Title: Commercial vegetable pest control guide.
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 Material Information
Title: Commercial vegetable pest control guide.
Series Title: Commercial vegetable pest control guide.
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service
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Bibliographic ID: UF00084523
Volume ID: VID00001
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 220954333

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September 1956


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. 0. Watkins, Director


















Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide

(Prepared in cooperation with workers of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations)





















Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Circular 152












CROSS REFERENCES BY CROPS
Page
G E N E R A L ...-------------.. .. ....... ..... ................................................ ........... .... ...... 3
PESTICIDE TOLERANCES .................................................. ....... 4
DAYS BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST ................. 4-5
Diseases Insects
B means ......................................... ...............24-25 ........ ........ 6- 8
B roccoli .................................................... ........................ 28-30...... ---.. .11-12
Brussel sprouts .---...--....................................... .............. 28-29 ........... 11-12
Cabbage ...---................... ........ ........ ........ ........ 28-29 ................. 11-12
Cabbage, Chinese ..............------ ----- ........28-29 ............... 11-12
Cantaloupe .................................................. .. ........ 30-32 ........... ...12-13
Carrot .......................... .................. 26 ...................
Cauliflower ............................. -------- ......... ... .......... 28-29 .....................11-12
Celery ........................ .............. 26-27 ------........ ... 8- 9
Collards ......--------.... ..................................................28-29.. ............... 11-12
Corn, Sw eet ... ... .................. .......... ......................27-28...........-- ... 9-10
Cucumber ..----............ .................... ........................ 30-32 ----........ ....12-13
Eggplant .........................................------------.............. 32....... ......... 13-14
Endive (escarole) ......... .................. ....... .................32-33 ........ ... 14
Kale ..............................-- -----------................. 28-29 ---...- .. --11-12
Kohlrabi ........... .. ...................... 28-29 ----- --........ .... 11-12
Lettuce .... ...... ............. .... ...................32-33........ ....1.... 4-15
M mustard ....... ...................................... ... .... .. ...... ........ 30........ ........... 20
Okra ...................---- ---- ..... .................----- ---------...... 15-16
Onion ............ ............. ....................------ .....----- 33--- .--..... 16
Pea, English ---- ...............---------------- 33 ... ......--- 16
Pea, Southern ........................ ......... ............. 16-17
Pepper .... ........ --------------------..................34-35 ........... 17-18
Potato .........................................................................--35-36 ... -----........ 18-19
Potato, Sweet ......... .......... ....------- -------.... 36-37.. -........---- 19-20
Radish ........ ........... .....-----.......... ............ 37............. 20
Spinach ..................---............................---------- ............... 21
Squash ...................... .................... 30-32.................... 12-13
Strawberry ....................................................... ............. 37-38...... ......... -- 21-22
Tom ato .......... ...... ................. ..... ..........38-40........................ 22-23
Turnip ... ----.... .. ............ ....... ............... 30........ ......... 20
W atermelon ......................................... ............. ...- 40-42 .................---- -12-13









Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS
Suggested controls for specific insects and diseases given herein
are as near as presently possible within limits of research results
and observations on effective control, and include a practical
application of pesticide residue research of Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station workers.
It is acknowledged that it would be desirable to include other
important topics in detail; however, under existing conditions,
it is felt that the material as presented meets many needs. No
doubt there will be changes in some instances; therefore the
user is strongly urged to use every means of keeping abreast
of developments.

AMOUNTS, RATES, COVERAGE, TIMING, COMPATIBILITY
Definite information offered in relation to particular crops,
pests and pesticides is stated in appropriate places in the text.
Order of listing pesticides does not necessarily indicate order of
preference.
Otherwise, spray materials are shown in amounts or equiv-
alent per 100 gallons water. Suggested acre rates should be ad-
justed to insure complete coverage but, in general, 20-35 pounds
of dust, 75-150 gallons of spray or 30-50 pounds of bait are ac-
cepted amounts from which adjustments may be made.
There is no substitute for close observation and supervision in
developing and maintaining an effective vegetable pest control
program. Constant consideration must be given in every situa-
tion to a host of factors, including weather, potential incidence
of disease or insect, economics, correct identification, proper
timing, nozzle placement, pressure, wind direction and velocity,
uniformity and lay-out of field, stage of development in relation
to other plantings, speed of equipment and others.
To date, complete current compatibility data have not been
thoroughly evaluated. Although there can be many suitable
mixtures of chemicals, a given application must meet several
requirements including: (1) Each component must be fully
effective; (2) must not be harmful to crop; and (3) the
materials must mix readily and cause no difficulty in operation
and maintenance of equipment.







A general statement has been offered that it is not desir-
able to mix wettable powders with emulsifiable concentrates. In
case of questionable compatibility of any form, in the interest of
effective control and a valuable crop, do not attempt the combi-
nation.

PESTICIDE TOLERANCES AND MINIMUM DAYS LAST
APPLICATION TO HARVEST *
The full significance of legislation imposing tolerances, its
enforcement and actual effect on the vegetable industry, and
what should be offered in the way of sound recommendations
with the foregoing in mind, are in large part yet to be de-
termined.
Minimum needed pesticide usage is a basic means of reducing
residues and insuring any residue present will be within estab-
lished safe tolerances. No particular problems are anticipated
where recommended materials are used in an approved manner.
It does not appear advisable to depend alone on even the best of
washing or cleaning methods as a means or removing pesticide
residues.
Anyone involved in handling, recommending or using pesti-
cides is urged to give particular attention to label statements
on the container presented as adequate precautions and condi-
tions of safe usage which have been accepted by regulatory
agencies.
Suggested minimum days between last application and harvest
are shown below if there are data available and the pesticide is
suggested for foilage application in this publication. There are
many instances where no suggested interval has been given.
There are other instances where an interval is given but either
no tolerance has been established or the chemical is not recom-
mended for the specific crop. Further appropriate decisions lie
with the user.
Number of days not in parentheses are based on Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station research which included applica-
tion under Florida conditions and in accordance with Florida
recommendations or dosages; regulatory agencies have indi-
cated acceptance to these results.
In the absence of Florida data, other minimum days last ap-
plication to harvest are shown in parentheses; these have been
compiled from USDA Handbook AH 103, March 1956, and per-
tain to recommendations and dosages therein.
Particularly subject to revision, depending on more current decisions.
4








Horizontal lines indicate some "related crop" groupings which
have been established by the Food and Drug Administration for
purposes of residue considerations (FR 6/12/56); these may
be useful, except for systemics, in attempting to transpose
residue possibilities to several crops in the same general group.


o 2



g P 1 ^ g W
U M wI -I E E

Beans ....... .... 5 3 (7) 3 100 7-14
So. Peas .......... 5 (3) (7) 3 5
Broc. ................. 14 (3) 10 21
Cabbage ............ 72 7 (7) 7 21 142
Caul. .............. .. 14 (7) (7) 7 21_
(Cant.)' ........... (3) (7) (15)
Wtrml .. ..... ....__ ____
Carrot ............. (7)
Radish ..-........... 3 7
Turnips ......... __ 7
Celery ...-.......... 14 7 7 21 1 14-21
Cucumb. .- (1) (3) (7) (15) (3)
Squash .......... (1) (3) (7) 3 7 (3)
Lettuce ............ (30) 1 15 (7) (7) 10 21 (30)
Endive .............. 21 14 21
Ch. Cab. ........... 21 10 21 __ _
Onions .............. _| (3) | (21) __
Pot. .................... (3) (5) 21 I
Sw. Pot. .......... _
Spinach ............ 7 (21)
Collard ............. 14 7 (7) (21)
Mustard ....i..... (7) (21) 14
Turnips- .......... 7 (7) 14 21
Tomato ........ 14 3 1 (7) 3 7 (5) 5
Eggplt. .... (5) (3) (7) (3)
Peppers ............ 3 (3) (7) (15)_
Corn3 ................I 5 5
Okra ..................| | 3
Strwby. ........7...-141 5 1 (7) 1 3 | 7'4 _

'-zero tolerance. (Florida Station comments: '-marketable head sampled.
'-edible ear sampled. '-washed berries. '-up to flowering. '-on foliage.)
'-interpreted from USDA "melon" entry. '-roots. '-foliage. "-includes
decisions available since Extension Circular 159 published.







INSECT CONTROL


BUSH AND POLE BEANS
Spray Dust
Armyworms (fall, Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%
Southern, yellow- DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
striped), corn Chlordane wp, 2% lbs. 40% Chlordane 5%
earworm
Apply when armyworms appear, continue at 7-day intervals
until control is complete. Do not apply chlordane after blooms
appear. Armyworms often migrate into field, or moths lay
eggs and young develop on grass. When grass is destroyed
worms migrate to beans. Sulfur may be used as all, or a part,
of the diluent in dusts for beans. See sulfur burn comments
under disease control.
Toxaphene is not recommended for pole beans in the lower
East Coast and West Coast areas as it may cause severe burn.

