COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
WILMON NEWELL. Director
VICTORY THROUGH HOME
4-H CLUB GIRLS
By VIRGINIA P. MOORE
Home Improvement Agent
STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION OFFICE
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
Fig. 1.-Attractive, well kept rural homes are a source of pride to their
owners and the community. They are not necessarily expensive, and the
county home demonstration agent and state home improvement specialist
are glad to assist with plans.
VICTORY THROUGH HOME IMPROVEMENT
When every 4-H Club girl in Florida learns to be a neat, order-
ly, and systematic housekeeper, she contributes her part to the
health and happiness of all members of the family. Such a 4-H
Club girl is a valuable citizen of her country. Now in time of war
home improvement is even more important than in peace time.
The 4-H Club girl can make herself and her family realize the
value of time, and how the small things so often forgotten will
contribute to health and comfort. Salvage drives, thrift and the
care of equipment are all war work that 4-H Club girls can do
well. Keep storage places orderly and there will be less chance
of fire in the home, which so often destroys valuable property and
family treasures. The home improvement demonstrations in
utility and beauty which will result from her work will help all
who view them.
Every effort in home improvement "to make the best better"
develops the girl's character, and a fine people is the highest goal
in any community. The shortage of gasoline and tires may be
a blessing in disguise for it is helping to swing the pendulum
back to the home, and pleasure will be found within the home and
in the community.
The goals in home improvement for 4-H Club girls in war days
1. Home tasks, or everyday-good-housekeeping.
2. Improving the porch and its surroundings.
3. Yard beautification.
4. Living room improvement-indoors and outside.
Each 4-H Club girl will select one definite goal for the demon-
stration she will make in her home; she will make an outline of
her plan and discuss it with her county home demonstration
agent and keep an account of her achievements in the Record
The home of every 4-H Club girl in Florida must be clean,
orderly, attractive, healthful, well managed, thrifty and beauti-
ful, outside and in, if we serve our country well.
VICTORY THROUGH HOME
By VIRGINIA P. MOORE
Home Improvement Agent
A CLEAN, ORDERLY HOUSE
Dishwashing.-You are soldiers of the suds, yes, and you can
help win battles too while doing the necessary jobs at home.
Dishes washed clean in hot sudsy water, rinsed in hot water, and
put into a dish rack to dry, are valuable weapons fighting a battle
Have order and system in gathering up the dishes from the
table. Put a can or jar and a tin pan on a tray; put all fat into
the jar; put scraps, bones, etc., into the pan and empty into a
compost-heap to make fertilizer. Wipe each plate with a soft
piece of paper or a paper napkin, then stack on a second tray.
When it is full take the dishes to the kitchen; stack all like dishes
together. Wash the glasses first, then the silver, then cups and
saucers, plates, vegetable or cereal dishes, and bowls. (If some
member of the family has a cold or other illness, all his dishes
should be'washed in a separate pan.) Scald the dishpan and cloth
and hang in the sun to dry. For very hot water it is good to
use a small string mop.
A 4-H Club girl will know the answers to these questions:
Why do you use a soft paper napkin when scraping the dishes?
Why do you save fats?
Why is it that we do not recommend homemade soap from the
fat at this time?
How do you save time in dishwashing? Keep a check on the
time saved in dishwashing the first few days in the month, then
the last several days, to see the speed you have gained.
Care of Home Equipment.-Take good care of all equipment.
Many factories which once made various items of household
equipment and home appliances now are making war equipment.
Consequently, it is patriotic to take good care of all equipment.
Stoves should be wiped frequently, and steel ranges should be
oiled so they will not rust. Use a folded cloth to put on the oil,
but best of all perhaps is a piece of paraffin wax folded in a piece
of heavy material, such as an old cotton stocking. This makes a
convenient waxer for oiling stoves. The stove should be slightly
warm when this is used. The cloth may be kept in a covered can
in your cleaning closet and used many times. Clean out spaces
above and under the oven with a long scraper or brush. Look to
the draft, have a tall chimney, remove ashes daily. Best results
can be obtained from a gas stove if the burners are kept clean,
since air must flow through the burner to give proper combustion.
