 5
Thiodan 2E, 1 qt. 3**
Lima Pod Borer Parathion 4E, 1/2 pt. 3
Cutworms See page 1.
Wireworms See page 1.
Lesser Cornstalk See footnote No. 10 on following page.
Borer
NOTE: Toxaphene and Sevin may cause some injury to Pole Beans.
Guthion cleared only on snap beans as of January 1, 1970.
** Do not apply Thiodan more than 3 times per season.


1. Armyworms.-Apply insecticides when armyworms appear;
continue at seven-day intervals until control is complete. Sulfur may
be used as all, or a part, of the diluent in dusts for beans.

2. Cowpea Curculio.-Apply insecticides when cowpea curculio







appears, especially when pods begin to set, and repeat weekly. In
areas where this pest is numerous, small plants should also be pro-
tected. In the Everglades, destruction of the wild cowpea, Vigna
repens, can greatly reduce curculio infestations.
3. Leafhoppers.-Apply insecticides at first sign of leafhoppers.
Make one to three applications at 10-day intervals. During severe
infestations the time interval between applications may need to be
reduced. In Everglades, Lower East Coast and West Coast areas,
leafhoppers are most severe in spring during warm dry periods,
while in Central and Northern Florida they are most prevalent in
the fall.
4. Leafrollers.-Wait for fairly heavy populations of leafrollers
before applying insecticides. In some cases, dusting borders of large
fields by airplane is adequate. It is usually not necessary to treat
the whole field unless the acreage is small or the infestation is severe.

5. Mexican Bean Beetle.-These pests are a problem in the north
and west Florida areas. Observations in the Gainesville area indicate
that lower dosages of parathion give satisfactory control except when
infestations are heavy.
6. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insecti-
cide twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy migrations
of adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned host vegetable fields or
to older plants when weekly applications are not giving satisfactory
control. Weekly applications of dimethoate have given good control.
Diazinon has not been effective in the Homestead and Lower East
Coast areas in recent years. Parathion will usually give control in
Central and North Florida.
7. Thrips.-These insects may be a problem on leaves and pods.
Toxaphene used for other pests is also effective against this insect.
8. Stinkbugs.-Apply insecticides when stinkbugs appear. It is
especially important to insure low population when pods begin to set.
9. Lima Pod Borers.-Apply weekly when insects appear.
10. Lesser Cornstalk Borer.-In the Everglades area apply para-
thion, using a wetting agent or detergent in the spray water to help
wet the soil and the webbing. Make first application broadcast (cover-
ing rows and middles) just before crop emerges, using 1 pint of
parathion 4E pier acre. Make second application as soon as crop
emerges and before cultivation, using 1 pint of parathion 4E per acre.
Higher gallonage (up to 300 per acre) of more dilute coarse sprays
at about 100 pounds pressure may be more effective.
The lesser cornstalk borer is an erratic pest with outbreaks dur-








ing dry periods; doubtful that routine control measures would be
profitable.


CARROTS
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Parathion 4E, 1/2-1 pt. 15
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1


Laf Miners


Diazinon 4E, %-1 pt.
Parathion 4E, /2-1 pt.


irmyworms Sevin 80% WP, 1V4 lbs. NTL
Cutworms Toxaphene, TDE, or Dylox See Page 1
Wireworms See Page 1.


CELERY
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Demeton (Systox) 2E, 11/2 pt. 28
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 4
Parathion 4E, % pt. Parathion 1-2% 15
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 3
Foliage Dibrom 8E, 1-2 pts. 4
Caterpillars** Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 3
Toxaphene 8E, 1-2 pts. 21*
Thiodan 2E, 1 qt. 7***
Leaf Miners Diazinon 2E, 1-2 pts. 10
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 4
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 14
Thirps Parathion 4E, '% pt. 15
Garden Fleahopper
Cutworms Toxaphene or Chlordane- See Page 1.
Wireworms See Page 1.
The 21 days is for 2 pints of tokaphene 8E. For 1 pint the minimum interval is 14 days.
** Bacillus thurinaiensis can be used for control of loopers at the rates of 2 to 3 quarts of
the liquid or 3 to 4 pounds of the wettable powder per acre; or the 2.5 dust at 20 to 40 pounds
per acre.
*'* The waiting period for Thiodan is 4 days for 3 applications or less.


1. Aphids.-Keep .ditches and roadways free of weeds and watch
closely for aphids.

2. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insecti-
cides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy migra-
tions of adult leaf miners or to older plants when weekly applications
are not giving control. Parathion usually will give control in Central
and North Florida.










INSEC'
Aphids,
Spider


CORN, SWEET
MIN. DAYS
TS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Mites Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. Phosdrin 1/2% 1


Fall Armyworms Gardona 75% WP, 1-11 Ibs. **
and Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. plus
Corn Earworms Toxaphene 8E, 11a pts. **
feeding in bud Parathion-methyl
parathion 6-3E, 1/ pt. **
Silk-Fly Parathion 4E, /2 pt. 3
Earworms Gardona 75% WP, 2/-1 lb.* NTL
Parathion 4E, /2 pt. plus
DDT 2E, 4 qts.* DDT 5%-Parathion 1% 3
Parathion-methyl
parathion 6-3E, 1/ pt.* Parathion 2% 3
Sevin 80% WP, 21 lbs.* Sevin 10% NTL
Corn Stem Weevil DDT 2E, 4 qts. **
Cutworms See Page 1.


Wireworms
Lesser Cornstalk
Borer


See Page 1.
See footnote No. 10, Page 3


These amounts should he mixed in 50 gallons of water and applied to one acre.
These usages should not result in a residue problem on the edible ears.

1. Aphid and Spider Mites.-Infestation of these pests may be-
come heavy enough to require control measures in some areas of the
state.
2. Fall Armyworms and Corn Earworms Feeding in the Corn
Bud.-Spray weekly or more often, depending on severity of infes-
tation. For clean-up of budworms and fall armyworms, a routine
application of insecticides should be made between the appearance
of the tassel above the whorl and appearance of silks.
Direct the spray from above and from each side of the plant to
the upper leaves to thoroughly wet and run down into the bud-whorl.
Spray pressure should not be excessively high; 150 pounds per square
inch or lower is preferable. There should not be any fog coming
from the nozzles.
3. Silk-Fly.-Check for adult silk-flies just prior to and during
silking.
4. Earworms.-For control, timing and good coverage are essen-
tial. Treatments must be started when the silks first appear and
continued until all the silks are dry or brown. Additional applications
may be needed where renewed silk growth occurs after normal brown-
ing. Applications of one of the recommended insecticides will give
control when applied at 48-hour intervals to sweet corn silking during
October through March. During the rest of the year, apply one of
the recommended insecticides every 24 hours. The amounts of insec-
ticides recommended in the preceding table should be mixed with 50
gallons of water and applied to one acre. The dust must be applied








at 25 to 30 pounds per acre. Dusts or sprays should be directed to
thoroughly cover the silks.
5. Corn Stem Weevil.-Treatments must be started when the
first seedlings emerge from the soil and continued every four days
or two times a week for six applications or until the corn stem is
1/. inch or more in diameter. Sprays must be directed to the lower
stem and the adjoining soil. Use overhead nozzles to apply 50 gallons
per acre until the foliage begins to form a canopy that prevents the
spray from reaching the ground and lower stem. Then, add a nozzle
to each side of the row and increase the rate to 100 gallons per acre.
Cultivation should be as infrequent as possible during this spray
schedule and should immediately precede a spray application. Two
quarts of DDT 2E plus 1 pint of toxaphene 8E seems about equal to
4 quarts of DDT 2E in effectiveness. Four quarts of DDT 2E plus
1 pint of toxaphene 8E seems superior to 4 quarts of DDT 2E alone.
Eight pounds of 50% DDT WP plus 8 ounces of Triton X-100
seems to be about equal to 4 quarts of DDT 2E in effectiveness.
Pre-emergence chemical weed control (See Extension Circular
196B) and delay of the first cultivation until after the final corn
stem weevil spray has resulted in better corn stem weevil control.
The corn stem weevil has been recognized as a pest only in the Ever-
glades.
CRUCIFERS
Adding a spreader-sticker in sprays applied to the foliage of
crucifiers at the rate recommended by the manufacturer may im-
prove control.
Cabbage


INSECTS SPRAY
Aphids Demeton (Systox) 2E, 11/ pts.
Dibrom 8E, 1 qt.
Dimethoate 2.67E, 1-1% pts.
Meta-Systox-R 2E, 112 pts.
Parathion 4E, 1 pt.
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt.
Leaf Miners Diazinon 2E, 1-2 pts.
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt.
Dimethoate 2.67E, /4-1 pt.
Guthion 2E, 2 pts.
Cabbage Loopers, Bacillus thuringiensis, 2-3 qts.
other Foliage Bacillus thuringiensis WP,
Caterpillars 3-4 lbs.
Dibrom 8E, 1 qt.
Lannate 90% SP, z2 lb.
Parathion 4E, 1 pt.
Phosdrin 2E, 1 qt.
(See comments under cabbage
Cutworms See Page 1.
Mole Crickets See Page 1.
Wireworms See Page 1.
Do not apply Meta-Systox-R more than 3 times per season


DUST


MIN. DAYS
TO HARVEST
21


1
3
21
NTL
NTL
1
7
10
1
loopers below)



n.