Spray Dust
Bean leafhopper DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
and leaf-roller
Apply at first sign of leafhoppers, 1 to 3 applications at 10-day
intervals, last treatment just before blooming. Under condi-
tions of severe infestations, the time interval between applica-
tions may need to be reduced. See remarks above relative
to using sulfur as a diluent.
In Everglades and Lower East Coast areas leafhoppers most
severe in spring during warm dry periods; in Central and
Northern Florida most prevalent in the fall. Young plants
suffer most.
Apply insecticides as needed for leaf-rollers. Dust borders
of large fields with airplane. It may not be necessary to treat
whole field unless it is small or infestation severe.

Spray Dust
Cucumber beetles, DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
12-spotted and Chlordane wp, 2% lbs. 40% Chlordane 5%
banded
Apply when insects or their damage are evident. Do not,
apply chlordane after blooms appear. Regular applications of
DDT for control of other pests will reduce damage from cucum-
ber beetles. DDT is the most effective insecticide in the Home-
stead area. Parathion has given good kill of these insects in
the Everglades area.







Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 21/2 lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 2 %%
Chlordane wp, 2% lbs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
Endrin em, 2 pts.
(1.6 lbs. per gal.)
Apply toxaphene or chlordane before planting if worms are
present or at first signs of worm damage to young plants.
Check field carefully for worms before seeding. If worms are
found, use bait. Watch young plants for injury, and bait or
dust immediately. Note: Apply endrin to the soil before plant-
ing or before plants emerge. Endrin not recommended in
West Coast area. Do not use chlordane spray or dust after
blooms appear.
A home-made bait can be prepared by thoroughly mixing 4 to
5 lbs. of 40% wettable chlordane or toxaphene with 100 pounds
of wheat bran. Moisten bait slightly just prior to applying.
Best to apply bait in late afternoon.
Note comments on toxaphene on pole beans in lower East
Coast and West Coast areas-see armyworms.

Spray Dust
Mexican bean beetle Parathion wp, 3 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
Rotenone wp, 2% lbs. 5% Rotenone 1%
Methoxychlor wp, 2 to 4 Methoxychlor 5%
lbs. 50%
Malathion wp, 4 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Apply when insects are noticed or damage becomes evident.
Spot control may be effective if infestation is found early.
Mexican bean beetles are a problem in the North and West
Florida areas and recommendations for control are based on
USDA research. Grower observations in the Gainesville area
indicate that lower dosages of parathion give satisfactory con-
trol except when infestations are very heavy.

Spray Dust
Serpentine leaf Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
miner
Apply before infestations seem general; 1 to 2 applications at
7-day intervals should be sufficient. In the Everglades area it
is noted that toxaphene used for the control of other insects may
reduce the serpentine leaf miner problem.

Spray Dust
Thrips Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
DDT em, 1 qt. 25% DDT 5%
DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% -
Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. Toxaphene 10%
40%







Thrips feeding on leaves and pods do most injury when they
are in great abundance (12-20 per flower). Repeat with 1 to 3
applications at 7-day intervals. Attempt thorough coverage
just before blooming.
Note comments on toxaphene on pole beans in West Coast
area-see armyworms.

Spray Dust
Stinkbugs Toxaphene wp, 2 lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
Apply when insects appear. Especially important to insure
low population when pods begin to set.
Note comments on toxaphene on pole beans in lower East
Coast and West Coast areas-see armyworms.

Lesser cornstalk borer
See Sweet Corn.
CELERY
Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
DDT em, 1 qt. 25% (see
comments below)
Aphids transmit some virus diseases. This fact makes their
control important. Keep ditches and roadways free of weeds
and watch closely for aphids. Under some conditions DDT
emulsion causes injury to small seedlings and should be used
with caution on young plants. Good coverage is essential. DDT
is effective as a preventive if used in a regular 7 to 10-day
schedule, but is not too effective against established infestations.

Spray Dust
Armyworms and Toxaphene wp, 3 lbs. 40% -
cutworms DDT em, 1 qt. 25% -
Toxaphene is the preferred material for armyworms and cut-
worms. DDT is not effective against the green cutworm (see
below).
Spray Dust
Garden fleahopper DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% -
Spray Dust
Green cutworm Toxaphene wp, 3 lbs. 40% -
The green cutworm cannot be controlled with DDT. To
control this pest, use toxaphene and adjust one nozzle to spray
directly into hearts of plants. Toxaphene also controls other
cutworms and armyworms.







Spray Dust
Leaf-tier DDT 5%
Leaf-tiers cannot be reached very well with power sprayers.
They feed in buds and inner stems and spin a protective web
over themselves. Use power duster and force dust into the
celery hearts. Use care in placement of duster outlet. It
should drag through tops of plants.

Spray Dust
Thrips DDT em, 1 qt. 25%
Spray Dust
Serpentine leaf Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
miner

SWEET CORN
Spray Dust
Aphids and Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
red spiders
Infestations of these insects may become heavy enough to
require control measures in some areas of the state.

Spray Dust
Fall armyworms DDT em, 1 qt. 25%
and corn earworms Toxaphene wp, 2 lbs. 40% -
feeding in corn bud
Make first application for budworms when feeding is observed.
Repeat at one to two-week intervals, depending on severity of
infestation. Direct the spray from each side of the plant to
the upper leaves to thoroughly wet and run down to the bud-
whorl.
Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 5% 2'/2 % Toxaphene-
wheat bran
Aldrin wp, 2 lbs. 25% -- -
Endrin em, 21/2 pts. -
(1.6 lbs. per gal.)
Use dust, spray, or bait as pre-emergence treatments. Also
inspect germinating corn for early detection of cutworm dam-
age and treat immediately at first signs. After plants are
growing, apply bait at rate of 30 lbs. per acre. Endrin not
recommended in West Coast area.

Spray Dust
Earworm DDT em, 2 qts. 25% DDT 10%
Parathion 2%
Timing and good coverage are absolutely essential for good
Parworm control. All treatments must be started when the







silks (about 10%) first appear. The number of applications de-
pends upon duration of silking period. Six to ten applications
at 48-hour intervals with dust or spray formulations recom-
mended in the above table will give adequate protection for
corn silking in the fall, winter or early spring.
Earworm infestations become heavier as the spring season
progresses. For corn silking in mid-spring, apply 4 qts. 25%
DDT emulsion in 50 gallons of water per acre. Five to seven
applications will be needed at 48-hour intervals.
Earworm infestations are heaviest in late spring. Mix 2.5
gallons of white mineral oil with 4 qts. of 25% DDT emulsion
in 50 gallons of water with agitator running. Make 5 to 6 ap-
plications at 48-hour intervals. Do not use oil except during
periods of heavy infestations, as yields may be reduced.
Spray Dust
Silk Fly Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
Chlordane wp, 21 lbs. 40% -
Check for adult flies and make first application just before
silking. One to three applications may be needed.
Spray Dust
Lantern fly Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 5%

Wireworm
For wireworm control apply aldrin or heptachlor at 3 to 4 lbs.
technical or chlordane at 4 to 5 lbs. technical per acre 2 weeks
before planting. Distribute evenly over the surface and disk
into soil to a depth of 6 inches. These materials mixed with
fertilizers and applied in bands are generally less effective than
application by the above method.
Lesser cornstalk borer
In the Everglades area apply parathion or aldrin or hepta-
chlor, using wetting agent or detergent in spray water to help
wet soil and webbing. Make 1st application broadcast (covering
rows and middles) just before crop emerges, using 3 lbs. 15%
parathion wp or 2 qts. of aldrin or heptachlor emulsion ( 2 lbs.
aldrin or heptachlor per gal.) per acre. Make 2nd application
as soon as crop emerges and before cultivation, using 3 lbs. 15%
parathion wp or 1 qt. aldrin or heptachlor emulsion per acre.
Higher gallonage up to 300 per acre of more dilute coarse sprays
at about 100 lbs. pressure may be more effective. In West Coast
area DDT or chlordane at 11/2 lbs. actual material per acre as
a spray or dust is recommended at the time young plants break








through the ground. High gallonage coarse sprays at about 100
lbs. pressure are preferred.

CRUCIFERS

(Adding a spreader-sticker in sprays applied to the foliage
of crucifers at rates recommended by the manufacturer may im-
prove control.)


Aphids




TEPP dust
season.