Dust and lint should be brushed from the burners frequently, also
any spilled food should be removed. Steel wool and small wire
brushes are useful in cleaning gas burners.
Kerosene Stoves.-The outside of the stove and oven can be
cleaned with warm water and soap. Be sure to use a good grade
of kerosene, otherwise there will be much soot. Wipe clean the
burner and keep the burned or charred part of the wick trimmed
even when it is turned even with the metal rim. Clean air holes
by brushing with a steel or wire brush. Renew wicks when
needed. Once a year unscrew the nuts on the supply line and
flush it to get rid of rust and dirt.
Pressure Cooker.-Always see that the safety valve is in good
working condition. Polish the ball and ball seat with sandpaper.
See that the petcock lets off steam readily. Take your cooker to
the "equipment clinic"; check your gauge regularly to see that
it registers properly.
Small Electrical Appliances.-Cords usually fail first, and rea-
sonable care prolongs their useful life. Dirt is the main enemy of
small appliances; clean them carefully and keep them clean with
warm water and soap. Never immerse the appliance in water.
Crumbs should be removed from the toaster frequently with a
soft, small brush. Extreme care must be taken not to stretch or
damage the fine electric heating element.
A broom is a very necessary small tool for everyday good
housekeeping. Take even strokes when sweeping and change
from side to side of the broom-if only one side is used the broom
becomes one-sided. Put a hole through the handle, run a string
through it, and hang the broom on a nail if you have no broom
Setting the Table.-An attractive table must have a clean
cloth and napkins, or mats and napkins, with flowers, clean
dishes, well polished silver and glassware. When a cloth is used
lay the table pad and put the cloth on top of it. Be careful that
each is smooth, free from wrinkles, and that the cloth hangs
evenly on all sides of the table. If mats are used they are placed
without a pad. They are very desirable during wartime. Why?
Next, place a bowl of fresh flowers in the center of the table.
A fern, a pretty potted plant, wild flowers or flowers from your
garden make an attractive centerpiece. A clear glass container
which shows the
stems of flowers is 11]j l
artistic, also a low
bowl with hardware
cloth or chicken or
rabbit wire fitted in
it to hold the stems
of flowers makes for
easier and more ar-
of flowers. Glass -
and other types of '
"frogs" may be pur-
chased, but are less
If mats are used
place them for each
cover. There may be
a mat about 10x20
inches or larger for
the centerpiece. All
mats except the cen-
ter one should be
the same size, about
14 x 16 inches.
Round or oblong
mats may be used if Fig. 2.-A neat, attractive table aids digestion.
Mats may be made of many attractive materials. They may
be hemstitched or fringed, or bound with a contrasting material.
Mats made of heavy mill-end lengths, or of some close woven
cloth with 1 inch stitched hem, are neat and attractive. A nar-
row crocheted edge is a satisfactory finish. Crocheted mats are
suitable if they are heavy enough to protect the table. A sten-
ciled edge is attractive for cloth mats. Put 1 unit of the stencil
in the corner of the napkins or the 4 corners of a mat may be
tied and dyed. Tie only 1 corner of the napkin. Bright colors
are used more now for the table than formerly. A square mat
of a large bleached flour sack makes an attractive breakfast cloth.
It may be tied and dyed with either a border or design in the
center and corners, or stenciled in bright colors. Mats save
laundry and linens. A cheap wooden table can be painted or
enameled black, and with hay mats makes a most attractive
Mats, or cloth and napkins, should be spotless, well laundered,
and free from wrinkles. When they are removed from the table
lay them flat in a drawer where nothing else is kept.