1. Cabbage Loopers.-These insects become increasingly diffi-
cult to control with increase in size. Large mature loopers have not
been controlled with double dosages of combinations of insecticides.
Make applications on a preventive schedule every 5-7 days or more
often if needed. The following combination sprays with the minimum
interval between last application and harvest of cabbage in paren-
thesis are suggested:
a. One pint of parathion 4E plus 1 quart of toxaphene 8E (14
days).
b. One pint of parathion 4E plus 1 quart or 2 pounds of Bacillus
thuringiensis (10 days).
c. One quart of toxaphene 8E plus 2 quarts of DDT 2E. Do not
apply after heads start to form.
2. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insecti-
cides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy migra-
tions of adult leaf miners, or to older plants when weekly applications
are not giving control. Weekly applications of dimethoate have given
good control. Diazinon has not been effective in the Homestead and
Lower East Coast areas in recent years. Parathion will usually give
control in Central and North Florida.
Broccoli and Cauliflower
Recommendations are the same as for cabbage with the following exceptions.
Do not apply DDT to broccoli or cauliflower.
Do not apply phosdrin to cauliflower within three days of harvest. Do Not
apply diazinon to cauliflower or broccoli within five days of harvest. Do not
apply Guthion to broccoli or cauliflower within 15 days of harvest. Do Not apply
dimethoate to cauliflower or broccoli within 7 days of harvest. Do not apply
Meta-Systox-R to broccoli more than once per season or within 21 days of
harvest.
Collards
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Dibrom 8E, 1 qt. 4
Parathion 4E, 1 pt. Parathion 2% 15
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 3
Leaf Miners Diazinon 2E, 1-2 pts. Diazinon 2% 10
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 4
Parathion 4E, 1 pt. Parathion 2% 15
Cabbage Loopers, Bacillus thuringiensis, 2-3 qts. NTL
Other Foliage Bacillus thuringiensis WP, NTL
Caterpillars 3-4 lbs.
Dibrom 8E, 2 pts. 4
Parathion 4E, 1 pt. Parathion 2% 15
Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 3
Cutworms Chlordanc, Dylox, or toxaphene See Page 1.
Mole Crickets Chlordane, Dylox, or diazinon See Page 1.
Wireworms See Page 1.








Mustard, Turnips, Rutabagas
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids, ***Dibrom 8E, 1-2 pts 4*
Foliage Malathion 5E, 1/2 pts. Malathion 5% 7**
Caterpillars Parathion 4E, %/ pt. Parathion 1-2% 15**
***Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 3
Cutworms Chlordane, Dylox (except mustard) See Page 1.
Mole Crickets Chlordane, Dylox (except mustard) See Page 1.
SThe waiting period for dibrom on turnip greens is 1 day.
** Except 3 days for malathion on rutabagas and turnips and 7 days for parathion on
rutabagas.
***Phosdrin and dibrom not cleared on rutabagas as of January 1, 1970.

Radishes
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Malathion 5E, 11/2 pts. Malathion 5% 7
Parathion 4E, /2 pt. Parathion 1-2% 7
Foliage
Caterpillars Toxaphene 8E, 1 pt. Toxaphene 10% NTL
Cutworms Toxaphene or chlordane See Page 1.
Mole Crickets Diazinon or chlordane See Page 1.

CUCURBITS
Cantaloupe, Cucumber, Squash, Watermelon
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Leaf Miners Dimethoate 2.67E, %-1 pt. 3*
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 1**
Aphids Dimethoate 2.67E, 3%-1 pt. 3*
Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. .1
Thiodan 2E, 1 qt. NTL
Cucumber Beetles, Lindane 25% WP, 1 lb. Lindane 11/2% 1
Melonworm, Parathion 4E, 1z pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Pickleworm, Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Squashbug Sevin 80% WP, 1,4 lbs. NTL
Thiodan 2E, 2 qts. NTL
Rindworms on ***Bacillus thuringiensis,
1-2 qts. NTL
Watermelon ***Bacillus thuringiensis,
WP, 3 lbs. NTL
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 1**
Parathion 4E, % pt. Parathion 2% 3
Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 1
Thiodan 2E, 1 qt. NTL
Cutworms Chlordane- See Page 1.
Mole Crickets Aldrin, chlordane, or diazinon See Page 1.
NOTE: See precautions about bees on next page.
: Dimethoate not cleared on cucumbers and squash as of January 1, 1970.
** Do not apply Guthion to watermelons or cantaloupes more than 4 times per season. Do not
apply Guthion more than 3 times per season to cucumbers. It is not registered on squash as of
January 1, 1970.
***Bacillus thuringiensis flowable or wettable powder applied weekly on a preventive program
has given control of rindworms on watermelon.







Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insecticides
twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy migrations of
adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned host vegetable fields or on
older plants when weekly applications are not giving control. Weekly
applications of dimethoate have given good control. Parathion and
diazinon will usually give satisfactory control of leaf miners in Cen-
tral and North Florida.

To reduce injury to bees, which are necessary for pollination,
spraying or dusting should be delayed until late afternoon or evening.
It is suggested that parathion spray be applied early enough to dry
before dew falls, reducing possibilities of foliage burn. Do not apply
parathion when plants are wet or very young.


EGGPLANT
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Demeton (Systox) 2E,
1-1/2 pts. 7***
Parathion 4E, % pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Thiodan 2E, 1 qt. 1
Corn Earworm Thiodan 2E, 1 qt. 1
and Other Sevin 80% WP, 1%A lbs. Sevin 5% NTL
Caterpillars,
Potato Beetles,
Flea Beetles
Spider Mites *Kelthane 18%% WP,
(red spider) 11/-2 lbs. *Kelthane 2% 2
Malathion 5E, 11/ pts. Malathion 5% 3
Parathion 4E, V2 pt. Parathion 2% 3
Thrips Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Leaf Miners Guthion 2E, 2 pts. **
Parathion 4E, /2 pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Cutworms Chlordane, TDE, or toxaphene- See Page 1.
Kelthane has caused some injury to eggplant-; as a result, the manufacturer has withdrawn
label registration for its use on eggplant.
** Do not apply after fruit is set.
*** Do not make more than. 2 applications per season.

1. Spider Mites.-More than one kind of spider mite infests egg-
plant. Parathion, malathion, and sulfur are effective against the com-
mon red spider., but do not control certain other species. Sulfur is the
suggested diluent for parathion and malathion dust.

2. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners and apply control
measures when infestation appears. Guthion is more effective than
parathion, but should not be applied after edible parts start to form.








ENDIVE (ESCAROLE)

MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST

Aphids Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 4
Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. 14
Caterpillars Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. 14
Banded Cucumber Sevin 80% WP, 114 lbs. 14
Beetle
Lygus Bug
Cutworms Chlordane See Page 1.
Mole Crickets Chlordane or diazinon-- See Page 1.
Wireworms See Page 1.



LETTUCE

MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST

Aphids Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 1
Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. 15
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 2
Banded Cucumber Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. 15
Beetle Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 2
Caterpillars*** Sevin 80% WP, 1% lbs. 14**
Lygus Bug Toxaphene 8E, 1 pt. 14*
Cutworms See Page 1.
Mole Crickets See Page 1.
Wireworms See Page 1.
Head lettuce only-outer leaves removed at harvest.
Except 3 days on head lettuce.
*** Bacillus thuringiensis can be used for control of loopers at the rates of 2 to 3 quarts of
the liquid or 3 to 4 pounds of the wettable powder per acre; or the 2.5 dust at 20 to 40 pounds
per acre.


OKRA


INSECTS SPRAY

Aphids Parathion 4E, lz pt.
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt.
Okra Caterpillar Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts.
Sevin 80% WP, 1% lbs.
Leaf Miners Parathion 4E, 1/ pt.
Stinkbugs Parathion 4E, 11 pt.
Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt.
Sevin 80% WP, 11/ lbs.


MIN. DAYS
DUST TO HARVEST

Parathion 1-2% 3
1


Sevin 5%
Parathion 1-2%
Parathion 1-2%

Sevin 5%c


1
NTL
3
3
1
NTL








ONIONS
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Thrips Diazinon 4E, 1 pt. 10
Malathion 5E, 1 pts. Malathion 5% 3
Parathion 4E, pt. Parathion 2% 15
Phosdrin 2E, 1 qt. 1
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E, 1 pt. 10
Parathion 4E, 1 pt. Parathion 2% 15
Cutworms Chlordane or toxaphene- See Page 1.

1. Thrips.-Apply insecticide when thrips appear; repeat when
necessary. Direct nozzles over rows close to plants. Addition of
spreader-sticker to spray is suggested. Spraying down into sheaths
is very important.

PEAS
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Diazinon 4E, 1 pt. NTL
Malathion 5E, 1 pts. Malathion 5% 3
Parathion 4E, 1 pt. Parathion 1-2% 10
Phosdrin 2E, 1 qt. 1
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E, 1 pt. NTL
Parathion 4E, 1 pt. Parathion 1-2% 10


PEAS, SOUTHERN
Cowpeas, Black-eye, Crowder, Etc.
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Malathion 5E, 1 pts. Malathion 5% 3
Parathion 4E, 1/2 pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Cowpea Curculio Toxaphene 8E, 1 pt. Toxaphene 10% 5
Thiodan 2E, 1 qt. 3
Leaf Miners Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 7*
Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Stinkbugs Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 7*
Parathion 4E, pt. Parathion 2% 3
Sevin 80% WP, 1% lbs. Sevin 5% NTL
Toxaphene 8E, 1 pt. Toxaphene 10% 5
Thiodan 2E, 1 qt. 3
Bean Leafhoppers Guthion 2E, 2 pts. 7*
Bean Leafroller Parathion 4E, 2 pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Sevin 80% WP, 11% lbs. Sevin 5% NTL
Toxaphene 8E, 1 pt. Toxaphene 10% 5
Lesser Cornstalk See footnote No. 10, Page 3.
Borer
Do not apply Guthion more than 4 times per season.








1. Cowpea Curculio.-Apply insecticides when cowpea curculio
appears, especially when pods begin to set, and repeat weekly. In the
Everglades, destruction of the wild cowpea, Vigna repens can greatly
reduce curculio infestations.

2. Stinkbugs.-It is important to maintain good control of stink-
bugs as soon as pods begin to set.

3. Bean Leafhoppers and Bean Leafrollers.-See comments under
beans, page 2.


PEPPERS

MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E, % pt. Diazinon 2% 5
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 1
Dimethoate 2.67E, 3-1 pt. NTL
Guthion 2E, 1 qt. 3*
Aphids Demeton (Systox) 2E,
1-11 pts. 3
Dimethoate 2.67E, %-1 pt. NTL
Parathion 4E, 1/2 pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Thiodan 2E, 1 qt. 1
Armyworm (fall Sevin 80% WP, 1, lbs. Sevin 5% NTL
and southern) Thiodan 2E, 1 qt. 1
Corn Earworm Toxaphene 8E, 1-2 pts. Toxaphene 10% 5
Pepper Weevil Toxaphene 8E, 1-2 pts. Toxaphene 10% 5
Thrips Parathion 4E, 1 pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Cutworms See Page 1.
Mole Crickets See Page 1.
Lesser Cornstalk See footnote No. 10, Page 3.
Borer
Thi:; interval for a maximum of 4 treatments. If more than 4 treatments applied, allow 11
days to harvest.

1. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insecti-
cides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy migrations
of adult leaf miners, or to older plants when weekly applications are
not giving control. Weekly applications of dimethoate have given
good control. Diazinon has not been effective in the Homestead and
Lower East Coast areas in recent years. Parathion will usually give
control in Central and North Florida.

2. Pepper Weevil.-Cut open fallen blossom buds and small fruits
for evidence of infestations. Apply toxaphene at 7-day intervals
when infestation becomes evident.







POTATOES

MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST

Aphids Demeton (Systox) 2E, 11/ pts. 21
Dimethoate 2.67E, 1 pts. NTL
Meta-Systox-R 2E, 11/2 pts. 7
(Also see Systemics below)
Armyworms, Parathion 4E, 1 pt. Parathion 2% 5
Loopers, Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Other Thiodan 2E, 1-2 qts. NTL
Caterpillars Toxaphene 8E, 1-2 pts. Toxaphene 10% NTL
Banded Cucumber Guthion 2E, 1 qt. 7
Beetle Thiodan 2E, 1-2 qts. NTL
Colorado Potato Sevin 80% WP, 11/4 lb. NTL
Beetle Thiodan, 2E, 1-2 qts. NTL
Leaf-Footed Guthion 2E, 1 qt. 7
Plant Bug, Parathion 4E, 1 pt. Parathion 2% 5
Green Stinkbug Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Thiodan 2E, 1-2 qts. NTL
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E, 1/-1 pt. Diazinon 2% 14
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. NTL
Dimethoate 2.67E, %-1 pt. NTL
Guthion 2E, 1 qt. 7
Cutworms Chlordane or toxaphene See Page 1.
Wireworms See page 1. Also Systemic Insecticides below.


1. Systemic Insecticides for Soil Application.-Phorate (Thimet)
and Di-Syston will give some control of aphids on potatoes. Di-Syston
is more effective, however, neither material will give control for the
full growing season.

Apply Thimet or Di-Syston at the rate of 30 pounds of 10% gran-
ules per acre at planting in the seed piece furrow.
In tests against Conoderus wireworms in the Hastings area, these
materials applied as above in the seed piece furrow have given satis-
factory control. In limited tests against light infestations of' Melan-
otus wireworms in the Homestead area, phorate (Thimet) applied as
above in the seed piece furrow has given satisfactory control.

2. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insecti-
cides twice a week to small plants when there are heavy migrations
of adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned host vegetable fields, or
on older plants when weekly applications are not giving control.
Diazinon has not been effective in the Homestead and Lower East
Coast areas in recent years. Parathion will usually give control in
Central and North Florida.







POTATOES, SWEET
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Armyworms, Registrations for Toxaphene and DDT (Preharvest)
Hornworms, have been cancelled by USDA. Try Malathion 5E at
Other Caterpillars, 1 quart per 100 gallons soon after caterpillars hatch.
Gold Bug No waiting period required.

Begin applications when insects appear; one to two applications
usually are sufficient. Thorough coverage is difficult where vines are
dense. It may be necessary to insert dust nozzles into vines to get
adequate coverage and satisfactory control.
Sweet Potato Weevil.-Practice sanitation and use certified or
weevil-free seed.
SEEDBED TREATMENT.-Dust with 2% dieldrin. Make the
first application when the first scattered plants appear. Make the sec-
ond application when all the plants are up. Make additional applica-
tions after each pulling. Apply the material so as to cover all of the
soil surface around the plants, using at each application 1/ pound of
2% dieldrin dust per 100 feet of row; on beds use 1/4 pound per 80
square feet of surface.
FIELD TREATMENT.-When the vines begin to meet in the
middle or the largest roots are 1/ inch in diameter, use 75 pounds of
2% dieldrin dust per acre. Apply the insecticide to the soil rather
than the foliage in a 6- to 8-inch band on each row along the plant
crowns.
Harvest all sweet potatoes before December 1 and cull out any
infested ones.
When storing or banking sweet potatoes, dust them with 10%
DDT at the rate of 1 ounce per bushel as you bank them. Dust the
ground and straw used.
CAUTION: Before eating or feeding to livestock, wash all pota-
toes which have been dusted with DDT.
Potatoes should be used by March 1, being certain to destroy all
infested potatoes. Do not allow volunteer plants around old storage
sites; these and plants left in the field are almost certain to carry
weevils over from year to year.

SPINACH
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Dibrom 8E, 1-2 pts. 1
Caterpillars, Malathion 5E, 1V2 pt. 7
Other Chewing Parathion 4E, 12 pt. 15
Insects Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 4







STRAWBERRIES
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Pameras, Malathion 5E, 1%/ pts. Malathion 5% 3
Flower Thrips Parathion 4E, /2 pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Field Crickets, Parathion 4E, pt. Parathion 2% 3
Flea Beetles,
Leafrollers
Spider Mites Kelthane 35% WP, 2-3 lbs. Kelthane 2-3% 2
Kelthane 4E, 1 qt. 2
Malathion 5E, 1 qt. Malathion 5% 3
Parathion 4E, 1/2 pt. Parathion 2% 3
Cutworms Chlordane, TDE, or toxaphene See Page 1.
Mole Crickets Aldrin, chlordane, or diazinon- See Page 1.
Wireworms See Page 1.
Citrus Root Same as Wireworm
Weevil


1. Pameras.-Parathion gives better control of pameras than
malathion. Malathion is safer than parathion, but should be handled
with the proper precaution. See following caution on use of para-
thion and malathion.

2. Spider Mites.-More than one kind of spider mite infest straw-
berries. Parathion, malathion and sulfur are effective against the
common red spider, but do not control certain other species. Kelthane
has given control of all species in most areas. Sulfur is the suggested
diluent for parathion and malathion dusts.

CAUTIONS: Where recommended and needed, parathion and
malathion should be applied immediately after harvesting. Wait at
least three days before harvesting again.


TOMATOES
MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Aphids Demeton (Systox) 2E, 3
1-1/2 pts.
Dimethoate 2.67E, 3/-1 pt. 7
Parathion 15% WP, 2-3 Ibs. Parathion 2% 3
Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 1
Thiodan 50% WP, 1-2 lbs. 1
Armyworms, Parathion 15% WP, 2-3 lbs. Parathion 2% 3
Tomato Phosdrin 2E, 1-2 pts. 1
Fruitworms Sevin 80% WP, 1U lbs. Sevin 5% NTL
Hornworms TDE (DDD) 50% WP, 2 lbs. TDE (DDD) 5% 1
Thiodan 50% WP, 1-2 lbs. 1







TOMATOES (Continued)

MIN. DAYS
INSECTS SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Loopers Bacillus thuringiensis, NTL
2-3 qts.
Bacillus thuringiensis NTL
WP, 3-4 lbs.
Dibrom 8E, 2 pts. 1
Parathion 15% WP, 2-3 lbs. Parathion 2% 3
Phosdrin 2E, 2 pts. 1
Thiodan 50% WP, 2 lbs. 1
Leaf Miners Diazinon 25% WP, 1-2 lbs. Diazinon 2% 1
Dibrom 8E, 1 pt. 1
Dimethoate 2.67E, %4-1 pt. 7
Guthion 2E, 2 pts. NTL
Stinkbugs, Guthion 2E, 2 pts. NTL
Other Plant Parathion 15% WP, 2-3 lbs. Parathion 2% 3
Bugs Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. 1
Sevin 80% WP, 11/ lbs. Sevin 5% NTL
Thiodan 50% WP, 1-2 lbs. 1
Banded Cucumber Guthion 2E, 2 pts. NTL
Beetle Thiodan 50% WP, 1-2 lbs. 1
Cutworms See Page 1. Regular sprays of TDE or parathion will prevent
the establishment of cutworms after the crop is planted.
Wireworms See Page 1.
Mole Crickets See Page 1.
Field Crickets Same as Mole Crickets.

1. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insecti-
cides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy migrations
of adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned host vegetable fields, or
on older plants when weekly applications are not giving control.
Weekly applications of dimethoate have given good control. Diazinon
has not been effective in the Homestead and Lower East Coast in re-
cent years. Parathion will usually give control in Central and North
Florida.

COMMON, CHEMICAL AND TRADE NAMES OF
CERTAIN INSECTICIDES
Several of the newer insecticides became well known by trade
names before common names were assigned to them. Some publica-
tions continue to use the well-established trade names, while others
use both names, while still others use only the newly designated com-
mon names. This has resulted in some confusion and uncertainty for
those who are not aware of the common names.
This chart gives (1) the common name, (2) the chemical name
used in the USDA Summary of Registered Agricultural Pesticide
Chemical Uses, and (3) the trade name which became well known
before a common name was designated.








Common Name

dicofol

carbaryl
carbophenothion

demeton

azinphosmethyl

dimethoate

disulfoton

endosulfan


methomyl

mevinphos

oxydemeton-
methyl
naled

phorate

tetradifon


DISEASE CONTROL

The amounts of fungicides suggested as sprays are for 100 gal-
lons of water. Materials suggested as dusts are to be used at 20 to
35 pounds per acre. "Minimum Days to Harvest" means the minimum
number of days that should be allowed between last foliar applica-
tion and harvest. If the dosages suggested in this publication are
exceeded, the minimum days given may not be applicable and a
longer interval should be allowed.