Serpentine leaf
miner

Armyworms


Cabbage looper,
Imported cabbage
worm


Spray
Parathion em, 1 pt. 25%
TEPP em, % pt. 40%
Demeton (Systox) em,
1% pt. 21.2% (2 lbs.
Actual per gallon)
must be fresh. Use TEPP


Spray
Parathion em, 1 pt. 25%

Spray
Toxaphene em, 1 pt.
(8 lbs. per gal.)
Spray
Toxaphene em, 1 pt.
(8 lbs. per gal.)
Rotenone wettable, 3 lbs. 5%


Dust
Parathion 2%
TEPP 1%


only during harvest


Dust
Parathion 2%

Dust
Toxaphene 10%

Dust
Toxaphene 10%
Rotenone 1%


Toxaphene is the better material. Use rotenone during har-
vest season.
Combination sprays of 1 lb. 15% wp parathion plus 21/2 lbs.
40% wp toxaphene in the Everglades area and 1 lb. 15.% wp
parathion plus 2 lbs. 50% wp DDT in the West Coast area have
proven to be very effective.


Cabbage webworm


Corn earworm,
flea beetle


Spray
Parathion em, 1 pt. 25%
DDT em, 1 qt. 25%
Spray
DDT em, 1 qt. 25%


Dust
Parathion 2%
DDT 5%
Dust
DDT 5%


Spray
Cutworms Toxaphene em, 1 pt.
(8 lbs. per gal.)
Endrin em, 2 pts.
(1.6 lbs. per gal.)
DDT em, 1 qt. 25%
Use endrin as pre-emergence
recommended in West Coast area.
infestations of cutworms.


Dust Bait
Toxaphene 10% 2%% Toxa-
phene-wheat
-- bran

DDT 5%
treatment only. Endrin not
DDT is erratic against heavy







Spray Dust
Diamond-back DDT em, 1 qt. 25% DDT 5%
moth larva

Mole-cricket, wireworm
Aldrin or heptachlor at 3 to 4 lbs. actual or chlordane at 5 lbs.
actual per acre control mole-crickets and wireworms.
Apply 10 to 14 days before planting. Distribute evenly over
the soil surface and disk into the soil. Where mole-crickets alone
are a problem, use chlordane as recommended for lettuce.
Materials recommended for control of wireworms and mole-
crickets may be added to fertilizer, but results are generally
less effective.
SCUCURBITS
(Cantaloupe, cucumber, squash and watermelon)
Spray Dust
Aphids, melonworm, Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
pickleworm, serpen- Lindane wp, 1 lb. 25% Lindane 1.5%
tine leaf miner,
squash bug
For West Coast area use 11/2 to 2 lbs. 15% parathion wp or
2% parathion dust. Begin applications when the first blooms
appear, usually before insects or injury become apparent. Repeat
at 10-day to 2-week intervals.
To avoid injury to bees which are necessary for pollination,
spraying or dusting with insecticides should be delayed until
late afternoon or evening. It is suggested that parathion spray
be applied early enough so that it dries before dew-fall, reducing
possibilities of foliage burn. Do not apply parathion when plants
are wet or very young.

Spray Dust
Cucumber beetles Lindane wp, 1 lb. 25% Lindane 1.5%
Parathion used for other insects will aid in control of cucumber
beetles.
Apply when insects appear or injury is seen. Cucumber
beetles are more likely to be troublesome in the Everglades and
some lower East Coast areas.

Corn earworm
Feeding as a rindworm, this insect has been quite troublesome
on watermelons in central and south Florida. Parathion applied
on the schedule suggested above may give a measure of con-
trol. DDT is the specific control for corn earworms, but is not







generally recommended on cucurbits because of possible injury
to plants. However, after the melons are near maturity, the
possibility of injury may be so slight that the improved control
with DDT may warrant its use.

EGGPLANT
Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
TEPP em, pt. 40%
Begin applications when aphids appear; repeat at 10-day
to 2-week intervals.
TEPP is a suitable aphicide and miticide which volatilizes
very rapidly. This same volatile nature increases the impor-
tance of thorough and timely coverage for effective aphid con-
trol.
Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 2%%
Chlordane wp, 2 lbs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
Apply before planting if worms are present or at first signs
of worm damage to young plants. Check field carefully for
worms before planting; if worms are found, use bait. A home-
made bait can be prepared by thoroughly mixing 4 or 5 pounds
of 40 or 50 percent wettable chlordane or toxaphene with 100
pounds of wheat bran. Moisten slightly just prior to applying.
Best to apply bait in late afternoon.

Spray Dust
Corn earworm DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%

Spray Dust
Flea beetles DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
Begin application when insects appear. Damage usually most
severe on young plants.

Spray Dust
Red spiders (mites) Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1%
TEPP em, pt. 40%
Sulfur wp, 10 lbs. Sulfur, 325 mesh
Begin treatments when red spiders appear, making thorough
applications.
Sulfur does not control some species of mites. Repeated ap-
plications of parathion or TEPP may be used if sulfur is not
effective. A sulfur-parathion dust is also suggested in the
West Coast area. See statements on TEPP under aphids.







Spray Dust
Thrips DDT em, 1 qt. 25% DDT 5%
DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% -
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
Sulfur may be used as the diluent for DDT dust, thus aiding
in the control of red spiders (mites).

Spray Dust
Leaf miner Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
Apply when infestation appears; 1 to 2 applications at 7-day
intervals should be sufficient.

ENDIVE (ESCAROLE)
Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 5% Toxaphene 2 %%
Chlordane wp, 2% lbs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
If possible, prepare land at least a month before planting and
apply bait or other insecticide a week before seeding or trans-
planting. After transplanting or plant emergence, use baits
only.

Wireworm
Chlordane 5 lbs. technical or actual per acre applied broadcast
and disked into top 2-3" of soil surface is recommended. Chlor-
dane-fertilizer mixture containing 5 lbs. technical or actual
chlordane per acre may be used, but for general purposes the
broadcast method is preferred.
Aldrin or heptachlor at 3 lbs. technical per acre may be used
in place of chlordane.
Transplant within 48-72 hours after insecticide application.
Direct seeding may immediately follow application.

LETTUCE
Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 5% Toxaphene 2%%
Chlordane wp, 2 lbs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
Apply when damage is noted. If possible, prepare land at least
a month before planting and apply bait or other insecticide a
week before seeding or transplanting. If toxaphene 10% dust
is used, reduce the amount applied per acre. Toxaphene dusts
and sprays may injure young seedlings or newly transplanted
lettuce.







Spray Dust
Banded cucumber DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
beetle
Apply when insects or damage are noted.

Spray Dust
Lygus bug DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
Apply when damage is noted.

Spray Dust Bait
Mole- Chlordane wp, 2% lbs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
cricket
Apply several days before seeding or transplanting crop if
mole-cricket tunnels are evident. Apply bait in late afternoon
when soil is moist and warm.

Wireworm
Chlordane 5 lbs. technical or actual per acre applied broadcast
and disked into top 2-3" of soil surface is recommended. Chlor-
dane-fertilizer mixture containing 5 lbs. technical or actual chlor-
dane per acre may be used, but for general purposes, the broad-
cast method is preferred.
Aldrin or heptachlor at 3 lbs. technical per acre may be used
in place of chlordane.
Transplant within 48-72 hours after insecticide application.
Direct seeding may immediately follow application.

OKRA
Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
TEPP em, % pt. 40%
Begin applications when aphids appear. Repeat at 10-day to
2-week intervals.
TEPP is a suitable aphicide which volatilizes very rapidly.
This same volatile nature increases the importance of thorough
and timely coverage for effective aphid control.

Spray Dust
Okra caterpillar DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%
Apply when infestation or leaf injury is first noted. Do not
apply DDT or toxaphene after blooms appear.

Spray Dust
Serpentine leaf Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
miner








Apply when infestation seems general; 1 to 2 applications at
7-day intervals should be sufficient. Toxaphene used for the
control of other insects may reduce the serpentine leaf miner
problem.
Spray Dust
Stinkbugs Toxaphene wp, 21/2 lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
Apply when insects appear. Do not apply toxaphene after
blooms appear.
ONION
Spray Dust
Thrips Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
DDT em, 1 qt. 25% DDT 5%
Apply when thrips appear; repeat when necessary. Use 250-
300 lbs. pressure and direct nozzles over rows close to plants.
Addition of spreader to spray is suggested. Coverage down into
sheaths is very important.

Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene 2 %%
Chlordane 2%
Apply in late afternoon.

ENGLISH PEA
Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
Lindane wp, 1 lb. 25% Lindane 1.5%
Begin applications as soon as aphids appear; repeat at 10-day
intervals as needed. It has been noted that adequate coverage
with sprays may be difficult, due to the waxy nature of the
leaves and pods.
SOUTHERN PEA
Spray Dust
Cowpea curculio Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 5%
Apply when pods begin to set and repeat weekly.

Spray Dust
Serpentine leaf Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
miner
Apply when infestations seem general; 1 to 2 applications at
7-day intervals should be sufficient. Toxaphene used for the
control of other insects may reduce the serpentine leaf miner
problem.







Spray Dust
Stinkbugs Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
Apply when insects appear. Especially important to insure
low population when pods begin to set.