The term "cover" used in speaking of the dining table means
all the articles needed by the person who is to be served at the
place, or where the "cover" is laid. Place the plate 1 inch from
the edge of the table; never turn the plate down. Place the knife
to the right directly even with the edge of the plate. Turn the
cutting edge toward the plate. Next, place the teaspoon (bowl
up), the fruit and cereal spoons for breakfast, soup spoon for
lunch; all should be placed in line with the knife and on that side
of the cover. At the left of the plate place the fork, with tines
up; it should also be 1 inch from the edge of the table. At the
left of the fork place the napkin, which should be neatly folded
and turned so the edge of the top layer may be lifted and easily
Mark napkins with a napkin ring or a clothes pin which can
be-painted attractive colors marked with initials. A napkin ring
can be made of bamboo.
If bread-and-butter plates are used place the plate 1 inch from
the top of the fork and to the right of the napkin. A butter
spreader may be placed on the plate on the upper right hand cor-
ner. Place water glasses to the right of the plate at the tip of the
knife. Glasses may be filled at the table or just before the family
or guests are seated at the table.
Care of the Bedroom.-A clean room is not only a great joy,
but also a sanitary necessity. It reflects credit on the girl who
keeps it. A girl's character is expressed through her room and
the way she keeps it. A 4-H Club girl will leave her bedroom in
order each day, and once a week she will give a thorough cleaning
by sweeping, dusting, airing, and putting everything in order.
General rules for cleaning a room:
1. Air the room thoroughly before cleaning is started. Open
all windows and let in the sunshine and fresh air.
2. Dust or brush furniture, then remove it from the room
or cover it with a sheet. Dust, brush, or shake the curtains.
3. Shake small rugs out in the yard, taking care not to tear
or stretch the rugs, then hang them smoothly on a porch rail or
on the line, or lay them on a grassy lawn. A vacuum cleaner
is a fine method for cleaning rugs but other methods will answer
the purpose very well. For large rugs that cover most of the
floor, sweep first, then fold over the edges toward the center;
sweep under the sides, roll, sweep under the entire rug.
Fig. 3.-Four-H club girls do much with little. This finished footstool was
made in the three steps shown at the right.
4. Dust or sweep ceiling and walls with a long-handled clean
broom while rug is rolled or aired. Dust window shades, shelves,
and closet floor. Hang all clothing on hangers.
5. Wash windows regularly. A powdered cleaning agent, or a
liquid like that used at filling stations, or 4 tablespoons of kero-
sene to a gallon of hot water is good for cleaning windows. Polish
with tissue paper or old newspapers or a cloth free of lint.
6. Wash mirrors. Be careful that the water does not run on
7. Wipe pictures.
8. Polish floors.
9. Place the rugs which have been cleaned and aired.
10. Return to its proper place each piece of furniture-chairs,
tables, etc., which may have been removed from the room while
the cleaning was being done.
11. First dust or wash them, then replace all bric-a-brac and
dresser accessories such as toilet articles, etc., books on shelves,
and vases. Dustless dusting is an important thing to learn. Wipe
up the dust with a cloth. A good dusting stroke is one that
gathers the dust into the cloth. Old hose, cheesecloth, or old knit
underwear make good dusters. A small amount of furniture
polish put on the dust cloth is good. Keep the dust cloth in a
covered tin box or a jar with a lid to keep the oil from evaporat-
ing and to prevent fires.
To make a bed correctly stretch your mattress pad tightly.
Next put on the lower sheet, the wide hem at the top and right
side up. Tuck in the sheet at the bottom and top of the mattress,
drawing it in both directions until very tight, then miter the
corners by bringing the corner of the sheet around the corner of
the mattress to the sides of the bed in box fashion. Turn the
tuck-in part of the corner under the side of the mattress, finish-
ing the mitered corner, then bring down the side of the sheet un-
der the mattress. The lower sheet is mitered at all four corners,
while the upper sheet and blanket are done at the foot only.