COMMON, CHEMICAL, AND TRADE NAMES
OF CERTAIN FUNGICIDES

Several of the fungicides have become well known by trade names.
Some have no common names assigned to them. Some publications
continue to use the well-established trade names, others use both

25


Chemical Name (USDA Summary)

1,1-bis (chlorophenyl) -2,2,2-
trichloroethanol
1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate
O,O-diethyl S-p-chlorophenylthiomethyl
phosphorodithioate
O,O-diethyl O (and S)-2-(ethylthio) ethyl
phosphorothioates
O,0-dimethyl S-[4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotria-
zin-3 (4H) ylmethyl] phosphorodithioate
O,0-dimethyl s- (methylcarbamoylmethyl)
phosphorodithioate
O,0-diethyl S-2-(ethylthio) ethyl phos-
phorodithioate
6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-
hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxa-
thiepin-3-oxide
S-methyl N- [ (methylcarbamoyl) oxy]
thioacetimidate
2-carbomethoxyl-l-methylvinyl dimethyl
phosphate (a-Isomer)
O,0-dimethyl S-2-(ethylsulfinyl) ethyl
phosphorothioate
1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichoroethyl dimethyl
phosphate
O,0-diethyl S-(ethylthiomethyl) phosphor-
odithioate
2,4,5,4'-tetrachlorodiphenyl sulfone


Trade Name

Kelthane

Sevin
Trithion

Systox

Guthion

Cygon
De-Fend
Di-Syston

Thiodan


Lannate

Phosdrin

Meta-Systox-R

Dibrom

Thimet

Tedion








names, while still others use only the newly designated common
names. This has resulted in some confusion and uncertainty for those
who are not aware of the common names.
This chart gives (1) the common names, if any, (2) the chemical
names used in the USDA Summary of Registered Agricultural Pesti-
cide Chemical Uses, and (3) some trade names of materials listed in
this publication.

COMMON NAME CHEMICAL SOME TRADE NAMES


N-trichloromethylmercapto-4-
cyclohexene-1:2-dicarboxi-
mide
Ammoniates of ethylene bis-
dithiocarbamato zinc and
dithiobis thiocarbonyl
iminoethylene bis dithio-
carbamato zinc
Cis-N- (1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-
ethyl) thio -4-cyclohexane-1,
2-dicarboximide
2-Capryl-4,6 Dinitrophenyl
Crotonate
Various



Ferric dimethyl dithiocarba-
mate


Stauffer captain,
Ortho captain,
Orthocide
Polyram




Difolatan
(4 flowable)

Karathane


Tribasic copper
sulphate, C-O-C-S,
Basic copper fungicide,
Kocide 101
Fermate, Karbam
black, Stauffer ferbam


Manganous ethylene bisdithio- Manzate D, Dithane
carbamate plus zinc sulphate M-22 special
NOTE: Wherever "maneb" is listed, the preferred formulation
is maneb plus zinc sulphate. In most cases better results
will be obtained with this formulation than with maneb
without zinc sulphate added.


Pentachloronitrobenzene
Sulphur
Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide

Zinc ion + manganese ethylene
bisdithiocarbamate complex
2,4-Dichloro-6-o-Chloroanili-
no-s-Triazine
Zinc ethylene bisdithiocarba-
mate


Terraclor
Sulphur
Thylate, Thiram
75-W Thiramad
Dithane M-45
Manzate 200
Dyrene

Dithane Z-78, Parzate C,
Ortho zineb


BEANS
Bush and Lima

Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas phaseoli and Pseudomonas phase-
olicola).-No chemical control.
Halo blight and common bacterial blight are carried in and on the


Captan


Copper



Ferbam

Maneb





PCNB
Sulphur
Thiram


Zineb







seed and soil. Seed treatment is not beneficial, and sprays in the
field usually are not effective. Secure blight-free seed from western
areas where proper production precautions have been taken. Rotate
crops.
Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe polygoni).-Same as for rust control.
Root Rots.-All cover crops should be chopped down and allowed
to dry completely before being plowed under. Plow under cover crops
six to eight weeks in advance of planting and prepare seedbed 5 to
10 days ahead of planting.
Spraying seed and soil in a six to eight-inch band in the opened
furrow at planting time with a 50-50 mixture of captain 50% plus
PCNB 75% at the rate of 8 pounds per acre has resulted in improved
stands. Protection cannot be expected for more than a week or two
after seed germinates. Be sure not to exceed 8 pounds per acre, par-
ticularly during cool, rainy periods of mid-winter.
Rust (Uromyces phaseoli typica).-For severe rust condition,
usually during spring months when sulfur alone will not give control,
the following program is advised:
Spray with maneb (80%) at 1.5 pounds per 100 gallons of water
or use sulfur plus 3.5% maneb dust, beginning at emergence and con-
tinuing at seven-day intervals until a few days before harvest. Mini-
mum days to harvest: 4.
When rust is less severe during fall and winter, sulfur spray at
16 pounds per 100 gallons of water of sulfur dust should give ade-
quate control.
To be most effective, rust control should be started before the
leaves are infected. The control obtained before flowering has more
effect on yield than control late in the crop season.
Sclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-Flooding fields for five to
six weeks during summer months will effectively reduce the number
of sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils, apply 500 to 700 pounds of calcium cyanamid per
acre. Broadcast and disk in 30 days prior to planting. Cyanamid is
not necessary if land is flooded three weeks or more during summer.
On sand apply 700 pounds of cyanamid and wait three months be-
fore planting.
Pole Beans
Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas phaseoli and Pseudomonas phase-
olicola).-See under Bush Beans.
Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe polygoni).-Same as for rust control.
Rust (Uromyces phasoli typica).-Use rust-resistant varieties of
pole beans where these are adapted.







For the most severe rust conditions, which usually occur during
the spring months beginning with February, when sulfur alone will
not give adequate control, the following program is advised:
1. Spray with maneb (80%), 1.5 pounds per 100 gallons of water,
beginning with emergence and continuing until poles are set. Apply
sprays often enough to cover new growth as it appears. Minimum
days to harvest: 4.
2. After staking, dust with sulfur plus 3.5% maneb twice weekly
until beans are setting, thereafter at five-day intervals until about
10 days before harvest ceases. Use 30 to 50 pounds per acre per appli-
cation, depending upon plant size. Minimum days to harvest: 4.
When rust is less severe, during fall and winter months, sulfur
dust alone will give adequate control. Also, if sulfur plus maneb
dust is used during this period, the intervals between applications
may be lengthened to five to seven days. Minimum days to harvest:
4.
To be most effective, rust control should be started before the
leaves are infected. The control obtained before flowering has more
effect on yield than control later in the crop season.
Sclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-See under Bush Beans.

CARROTS
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Alternaria Leaf Zineb 75% 2 lb., or 7*
Blight Copper 4 lbs. 48-53% NTL**
(Alternaria metallic copper or
dauci) Dithane M-45 80% 2 lbs. or 7***
Manzate 200 80% 2 lbs. 7***
7 days if treated tops are to be used for food or feed.
**No time limitation when used as suggested.
*** Do not use tops for food or feed purposes.

In early plantings it may be satisfactory to begin applications
when plants are five to eight inches high and repeat at weekly inter-
vals. In later plantings, if the disease is established in the area, it
may be necessary to begin applications shortly after emergence of
the seedlings (three-inch stage).
Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas carotae).-Seed treatment: Treat
seed 10 minutes in water at 126'F., (see Crucifers) or ten minutes
in 1:1000 mercuric chloride (1 ounce crystals in 71/. gallons of
water). Wash seed and dry.
CAUTION: Mercuric chloride is extremely poisonous and cor-
rosive and must be handled with extreme care. Use a wood or earth-
enware container for treating seed with mercuric chloride. Take







every precaution to keep away from children and animals. Used
material should be disposed of in a safe place.

CELERY
Transplant Bed
Fungi and Weeds.-Preplant treatment:
Quantity per
SUGGESTED CHEMICALS 1,200 Sq. Ft.
Seedbed
1. M ethyl Bromide ................................. ....... .... 24.0 lbs. (with
plastic cover)
2. Chloropicrin .................... .... ........ .. ........ 2.0 gals. (with
plastic cover)
3. SMDC (Vapam, VPM)* ... ... .__ ..... 2.1 gals.
4. Vorlex ................. .......... 1.5 gals. (with
plastic cover)
*A 25% to 50% reduction in dosage if treated area is covered with a plastic
cover. Full dosage under cover is equal to methyl bromide.

Release methyl bromide under a gas-proof cover with a special
applicator or inject chloropicrin at a depth of six inches at one-foot
intervals (6 to 8 inch intervals on organic soil) and cover the treated
area with a gas-proof cover. In each case the covers may be removed
24 to 48 hours after application. Allow three to seven days after
treatment for methyl bromide, and 7-14 days for chloropicrin to
escape from the soil before seeding. Two gallons of chloropicrin or
24 pounds of methyl bromide per 1,200 square feet if a plastic cover
is used. Inject Vorlex with chisels at 11/; gals. per 1,200 square feet
and cover with a plastic cover.
When using any of the materials listed, read the instructions and
cautions on the label and follow them carefully.
These gases are highly toxic and should not be inhaled.
Fungi.-Post-emergence treatment.-On organic soils, fixed cop-
per at 4 pounds of 48-53% metallic plus maneb, 80%, 11/; lbs. applied
at weekly intervals is usually sufficient for disease control until covers
are removed. However, if frequent rains occur in early fall, addi-
tional treatment (even daily) will be necessary. Avoid topping plants
when they are wet. After this, and for other diseases, use control
measures suggested in table and discussion below for field diseases.
Field
Bacterial Blight (Pseudomonas cichorii).-On organic soils dur-
ing the late spring and early fall when bacterial blight is usually
present apply fixed copper at 4 pounds of 48-53% metallic, or cupric
hydroxide twice per week or every four to five days, depending on
rainfall. No time limitation when used as suggested.








Do not apply foliar nitrogen during the seasons favorable for bac-
terial blight, and avoid over-fertilization with soil-applied nitrogen.
To help prevent spread of the bacterium keep workers and farm
equipment from brushing against wet plants.

MIN. DAYS
DISEASES SPRAY TO HARVEST
Early Blight Maneb 80% 112 lbs., or NTL*
Late Blight Dyrene 50% 2 lbs., or NTL**
Manzate 200 80%, 1% lbs. or 7
Dithane M-45 80% 1% lbs. or 7
Maneb 80%, Dyrene 50%, 50-50
mixture 2 lbs. NTL* **
Early Blight Polyram 80% 2 lbs. NTL*


* Remove excess residue by stripping, trimming and washing.
*' Treated celery should be washed and trimmed.