Spray Dust
Leafhopper and DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
leaf-roller
Apply at first signs of leafhoppers, 1 to 3 applications at
10-day intervals, last treatment just before blooming. Under
conditions of severe infestations, the time interval between ap-
plications may need to be reduced.
In the Everglades and Lower East Coast areas, leafhoppers
most severe in spring during warm dry periods; in Central and
Northern Florida, most prevalent in the fall. Young plants
suffer most.
One treatment should be sufficient for leaf-rollers. Wait for
fairly heavy population before applying insecticide. Dust bord-
ers of large field with airplane. Usually not necessary to treat
whole field unless it is small or infestation severe.

Lesser cornstalk borer
See Sweet Corn.

PEPPER
Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
DDT em, 1 qt. 25% (see -
comments below)
Apply parathion when aphids are discovered and repeat at
weekly intervals or as needed. A regular schedule using DDT
emulsion usually holds aphids under control, but is not effec-
tive against established infestations.
Aphids may transmit certain viruses which cause mosaic
diseases.
Spray Dust
Corn earworm DDT em, 1 qt. 25% DDT 5%
Reported to be a major pest in the West Coast area.

Spray Dust
Fall armyworm, DDT em, 1 qt. 25% DDT 5%
Southern armyworm
Apply when worms appear and at intervals of about 10 days
if infestation continues.







Spray Dust
Pepper weevil DDT em, 1 qt. 25% DDT 5%
Apply when infestation becomes evident. Cut open fallen
blossom buds and small fruits for evidence of infestations.

Spray Dust
Thrips Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
DDT em, 1 qt. 25% DDT 5%
Apply when thrips are noted in blooms; repeat with 1 to 3
applications at 7-day intervals. Attempt thorough coverage
just before blooming.

Spray Dust Bait
Mole- Chlordane wp, 2% lbs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlodrane 2%
cricket
Apply several days before seeding or transplanting crop if
mole-cricket tunnels are evident. Apply bait in late afternoon
when soil is moist and warm.
For the seedbeds use poison bait or drench, using sprinkling
can, with solution of 1/4 lb. actual chlordane in 100 gallons water
to 1,000 sq. ft. of seedbed area.

Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 21 c/
Chlordane wp, 2% lbs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
Apply before planting if cutworms are present or at first signs
of cutworm damage to young plants. Check fields carefully
before planting; if worms are found, use bait. Best to apply
bait in late afternoon.

Lesser cornstalk borer
See Sweet Corn.

POTATO
Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion em, 1 pt. 25% -
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
DDT em, 1 qt. 25%
Malathion at 2 lbs. 25% wp, or 1 pint 50% emulsion and
TEPP at 1 pt. 20% emulsion have given control of aphids in
the Dade County area.

Spray Dust Bait
Army- DDT em, 1 qt. 25% -
worms, Chlordane em, 1 pt. Chlordane 5% -
cutworms (8 lbs. per gal.)
Toxaphene em, 1 pt. Toxaphene 2 %%
(8 lbs. per gal.) (cutworm)






Spray Dust
Colorado potato DDT em, 1 qt. 25% DDT 5%
beetle
Spray Dust
Leaf-footed plant Chlordane em, 1 pt. Chlordane 5%
bug, green stinkbug (8 lbs. per gal.)
Parathion em, 1 pt. 25%
Spray Dust
Serpentine leaf Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
miner Parathion em, 1 pt. 25% -

Wireworm
Three pounds actual aldrin or heptachlor per acre in sands
(Hastings) and 3 lbs. actual aldrin or heptachlor or 4 to 5 lbs.
actual chlordane per acre in muck and marl soils-applied t-
soil surface and disked in thoroughly 2-3 weeks before planting.

In the Homestead area parathion applied in a regular schedule
of 7 to 10 days has controlled potato insects.

SWEET POTATO
Spray Dust
Armyworm and DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
sweet potato Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%
hornworm
Spray Dust
Gold bug DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
Spray Dust
Leaf-eating DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
caterpillar Chlordane wp, 2 lbs. 40% Chlordane 5%
Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%
Begin applications when insects appear; 1 to 2 applications
usually sufficient. Thorough coverage is difficult where vines
are dense. It may be necessary to insert dust nozzles into vines
to get adequate coverage and satisfactory control.

Sweet potato weevil
Sanitation. Use certified or weevil-free seed.
Based on research conducted on the control of sweet potato
weevils by the USDA in Louisiana, and subsequent USDA
recommendations, growers who are in need of a chemical con-
trol may try the following treatments:
Seedbed Treatment.-Use 2 % dieldrin dust at the rate of 1/4 lb.
per 100 feet of row. (a) Make 1st application when first plants
begin to show color in stems. Apply on and around the base
of those plants present. (b) Make 2nd application when all
plants are up. Apply to top of row so that soil next to all







plants is covered. (c) Make 3rd application after plants are
pulled, if needed to keep soil covered. (d) If plants are allowed
to run, make another application at the time the plants drop
to the ground and start runners.
Field Treatment.-Apply 2 percent dieldrin dust (nongranular)
along the row in strips 6 to 8 inches wide. Direct the dust to
the surface of the soil beneath the foliage at the bases of the
plants. Apply when the largest roots are 1/2 to 1 inch in diam-
eter. This is about the time the vines meet and pass in the
middles. A total of about 11/ pounds of actual dieldrin per
acre should be used per season. On deep-rooted varieties, such
as Porto Rico, apply 75 pounds per acre of the dust in a single
treatment. On shallow-rooted varieties, such as Gold Rush,
apply only about 40 pounds of the dust per acre at this time
and 40 pounds per acre 2 weeks later or when cracking of the
soil becomes general. Until further information is obtained
on possible residues of dieldrin in the edible roots, do not make
any application of dieldrin within 30 days of harvest.

White-fringed beetle
Adherence to quarantine. Ten pounds of technical DDT or
2 pounds technical dieldrin applied broadcast on the soil surface
and then mixed with the upper 3 to 4 inches of soil are reported
by the USDA to give control of this insect for 3 to 4 years
It is best that the land be plowed before applying the insecticide.
On the mixing operation the soil should be disked at least
twice.
RADISH, TURNIP and MUSTARD
Spray Dust
Aphids TEPP em, 1 pt. 20%
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
Malathion wp, 2 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Rotenone 1%
TEPP is a suitable aphicide which volatilizes very rapidly
and leaves no residue problem. This same volatile nature
increases the importance of thorough and timely coverage for
effective aphid control.
Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene 21 %
Chlordane 2%
Spray Dust Bait
Mole- Chlordane 2%
cricket
Apply before seeding.







(In the West Coast area, if there is no residue problem, DDT
is suggested to control cutworm, woolly bear, caterpillar, and
cabbage looper.)

SPINACH


Aphids


Caterpillars and
other chewing
insects
Parathion and
chewing insects.


Spray
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15%
Malathion wp, 2 lbs. 25%5
Spray


Dust
Parathion 1%
Malathion 5%
Dust
Rotenone 1%
Pyrethrum 14


malathion are useful against most of the


STRAWBERRY
Spray Dust
Pameras DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
Malathion wp, 4 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Parathion gives better control than malathion. Malathion is
safer than parathion, but should be handled with the proper
precautions. Do not apply DDT after blooms appear. See
caution on next page on use of parathion and malathion.


Flower thrips


Spray
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15%


Dust
Parathion 1%


Note comments on parathion above.


Spray
Cutworms Chlordane wp, 2 lbs. 50%
DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50%


Dust
Chlordane 5%
DDT 5 %


Bait
2% Chlordane


For the control of cutworms distribute the dust or spray
evenly over the soil surface. Baits should be moistened and
applied in late afternoon. Do not apply DDT or chlordane to
plants after blooms appear.


Spray
Lesser cornstalk Chlordane wp, 2 lbs. 50%
borer DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50%
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15%
Note cautions above on use of DDT and


Spray


Dust
Chlordane 5%
DDT 5%
Parathion 1%
chlordane.

Dust


Field crickets, DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
flea beetles and Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathio
leaf-rollers
Do not apply DDT to plants after blooms appear.


n 1%







Spray Dust
Red spiders Sulfur wp, 10 lbs. Sulfur (325 mesh)
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
Malathion wp, 4 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
A parathion-sulfur dust is also suggested. Note comments
on parathion and malathion under pameras as to usage and
control. See Caution.

Spray Dust Bait
Mole- Chlordane wp, 2 lbs. 50% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
crickets
For the control of mole-crickets distribute the dust or spray
evenly over the soil surface. Baits are preferred and should
be moistened and applied in late afternoon. Do not apply chlor-
dane to plants after blooms appear.

Wireworms
Apply 5 pounds chlordane technical per acre 10 to 14 days
before transplanting. Distribute material evenly over soil sur-
face and disk 6 inches deep.
CAUTION.-To prevent injury to leaves, apply insecticides
when plants are dry. Parathion and malathion should be ap-
plied immediately after harvesting. Wait 3 days for parathion
and 1 day for malathion before harvesting again and wash the
berries before packing. Recent experiments on insecticide resi-
dues indicate that the interval may be shortened for parathion.