About 12 inches from the foot of the bed make a fold in upper
sheet and blanket about 2 inches; this makes for foot comfort.
Put on the upper sheet with the right side down and the wide
hem at the top, which makes the turn back of the sheet right
side up. A sheet that fits the bed well will allow plenty to turn
back over the bed clothes.
The blanket or quilt comes next to the top sheet. Put the
blanket on as you did the sheet and when it fits the bed it will
come up to the fold of the sheet as it is turned back over the
blanket, about 10 inches from the head of the bed.
The spread or counterpane is arranged differently on different
types of beds. Wooden beds usually have the spreads tucked in.
Cots and brass or iron beds look better if the cover is left hang-
ing. Ask your home demonstration agent how to make a thrift
A HEALTHFUL HOME
A neat, clean home is attractive and can be beautified easily.
Healthy homes make a solid front of defense which no enemy can
overcome. The 4-H Club girl can do many inexpensive things
towards making her rural home a more healthful place; she can
darn the metal screens with wool threads, can stop the holes in
the floor and in the wall, and can screen or otherwise close the
chimney or fireplace when fires are no longer needed. The out-
door sitting room in the yard and a portion of the porch should
be screened if used at dusk or at night. Study the "life-cycle"
of the hookworm and practice what is learned.
Insects on the inside of the house can be easily controlled by
good commercial formulas recommended for destroying them.
Bulletins on the destruction of all household insects can be ob-
tained by writing to your home demonstration agent. Every
4-H Club member should know how to make a large fly trap for
the barn and milking place. Every 4-H Club member should
know how to kill mosquito wigglers. Fill loosely woven sacks
with sawdust, then pour over this bag all the crank-case oil that
it will absorb, and weight the bag down in stagnant streams and
ponds so that a film of oil will rise to the top of the water. If you
have studied the "life-cycle" of the mosquito in an aquarium you
know that a few drops of oil put into the aquarium will cause a
film of oil to cover the surface of the water, and when the "wig-
glers" come up to the surface of the water they cannot get air
and soon drop back to the bottom of the aquarium. So it is in the
streams or ponds where you cover the surface with a film of oil.
A quiz at a neighborhood gathering or a 4-H Club meeting is
one way 4-H girls can tell much to educate their friends on these
vital health subjects. Read the Malaria Catechism at the first
public quiz. A 4-H demonstration of a sanitary yard and premises
is one of the best ways to educate the public. Owners of untidy
and unsanitary places in the community should agree to make
them sanitary and healthful; they should also agree to do away
with eyesores and nuisances such as weeds, tin cans, broken
dishes scattered all around the premises, poor fences and gates,
and broken down steps, and to improve the place as a whole. Many
who see the improvement will copy it.
Always there should be a compost heap in one corner of the
yard where leaves, decaying vegetable matter, fish heads and
bones, meat scraps, etc., are placed daily. Each time a layer of
these organic materials accumulates on the heap a few spades of
dirt should be thrown over it. The compost will soon become de-
composed and will make good fertilizer for your victory garden.
Detailed directions for making compost are contained in Press
Bulletin 517, Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla.
Each 4-H Club member should do her bit in helping to keep
her family well. Club girls must be free of colds, chills and fever,
and hookworms, all of which can be easily controlled. The less
spent for medicine and doctor bills, not to speak of the time lost
from the payroll, the more stamps and bonds which can be bought
to win the war. There are fewer and overworked doctors, and a
call to the country is not always possible. Practice what has
been learned in nutrition, food selection, and food preparation.
Stick by the guns in raising vegetables, chickens, some pigs and
a good milk cow. A home orchard adds beauty to rural homes as
well as provides healthful fruit for the family.