Early Blight (Cercospora apii).-Begin applications at weekly
intervals and reduce to four or five days if conditions become favor-
able for disease development. On organic soils after two applications
of any of the organic materials, follow with one application of copper
or combine the copper with one of the organic applications. Begin
applications immediately after plants are set and repeat at 4- to 5-day
intervals. Maneb at 11/. lbs. or Dyrene or Polyram at 1 pound mixed
in the spray tank with 4 pounds of 48-53% metallic copper, or 2 lbs.
of cupric hydroxide is equally effective against early blight in addi-
tion offers some control of bacterial blight.
Late Blight (Septoria apii).-Use three year old seed. Early
blight control measures are effective for late blight control.
Pink Rot (Sclerotinica sclerotiorum).-Since the disease is not
serious every year, it is difficult to recommend a definite control pro-
gram. Each of the following control measures has reduced Sclero-
tinia, but when conditions become favorable for the development of
the disease, it may be necessary to combine all of them in order to
obtain a satisfactory control.
(1) Rotate with a crop not susceptible to Sclerotinia, such as
sweet corn.
(2) Flood the soil either completely, partially, or intermittently
for a period of 6 weeks during the summer.
(3) Treat the soil with cyanamid at the rate of 700 pounds per
acre on sand at least 3 months before transplanting.
(4) Spray weekly with a mixture of 4 lbs. ferbam plus 2 lbs.
hydrated lime. Remove residue by stripping, trimming and washing.
Rhizoctonia Stalk Rot (Rhizoctonia solani).-Direct a spray noz-
zle on each side of the row toward the base of the plants and apply








11/ pounds Dyrene or 4 pounds fixed copper, 48-53% metallic, per
100 gallons of water. Spray applications may be made in combina-
tion with those for early blight control.
Cucumber Mosaic (Southern Celery Mosaic). The virus causing
mosaic is transmitted by aphids. At present the only effective control
measure consists of eradicating the principal weed host, wandering
jew (Commelina spp.) from the vicinity of the crop. It is particu-
larly important to do this in the seedbed area. This eradication must
be complete before the celery seedbeds are planted.
Western Celery Mosaic.-This virus was recently identified in
Florida. Maximal aphid control is important in controlling this dis-
ease.
CORN, SWEET
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Helminthosporium Maneb 80% 1% lbs., or NTL*
Leaf Blights- Polyram 80% 2 lbs., or 1* **
(Helminthosporium Zineb 75% 2 lbs., or NTL***
maydis and Dithane M-45 11/ lbs., or 7
Helminthosporium Manzate 200, 80%, 1%1 lbs. 7
turcicum
Kernel and cob: Do not feed treated forage to livestock.
Use restricted to Florida.
** Do not feed forage to dairy animals, or animals being finished for slaughter.
Any of the materials properly applied once or twice weekly, de-
pending on weather and disease conditions and locations, will give
economic control. For crops in the "whorl stage" of growth, the
sprayer should have two nozzles over the row in addition to the side
nozzles required for complete coverage of unfurled leaves. Applica-
tion of fungicide should cease 10 days before harvest unless younger
corn is growing nearby. Maneb, Manzate 200, Dithane M-45 and
zineb should also give satisfactory control of corn rust. Where it is
practicable use Helminthosporium resistant varieties.
Bacterial Leaf Blight (Pseudomonas alboprecipitans).-No chem-
ical control.
CRUCIFERS
Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Chinese Cabbage,
Collards, Radishes
Spray materials do not stick easily to the waxy leaves of most
crucifiers. Use a sticker-spreader as recommended by the manufac-
turer on large plants in seedbeds and on plants in the field.
Transplant Bed
Fungi and Weeds.-Preplant treatment: See celery transplant
bed.







TRANSPLANT BED TREATMENTS
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Alternaria Leaf Spot Zineb 75% 2 Ibs., or (See
(Alternaria brassicae) Maneb 80% 11/2 lbs. Field
Downy Mildew Treatments)
(Peronospora parasitiea)

In the Hastings area, begin applications 7 to 10 days after the
seed is planted or before then, if mildew is present. Repeat three
times a week except when temperatures drop to 400F or lower or
heavy rains interrupt the schedule. Continue treatment until plants
are set in the field. Total number of applications may vary from 6
to 15, depending upon season and weather. Use 80 to 150 gallons of
spray or 15 to 35 pounds of dust per acre at each application, depend-
ing on size of plants.
Plow under abandoned seedbeds and harvested fields to prevent
diseases from spreading to new plantings. Eradicate all crucifers in
vicinity of seedbed.
FIELD TREATMENTS
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Alternaria Leaf Spot Zineb 75% 2 lbs., or 7*
(Alternaria brassicae) Maneb 80% 1/2 Ibs. 7**
Downy Mildew
(Peronospora parasitica)
NTL on radishes.
*s No time limitation when used as suggested on cauliflower and brussels sprouts. Remove
residues on broccoli by washing or trimming if treated within 3 days of harvest. Do not use on
Chinese cabbage or radishes. On collards remove excess residue by washing.
Where seed is sown directly in the field, treat seedlings as sug-
gested for downy mildew. Use 100 to 150 gallons of spray or 25 to
30 pounds of dust per acre every six to seven days.
Bacterial Leaf Spot-Cabbage (Pseudomonas cichorii).-No chem-
ical control.
Black Rot (Xanthomonas campestris).-Take every possible pre-
caution to secure disease-free plants. Do not locate seedbeds or field
plantings on land planted to any crucifier during the preceding 12
months.
Cabbage seed grown in the Puget Sound area are reported to be
free of black rot, but the hot weather treatment is suggested regard-
less of source. Hot water treatment is carried out as follows:
Treat seed at 122F. Cabbage and brussels sprouts should be
treated 25 to 35 minutes; broccoli, cauliflower, collards, Chinese cab-
bage, kale, kohlrabi, rutabaga and turnips should be treated 18
minutes.
Fill muslin bags about 2/3 full of seed. Tie the tops and immerse
in a container of water at the temperature indicated. Keep the water







temperature within one degree of that specified. Keep the seed under
water, and stir to maintain uniform temperature. At the end of the
period, remove seed from the hot water and plunge into cold water,
then spread out and dry. Treatment is a delicate operation and is
best performed by a trained operator using special equipment. It may
be more satisfactory to have seed treated at the nearest central seed
treating plant. A University of Florida publication, Extension Cir-
cular 318, gives instructions for construction and operation of a
central hot water seed treating unit.
Test seed for germination before treating with hot water. Weak
seed may be killed, while good seed will stand treatment and ger-
minate well if planted within two months.
Yellows (Fusarium oxysporum f. conglutinans).-The only control
after soil is infested is use of resistant varieties. Growers should
take every possible precaution to secure disease-free transplants.
Black Speck.-On cabbage harvested during the winter months
numerous pin head sized black specks may appear on the leaves ex-
tending all the way to the core. Usually they appear approximately
one week after harvest, or at times, particularly if harvest is delayed,
these specks may occur on cabbage in the field.
The exact cause of these black specks is not fully understood,
however, some varieties and hybrids are much more susceptible than
others. Little Rock (Ferry Morse), Rio Verde (Northern-King), and
Hybrid 18 (SRS, Niagra), may be expected to have little or no black
speck.

TURNIPS AND MUSTARD

MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST

Downy Mildew- Zineb 75% 2 lbs. 7*
(Peronospora parasitica) Maneb 80% 1/2 lbs. 7**
Turnip roots; no time limitation.
S* Remove excess residues by washing.

When weather favors development of the disease, begin appli-
cations as soon as seedlings emerge and repeat at three- to four-
day intervals. Addition of a spreader-sticker may be advisable.
In the Hastings area, downy mildew is seldom observed and is of
no consequence. The cabbage mildew fungus does not attack turnip
and mustard.
Leaf Spots.-Exact controls of the various leaf spot conditions
reported on these crops have not been fully determined. A regular
schedule of alternate sprays or dusts of maneb and zineb is sug-
gested.







CURCUBITS
Cantaloupe, Cucumber, and Squash
Angular Leaf Spot (Pseudomonas lachrymans).-Use only disease-
free seed, or treat seed for six minutes in mercuric chloride (1 ounce
crystals in 71/2 gallons of water), followed by rinsing in clear water
and drying.
CAUTION: Mercuric chloride is extremely poisonous and cor-
rosive and must be handled with extreme care. Use a wooden or
earthen ware container for treating seed with mercuric chloride. Take
every precaution to keep away from children and animals. Used ma-
terial should be disposed of in a safe place.
Weekly applications of copper sprays (3 pounds of 48-53%/ metallic
copper per 100 gallons) help to control spread of the disease in the
field. Copper will not give satisfactory control of powdery mildew
and thus is not a substitute for the other materials. Repeated copper
applications may cause yellowing of leaf margins and possibly reduc-
tion of yields. No time limitation when used as suggested.


M
DISEASE SPRAY TO
Anthracnose Zineb 75% 1 lb. plus
(Glomerella cingulata Maneb 80% % lb.
var. orbiculare) Manzate 200 80% 11/ lbs. or
Downy Mildew Dithane M-45 80% 11/2 lbs.
(Pseudoperonospora cubensis)
Gummy Stem Blight
(Mycosphaerella citrullina)


IN. DAYS
HARVEST
NTL
NTL
NTL
NTL


Powdery Mildew
(Erysiphe cichoracearum) 8-16 oz. Karathane 7
Cucumber Scab
(Cladosporium cucumerinum) Maneb 80% 11/2 lbs. NTL

Anthracnose, Downy Mildew and Gummy Stem Blight.-Downy
mildew is serious in all parts of the state during warm, damp weather.
Spray every three to four days, beginning before runners start, if
necessary. In seasons of light infection, applications may be delayed
until runners form and intervals may be longer.
There are several varieties of cucumbers and cantaloupe that are
resistant to downy mildew but fungicides should be used to prevent
other diseases.
Powdery Mildew.-The fungicides used for downy mildew give
some control of powdery mildew, but will not give sufficient control.
Karathane at the rate of 8 to 16 ounces in 100 gallons of water may
be added to the carbamates to control powdery mildew when it ap-
pears. If powdery mildew is a persistent problem, use Karathane on
a preventative basis, i.e., on a regular schedule (every five to seven







days) before the disease appears. Minimum days to harvest: 7.
During cold weather, sulfur may be used on squash (2 to 4 pounds)
and on cucumber (no more than 2 pounds) two or three times to con-
trol powdery mildew. Sulfur should never be used on cantaloupe.