TOMATO
Spray Dust
Southern armyworm, DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
tomato fruit worm, TDE (DDD) wp, 2 lbs. 50% TDE (DDD) 5%
fall armyworm and
banded cucumber
beetle
Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 2%%
Chlordane wp, 2 lbs. 50% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
For the control of soil-infesting cutworms, the insecticidal
spray or dust should be distributed evenly over the soil surface.
Baits should be moistened and distributed in late afternoon.
Apply toxaphene or chlordane sprays or dusts to the soil before
plants emerge or setting plants in the field. Regular sprays
of DDT, TDE and parathion will prevent the establishment of
cutworms after the crop is planted.








Serpentine leaf Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% Parathion 1%
miner and aphids
Watch closely for leaf miners. It may be necessary to apply
parathion twice a week when there are heavy migrations of
adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned host vegetable fields.
This is especially true during January and February.


Spray
Field Chlordane wp, 2 lbs. 50%
cricket Aldrin wp, 1 lb. 25%
Heptachlor wp, 1 lb. 25%


Dust
Chlordane 5%
Aldrin 2 %%
Heptachlor 2 %%


Bait
Chlordane 2%


Apply sprays or dusts before plants emerge or setting plants
in the field.


Spray


Dust


Bait


Mole- Chlordane wp, 4 lbs. 50% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
cricket
For the control of mole-crickets, the insecticidal spray or
dust should be distributed evenly over the soil surface. Baits
should be moistened and distributed in late afternoons, pref-
erably when soil is moist and warm.


Tomato hornworm


Stinkbug and
leaf-footed plant
bug


Spray
TDE (DDD) wp, 2 lbs. 50%
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15%
Spray
Chlordane wp, 2 lbs. 50%
Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15%


T]
Pi

C]
P


Spray
Flower thrips Parathion wp, 1 lb. 15% P
DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% D
Treat for thrips only if population is large.


Dust
DE (DDD) 5%
arathion 1%
Dust
hlordane 5%
arathion 1%

Dust
arathion 1%
DT 5%


Wireworm
Apply aldrin or heptachlor at 3 lbs. technical or 5 pounds
of chlordane technical per acre 10 to 14 days before planting.
Distribute material evenly over the soil surface and disk well
into soil. The same amount of insecticide may be added with
fertilizer, but results are generally less effective.
Note.-A spray containing 1 pound of 15% parathion wettable
powder plus 1 pound of 50% DDT wettable powder per 100
gallons of water applied on a weekly schedule has given good
all around control of tomato insects. It may be necessary in
some areas to increase the amount of DDT to 2 pounds when
heavy infestations of armyworms occur.


Spray


Dust







DISEASE CONTROL


BUSH BEAN
Spray Dust
Rust, powdery Sulfur wp, 10 to 16 lbs. Dusting sulfur,
mildew 325 mesh
Application variable with weather conditions. When diseased
fields are near young plants and weather is mild and humid,
make first application a few days after plants emerge and
repeat at 7-day intervals until a few days before picking.
In the past, sulfur has been reported to cause the blossoms
to shed before setting the pods, but this is now considered of
minor importance. Sulfur applications have caused burning of
leaves and pods when applied during periods of high (85-90 F.)
temperatures in the Sanford area.
To be effective for control of rust it is necessary to apply
sulfur before the leaves become infected. When weather is un-
favorable for rust, intervals between applications can be
lengthened.

Bacterial blight
No fungicidal control.
Halo blight and common bacterial blight are carried in and
on the seed (also soil). Seed treatment is not beneficial and
sprays in the field usually are not effective. Secure blight-free
seed from Western areas where proper production precautions
have been taken. Rotate crops.

Root rots
Root rots caused by Rhizoctonia and Pythium have been par-
tially controlled by certain chemical treatments but data col-
lected to date indicate no consistent economic benefit. Soil
management, such as preparing seedbeds 5-10 days ahead
of planting, has proven practical. Green cover crops should
be plowed under 3-4 weeks before planting.

Sclerotinia
Flooding fields for 5 to 6 weeks during summer months may
be effective in killing sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils of Homestead area, apply 500 to 700 pounds
of cyanamid per acre. Broadcast and disk in prior to planting;
no waiting period necessary on marl soils. Cyanamid not
necessary if land is flooded 3 weeks or more during summer.







POLE BEAN
Rust, powdery mildew
Same as for bush bean.
Because pole beans have indeterminate growth, it may be
profitable to continue spraying or dusting until about end of
harvest. Certain varieties -are resistant to some forms of rust.
These should be used where advisable.
In the West Coast and Central Florida areas, usually a spring
problem and normally not important on fall crop before mid-
November; 16 pounds of wettable sulfur in 100 gallons of spray
are recommended. It is suggested that sprayer pressure be
150-175 lbs.
In Homestead area, sulfur dust at 30 to 50 lbs. per acre, de-
pending on plant size, applied twice weekly while vines are
running and every 5 days after pods are set, is recommended
during February, March and April when rust is especially severe.
Less frequent applications may be made during the fall and
winter months when rust is less severe. Applications should be-
gin before the disease is present, if best results are to be
realized.
Based on two seasons, results, sulfur plus 4 to 5% maneb
(active ingredient) dust is suggested for field trial during spring
months. This is a more expensive control than sulfur, but
rust control has been much improved and the resulting increased
yields have made the more expensive control highly profitable.
Applications should be made on the same schedule as recom-
mended for sulfur.
It is anticipated that with another year's work with similar
results, the sulfur recommendations will be withdrawn, at least
for the spring months, and that the maneb-sulfur dust be
recommended in its place. The maneb may be at 31/ % active
rather than at 4 to 5%.

Bacterial blight
Same as for bush bean.

Sclerotinia
Same as for bush bean.

LIMA BEAN
Bacterial blight, powdery mildew, sclerotinia
Same as for bush bean.







CARROT
Spray Dust
Alternaria leaf blight Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus -
(macrosporium) lb. zinc sulfate (36%)
Copper, equiv. 1% lbs.
metallic
Ziram 76%, 2 lbs.
In early plantings it may be satisfactory to begin applications
when plants are 5 to 8 inches high and repeat at weekly intervals.
In later plantings, if the disease is established in the area,
it may be necessary to begin applications shortly after emer-
gence of the seedlings (3").
Leaf blights of carrot are serious in some localities and of
minor importance in other seasons or localities.

Bacterial blight
Seed treatment in corrosive sublimate (1:1000) or hot water.
Treat seed 10 minutes in water at 1260F., or 10 minutes in
1:1000 corrosive sublimate (1 ounce crystals in 71/2 gallons
water). Wash seed and dry.

CELERY
SEEDBED DISEASES
Damping-off
Fumigation.-One pound of methyl bromide applied to 50 sq.
ft. of seedbed area will control weeds and nematodes, as well
as damping-off. Soil should be prepared and ready for plant-
ing before fumigating. If seedbed fumigation is not practiced,
seed treatment may be beneficial.
In the Everglades, chloropicrin is also recommended; special
injection to 6" depth. Through September, treat at the rate of
2 gals. per 1200 sq. ft.; after September use 1 gal. Same seed-
bed preparation as for methyl bromide treatment. Confine
fumes with polyethylene sheeting or with liberal application of
water (wet to 1" depth).
Post-emergence Treatment.-Spray with chloranil 48%, 3 lbs.
or Thiram 50%, 1 lb.
Begin application soon after plants emerge and repeat at 4
to 7 day intervals, depending on weather. Apply about 15 gal-
lons of the spray per 1200 sq. ft. of bed area. Increase amount
as plants become larger.
In the Everglades area, spray once a week with copper (equiv.
to 2 lbs. metallic/100). If bacterial blight gets out of hand,







add streptomycin sulfate, streptomycin nitrate, or streptomycin
sulfate plus terramycin at the rate of 100 ppm. If damping-off
gets out of hand, spray once weekly (in addition to above) with
chloranil 48% (4 lbs./100), or PCNB 75% (2 lbs./100). If early
blight gets out of hand spray weekly with zineb (2 lbs./100).
In the Sanford area, PCNB is not suggested for use because of
injury.
FIELD DISEASES
Spray Dust
Early blight Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % --
lb. zinc sulfate (36%)
Maneb 70%, 1% lbs. -
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. -
Ziram 76%, 2 lbs.
Copper equiv. to 1% lbs.
metallic
Ferbam 76%, 2 lbs.
In the Everglades area, nabam gives best results. Begin ap-
plications 7 to 10 days after the plants are set and repeat every
4 to 5 days. After two applications of any of the organic mate-
rials, follow with one application of copper.
In the Sanford area, ferbam, ziram, maneb and copper are
recommended. Apply at weekly intervals until more frequent
applications become necessary. Nabam is not recommended for
the Sanford area. Mixtures on a 1:1 ratio of ferbam and
ziram have given good results.

