Title: Guide to disease control in the home vegetable garden
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 Material Information
Title: Guide to disease control in the home vegetable garden
Series Title: Guide to disease control in the home vegetable garden
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Weber, George F.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service
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Bibliographic ID: UF00084504
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 223410412

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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director




Guide to Disease Control in the

Home Vegetable Garden

By GEORGE F. WEBER
Plant Pathologist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
With more and more commercial food supplies becoming scarce
enough to be included in the Nation's rationing program there
has come a tremendous increase of interest in home gardening.
Both rural and urban residents who have available land and facil-
ities are endeavoring to supply a good part of their own food
needs from home gardens.
Home garden vegetables are subject to attack by disease or-
ganisms from the time the seed are planted until the crop is con-
sumed or processed. To be successful the home gardener must
necessarily take steps to avoid disease in so far as is practicable
and to control the more serious diseases that cannot be avoided.
The brief information presented herewith should be of assistance
in that connection. It is designed for ready reference, rather
than for completeness of detail. If a disease cannot be identified,
or a suggested control measure understood, no doubt the County
Agent can assist.
Seedbeds should be planted on new land or on soils that have
been sterilized. Disinfection of all seed to be planted should be
practiced without fail. The recommended seed treatment is
given in the first column of the following table, under the name
of the crop. Damping-off occurs on all soils throughout the state
and affects most tender seedlings. It is controlled by wetting
the top half inch of soil and the seedlings as they emerge with
normal solution Semesan (see directions on the container).

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


February, 1943


Circular 67










GUIDE TO DISEASE CONTROL IN THE HOME VEGETABLE GARDEN


CROP DISEASE


SYMPTOMS


CONTROL


WHEN TO APPLY


Angular leaf spot
Anthracnose
Bacterial blights

Cottony rot

Powdery mildew
Rust
Soil rot


Southern blight
Web blight
Mosaic

Beets Leafspots
(Treat seed with
Cuprocide Dust) Southern blight


Cabbage
Cauliflower
Collards
Broccoli
Kohl-rabi
Kale; sprouts
(Treat seed with
1:1000 Bichloride


Black leafspot

Black leg
Black rot
Bottom rot

Cottony rot
Downy mildew
Powdery mildew


Snapbeans
Limabeans

(Treat seed with
Spergon or
Thiosan)


20-80 copper-lime dust
Certified seed; rotation
Certified seed; eradication,
rotation
Drainage, rotation, eradication

Sulphur dust, 300 mesh
Sulphur dust, 300 mesh
Drainage and rotation

Drainage, rotation, eradication
20-80 copper-lime dust
Certified seed


Through blossoming
When buying seed
SWhen buying seed

During season

Weekly after first seen
Weekly after first seen
During season

During season
Before pods set
When buying seed


Smoky, angular spots on leaves
Circular sunken spots on pods
Spotted and disfigured foliage and
pods
White cottony mycelium on stem
and pods
White powdery mold on leaves
Brown powdery specks on leaves
Brown stem lesions or pod tips;
girdling
Wilting; girdling; brown sclerotia
Brown threads kill leaves; sclerotia
Mottled and malformed foliage

Circular spots forming holes; circu-
lar speckled spots
Wilting; girdling; brown sclerotia

Circular specks to velvety-black
spots
Wilt; rotting black-pimpled stem
Black-veined, brown areas of leaves
Decay of head leaves from stem
infection
White mycelium; black sclerotia
Seedling and young plant leaf spots
White powdery mold on leaves


Spergon spray, 2 lbs. 50 gal.

Certified seed, treated
Certified seed, treated
Avoid hilling up, drainage

Sanitation, eradication, rotation
Spergon spray, 2 lbs. 50 gal.
Sulphur dust. 300 mesh


Weekly after set

Before planting
Before planting
During season

During season
Bi-weekly after up
Weekly after found


Yellow cuprocide spray, 2 lbs. As true leaves appear
50 gal.
Drainage, rotation, eradication During season







CROP


Potatoes

(No treatment)


Squash
Pumpkin
Gourd
(Treat seed with
Cuprocide)

Sweet Corn
(Treat seed with
Cuprocide)


Sweet Potatoes

(Treat seed with
Semesan)


TUIIfulLtU

(Treat seed with
Semesan or
Spergon)


Turnips
Rutabaga
Mustard
Petsai

(Treat seed with
Semesan)


Watermelons


(Treat seed with
Cuprocide)


DISEASE

Brown rot
Cottony rot

Early blight

Late blight

Ring rot

Scab
Scurf
Mosaic


Blossom blight
Cottony rot
Downy mildew

Powdery mildew
Mosaic

Seedling blight
White bud


Black rot
Charcoal rot

Java blackrot
Leafspot

Soft rot
Stem rot


SYMPTOMS CONTROLWHEN AP
CONTROL WHEN TO APPLY
Durin season


Wilt; brown in stems; wet eyes
White mycelium killing tops


Brown, zonate, under % inch, spots

Tan, frosty, over inch, spots

Yellowish, weak plant, vascular
tuber rot
Scabby lesions on tubers
Sprout rot; black sclerotia on tubers
Stunted, mottled, malformed leaves