Viruses (Mosaics).-Most mosaic symptoms in these crops are
caused by aphid-transmitted viruses that occur naturally in wild
hosts. Elimination of weeds around the field before planting will
help greatly in reducing losses from virus diseases. See section on
watermelon mosaic.

WATERMELONS
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Anthracnose Maneb 80% 1 lb. plus NTL
(Glomerella cingulata Zineb 75% 1 lb.; NTL
var. orbiculare) Maneb 80% 1/2 lbs., or NTL
Downy Mildew Dithane M-45 80% o1% lbs. or NTL
(Pseudoperonospora cubensis) Manzate 200 80%1 1% lbs. or NTL
Gummy Stem Blight Difolatan 4 flowable 2/2 pts. NTL
(Mycosphaerella citrullina)
Cercospora Leaf Spot
(Cercospora citrullina)
Alternaria Leaf Spot
(Alternaria cucumerina)
Bacterial Leaf Spot Copper (48-53%) 3 lbs. NTL
(Pscudomonas lachrymans)

Copper (3 pounds of 48-53% metallic copper per 100 gallons) may
be used alternately or in conjunction with other fungicides where
downy mildew is the only disease of importance or bacterial leaf spot
occurs with other foliar diseases. Copper will not control Anthrac-
nose and can cause leaf burning on watermelons.
The major foliar diseases of watermelons can be controlled with
fungicides. The severity of these diseases varies from year to year,
depending on weather and other factors. Usually one or more of them
cause damage in Florida. In dry seasons, the value of fungicides may
not be apparent, especially in northern Florida, but higher yields of
higher quality melons usually result from a systematic disease con-
trol program.
Inadequate coverage of foliage is probably the most common cause
of poor disease control. Complete coverage of both foliage and fruit
is essential for adequate disease control. It is necessary to cover the
underside of the leaves as well as the topside.
Make the first application soon after plants begin to grow and be-
fore runners start. Weather conditions will govern the number and
timing of subsequent applications. In general three to five sprays are
sufficient in northern and central Florida, while seven or more may
be needed in southern Florida.







Seed-Borne Diseases.-Most commercial seed are previously treat-
ed by the seed producer and a special treatment need not be applied
by the grower unless desired. The following material can be used at
the indicated rates.
Ounces Per 100 lbs. Teaspoons Per Pound
Seed of Seed
Thiram 50% .............. ......... 4 12

Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. niveum).-This disease is caused
by a fungus that inhabits the soil and cannot be controlled with
fungicides. The use of resistant varieties, along with rotation and
new land, is the best control measure. Delayed thinning is suggested
with Charleston Gray when this variety is planted on land previously
grown in watermelon. A maximum number of years between water-
melon crops is desirable, even with resistant varieties. There is al-
ways a possibility that wilt may occur on new land even with resistant
varieties as a result of infestations through drainage water, tools,
or cattle that come in contact with infested fields.
Bacterial Leaf Spot (Pseudomonas spp.).-Bacterial leaf spot has
occurred to some extent each year since 1963 in Florida. This disease
is associated with cool, wet weather, occurs most extensively in south
Florida, and usually ceases to be a problem with the onset of warm
weather. Application of 3 lbs. of copper (48% to 53%) plus 11/. lbs.
maneb 80%, or 11/2 lbs. Manzate 200, 80%, or 11/ lbs. Dithane M-45,
80% give some control.
Watermelon Mosaic.-Elimination of wild hosts in the vicinity of
commercial plantings of watermelons and other cucurbits is critical to
the control of watermelon mosaic. In south Florida, a perennial wild
cucurbit, Melothria pendula L., known also as creeping cucumber or
melonette, grows commonly on the spoils piles left from the usual
land-clearing operations there. It is frequently infected with Water-
melon Mosaic Virus and is thought to be a major source of inoculum
for infection of cucurbitaceous crops in some south Florida areas.
Isolation of cucurbit fields by use of surrounding plantings of non-
hosts such as the solanaceous crops (e.g., tomato, potato, eggplant,
pepper) might be helpful in reducing the field-to-field spread of WMV.
Rodents.-Seed treatment.-Place 5 pounds of seed in a five-gal-
lon container with a dust proof lid. Weigh and measure out the ma-
terials before you start the treatment.
Make a 10% latex water emulsion by putting 0.8 fluid ounce (5
teaspoons) of Dow Latex 512-R (48% solids) or 0.8 fluid ounce (5 tea-
spoons) polyvinyl acetate or 1/4 pint Rhoplex AC-33 (40% solids) in
a 12 pint container and filling with water. Pour this solution over
seed. Place lid on container and tumble seed until uniformly mois-
tened with adhesive.







Next, measure out 0.8 ounce endrin 50W and 5.0 ounces thiram 75
and blend together; add mixture to seed and tumble until seed are
evenly coated.
Then measure out 0.8 ounce of aluminum powder (extra fine) and
add to seed and tumble until seed are evenly coated.
NOTE: This entire geed treatment must be completed within'
three to five minutes, before the adhesive sets.
Finally, spread the treated seed out to dry 24 hours before plant-
ing. Treat only 5 pounds of seed in five-gallon container. You may
treat large quantities with large equipment.
CAUTION: Endrin is extremely toxic and should not be breathed
or allowed to get on clothing or skin. If accidentally spilled on skin
or clothing, change clothes and wash immediately with soap and
water. Read and follow precautions on labels on packages explicitly.
Commercially prepared packets of all ingredients with measuring
bottle are available in 5-, 10-, and 20-pound packets through pesticide
distributors in Florida.

EGGPLANT
Phomopsis Blight (Phomopsis vexans).-Florida Market is resis-
tant to the tip over stage of Phomopsis blight. However, the fruit
rot and leaf and stem lesion stages are serious problems. Only dis-
ease-free plants should be transplanted from seedbed to field. For a
plant bed spray, use 2 lbs. of 75% zineb per 100 gallons of water, or
2 oz. (8 level tablespoonfuls) per 6 gallons of water.
Make two applications when plants emerge and repeat at seven-
day intervals. For general foliage and fruit disease control apply
70% zineb at 11/2 lbs./100 gallons on a regular schedule every 5 to
10 days. A suitable spreader-sticker will be beneficial in coverage on
fruit. No time limit on harvesting eggplant treated with zineb.
Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum).-No chemical con-
trol. Use new land or rotate with non-susceptible crops.

LETTUCE AND ENDIVE
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Alternaria Leaf Spot Zineb 75% 2 lbs., or 7*
(Alternaria sonchi) Maneb 80% 112 lbs. 7**
Downy Mildew
(Bremia lactucae)
5 days on head lettuce.
*' On endive and leaf lettuce remove residues by washing or other effective means. On head
lettuce remove residues by stripping and trimming.
Begin applications when disease appears, repeat at four- to five-
day intervals.







Spray twice weekly during cool, wet weather. Where rows are
spaced 18 inches apart, apply 150 to 200 gallons spray per acre.
Drop (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-Since the disease is not serious
every year, it is difficult to suggest a definite control program. Each
of the following control measures has reduced drop, but when con-
ditions become favorable for the development of the disease, it may
be necessary to combine all of them in order to obtain a satisfactory
control.
(1) Rotate with a crop not susceptible to this disease, such as
sweet corn.
(2) Flood the soil either completely, partially or intermittently
for a period of six weeks during the summer.
(3) Treat the soil with cyanamid at the rate of 700 pounds per
acre on sand at least three months before transplanting. On marl
soils apply 500 to 700 pounds of cyanamid per acre and disk in 30
days before setting plants.
(4) For lettuce only, spray weekly with a mixture of 4 pounds
ferbam* plus 2 pounds hydrated lime. Remove residue by stripping,
trimming and washing.
Mosaic.-Most severe on head lettuce. The suggested control is
to use only seed which has been indexed as mosaic-free. Field spread
may be reduced by aphid control.
*Use of ferbam Florida only. Do not apply within 7 days of harvest.
Remove residues by stripping and trimming.

OKRA
Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum).-Apply weekly
sprays of sulphur at 16 lbs. sulphur per 100 gallons of water, or dust
with 325 mesh dusting sulphur.
Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum).-No chemical con-
trol. Use new land or rotate with non-susceptible crops.

ONIONS
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY DUST TO HARVEST
Downy Mildew Zineb 75% 2 lbs. plus Zineb 61 % 7*
(Perovospora sticker, or
destructor)
Blast Maneb 80% 11/ lbs., plus NTL
(Botrytis sp.) sticker or
Purple Blotch Manzate 200 80% 1'o lbs. or 7**
(Alternaria porri) Dithane M-45 80% 11/ lbs. 7**
No time limit on dry onions: 7 days on green onions.
** Dry bull) only. Do not apply to exposed bulbs.