Sclerotinia (pink rot)
Flooding fields for 5 to 6 weeks during summer months may
be effective in killing sclerotia in the soil.
In the Sarasota muck area, cyanamid applied at the rate of
800 pounds per acre gives a measure of control. The material
should be distributed evenly over the surface and disked into
the top 4 inches of soil. The nitrogen supplied by calcium
cyanamid must be considered in the fertilizing program.

SWEET CORN
Spray Dust
Helmintho- Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % -
sporium leaf lb. zinc sulfate (36%)
blights Zineb 65%, 2 lbs.
Nabam or zineb properly applied once or twice weekly, de-
pending on weather conditions and locations, will give economic
control. For crops in the "whorl stage" of growth the sprayer
should have two nozzles over the row to direct a generous







quantity of the spray into the whorl, in addition to the side
nozzles, required for complete coverage of unfurled leaves. Ap-
plication of fungicide should cease 10 days before harvest un-
less younger corn is growing nearby. It has been observed that
these same materials may also control corn rust.
In the Everglades and Sanford areas, maneb, 70% (11/A lbs./
100) is also recommended. It may also control corn rust.
In the Sanford area during "normal" seasons, four applica-
tions of fungicide may be sufficient.
In the Homestead area maneb and nabam-Mn has caused
injury.

CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER, BROCCOLI, BRUSSEL
SPROUTS, CHINESE CABBAGE, COLLARDS,
KALE AND KOHLRABI
Spray materials do not stick easily to the waxy leaves of
most crucifers. Use a sticker spreader as recommended by the
manufacturer on large plants in seedbeds and on plants in the
field.
SEEDBED
Downy Mildew and Alternaria Leaf Spot.-Chloranil wettable
48% (4 lbs. per 100 gals. water) or 5% choranil dust provide
best control. If an alternate material is desired, spray the plants
with nabam 19% (2 qts. plus 3/8 lb. zinc sulfate (36%) per 100
gals. water) or zineb 65% (2 lbs. per 100 gals. water).
Begin applications 7 to 10 days after planting, or before then
if the disease is present. Repeat 3 times a week except when
nocturnal temperatures drop to 400F. or lower, or heavy rains
interrupt the schedule. Continue the treatment until plants
are set in the field. Total number of applications may vary
from 6 to 15, depending upon the season and weather. Use 80
to 150 gals. spray or 15 to 35 lbs. dust per acre at each applica-
tion, depending on size of plants. There is less danger of injur-
ing small plants by overtreatment with nabam-ZnSO4 and zineb
than with chloranil.
Plow under abandoned seedbeds and harvested fields to pre-
vent diseases from spreading to new plantings.

FIELD
Spray Dust
Downy mildew Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % -
and Alternaria lb. zinc sulfate (36%)
leaf spot Chloranil 50%, 2 lbs. Chloranil 5%
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. Zineb 6.5%







Where seed is sown directly in the field, spray seedlings as
recommended for downy mildew in seedbeds. Stop treatment
when plants are thinned to a stand. If Alternaria leaf spot is
developing rapidly when heads are half grown, resume treat-
ment and use 100 to 150 gallons spray per acre every four or
five days.
Nabam is very effective against Alternaria leaf sopt in the
field and gives good control of downy midew.

Black rot
Take every possible precaution to secure disease-free plants.
Hot Water Seed Treatment.-1220 F. for 25 minutes, cabbage
and brussel sprouts; 18 minutes, broccoli, cauliflower, collards,
Chinese cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, rutabaga and turnip.
At Hastings, and possibly in other areas, it may be more
convenient and economical to have seed treated at central seed-
treating plants.
Some Treatment Details.-Fill cheesecloth bags about two-
thirds full of seed. Tie the tops and immerse in a container of
water at the temperature indicated. Keep the water within
1 of that specified. Keep the seed under water and stir to
maintain uniform temperature. At the end of the period, re-
move seed from the hot water and plunge into cold water, then
spread out and dry. Treatment is a delicate operation and is
best performed by a trained operator using special equipment.
Test seed for germination before treating with hot water.
Weak seed may be killed while good seed will stand treatment
and germinate well if planted the same season.
Cabbage seed grown in the Puget Sound area are reported
to be free of back rot, but the hot water treatment is recom-
mended at Hastings and Sanford, regardless of source.
It is not advisable to locate seedbeds or field plantings on
land planted to crucifers the previous year. In the Hastings
area, it may not be necessary to rotate cabbage fields for con-
trol of black rot if crops are set with plants free of black rot.

Black leg
Use same treatment as for black rot.

Yellows
No control after soil is infected except use of resistant varie-
ties. Growers should take every possible precaution to secure
disease-free transplants.







TURNIPS AND MUSTARD
Spray Dust
Downy mildew Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % -
lb. zinc sulfate (36%)
When weather favors development of the disease, begin ap-
plications when seedlings emerge and repeat at 3-4 day intervals.
Addition of a spreader-sticker may be advisable.
In the Hastings area, downy mildew is seldom observed and
is of no consequence. Cabbage downy mildew fungus does not
attack turnip and mustard.

Leaf spots
The exact causes and controls of the various leaf spot con-
ditions reported on these crops have not been fully determined.
Alternaria might be controlled by nabam applications. Cer-
cosporella may be still another cause and nabam has not been
observed to be an effective control.

CUCUMBER, CANTALOUPE AND SQUASH
Spray Dust
Downy mildew Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus %
lb. zinc sulfate (36%)
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. Zineb, 4-6 %
Maneb 70%, 1% lbs.
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus 1 lb.
manganese sulfate (70%)
Downy mildew is usually serious in all sections of the state
when weather conditions favor its spread and development. In
major producing areas during warm, damp weather, it is neces-
sary to spray every 3 or 4 days, beginning applications before
runners begin to form. In seasons of light infection, it may
be possible to control the disease by beginning applications when
runners begin to form and repeating at weekly intervals until
harvest.
Zineb dust and weekly spray intervals are not generally con-
sidered to be dependable controls in most commercial areas
of production but may be adequate in certain seasons in the
Webster area and some sections of North Florida.
In Sanford area maneb 70% (11/2 lbs./100) and nabam 19% (2
qts. plus 1 lb. (70%) manganese sulfate/100 gal.) are also
suggested.
In Homestead area zineb spray is first choice, nabam-zinc
sulfate second, based on phytotoxicity. Nabam-MnSO4 or maneb
are too injurious to be used on cantaloupe in this area. Even
zineb may cause a slight injury, observable chiefly as an earlier







"drying up" or "going down" of the oldest leaves it the center
of the plant.

Anthracnose
The same program suggested for downy mildew should con-
trol anthracnose. Ziram 76% (2 lbs./100) is also suggested in
the Sanford area.

Powdery mildew
At the Sanford and Homestead Stations crotonates (dinitro
1-methyl heptyl phenyl crotonate) have been promising. Cur-
rent trials and observations on cucumber, cantaloupe and squash
indicate karathane 25% at 8 to 16 oz. per 100 gallons, and a
1-2% dust at 20-30 lbs./acre control the disease; first applica-
tion when powdery mildew appears, repeat at weekly intervals.
Good coverage is essential in an eradicatory program.
In the Sanford and Homestead areas it is reported that wet-
table sulfur can be used at 2 pounds per 100 gallons (4 lbs. on
squash) in cool weather during winter and spring (below 900 F.).
Sulfur regularly applied might cause damage to plants, but it
can be used 2 to 3 times in succession to eradicate powdery
mildew. Addition of a wetting agent to the spray is suggested.
(Use of sulfur on cantaloupes is not suggested in the Home-
stead area.)
In the West Coast area it has been reported that a fair con-
trol is obtained by thorough coverage with nabam spray ap-
plied twice weekly; in this same area it has also been reported
that one application of around 30-40 pounds of flowers of sul-
fur (125-175 mesh) applied on the ground through absolutely
dry vines will control powdery mildew by a fumigation effect.
It is possible that this drastic sulfur treatment could bring
about such conditions as "acid-yellows", particularly with can-
taloupes, with repeated applications followed by moderate rain-
fall or where the pH is already dangerously low.

Angular leaf spot
Angular leaf spot which does not often occur in the state, may
live over on crop refuse. When seed supplies are adequate,
growers usually plant seed produced in areas where the disease
is not prevalent. The use of disease-free seed is the recom-
mended control. Infected seed can be treated for 5 to 10 minutes
in corrosive sublimate (1 ounce crystals in 71/2 gallons water).
Then rinse in clear water and spread out to dry.
31







It has been noted that copper spray (equiv. 11/2 lbs. metal-
lic/100 gallons) in weekly applications is superior to nabam for
preventing spread of the disease. Copper may offer a measure
of control of downy mildew, but it is not satisfactory when
downy mildew is severe. It is imperative to maintain adequate
control of downy mildew during periods favorable to its spread.
Copper may be injurious to cucurbits in repeated applications,
particularly during dry weather, causing a yellowing of leaf
margins and possibly reduced yields.