A BETTER MANAGED HOUSE
As 4-H Club girls do the home tasks each day they naturally
become better homemakers and managers. Knowing thoroughly
the everyday tasks, many shortcuts for saving time can be de-
vised. One of the best ways is to make a time schedule of what
is done daily. Draw off a clock dial, put in the hours and minutes
as on a clock. Make two dials-A.M. and P.M. Put in the hour
you arise and the things you do throughout the day, with the
time required for each. By study and practice time can be gained
and more vital things can be done, with many unnecessary things
omitted. After the daily schedule has been studied plan a weekly
schedule, then a seasonal schedule until you have your time
planned wisely. Do efficiently the work assigned to you. If you
take good care of young children in your own home you are doing
worthwhile war work. Perhaps neighbor children whose mother
does war work can be cared for, so plan your daily time schedule
carefully. Perhaps you can assist in a neighbor's garden or dairy
work, provided they need labor and you need vegetables, milk,
and butter. All this is valuable war work.
AN ATTRACTIVE THRIFTY HOME ON THE INSIDE
Money is not always necessary to have an attractive home.
Plan. Use your brains instead of your pocketbook to get desired
things. Buy war stamps and bonds and label them for future
spending for such things as furniture, a new rug, new curtains,
a desk, comfortable chairs and other desired things. Remember
it is patriotic to be thrifty; make artistic substitutes for ready-
made articles such as braided or hooked rugs; stencil or dye old
sheets, sacks, mill ends, or tobacco cloth for artistic curtains.
Ask your home demonstration agent to give you suggestions
which you can carry out for your home. Make various units
which may later be assembled into a thrift room. Ask your home
demonstration agent for Questions to Make You Think on the
Bedroom, Cir. 39; The Living Room, Cir. 984; The Dining Room,
Cir. 38; The Kitchen, Cir. 983. Read these aloud in your family
Shelves and end tables made in a similar way add beauty to the
Fig. 4.-Neat slip covers and an end table made of plyboard and spools
give an artistic effect in the living room.
The hanging shelves of our great, great grandmother were
highly prized. The corner shelf is often called a "whatnot."
See Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.-Spools and plyboard make an attractive hanging shelf
Braided Rugs.-A beautiful rug, well made and of pleasing
color, adds beauty to any room. It is useful, too. Clean all ma-
terial, rip and dye. Wool and burlap must be cut. Turn in the
edge of cotton material and press or baste. Cut material from 2
to 21/2 inches wide, in lengths of 2 yards. If the correct width
of the strip is hard to estimate a few strips should be braided into
a trial braid to determine the right size. Having the braids too
narrow will make the rug harder to sew and liable to pucker, or
will make it cup on the floor. The same width of strips (and
therefore of braids) should be maintained throughout the rug.
Fold the strips through the center and, if the material permits,
fold in the raw edges; with firm material this can be done with
one motion. The folded material can be wrapped on a cardboard
or piled loosely with the colors separated but the strips should
not be sewed together and rolled into balls as are the "carpet
rags" for woven rugs.
The braid generally used for rugs is the plain 3-strand. Sew
2 long strips and 1 several inches shorter together and fasten
to a chairback or other firm support. Bring over a strand with
the right hand, then one with the left. Hold the open edge down
so that if the edges are not folded in the raw edge will be covered
by the next turn of the strip. Braid with a folding motion, turn-
ing the strips at an angle of about 45 degrees each time. Be sure
that the braid is firm and smooth. Starting with strands of un-
even length provides for the joining of the separate strips to
come at different places, so that it will not show. When the end
of a strip is reached open the fold and sew on the next strip in a
small seam (on a true bias) that will fold within the strand again.
In sewing the braids to form the rug, use a short darning needle
and heavy cotton or linen carpet thread, or No. 8 cotton double.
Begin a round rug with a simple coil of the braid. For an oval
one measure off the length of braid necessary for the center. This
length should be the difference between the length and the width
of the finished rug. For instance, if the finished rug is to be
24"x36" measure off 12". Fold back at that point and sew the 2
braids together so that you have a double row 12 inches long.