Brown, blossom-end decay of fruit
White mycelium on fruit and stem
Small, yellowish-brown leaf spots

White, powdery mold on leaves
Mottled foliage and fruit; stunt

Poor stand; stunted; root rot
Yellowish bands on young leaves


Brown draws; sunken root spots
Brown, root rot; peppery black
within
Dry, black, powdery, root rot
Circular brown-speckled spots

Sweet scented; whiskered; root rot
Brown draws; wilted plants


Certified seed, rotation
Careful handling, storage

Careful handling, storage
20-80 copper-lime dust, 4-4-50
bordeaux
Careful handling, storage
Certified seed, rotation


Bacterial spot Stem, foliage and fruit brown specks Clean seed. rotation, windbreaks
Black rot Bruwn iea spULs; sihulaer rot ox Clean seeu, 4-4-ou, careIui nand-
fruit ling
Blossom-end rot Brown to black decay of fruit Water and fertilizer regulation
Brown rot Wilt; brown under bark Soil treatment, sanitation, rota-
tion
Buckeye rot Brown zonate decay of fruit Stake plants, sanitation
Early blight Brown zonate over 1% inch spots 20-80 copper-lime dust, 2-4-50
bordeaux
Gray spot Gray, shiny under 1 inch spot 20-80 copper-lime dust, 2-4-50
bordeaux
Leaf mold Leaves yellow above, smoky below N. to S. rows, aeration, spray
Soil rot Brown rot of roots, stems, fruit Stake plants, sanitation
Southern blight Wilt; stem girdle; brown sclerotia Sanitation, rotation
Wilt Wilt, yellow lower leaves Resistant varieties, rotation
Mosaic Stunted, mottled, malformed leaves Eradicate disease and aphids

Anthracnose Circular specks forming holes Yellow cuprocide spray, 2 lbs.


Black leafspot

Black rot

Powdery mildew
Soil rot
White rust


Circular specks to black spots

Brown marginal areas of leaves

White, powdery mold on leaves
Brown stems; girdling; rot
White, waxy blisters on leaves


Mosaic Mottled, stunted, malformed leaves

Anthracnose Gray spots; yellow leaves; fruit spot


Downy mildew

Gummy stem

Southern blight
Stem-end rot


Slate-colored foliage; blotches

Brown spots on leaves; bleeding
stem
Wilt; stem girdle; brown sclerotia
Decay from stem-end of melon


50 gal.
Yellow cuprocide spray, 2 lbs.
50 gal.
Certified seed, 1:1000 bichloride
of mercury 20 min.
Sulphur dust, 300 mesh
Organic mercury sol. on seedling;
Yellow cuprocide spray, 2 lbs.
50 gal.
Eradicate disease and aphids

20-80 copper-lime dust, 4-4-50
bordeaux
20-80 copper-lime dust, 4-4-50
bordeaux
20-80 copper-lime dust, 4-4-50
bordeaux
Sanitation, rotation
Clip stem, paint with copper
sulphate paste
Resistant varieties


Acidify soil, rotation
20-80 copper-lime dust, 4-4-50
bordeaux
20-80 copper-lime dust, 4-4-50
bordeaux
20-80 copper-lime dust, 4-4-50
bordeaux
Certified seed

Certified seed, acidify soil
Certified seed, drainage
Certified seed

Sanitation, rotation
Eradication, rotation
20-80 copper-lime dust, 4-4-50
bordeaux
Sulphur dust
SEradicate mosaic and aphids

Certified seed, disinfect seed
12 lbs. zinc sulphate per A. in
fertilizer


IWiltW


Wilt of plant; stunt


Wilt


I


-------------I ---


During season
Weekly after found

Weekly after found

Weekly after found

Before planting

Before planting
Before planting
SBefore planting

During season
Whenever found
Weekly during season

Weekly after found
During season

Before planting
Before planting


Before planting
At and after harvest

At and after harvest
Where found serious

At and after harvest
Before planting

Before nting
During season

During season
Before planting

During season
10-day intervals

10-day intervals

Before planting
During season
During season
Before planting
During season

When true leaves appeal

SWhen true leaves appeal

Before planting

Weekly after found
s As seedlings emerge
When true leaves appeal

Whenever found

Weekly during season

Weekly during season

Weekly during season

Before planting
At loading time


Before planting





Celery

(Plant 2-year-old
seed)


Black heart
Crack stem
Early blight
Late blight
Pink rot
Mosaic


Blackening of center heart leaves Regulated water supply When papered
Browning and crack ribs of stalks 10 lbs. boron per A. in solution After transplanting
Large brown spots on leaves 4-4-50 bordeaux and spreader Weekly
Small black-speckled spots on leaves 2 year-old seed; 4-4-50 bordeaux Weekly
Soft, watery decay; black sclerotia Aero cyanamid, flood field Between crops
Mottling, stunting of foliage Eradicate mosaic and aphids Before transplanting


Leafspot Brown to gray leafspots


Cowpeas
Powdery mildew
(Treat seed with Rust
Cuprocide) Scab

Soil rot
Southern blight

Angular leafspot
Cucumber Anthracnose
Cantaloupe
Muskmelon Damping-off
(Treat seed with Downy mildew
1:1000 Bichloride
of Mercury for Leaf blight
5 min. or with Scab


Cuprocide,
Semesan, or
Spergon)


Southern blight
Mosaic


Brown rot
Eggplant Early blight
(Treat seed with
1:1000 Bichloride Southern blight
of Mercury for Tip-over
5 min.)