Blossom blight (squash)
An adequate program for mildew control may also contribute
to the control of this organism (Choanephora) ; particularly a
problem in wet, humid weather. Spraying for blossom blight
alone may not be profitable. In the West Coast area it has
been reported questionable if blossom blight is due to a pathogen.

EGGPLANT
Phomopsis, fruit spot and tipover
No fungicidal control. Resistant varieties are Florida Market
and Florida Beauty.

LETTUCE AND ENDIVE
Spray Dust
Downy mildew Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % -
lb. zinc sulfate (36%)
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs.
Maneb 70%, 1% lbs.
Begin applications when disease appears; repeat at 4-5 day
intervals.
In the Everglades area spray twice weekly during cool, wet
weather. Where rows are spaced 18" apart, apply 150-200 gal-
lons spray per acre. Nabam not recommended in this area be-
cause of injury.
Nabam is preferred for the West Coast area.

Spray Dust
Alternaria Ziram 76%, 2 lbs.
leaf spot
Begin applications when disease appears; repeat at 4-5 day
intervals.
Nabam as applied for downy mildew control should offer a
measure of control for leaf spot; suggested at 7-day intervals in
the West Coast area.







Sclerotinia
Flooding fields for 5 or 6 weeks during summer months may be
effective in killing sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils of Homestead area, apply 500-700 pounds of
cyanamid per acre. Broadcast, disk in, 7-10 days before setting
plants in marl soil. Cyanamid not needed if land is flooded.
In the Sanford and Zellwood areas, ferbam 76% at 15 lbs.
per 100 gal. and 2 applications at 200 gal. per acre has reduced
drop experimentally. First application should be made just after
transplanting and the second just after the last cultivation.
Make application to cover surrounding soil as well as plants.


ONION
Spray Dust
Downy mildew Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus -
lb. zinc sulfate (36%)
plus spreader-sticker
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. plus Zineb 4-6%%
sticker
When weather conditions favor the development of disease,
begin applications when seedlings emerge; repeat at intervals
of 3-4 days. In certain seasons it may be possible to begin
applications on a weekly schedule, shifting to twice-weekly
applications if necessary.
It is extremely difficult to obtain adequate foliage coverage due
to the waxy nature of the onion plant. Successful control
has been reported in the West Coast area by timing dust ap-
plications to coincide with fine films of moisture forming on the
,leaf surface at certain periods of the day.

ENGLISH PEA
Spray Dust
Powdery mildew Sulfur wp, 10 lbs. Dusting sulfur,
325 mesh
Begin applications when signs of disease appear. Repeat
at 10 to 14-day intervals, or often enough to keep the disease
under control. Do not apply when plants are wet or during
periods of high temperature (above 900F.).
Powdery mildew sometimes becomes serious during the winter
months. It is usually necessary to adhere to a strict spray
program to keep it under control.







PEPPER
Spray Dust
Frogeye spot Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus %
lb. zinc sulfate (36%)
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs.
Ziram 76%, 2 lbs.
Copper, equiv. to 1% lbs.
metallic
In plant beds, begin spraying when plants are 2 to 3 inches
high and repeat at 7-day intervals. In fields after plants have
become established, repeat at 7 to 10-day intervals as needed.
Frogeye spot is not usually a serious disease and when weather
conditions are not favorable for its development, the spray
schedule may be modified.
In the Everglades area use only the neutral coppers because
they provide a measure of control for bacterial spot also. The
spray program suggested below under bacterial spot control
for the Everglades area also controls frogeye.
In the West Coast and Sanford areas a weekly spray schedule
alternating copper and nabam is suggested.

Spray Dust
Bacterial spot Copper, equiv. to 2 lbs.
metallic
In plant beds, begin when plants are 2 to 3 inches high and
repeat at 7-day intervals; in the fields after plants have be-
come established, repeat at 7 to 10-day intervals as needed.
Copper may offer a measure of control during periods of light
infection and in certain areas of the state. However, it will
not give control during rainy, windy periods particularly favor-
able for spread of the disease.
In the West Coast and Sanford areas, a weekly spray sched-
ule alternating copper and nabam is suggested.
In the Everglades and Homestead areas, a suggested seed-
bed program is as follows: during rainy periods, spray once
weekly with copper (equiv. 2 lbs. metallic) plus streptomycin
200 ppm (nitrate, sulfate, or sulfate plus terramycin). In
the Everglades area, streptomycin 100 ppm plus copper (2 lbs.
metallic per 100 gal.) is suggested for field control. At other
times, spray only with copper.

Tobacco mosaic
It is suggested that workers wash hands thoroughly in strong
soap solution or 70% alcohol prior to handling pepper plants;
particularly important during transplanting operation. No








chemical control known. Yolo Wonder variety developed for
resistance.
POTATO
Spray Dust
Late blight Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % -
and early lb. zinc sulfate (36%)
blight Zineb 65%, 2 lbs.
Maneb 70%, 1V2 lbs.
In southern parts of the state, begin applications of spray for
the late blight when plants have emerged and continue at 4-
to 5-day intervals. In the Hastings area begin when the
plants are 6 to 8 inches high, if late blight does not show earlier,
and continue at 4- to 5-day intervals.
At Belle Glade and Homestead, late blight is usually present
throughout the growing season and nothing less than the best
fungicide applied on a rigid schedule gives satisfactory control.
Complete coverage is essential.
In Homestead area, nabam 19% (2 qts.) plus MnS04 70%
(1 lb.) per 100 gallons is as effective as maneb.

Scab
Treat seed with hot or cold formaldehyde solution or acidulated
mercuric chloride solution in areas where soil reaction is usually
pH 6.0 or higher and scab has caused excessive losses. Do not
treat seed when potatoes are to be grown in areas where scab
has caused little trouble.
(1) Cold Formaldehyde.-1 pt. 40% in 30 gallons water.
Soak uncut tubers 11/2 hours, then remove and air out
thoroughly. This treatment is more effective when sacked
tubers are first soaked in water for 2 minutes before soak-
ing them in formaldehyde or mercury solutions. This softens
the scab lesions.
(2) Hot Formaldehyde.-3.3 qts. 40% per 100 gallons water.
Dip uncut sacked tubers for 3 to 4 minutes in the solu-
tion held at 1220-1240F. Stack sacks on end to dry.
Potatoes may be cut for planting any time after the
sacks have dried.
Temperature of the hot solution must be kept within
the range indicated to give control of the disease without in-
juring the tubers.
(3) Acidulated Mercuric Chloride.-6 oz. mercuric chloride
plus 1 qt. commercial HCI in 25 gallons water.







Soak sacked uncut tubers for 5 minutes, allow to drip
and plant immediately, or dry out. This treatment is safe
for potatoes planted on sandy and marl soils, but not safe
on muck and peat soils. This material is poisonous and
corrosive and treated seed should not be eaten or fed to live-
stock.

Sclerotinia
Flooding fields for 5 to 6 weeks during summer months may
be effective in killing sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils, where sclerotinia has attacked the previous
crop, apply 400 to 600 pounds of cyanamid per acre before plant-
ing. Distribute evenly and thoroughly mix with the surface
soil. Cyanamid is not necessary if soil has been flooded 3 or
more weeks during summer.

SWEET POTATO
Seed Selection
Many diseases may be reduced by growing enough seed from
vine cuttings to produce next years' seed supply. Select hills
at digging time which are free from disease, have desirable
varietal characteristics and have at least four or five No. 1
potatoes per hill. Seed stock should be free of internal cork,
a disease for which there is no other known control. Seed
stock should be free from injury. Take special care in digging
and maintaining the seed supply, handling the product a mini-
mum number of times.

Plant bed site
Locate the bed where sweet potatoes or tobacco have never
been grown or have not been grown within three years. If
permanent beds are to be used, remove soil to a depth of 12
inches, drench the bed and frame with a solution of 1 pint of
formaldehyde per 15 gallons of water, then replace with new
soil.

Seed treatment
(Use only one treatment: pay strict attention to precautionary
label statements.)
Semesan Bel.-1 pound to 71/2 to 8 gallons water for one min-
ute; bed, or dry in the shade.
Mercuric Chloride.-Dissolve 4 ounces in 1 gallon hot water
and add to 31 gallons of cold water in a clean wooden container;







dip for 8 to 10 minutes and bed. After treating 10 bushels,
add 1 quart of stock solution (1/2 ounce mercuric chloride per
quart water), and add water to 32 gallon mark on container.
Repeat for every additional 10 bushels and discard for fresh
solution after 50 bushels.
Chloranil (48%).-1 pound wettable in 5 gallons water; dip
seed in, then right out. Drain and bed.