Sew with a blind stitch or slip-stitch; the stitches should be in-
visible from the wrong side as well as the right. In turning the
row at the end of an oval rug, if necessary pull the inner strand
a little and stretch the outer one to keep the rug flat. Braiding
the strands is simply laying the foundation of our work and
whether we make a rug, a basket, or a ruffle from our braiding de-
pends entirely upon our manipulation of the work. If you sew
with the rug flat on a table instead of up in your hands you can
keep it flat more easily.
The usual method is to sew around and around the rug with
one long braid. It is advisable to braid and sew alternately. To
change from a braid of one color to one of another, without hav-
ing the joining show, cut the braid and finish as if this were the
end of the rug. Then begin the new braid at the other end of the
oval, or the other side of a round rug, to avoid having a heavy
place and to avoid making the splices noticeable. An oval should
always have the same number of rows on both sides of the middle
row. If this joining is not carefully done it is better to put in the
new color one strand at a time in the continuous braid.
When enough rows of braid have been sewed to make the rug
the desired size cut off the braid at the oval curve of the rug. Slip
it under the last row, drawing it into shape so that the two oval
ends match. Fasten lightly and trim off the extra material on
each strand. Braided chair seats are made the same as rugs ex-
cept the strands are cut much smaller and the chair seat or mat
is made about 12 or 14 inches in diameter.
Tie-Dyeing Table Mats.-Mark equal distance from each corner
of the fringed or hemmed mat (14x16 inches). Make a dot to be
sure that the distances are equal. Tie a hard knot in each of the
four corners. Mark and tie the napkin in only one corner. The
napkin should be square. Wet it after it is tied, dip in a cold
water dye bath, or for long wear boil while tied according to direc-
tions on the dye package. Rinse in cold water and press. Ask
your home demonstration agent to help you select the colors.
When it is washed use a mild soap, or flakes of soap; dip it up
and down and press between the hands in warm suds, but do not
rub or twist. Rinse, starch, and roll in a bath towel, and iron
with a hot iron before the mats and napkins are dry. Do not
fold. Lay them flat in a box or a drawer. Always keep mats
Stenciling is unlimited in its artistic scope for home decoration
and in the making of creative articles for gifts or sale. The cloth
to be stenciled must be stretched very tightly over paper or a
blotter and pinned with thumb tacks to the board on which it is
to be stenciled. Plyboard or a large piece of heavy currugated
box paper makes a good board on which to work.
Your design should be well cut from a commercial stencil.
Later learn how to develop and cut your own stencil. To do sten-
ceiling place a little of the desired color on a plate or piece of glass,
or in tin muffin rings, then dip a clean dry stiff stencil brush into
the color. Use an up-and-down stippling motion when applying
the paint on the opening in the stencil.
When removing the stencil after the thumb tacks have been
taken out lift up the design carefully so that it will not slide off
over the wet paint and spoil the work. Hang the cloth up to dry.
When dry place on the ironing board, paint side up. Place a layer
of dampened cloth, then a dry cloth on top of the wet cloth. Press
with a hot iron. This will help to set the color and will cause the
oil to penetrate the fabric.
Instead of applying the oil paint with a brush, some people
prefer cotton wrapped around a pencil or small stick. Ask your
home demonstration agent how to make a stencil design.
A Combination Shoe Box and Seat.-Get any strong wooden
box that is a comfortable height for a seat. Have a top or lid
hinged on; on the inside of the top or lid have a large pocket with
an elastic run through a casing. An inch should be allowed at the
top of the casing. Baste material on all 3 sides. The material
for the pocket should be 11/2 times as long as the finished pocket,
and wide enough to fit the inside of the top or lid. Baste a box
pleat or gather it at the bottom; tack the gathering or box pleat,
then tack up on each side of the pocket. Be careful to let the part
with the little heading and elastic be placed within 2 or 3 inches
of the edge of the top of the lid. Next, pad the seat by placing
a layer of moss, then a layer of cotton on the outside top of the
lid. Confine it with any old sack, tack all around on all sides.
