Title: Put conservation farming behind war food production
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084510/00001
 Material Information
Title: Put conservation farming behind war food production
Series Title: Put conservation farming behind war food production
Physical Description: Book
Creator: McMullen, K. S.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084510
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 222329608

Full Text

Extension Soil Conservationist

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
A. P. SPENCER, Director



For Men at War
For Men at Work
For Our Allies
For Our Families
For the Civilians


This publication has been prepared by the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service in an effort to present a
complete picture of the contribution of soil and water
conservation to war food production and to show the
assistance available to farmers in (1) planning and (2)
carrying out such a program.
Nineteen soil conservation districts covering approx-
imately one-third of the state are now organized in
Florida. The Soil Conservation Service assigns trained
and experienced technicians to organized districts to
make soil surveys and to assist farmers cooperating in
the district program in developing and carrying out
soil and water conservation and improved land use
measures. More detailed information regarding assist-
ance available through soil conservation districts ap-
pears on pages 12-15.
Production practice payment rates for 1944 as made
by the Agricultural Adjustment Agency have been
listed following explanation of each conservation prac-


Total war exacts of the farmer and his soil total production-
the peace will be no less in its demands. Guarantee larger yields
and keep the land producing with soil and water conservation
and improved land-use measures.

Plant row crops on productive soils found on level to moder-

Fig. 1.-The crotalarias are increasing yields to help meet the feed
shortage throughout Florida. The use of crotalaria spectabiliss) on the
field shown has increased the average yield of corn from 17 bushels to 35
bushels per acre.

teria, conserves moisture, improves soil structure, and serves a
a storehouse of nitrogen, available phosphorus, potash and othe
plant food. In addition, cover crops may be so managed as t,
provide considerable feed for livestock.
(a) Summer Legume Cover Crops are Easy to Produce.-Cow
peas, crotalaria, beggarweed, velvet beans, alyce clover, soybeans
and sesbania grown alone or interplanted are adapted to the en
tire State. Hairy indigo is a new plant that offers promising

Production practice payment according to specifications-
Prac. No. 13(a). Green manure and cover crops produced in 1944-
$1.50 per acre.
Payment for practice not limited by farm allowance.

(b) Winter Legume Cover Crops Fill Vital Place.-Austrial
peas and vetch are adapted west of the Suwannee River. Blu
lupine, a comparatively new crop, has given good results in a]
sections of the State-no trials in extreme southern Florida
Plant in September to November behind cotton, dug peanuts, i:
orchards, and on other lands where crop is harvested by Nc

Fig. 2.-Blue lupine is fast becoming the most important winter cove
crop to add plant food and organic matter to Florida soils. The lupine i
the field shown produced 32 tons of green material per acre to be turned
back to the soil. This field will produce higher crop yields and require les


Production practice payments according to specifications-
Prac. No. 6(a). Cover for seeding made in fall 1943-$1.50 per acre.
Prac. No. 6(b). Seeding in fall of 1944-$2.50 per acre.
Payment for practices not limited by farm allowance.

(c) Rye and Oats Cover the Land and Provide Feed.-Non-
egume crops like rye, oats and rye-grass are not able to get nitro-
gen from the air but take up available nitrogen in the soil and
save it for the next crop. When used as a green manure cover
:rop they also add humus to the soil. Small grains used as pas-
;ure in the winter and cut for hay or grain or grazed off in the
spring make a valuable contribution to the feed supply.

Fig. 3.-Oats furnish supplementary grazing, protect the soil, give
variety to feedstuffs, provide extra feed, and give double use of the land.
increased acreage of oats in 1944 is needed to help meet the feed shortage.

Production practice payment according to specifications-
Prac. No. 14. Establishing satisfactory cover of small grains seeded in
fall of 1943-$1.50 per acre.
Payment for practice charged to farm allowance.
Terraces prevent water erosion and conserve moisture on slop-
ng fields. They do not increase soil fertility but serve as a basis
.or other conservation practices that do improve the soil. Ter-
-aces save top soil, seed and fertilizer and form the pattern for
itrip-cropping, contour cultivation and crop rotations.
Terrace lines and water disposal systems should be laid out by
a person trained and experienced in that type of work, but the
:erraces can be built by the farmer, using farm power and small

equipment. The County Agent can furnish information on how
to get a terracing system established.
Production practice payment according to specifications-
Prac. No. 12. Constructing standard terraces in 1944-750 per 100 linear
Payment for practice not limited by farm allowance.