Plant treatment
(Use only one depending on specific problem.)
In General.-Dip to soil line, but do not wet leaves, in Semesan
Bel, 1 pound per 10 gallons water.
Stem Rot or Wilt.-Dip base of stem and plant roots or lower
end of vine cutting in wettable chloranil solution, 1 pound to
8 gallons water.
Scruf.-Dip base of stem and plant roots in ferbam solution,
1 pound to 5 gallons water.

RADISH
Spray Dust
Downy mildew Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus -
lb. zinc sulfate (36%)
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. Zineb 4-6%
When weather is favorable for the development of the disease,
apply on a twice-weekly schedule.
In the West Coast area, it has been observed that the zineb
dust may be the most practical approach to achieve adequate
coverage. The dust must be directed with considerable force
to penetrate this ground-level foliage.

STRAWBERRY
Anthracnose
Copper, equiv. 11/ lbs. metallic plus spreader-sticker.
Anthracnose occurs during rainy season; apply to plants and
runners every week.

Leaf spots
Zineb (65%) 2 lbs. per 100 gallons of water.
Nabam (19%) 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sufate (36%) per
100 gallons of water.
Zineb 4 to 61/2% dust
Produce plants free of leaf spot in nursery. No spraying re-
quired in field of fruiting plants.







Rhizoctonia bud rot
No chemical control known. Frequent shallow cultivations
around the plants to keep the soil surface dry will aid in re-
ducing incidence of the disease.

TOMATO
SEEDBED DISEASES
Damping-off
Fumigation.-Apply 1 pound of methyl bromide per 50 sq.
ft. seedbed area. Soil must be prepared and ready for planting
before fumigation. Methyl bromide controls weeds and nema-
todes as well as damping-off. If seedbed fumigation is not
practiced, seed treatments may be beneficial.
Bacterial spot
In Homestead area streptomycin 200 ppm spray is recom-
mended on a 4-5 day schedule. Begin at 2-leaf stage on first
bed; spray younger beds in same area on emergence. Complete
coverage essential; imperative to start before disease appears.
Control in plant bed reduces subsequent losses in field when
plants are set near the end of rainy season.
Spray Dust
Late blight Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % -
lb. zinc sulfate (36%)
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs.
Dichlone 50%, % lb.
Maneb 70%, 1/2 lbs.
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus 1
lb. MnSO. (70%)
When late blight is favored by cool, damp weather, begin
spraying the plants as soon as they have emerged and repeat
at 4- to 7-day intervals until transplanted. Thorough coverage
of all above-ground plant surface is imperative. An application
just before transplanting is desirable. Alternate the zinc car-
bamates with dichlone or maneb.
In the southern part of the state and on the West Coast,
copper fungicide will not control late blights. However, in other
areas of the state where severe incidence is usually not en-
countered, copper fungicides (equiv. to 11/2 lbs. metallic) may
offer another measure of control. Copper is not recommended
in the Sanford area because of excess copper in the soil.
In Homestead area, nabam plus ZnSO4 is not recommended;
nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus 1 lb. MnSO4 (70%), is recommended.
Alternate zineb with one of the manganese fungicides, par-
ticularly on new land.







FIELD DISEASES
Late blight
Materials and formulas are the same as for seedbed.
Begin applications immediately after plants have become
established and repeat at 4- to 7-day intervals until end of
harvest. Thorough coverage of all above-ground surface is
imperative.
In certain areas and seasons when late blight is less serve, it
may be possible to lengthen time interval between applications.
In the southern part of the state this is risky because, with
blight present, its spread may become very rapid with the re-
turn of weather favorable for its development.

Early blight
Materials and formulas same as for late blight above.
Where early blight and late blight occur together, use the
schedule recommended for late blight. In some localities and
seasons where early blight occurs but late blight is not an
important factor, coppers usually give satisfactory control of
early blight.
Neither dichlone nor copper gives control of early blight on
tomatoes equal to control provided by nabam or zineb.

Gray leaf spot
Materials and formulas same as for late blight above, except
dichlone and copper fungicides not effective.
When late blight is not present, applications at 7-day intervals
are usually adequate. Gray leaf spot is not important in all
tomato-growing areas or in every year. When it occurs, it causes
extensive damage unless control measures are started on time.
If late blight is also present, the schedule recommended for late
blight should be used.
Spray Dust
Bacterial spot Copper, 2 lbs. metallic
Copper will not give satisfactory control under severe disease
conditions; under light or moderate conditions it may prove
adequate. In the West Coast area (11/2-2 lbs. metallic), it is
regarded as the most effective material which is currently
economically practical to use.
More experience is needed to determine practicability of using
streptomycin in the field.







Black spot (Phoma)
In the West Coast area copper (equiv. 2 lbs. metallic) at 7-day
intervals, as well as carbamates as recommended for late blight
control, is effective.
Fusarium wilt
No chemical control. Use resistant varieties or new land.
Sclerotinia
Flooding fields for 5 to 6 weeks during summer months may
be effective in killing sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils apply cyanamid at the rate of 500-700 lbs. per
acre 7-10 days before setting plants in the field; distribute
evenly and disk thoroughly after application. Cyanamid not
needed on soils flooded 3 or more weeks during summer.
Gray mold
The following are suggestions for control in the Indian Town-
Ft. Pierce-West Palm Beach area:
1. Stake tomatoes of Manalucie variety
a. Through November 1. Spray with a neutral copper
(2 lbs. metallic).
b. November through February. Spray with dichlone
(/4, lbs./100). On hot days (temperature above 850F.)
either reduce dichlone to 1/2 lb. or substitute ferbam
(4 lbs./100).
c. March 1 to end of crop. Spray with ferbam (4/100)
except during periods favorable to late blight; during
these' times use dichlone.
2. Ground tomatoes. The following is suggested for experi-
mental trials only: Zineb (11/ 100) or maneb (1/100) plus
dichlone (1/2/100) or ferbam (3/100).
Note: The above program should control the major foliar
diseases of tomato except bacterial spot.

WATERMELON
Anthracnose, gummy stem blight, and downy mildew are the
major diseases on watermelon that are controllable by fungicidal
spraying or dusting. The importance of these diseases varies
considerably from year to year, depending on weather condi-
tions, but in most years one or more of them may cause con-
siderable damage to watermelons in Florida. In dry seasons,






especially in North Florida, there may be little apparent benefit
from spraying or dusting. In general, however, a well-timed
and well-executed spraying or dusting program will result in
higher yields of higher quality melons.
Inadequate coverage of foliage is probably the most common
cause for failure of fungicidal spraying or dusting programs.
The entire surface of both upper and lower sides of all leaves
should be covered. Because more thorough foliage coverage
is possible, spraying is preferable to dusting and use of a sticker-
spreader is recommended.
Failure to apply fungicides early enough and often enough
are other common faults. The first fungicide application should
be made at the late bunching or early running stage of develop-
ment. The number and timing of subsequent applications
should be governed by weather conditions. In dry seasons less
frequent applications are needed. In general, 3 to 5 applications
will suffice in north and central Florida while 7 or more may be
needed in south Florida.
In the Immokalee area, field observations indicate it may be
advisable to start applications earlier and that more applications
will usually be necessary.

Spray Dust
Anthracnose Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. plus Zineb 4-6V2%
sticker
The varieties Congo, Fairfax and Charleston Gray are re-
sistant to common forms of anthracnose.

Spray Dust
Downy mildew Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. plus Zineb 4-6 %%
sticker
Copper, 11 lbs. metallic, Copper 6-7%
plus sticker
Copper is not generally recommended for the West Coast and
Indian River areas. Copper is recommended in other areas
specifically for downy mildew control. It should not be used
prior to fruit-set. Zineb applications should be alternated with
it thereafter.
Spray Dust
Gummy stem Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. plus Zineb 4-6 %%
blight sticker
Maneb (11/2 lbs., 70% with sticker-spreader) is suggested on
a trial basis for use alternately with zineb for the control of
anthracnose, downy mildew and gummy stem blight. Excellent
control of these diseases has been obtained with maneb, but







some slight phytotoxicity has been noted when maneb was
applied oftener than every 2 weeks, especially during periods
of high temperatures.

Wilt
Since Fusarium wilt results primarily from soil-borne in-
festation, it can not be controlled by the use of fungicides. The
use of resistant varieties or new land are the best control meas-
ures.
Even with wilt resistant varieties (Blacklee, Fairfax, Charles-
ton Gray) a minimum of 3 years between crops is recom-
mended. Charleston Gray should not be planted for 5 or more
years following an extremely susceptible variety such as Cannon-
ball. On land where watermelons have been planted previously,
delayed thinning is recommended with Charleston Gray. With
wilt-susceptible varieties such as Cannonball a minimum of 10
years between crops is desirable.
There is always danger of wilt occurring on new land where
drainage water from a diseased field has flowed over the new
field, or where cattle have had access to both fields.




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