When weather conditions favor the development of disease, begin
applications when seedlings emerge and repeat at intervals of three
to four days. In certain seasons, it may be possible to begin applica-
tions on a weekly schedule, shifting to twice-weekly applications if
necessary.
It is extremely difficult to obtain adequate foliage coverage be-
cause of the waxy nature of the onion plant. Successful control has
been reported by timing dust applications to coincide with formation
of fine films of moisture on the leaf surface at certain periods of the
day.
PEAS
Powdery Midew (Erysiphe polygoni).-Spray with 10 pounds of
wettable sulfur in 100 gallons of water or dust with 325 mesh dusting
sulfur.
Begin applications when signs of disease appear. Repeat at 10-
to 14-day intervals, or often enough to keep the disease under control.
Do not apply when plants are wet or during periods of high tempera-
tures (above 900F).
Powdery mildew sometimes becomes serious during winter
months. It is usually necessary to adhere to a strict spray program
to keep it under control.
PEPPERS
Fungi and Weeds.-Pre-plant treatment in transplant bed: See
celery transplant bed.
Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria).-Use 4 pounds of cop-
per (48-53% metallic copper) plus 11 pounds of maneb or Dithane
M-45 80%, or Manzate 200 80%. Do not use Dithane M-45 or Man-
zate 200 after fruit begins to set.
Spray applications should be started at emergence of seedlings
and continued on a 4 to 5 day schedule. Complete coverage is essen-
tial. In plant beds, .begin spraying when plants emerge and repeat
twice weekly.
Damping-off (Pythizlm spp., Rhizoctonia spp., etc.).-Avoid plant-
ing on low or poorly drained areas. Do not follow peppers with pep-
pers. A chemical soil treatment with SMDC (Vapam, VPM) on
direct-seeded peppers may be tried where damping-off and other soil-
borne troubles are a problem. Inject five to six inches deep on the
prepared bed at the rate of 1 pint per 100 lineal feet of row or in two
bands at the same rate for two row beds. Good moisture for seedling
and compaction of the bed following application is essential for suc-
cess. A waiting period of at least three weeks before seeding is
necessary for chemicals to escape, (at least 30 days if soil tempera-
ture is below 600F). The PCNB plus Captan row treatment is the
same as for beans.








MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Frogeye Spot Zineb 75% 2 lbs., or NTL*
(Cercospora Copper 4 Ibs. of 48-53%
capsici) metallic copper, or NTL*
Maneb 80% 1/' lbs. or NTL*
Manzate 200 80% 1/2 lbs. or **
Dithane M-45 80%, 11/ lbs. **
: No time limit when used as suggested.
*;: Do not apply after fruit buds form.
In plant beds, begin spraying when plants are two to three inches
high and repeat at seven-day intervals. In fields, after plants have
become established, repeat at 7- to 10-day intervals as needed.
Frogeye spot is not usually a serious disease, and when weather
conditions are not favorable for its development, the spray schedule
may be modified.
Viruses.-Use tobacco mosaic-resistant varieties where possible.
Workers handling pepper plants should wash hands with strong
soap and water or 70% alcohol before handling plants. This is most
important for workers who use tobacco.
To reduce insect transmission of viruses from wild host plants
(nightshade, ground cherry and others) several practices are sug-
gested:
(1) Eradicate wild plants in fencerows and on ditch banks during
season when crops are not growing.
(2) Plant barrier crops around pepper fields. A 50-foot strip of
a non-susceptible crop (corn, beans, etc.) tends to trap insects flying
in until they become non-infective.
(3) Spray barrier crop with suitable insecticide at least weekly
to reduce population of insect vectors. See insect control suggestions.
(4) Destroy old infected crops before planting following crops
alongside them.
POTATOES
Numerous virus, bacterial and fungal diseases are controlled by
always planting certified seed.
Seed-piece treatment.-Potato seed-piece treatments are often
helpful in obtaining better stands and yields. Effective materials for
seed treatment are:
Polyram, 7% dust 1-1.5 lbs. per 100 lbs. seed,
or Captan 71/.% dust 1 lb. per 100 lbs of seed or
Dithane M-45 or Manzate 200,8% dust lb. per
100 lbs. of seed.
DO NOT USE TREATED SEED FOR FOOD OR FEED PURPOSE.








Corky Ringspot.-This disease is caused by a tuber and soilborned
virus. Pungo is highly resistant to corky ringspot and is suggested
for planting in infested soil.

MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Early Blight Maneb 80% 11/ lbs., or NTL
(Alternaria solani) Zineb 75% 2 lbs., or NTL
Late Blight Dithane M-45 80% 11/2 lbs., or NTL
(Phytophthora Manzate 200 80% 11/2 lbs. or NTL
infestans) Polyram 80% 11/ lbs. NTL

In south Florida, begin spraying for late blight when plants have
emerged and continue at four to five-day intervals.
In Hastings area, begin spraying when the plants are six to eight
inches high, if late blight does not show earlier, and continue at
five- to seven-day intervals; or use a more economical method of
control by spraying the plants following eight consecutive days when
the seven-day average daily temperatures range from 50 to 77'F.
and the ten-day total rainfall is 1.01 inches or greater. When the
latter method is used, intervals between spraying may vary from 5
to 14 days or more depending upon the severity of late blight and
the duration of periods when temperatures and rainfall favor its
development.
Scab (Streptomyces sca bies).-Use of certified seed and crop
rotation, and holding soil pH below 6.0 will assist in controlling scab.
Sclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-Flooding fields for five
to six weeks during summer months will reduce the number of
sclerotinia in the soil.
On marl soils, where sclerotinia has attacked the previous crop,
apply 400 to 600 pounds of calcium cyanamid per acre at least 30
days before planting. Distribute evenly and thoroughly mix with the
surface soil. Cyanamid is not necessary if soil has been flooded three
or more weeks during the summer.
POTATOES, SWEET
Black Rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata), Scurf (Monilochaetes infus-
cans), and Wilt (Fzsarium oxysporum f. bat tas).-These diseases
will be kept under control with the following practices:
Seed Selection: Many diseases may be reduced by growing enough
seed from vine cuttings to produce next year's seed supply. Select
hills at digging time that are free of disease, have desirable varietal
characteristics, and have at least four or five Number 1 size potatoes
per hill. Take special care in digging and storing the seed potatoes,
handling as little as possible to prevent bruising.
Plant Bed Site: Locate the bed where sweet potatoes and tobacco
have not been grown within three years. If permanent beds are to be







used, remove soil to a depth of 12 inches, drench the bed and frame
with a solution of 1 pint of formaldehyde per 15 gallons of water,
then replace with new soil.
Seed Treatment: Dip potatoes for one minute in solution of 1 lb.
Semesan Bel to 71/ to 8 gallons of water; bed or dry in shade.
CAUTION: Pay strict attention to precautionary label state-
ments.
Plant Treatment: Cuttings from the seedbed will give effective
control of black rot and scurf. Cut 1 inch above soil line rather than
pulling with roots on.
Internal Cork.-Seed stock should be free of internal cork, a dis-
ease for which there is no other known control. Cork-free seed
potatoes are available.
STRAWBERRIES
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum fragariae).--Occurs most often in
nursery beds, causes spotting and girdling of runners and leaf stems.
Most severe with high temperature and moisture. Spray with three
to four pounds of 48-53% metallic copper from basic copper plus
spreader sticker or dust with 6% copper dust at 20 to 35 pounds per
acre and use a preventive schedule once a week or more often. No
time limit between last application and harvest.
Rhizoctonia Bud Rot (Rhizoctonia solani).-Most prevalent dur-
ing cool, humid weather. Favored by fog and heavy dew. Avoid
areas where this disease has been prevalent on previous crops par-
ticularly where heavy legume cover crops have been grown. Cut and
allow cover crops to thoroughly dry before turning under.
Leaf Spot (common, scorch, blight).-In the nursery spray with
three to four pounds of 48-53% metallic copper from basic copper in
100 gallons of water at 75 to 150 gallons per acre or dust with 6%
copper dust at 20 to 35 pounds per acre at seven to ten-day intervals.
Use lower rates on small plants.
In fruiting fields, use two pounds of 75% zineb in 100 gallons of
water, or 20 to 35 pounds of 61/_% zineb dust per acre at seven-day
intervals until full bloom, then switch to three to five pounds of 50%
Captan in 100 gallons of water or 20 to 35 pounds of 6% Captan dust
per acre at 4 to 7-day intervals, throughout fruiting season. The
Captan treatment may be used throughout the season. Use the three-
pound rate before bloom and the five-pound rate following bloom.
Black Root.-This condition occurs on older plants in the nursery.
These plants will produce new lateral roots and vigorous plants when
transplanted. Good soil aeration two to three weeks prior to digging
aids in new root initiation.
Sclerotium Rot (Southern Blight) (Sclerotizum rolfsii).-Develops
during hot, wet weather and is most severe in the nursery during the







summer. This fungus attacks plants at the soil line and invades both
the crown and roots, causing suddent death of plants. Avoid areas
where this disease has been prevalent on previous crops, particularly
where heavy legume cover crops have been grown. Cut and allow
cover crops to thoroughly dry before turning under.
Fruit Rots.-Use 3-5 lbs. Captan, 50% at 4- to 7-day intervals.
No time limitation between last application and harvest.
Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum).-No chemical con-
trol. Use new land or rotate with non-susceptible crops.
TOMATOES
Transplant Bed
Fungi and Weeds.-Preplant treatment: Use SMDC (Vapam,
VPM) or Vorlex transplant bed treatments as suggested for celery.
Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria).-Use 4 pounds of cop-
per (48-53% metallic copper) plus 11/ pounds of maneb or Dithane
M-45 80%, or Manzate 200 80%.
Spray applications should be started at emergence of seedlings
and continued on a 4 to 5 day schedule. Complete coverage is essen-
tial. Control in plant beds helps reduce subsequent losses in field.
Gray Leaf Spot (Stemphylium solani).-Treat as for late blight,
except that applications every five to seven days should be sufficient.
Use resistant varieties where these are adaptable.
Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans).-Same as field control.
Field
For general control of fungal diseases of foliage, the combination
of 1 pound of maneb 80%, Dithane M-45 80% or Manzate 200 80%
plus 1 pound of Dyrene* 50% or 21/. pts. Difolatan 4 flowable is sug-
gested. No time limitations when used as suggested.
Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria).-Follow suggestions
listed above under transplant bed.
Early Blight (Alternaria solani).-Control as for late blight.
Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. lycopersici). Use resist-
ant varieties or new land. Soil treatment with Vorlex or Vorlex 201
have proven reasonably satisfactory in some experimental plots.
Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum).-No chemical con-
trol. Use new land or rotate with non-susceptible crops.
Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans).-Spray with maneb 80%,
11/ lbs., or Dithane M-45, 80%, 11/. lbs. or Manzate 200, 11/ lbs., or
Polyram 80%, 11/2-2 lbs. or Difolatan 4 flowable 21/ pints per 100
gallons of water.
In southern parts of the state, begin applications immediately
after transplanting or emergence and continue at four- to five-day