Planting, harrowing, cultivating and harvesting on the contour
(around the hill on the level instead of up and down the hill) on
sloping land slows down the water and allows time for it to seep
into the ground. Contour strips of soil-protecting crops (oats,
kudzu, lespedeza, peanuts hogged, etc.) between strips of clean
cultivated crops (corn, cotton, etc.) that provide little protection,
help to reduce losses of soil, water, fertilizer and seed and will
also protect the soil from wind erosion. Less work, less fuel and
less power are required to farm on the contour than to farm by
plowing straight rows up and down the hill.


make humus, which assists in releasing other plant foods. Avoid
having to burn this material by chopping it into the surface of

advance of next planting season for material to decay.

Fig. 4.-Kudzu, an old plant with newly discovered uses. Manager
correctly, kudzu will provide two crops of high quality hay per year, cal
be used as a supplementary grazing crop, and used to improve the land
All uses are essential to the war food production program.
Bigger crops and better crops can be grown by the careful us(
of fertilizer. Use high analysis fertilizer. Apparently supplies
of mixed fertilizers will be adequate to meet the needs, but some
nitrogen-carrying materials and potash will be scarce. Wher(
good crop rotations are used with legumes, fertilizer require
ments are largely in the form of phosphate and potash, most oj
the necessary nitrogen being derived from the legumes. Appl3
fertilizer to the legume crop to increase growth of the cover croi
and the crop following will be benefitted both by the greater
degree of soil protection and by the higher quantity of organic
matter and available plant food in the soil. Another fine oppor-
tunity for increasing production by fertilizing is in the saving
and application of manure. Fully 50% of the fertilizing elementE
taken from the soil by harvested crops are left on the farm in the
form of manure when fed to livestock.
Production practice payments according to specifications-
Prac. No. l(a). Application of superphosphate in 1944--4 per pound
of available phosphate.

Prac. No. l(b). Application of basic slag in 1944-$7.50 per ton.
Prac. No. 1(c). Application of raw rock or colloidal phosphate in 1944-
28% material-$5.75 per ton.
18% material-$5.00 per ton.
Prac. No. 3. Application of ground limestone in 1944-
(a) Dolomitic limestone-$5.00 per ton.
(b) Other limestone-$3.50 per ton.
Payment for practices charged to farm allowance. Refer to AAA Hand-
book specifications for conditions under which payment will be made.


Trashy cultivation is a most effective method of protecting
orchard soils against erosion, conserving plant food and moisture.
Ise harrow or plow that will loosen the soil and leave cover crops
artially on the surface. On rolling land, establish the rows and
ultivate on the contour (around the hill on the level instead of
p and down the hill). Mulching with straw or other material
assists in retaining moisture and adds humus.

Production practice payments according to specifications-
Prac. No. 4. Application of mulching material in 1944-$3.00 per acre.
Prac. No. 13(b). Summer non-legumes in orchards or on commercial
vegetable or commercial potato land-$1.00 per acre.
Payment for practices charged to farm allowance.

Fig. 5.-Blue lupine broadcast before peanuts were harvested. It was
wantedd September 16 and hogs were turned in to glean field November 1.
)ug peanut fields handled like this will keep on producing.