Bottom rot
Lettuce
Downy mildew


I .real seeu wILt
Cuprocide or
Semesan)


Drop, cottony rot
Late blight
Gray mold
Leaf spots


Mosaic


White, powdery mold on leaves
Brown powdery specks on leaves
Spotted, malformed pods

Browning of stems of seedlings
Wilt; stem girdling: brown sclerotia

Yellow, angular leaf spots
Slate-colored leaf spots


Yellow cuprocide spray, 2 lbs.
50 gal.
Sulphur dust, 300 mesh
Sulphur dust, 300 mesh
Yellow cuprocide spray, resistant
variety
Rotation, plow deep and replant
Rotation, eradication

Treat seed 10 min., spray, dust
2-4-50 bordeaux, 20-80 copper-


lime dust
Toppling over and dying of seedlings Red copper oxide dust, treat seed
Yellow, angular leaf spots 2-4-50 bordeaux, 20-80 copper-
lime dust


Brown, circular leaf spots
Sunken lesions on cukes


2-4-50 bordeaux
2-4-50 bordeaux, 20-80 copper-


lime dust, rotation
Wilt; stem girdling; brown sclerotia Eradication, rotation
Mottled and malformed leaves and Eradicate wild hosts and aphids


fruit


Wilt; brown under bark
iBrown spots on foliage

Wilt; stem girdling; brown sclerotia
Weak stems, tan decay of fruit


Dead leaves; stem lesions

Seedling leaves killed, yellow spots

Wilt and collapse of plant
Circular speckled leaf spots
Soft, wet, fungous rot
Circular leaf spots

Off-color; faintly mottled; stunted


Acidify soil, rotation
20-80 copper-lime dust, 4-4-50
bordeaux
Sanitation, rotation
Certified seed, 4-4-50 bordeaux,
sanitation


20-80 copper-lime dust, under
plants
20-80 copper-lime dust, 2-4-50
and spreader
Sanitation, rotation
20-80 copper-lime dust
Careful handling, refrigeration
20-80 copper-lime dust, 2-4-50
and spreader
Eradicate aphids and other hosts


Until blossoming time

Weekly after found
Weekly after found
Until blossoming time

During season
During season

Before planting; weekly
Weekly

Before planting
Weekly

Weekly
Weekly

During season
During season


Seasonal
Weekly

Seasonal
During season, weekly


After heading

UTirtlr-mtntr time

During season
Before heading
Following harvest
Before heading

During early season


Okra Leafspot
(Treat seed with Wilt
Cuprocide)

Onions Black leafspot
(Treat seed with Bulb rot
Semesan) Smudge

Bacterial blight
Peas Blight
Downy mildew
(Treat seed with Powdery mildew


Spergon or
Thiosan)


Root rot


Circular, light centered spots
Brown-colored wood under bark


Large, smoky zonate spots
Soft rot, shrinkage, strong odor
Dark fungous blotches on bulb

Large, irregular, tan leaf spots
Small, regular, brown leaf spots
Yellow areas on foliage
White powdery mold on leaves and
pods
Yellow, dying plants; brown root
spots


4-4-50 bordeaux
Sanitation, rotation


4-4-50 bordeaux and spreader
Dry cure and refrigeration
4-4-50 bordeaux and spreader


Keep foliage protected
During season


After grown
After harvest
After % grown


Certified seed, 4-4-50 and spreader Weekly after found
Certified seed, 4-4-50 bordeaux Weekly after found
4-4-50 bordeaux and spreader After 3 inches tall
Sulphur dust, 300 mesh Weekly after seen


Certified seed, rotation


During season


Anthracnose Oval sunken fruit spots 4-4-ou boraeaux ana spreader
Peppers Bacterial spot Brown circular spots, leaves and Treat seed, 4-4-50 and spread
fruit
(Treat seed with Blight Dark stem rot, no mycelium seen Sanitation, rotation
Cuprocide) Blossom-end rot Collapse and black mold of pods Good seed, fertilizer, water
Brown rot Wilting, brown under bark Sanitation, rotation
Leafspot Large, dark, light-centered spot 4-4-50 bordeaux and spreader
Southern blight Wilt; girdle at soil; brown sclerotia Sanitation, rotation
Mosaic Stunted. mottled, malformed leaves Eradicate mosaic and aphids


Weekly after found
ler Before planting, weekly


During season
During season
During season
Weekly after found
During season
Whenever found


--I ~ - -




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