intervals. In areas or seasons when the disease is less severe, the
time between applications may be five to seven days.
Gray Leaf Spot (Stemphylium solani).-Control as for Late Blight
except that Dyrene* 50% 2 lbs. per 100 gallons is also effective.
Combination of Dyrene with other materials may be used when both
Gray Leaf Spot and Late Blight are threats.
Use resistant varieties where they are adapted.
Gray Mold (Botrytis cinera).-The disease does not develop on
plants grown on soils of calcareous nature. Liming practices can de-
crease the disease development. Spray with Dyrene* 50%, 2 lbs. on
gray leaf spot susceptible plants. Thiram, 50%, 2 lbs., Dyrene* or
ferbam, 76%, 3 lbs. may be used for control of gray leaf spot resist-
ant varieties. Ferbam is adequate but inferior to thiram or Dyrene*
under severe conditions.
Gray Wall (Physiologic).-Use resistant varieties.
Phoma (Phoma destructiva).-See Late Blight.
Sclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-Flooding fields for five to
six weeks during summer months will reduce the number of sclero-
tia in the soil.
On marl soils apply calcium cyanamid at the rate of 500 to 700
pounds per acre, at least 30 days before setting plants in the field;
distribute evenly and disk thoroughly after application. Cyanamid is
not needed on soils flooded three or more weeks during summer. On
sand apply 700 pounds and wait three months before planting.
Potato Virus Y and Tobacco Etch Virus.-Eradicate wild host
plants (nightshade, ground cherry, volunteer tomato plants) BEFORE
the crop is planted. Avoid planting subsequent crops next to diseased
early plantings until after the early plantings have been destroyed.
Avoid tomatoes in close proximity to potatoes.
Pseudo-Curly Top Virus.-Destroy nightshade and ragweed grow-
ing in and around the field before planting the crop. If the disease ap-
pears in the field, spray the margin of the field with parathion to kill
the tree hoppers that transmit the virus.
Tobacco Mosaic Virus.-Direct seed if possible; use high clearance
spray and cultivation equipment; have workers handling plants wash
hands with soap and water after smoking.
NOTE: Materials listed for use in spraying tomatoes may be used
to time of harvest (NTL).
CAUTION: Dyrene, if used as a spray combination with copper,
should not be applied in a larger quantity than 1 pound of 50% Dy-
rene with 4 pounds of 48-53% metallic copper per 100 gallons of
water when day temperatures are in excess of 850F.







POISON CONTROL CENTERS IN FLORIDA*

City Hospital


Bartow ..--..-
Belle Glade -
Bradenton ---- -.
Daytona Beach --.
Ft. Lauderdale ---
Ft. Myers ...-- --..
Ft. Walton Beach
Gainesville - -..
Gainesville -------
Jacksonville ---..
Key West ---...
Lakeland ---
Leesburg ..--....
Melbourne ---.----
Miami ....----
Miami Beach --
Naples .-.. -....
Ocala -......----.-.
Orlando ----
Panama City -...--
Pensacola ----.---
Plant City ......--
Pompano Beach _
Punta Gorda ...
Rockledge
St. Petersburg ..
Sarasota .--..---...
Tallahassee ------
Tampa -.....---...
Titusville ---....-
West Palm Beach
Winter Haven .....-


- -.... ... ......-------_. ---- Polk County Hospital
--- Belle Glade Memorial Hospital
.-.....--..... --- Manatee Memorial Hospital
----- -......-......-- Halifax District Hospital
---.......-...------ Broward General Hospital
---.----- ..._----------- Lee Memorial Hospital
....- .....-... Ft. Walton Beach Hospital
_----.....-.. --- Alachua General Hospital
...-.. ... J. Hillis Miller Health Center
------- ..... -. St. Vincent's Hospital
.- ..--....- ...- .... Monroe General Hospital
--.-....- . Lakeland General Hospital
-...-..----.-..--.. -. Leesburg General Hospital
..----.....--------.--.--.-----.. Brevard Hospital
.-...---- Jackson Memorial Hospital
Mt. Sinai Hospital of Greater Miami
--.....-......-.--.. Naples Community Hospital
- -..-.....---....-- Munroe Memorial Hospital
--. ---.---. Orlando Memorial Hospital
... -.--.--.... Bay County Memorial Hospital
.-------.-. --... -.-- ________ ----- Baptist Hospital
---.......-.. South Florida Baptist Hospital
--..... --......----.. ------ North District Hospital
-. ---- Charlotte Community Hospital
Wuesthoff Memorial Hospital
..---.-...----------....-...- Mound Park Hospital
........-----..-... Sarasota Memorial Hospital
-....----...- Tallahassee Memorial Hospital
...------..... ..-.....-. Tampa General Hospital
.------ Jess Parrish Memorial Hospital
-..-..--...--.. .....---- Good Samaritan Hospital
-.-.---... .... Winter Haven Hospital, Inc.


Poison Control Centers have been established at each of the above
hospitals to furnish prompt and up-to-date information, during the day or
night, on the symptoms and treatment of cases resulting from exposure to
poisons, including pesticides. When calling any of these hospitals, ask for
the POISON CONTROL CENTER.





.W~ i ,^ W :: 1
C ,>
;-;*; f ^ ^ -* *'
j^ ^j r 2 w


Four Keys to
Pesticide Safety


I


1. READ THE LABEL ON EACH PESTICIDE CON
ER BEFORE EACH USE. HEED ALL CAU'
AND WARNINGS. / / I


2. STORE PESTICIDES IN THEIR ORIGINAL LABELED
CONTAINERS.
KEEP THEM OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN
AND IRRESPONSIBLE PEOPLE.


3. APPLY PESTICIDES ONLY AS DIRECT;


4. DISPOSE OF EMPTY CONTAINERS PROMPTLY
AND SAFELY.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURAL AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida,
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
J. N. Busby, Dean


U.


f


J/ :BE F I PESTICIDEn
r BEFO R E USIN A '




STI

REA TE REAUION


e





MARKETING REPORT FOR VEGETABLES,

By: Dr. James A. Niles
Extension Marketing Economist'
Food & Resource Economics DepartLent


Annual

(1) FCLRS Reports
"Florida Vegetable Annual Sunmmarv"
"Vegetable Summary"
"Watermelon: Intentions to Plant"
(See B below for address)

(2) USDA
"Agricultural Statistics"
For sale by Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D. C. 20402

(3) "Annual Report"
Florida Tomato Ccmnittee
P. 0. Box 20635
Orlando, Florida 32814

(4) Agricultural Marketing Service
Federal-State Market News
"Marketing Fla.-Ga. Watermelons"
"Marketing Southeastern Potatoes"
"Marketing Florida Vegetables"
(See A below for address)
"U.S. Fresh Fruit & Veg. Shipments"
"U.S. Fresh Fruit & Vegetable Unloads"
"U.S. Summary of Wholesale and FOB
Shipping Point Prices"
Fruit & Vegetable Market News Branch
USDA-AMS
Washington, D. C. 20250


(1) FCLRS Rep&ots_.C'G
"Monthly Celery Report"
"Florida Agricultural Prices"
"Acreage & Indicated
Production"
"Potato Report"
"Cabbage Report"
"Eggplant & Pepper Report"
(See B below for address)

(2) USDA-ERS Reports
"Vegetable Situation"
Information Service
USDA-ERS
Washington, D. C. 20250

(3) USDA-Crop .Rporting Board
"Cold Storage Report"
"Crop Production"
"Potato Stocks"
Information Service
USDA-ERS
Washington, D. C. 20250

(4) Citrus & Vegetable Magazine
P. O. Box 2349
Tampa, Florida 33601
Subscription $5/year


**Or several times per month.


A Federal-State Market News Service
P. O. Drawer 14127
North Palm Beach, Florida 33408


B Florida Crop & Livestock Reporting Service
1222 Woodward Street
Orlando, Florida 32803


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -





Weekly


(1) FCLRS Reports
"Vegetable Highlights"
"Celery Report"
"Tamato Report"
"Florida Weather & Crop News"
(See B below for address)

(2) Agricultural Marketing Service
Federal-State Market News
"Unloads of Fresh Fruits &
Vegetables--Weekly Summary
Shipments"
Fruit & Veg. Market News Branch
USDA-AMS
Washington, D. C. 20250
"Florida Fresh Fruit &
Vegetable Shipments"
Federal-State Mkt. News Service
P. O. Box 19246
Orlando, Florida 32814
"National Shipping Point Trends"
,Fruit & Veg. Market News Service
USDA
Produce Building, Roan 261
3301 South Galloway Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19148

(3) "Weekly Reports: Shipments
& Prices"
Florida Tomato Conmittee
P. O. Box 20635
Orlando, Florida 32815


(1) AMS-USDA
Federal-State Market News
Daily Market Reports Originating
in North Palm Beach:
"Leafy & Tender Veg. Report"
"Tcmato & Winter Potato Report"
"Watermelon Report"
(See A below for address)
Miami:
"Subtropical Fruit & Vegetable
Report"
Federal-State Mkt. News Serv.
7520 Red Road, Room I-2
South Miami, Florida 33143
Hastings:
"Potato Report"
Federal-State Mkt. News Serv.
Brokers Building
Hastings, Florida 32045
Sanford:
"Vegetable Report"
Federal-State Mkt. News Serv.
P. 0. Box 94
Sanford, Florida 32771
Nogales, Mexico:
"Fruit & Vegetable Report"
Federal-State Mkt. News Service
P. 0. Box 2292
Nogales, Arizona 85621

(2) "Official Price Bulletin"
Florida Sweet Corn Exchange
P. O. Box 20155
Orlando, Florida 32814


*Or several times per week.


A Federal-State Market News Service
P. O. Drawer 14127
N. Palm Beach, FL 33408


B Florida Crop & Livestock Reporting
Service
1222 Woodward Street
Orlando, FL 32803


Tape Recorded Market Reports
Belle Glade: 305-996-0235
Bonifay: Only during melon season
Ft. Pierce: 305-465-5239
Ft. Myers: 813-322-2114
Hastings: 904-692-2211
Imiokalee: 813-657-2793
Miami: 305-666-7106
Orlando: 305-896-9111
Plant City: 813-754-6822
Pampano Beach: 305-946-4343
Trenton: 904-463-2427


Daily*




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