Cover the sides and the outside of the box lid with a cretonne or
some dyed material, then tack securely. If a stencil is used be
sure the material is thoroughly dry before upholstering with it.
Finish top or lid with a 5-inch ruffle tacked all around the edge
of the lid. This ruffle should be made 2/2 times around the top
on all sides. Turn hem at the bottom of the ruffle and sew before
it is applied; leave a heading at the top, gather, then tack on the
edge of the box lid. This should fall over the side of the box when
the lid is closed.
For variety the cloth may be tied and dyed; or stenciled if an
old sack is used. Many attractive designs can be worked out in
both dyeing and stenciling. This combination seat is useful in
the bedroom and may serve as your first unit in a thrift bedroom.
See circular 46, Thrift Room Suggestions for Florida 4-H Club
A BEAUTIFUL HOME-OUTSIDE
For attractive surroundings for the home, study what is needed
in your home grounds and see what can be done to make them
more attractive. Mend steps, porch floors and porch furniture,
and make braided chair seat covers, and later a braided rug for
the porch, bedroom or living room. If the braided rug is well
made no other rug is more attractive.
Begin with a simple foundation planting. Plan it, study the
sketch, make your plans on paper with a key as to what to plant.
If your foundation planting is all that is desired, then help to in-
spire others in the neighborhood to make a foundation planting
of some bright, easily grown flower. Make the easiest plan, one
that will be attractive with little time spent on it. A mass plant-
ing of petunias or periwinkles (Vinca) is most attractive-the
green mass starred with the color of the blossoms is beautiful.
Clear the yard and premises of tin cans, broken dishes, weeds,
and other trash which is not only unattractive but also unhealth-
ful, nearly always being mosquito breeding places. Plow up and
fertilize the yard for grass. Paint or whitewash the fences and
outbuildings, make walks and driveways. Ask for plans and learn
how to make steppingstones. Read Questions to Make You Think
on Exterior Beautification, Cir. 988.
Make a diagram of planting plans, with a key similar to that
shown in Fig. 6. The numbers in the drawing represent different
kinds of plants. Some desirable groupings of plants for founda-
tion plantings follow:
Group A.-1, Wax myrtle; 2, periwinkle or petunias; 3, weep-
ing jasmine; 4, a low growing edging plant, such as oxalis or
Group B.-1, Ligustrum; 2, abelia; 3, Jasminum primulinum,
weeping jasmine, to be kept trimmed low; 4, low growing annuals
Group C.-1, Pittosporum; 2, Jasminum primulinum; 3, trail-
ing lantana in lavender or orange; 4, annuals for border.
Periwinkle and petunias are easy to grow and attractive. They
might well be more widely used around rural homes.
If you already have pretty foundation plantings, help a neigh-
bor to get started. Keep up your plantings.
Grass for the Yard.-All soils should be enriched when neces-
sary. If the soil is too sandy, work in some clay loam and chop
in some barnyard manure to fertilize the ground. A planting
Fig. 6.-Attractiveness in foundation plantings can be obtained with a
small variety of shrubs. A planting diagram such as that shown below
will help in making foundation plantings. Different shrubs can be used
for the different numbers, but this particular planting contained the fol-
2. Wax privet
3. Indian azalea
4. Weeping jasmine
Spiraea cantoniensis (double)
of field peas can also be made in the spring; turn this under for
more fertilization in the summer, then plant grass in the yard.
Centipede grass has proven very successful for lawns in Florida.
It was introduced from China in 1918 and seems better adapted
to dry sandy soils than any other grass. While it becomes wilted
and dry under dry conditions, it revives quickly and on high, dry
sand has crowded out all other grasses, including bermuda.