Peanuts for oil are one of Florida's most important war crops,
but because they are a clean-cultivated crop and both vines and
nuts are removed from the land in the process of harvesting,
much plant food is removed and no vegetative matter is added.
In addition, after the peanuts are dug the soil is left bare to
bake in the hot, late summer sun that slows up favorable bac-
terial action in the soil. Carry out these practices on dug peanut
1. Peanuts should not be harvested from the same land more
often than once in 3 years.
2. Seed cover crop of lupines or oats ahead of digging peanuts.
The digging operation will cover the seed sufficiently. Apply
phosphate or basic slag to lupines. Keep hogs out of field until
cover crop has good start.
3. Cover crops of lupines, Austrian peas, or small grain may be
planted after gleaning field with hogs if gleaning is completed
before November 1.
4. If good cover crop does not follow peanuts same year dug,
plant such land to a legume cover crop the following year.
Production practice payments according to specifications-
Prac. No. 6(a). Cover from seeding made in fall 1943-$1.50 per acre.
Prac. No. 6(b). Seeding in fall of 1944-$2.50 per acre.
Payment for above practices not limited by farm allowance.
Prac. No. 14. Establishing cover of small grains seeded in 1943-$1.50
per acre.
Prac. No. l(a). Application of superphosphate in 1944-44 per pound
of available phosphate.
Prac. No. l(b). Application of basic slag in 1944-$7.50 per ton.
Payment for above 3 practices charged to farm allowance.


Good pasture is the cheapest and surest source of livestock
feed. Improve old pastures and develop as much new pasture on
suitable pasture land as possible. Grass, like other crops, cannot
grow well without plant food. Legumes are needed in the pasture
mixture to get nitrogen from the air for the grass-about one-
third of the pasture plants should be legumes cloverss, lespedeza,
wild beggarweed, etc.). Lime, phosphate and potash are needed
to make the legumes grow well and to supply the minerals needed
by livestock grazing on the pasture. Mixtures of grass and le-
gumes produce one-third to one-half more pasture feed than
grasses alone. Applications of complete fertilizer to pastures will
also increase pasturage produced.

Set aside an area convenient to permanent pasture to be used
for supplementary grazing crops, such as oats, rye, Napier grass,
kudzu and summer and winter legumes. Annual rye grass
planted on permanent pasture sod produces valuable winter graz-
ing. Do not over-graze pasture. Control weeds by mowing. In
addition to supplementary grazing, steep areas, water disposal
areas, and other well drained upland planted to kudzu will furnish
a dependable source of high quality hay.

Fig. 6.-Clover is making excellent growth on hundreds of Florida farms
to provide much-needed protein and nutritious feed for livestock. Moist
soils, good seedbeds, inoculation, adapted varieties and proper fertilization
are the secrets of success.

There is a great need for locally harvested pasture grass and
legume seed. Harvest ripe seed with regular combine direct
from the field or cut seed heads with mowing machine and store
in dry place for threshing at a later date.
Surface water control on pasture lands has a direct bearing on
carrying capacity of pasture. Shallow ditches constructed ac-
cording to the natural drainage of the land will move much sur-
face water and prevent the loss of valuable grazing.
Production practice payments according to specifications-
Prac. No. 8. Establishing pasture by planting sod pieces in 1944-
$5.00 per acre.
Prac. No. 9. Establishing pasture by seeding in 1944-$5.00 per acre.
Payment for above practices not limited by farm allowance.
Prac. No. l(a). Application of superphosphate in 1944-4 per pound
of available phosphate.

Prac. No. l(b). Application of basic slag in 1944-$7.50 per ton.
Prac. No. 1(c). Application of raw rock or colloidal phosphate in 1944-
28% material-$5.75 per ton.
18% material-$5.00 per ton.
Prac. No. 3. Application of ground limestone in 1944-
(a) Dolomitic limestone-$5.00 per ton.
(b) Other limestone-$3.50 per ton.
Prac. No. 5. Establishing good cover of rye grass on pastures in 1944-
$2.00 per acre.
Prac. No. 7. Establishing good cover of kudzu in 1944-$6.00 per acre.
Prac. No. 10. Reseeding depleted pastures in 1944-250 per pound for
seed used.
Prac. No. 11. Mowing or chopping pastures to control weeds, briars,
etc., in 1944-
(a) One mowing-500 per acre.
(b) Two or more mowings-$1.00 per acre.
Prac. No. 15. Harvesting legume and grass seed in 1944-$3.50 per acre
(limit of 25 acres per farm).
Prac. No. 16. Surface water control by constructing shallow ditches on
pastures in 1944-60 per cu. yd.
Payment for above practices charged to farm allowance.