Centipede grass makes a very attractive lawn with less atten-
tion than any of the other lawn grasses. It requires less water
and mowing and, once established, holds its stand indefinitely.
There are many beautiful lawns of centipede grass growing on
high, dry sand, as well as on heavier soils, scattered throughout
Walks should be as few as possible and should be located so as
to be most serviceable. Leave the lawn as nearly unbroken by
walks as possible. Walks leading from the driveway to the porch
will leave the lawn with open and green spaces. This walk may
be made of steppingstones, of broken concrete or wood, or of pine-
straws. The walk can be straight to one end of the porch from
side drive, or to the entrance at the front. The backyard should
have walks where most needed. Pine straw may be a fire hazard
if there are careless smokers in the family. Driveways may be
made from the road to the garage at the side of the lawn; these
may be made of pine straw, clay, or concrete runways, letting the
grass grow between.
Mend the Gates and Fences.-If the gates are beyond mending
with extra plank, hinges, and a good latch, build new ones. Get
some designs or drawings of gates, and get the help of a 4-H
Club boy to make the gate. Mend fences. If made of wire put a
plank at the top and whitewash it or paint it, paint the posts.
Board fences and picket fences are very attractive when kept in
Plant Trees.-Plant trees to frame the house. Name them in
honor of some member of the family, or a friend, who has gone to
war. Encourage the neighbors to do this also. Those who have
plenty of trees at home should plant at the church or on the school
grounds for beautification. Consult your home demonstration
agent regarding the selection.
Hedges and Vines.-Hedges add much beauty to the yard. A
hedge planted against a wire fence makes a great improvement
in the yard. For northern Florida a Cherokee rose, yellow jas-
mine, or lantana makes a nice covering or hedge for a fence, for
southern Florida the bougainvillea is unexcelled. The weeping
lantana is a slender-stemmed plant that can hardly be classed as
a vine but which can be used to cover sloping banks or low fences.
This blooms from early spring until winter, and can be had in
one or many colors. Cut the black bark to the ground in February
so that an entire new top growth will be forced out in the spring.
Lantana is propagated by cuttings.
Whitewash.-Whitewash for fences, out-buildings and some
weather-beaten houses is cheaper than paint but does not "wear"
as well. Whitewash can be put directly on either old or new
wood, inside or outside. If possible, use paint on all new wood in
new houses because paint preserves the wood. Whitewash "fresh-
ens up" a place when applied to all out-buildings, fences and
fence posts. For painted surfaces having a gloss finish the gloss
should be killed before the whitewash is applied. This is done by
washing it over with a strong solution of salsoda and water.
Below are two good recipes for whitewash.
Points in Mixing Whitewash.-Slaking of the lime should be
done with considerable care. The lime may be slaked in a large,
tight barrel or tub or in an old wash kettle. Keep the lime covered
with water to prevent scorching, which makes the whitewash
lumpy and transparent. Keep the container in which the lime is
slaking covered with an old sack with some planks placed over
the sack; stir frequently with a big wooden paddle. After the
lime is slaked, strain it through a sifter or coarse clean fertilizer
or potato sack, then add the other ingredients.
GOVERNMENT WHITEWASH FORMULAS
1. Slake barrel of lime, dissolve 1 peck of common salt and
boil 3 pounds of rice until it is a thick paste. Mix these together
and add while the mixture is still hot 1/2 pound of plaster of paris
and 1 pound of dissolved glue. Then add 5 gallons of water and
let it stand for a few days. Apply hot to the building with special
whitewash brushes. A quart of carbolic acid makes this mixture
a good disinfectant for henhouses.
2. Whitewash can be made by slaking 10 pounds of quicklime
in a pail with 2 gallons of water, covering the pail with cloth or
burlap and allowing it to slake for 1 hour. Water is then added
to bring the whitewash to a consistency which may be applied
readily with a good whitewash brush.
Let our watchword be: Health, comfort, beauty, thrift for our