Fig. 7.-Florida improved range pasture,
potential pasture land that may be profitably
and seeded to improved grasses and legumes
meet the feed shortage.





of 7,000,000
prepared, f
pastures wil


acres of
1 help to

part ot the tarm economy. IMore and higher value woodland
products mean more income to the farmer.
1. Protect your woods from damage by fire.
2. Leave a fully stocked stand of young, thrifty trees to pro-

duce higher quality products, such as sawlogs, veneer stoc'
poles, pilings, etc.
3. Cut crowded, crooked, dead, diseased, and undesirable tree
for pulpwood, fuel and fence posts.
4. Hold for sawlogs fast-growing pines to at least 16 inch(
and hardwoods to at least 18 inches in diameter.
5. Whenever possible. cut and deliver sawlogs. DulDwood. an


of the farm. The combination of these factors occurring on eac
area is summarized to place that area in the appropriate land us
capability class. Capability classes are defined as to adapted use
of the land and conservation practices required to keep it perm,

nently productive, ana a iarm map colored according to capability:
classes is furnished the farmer.
2. A complete land use map of the farm, based on the surve:
and worked out with the farmer, showing the planned land usi
for every parcel of land on the farm for an adapted use that i:
most practical for the particular farm and farmer.


Commodity Unit Before I After Percent
I __Change
Cotton I Acres 458 381 -16.2
Yield per acre lbs. 233.6 322.8 +38.
S Production bales 214 246 +15.1
Corn Acres 2,527 2,413 -4.
Yield per acre-bu. 11.8 16.4 +39.1
Production bu. 29,874 39,642 +32.'
Oats Acres 45 564 +1153.i
Yield per acre bu. 20.6 28.4 +37.!
SProduction bu. 925 16,029 +1632.
Peanuts I Acres | 1,451 1,667 +142
SYield per acre lbs. | 743.7 | 999.3 +34.,
I Production lbs. | 1,079,080 1,665,775 +54.'
Hay | Annuals tons [ 328 412 +25.
SPerennials tons 100 165 +65.(
Kudzu | Acres 20 297 +1385.(
pasture Acres 255 861 +237.(
Perennials | Cow days grazing 9,360 63,605 +579.J
Winter and
summer |
legumes Cow days grazing 48,545 127,520 +162.'
Legume seed
harvested Pounds 4,200 67,420 +1505.2
Idle land [ Acres 878 127 -691.(
Work stock No. head 152 130 -14.l
Cattle No. head 1,252 1,811 +44.(
Hogs I No. head 2,054 3,071 +49.1
Poultry No. head 3,530 6,665 +88.J
Income from
woodland $1,998.00 $2,827.00 +41.E

Information taken from survey conducted in 1943 by the Soil Conserva.
tion Service of 41 farms in organized soil conservation districts wherE
complete conservation farm plans have been followed 3 to 4 years. As fai
as possible, all factors affecting production, outside of conservation, have
been eliminated. Figures represent information given by farmers or
farms surveyed.

0. AX UVi1lprlpitt %;ilrjinlli jilan lu 1 all lainu LU ju ILIVCa.u, OULAuL
)lan showing crops to be grown on the land best suited to most
profitable production of that crop, and including enough soil-
)uilding legumes and close-growing cover crops to maintain and
improve the productivity of the land and protect it from erosion.
4. A complete terracing plan for sloping crop and pasture land
bleeding terraces.


Fig. 9.-Conservation survey map of 80-acre farm. Symbols indicate
soil type, percent of slope and degree of erosion. These factors determine
;he adapted use of each area of the farm and indicate the conservation
practicess required to improve the land and keep it permanently productive.
Symbols are explained in farm plans.


(4) f --'-

Fig. 10.-Land-use map of 80-acre farm (same farm as Fig. 9). The
fields are devoted to the following: (1) 1%1 acres homesite, (2) 15 acres
rotated crops, (3) 17 acres permanent pasture, (4) 16 acres rotated crops,
(5) 14 acres rotated crops plus 1 acre kudzu, (6) 10 acres permanent pas-
ture, (7) 6% acres kudzu for supplemental grazing. Dotted lines indicate
fields terraced and direction of water flow along terraces.

. complete water control or drainage plan for wet crop and
-e land.
L complete plan for the preparation, fertilization, liming,
.g, and management of permanent pasture and supple-
.1 grazing crops necessary to carry the livestock on the

. complete plan for the management of existing woodland
Le planting and management of new woodland.
l1n.n, fr thp Pi.q.hliihmPnt nd m.nnrnoPmntf nf wnnrll.nrl-

carried out to the extent and at the rates shown, the paym
for such practices would be:

Practice l(a). 1 ton 20% phosphate applied to winter
legumes and 1 ton 20% phosphate applied to improved
pasture @ $16.00 ..............................................-- ......-............$ 32.00
Practice 3(b). 5 tons limestone applied to pasture
@ $3.50 ............................................................-- ----------................. 17.50
Practice 7. 3 acres kudzu established in 1944 @ $6.00 ........ 18.00
Practice No. 11(b). 20 acres improved permanent pasture
mowed twice @ $1.00 ........................ ..... .........................--- -- 20.00
Practice No. 15. 10 acres crotalaria seed harvested
@ $3.50 ...................... ... .........................------- ----- --............................. 35.00
Total earned from "limited" practices .................................8...122.50
Actual payment to the farm for these practices before
dedution for local expense ............................ ........................ $120.00

Suppose further that on this farm the following "unlimit
practices were carried out to the extent and at rates indica
the additional payment for the "unlimited" practices would

Practice No. 6(b). 6 acres winter legumes seeded in fall
of 1944 @ $2.50 .................................... ...........------...........--........$ 15.00
Practice No. 9. 5 acres new permanent pasture established
@ $5.00 ........-------------............... ..... .. .. .............. ....-.............. 25.00
Practice No. 12. 15,000 feet terraces constructed @ 75
cents per 100 ft. ..... ..................-----.........---.......-- ...................... 112.50
Practice No. 13(a). 10 acres crotalaria left on the land
@ $1.50 .................................. ............--- .. 15.00
Total payment for "unlimited" practices before deduction
for local expenses ...................................--- ....... ........... 167.50

The gross payment to this farm would, therefore, be $120.00

The blanks below will provide a convenient means for e
farm operator to calculate the allowances for his own farm
the value of the practices which are intended to be carried
in 1944:


Acres Rate I Amoui

1. 1944 cropland | $1.00

2. Commercial orchard | $2.00

3. Fenced non-crop open pasture $0.20

Total $........


(a) Limited Practices:

Practice Name of
Number Practice Extent Rate

Value of the Practice
(Extent X Rate)

T otal $.......................
Allowance (from table above) . $.......................
Payment for limited practices (whichever is smaller,
the allowance or the total value of the limited prac-
tices carried out) . $.............

(b) Practices not Limited by Farm Allowance to Be Carried Out:

Number Name of Practice Extent
Estab. cover winter
6(a) legumes seeded 1943
Estab. cover winter
6(b) legumes seeded 1944
Estab. pasture by
8 sodding
Estab. pasture
9 by seeding

Terraces constructed
Summer legumes
turned or left on land

SValue of Practice
Rate (Extent X Rate)




per 100 ft.




Gross payment to farm:
From limited practices ..............
From unlimited practices $..................
Total . . . . $.......................

In order to assist further farm operators in carrying out pro-
duction practices in 1944, certain conservation materials and
services, such as limestone, superphosphate, terracing service
and winter legume seeds, will be available for distribution. The
costs of these materials and services when furnished are charged
against the farm payment and deducted from the payment. See
your County Agent, County AAA Committeeman or County Ad-

Information given in this publication on the 1944 AAA produce
Lice program was furnished by R. S. Dennis, AAA Compliance S1
and the information given on the assistance furnished by the Soi
nation Service was supplied by H. B. Helms, SCS Assistant Si

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