Title: Grazing for Florida livestock
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084499/00001
 Material Information
Title: Grazing for Florida livestock
Series Title: Grazing for Florida livestock
Alternate Title: Circular 63 ; Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Smith, J. Lee.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date: June 1942
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084499
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 225866662

Full Text

Circular 63

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)


By J. LEE SMITH, Agronomist,

Every farm on which livestock is kept can use a few acres of
good pasture very profitably. It is the cheapest way of provid-
ing the roughage needed for farm animals. It will furnish prac-
tically all the feed needed for the production of certain classes
of cattle, sheep and goats. Hogs, dairy cattle, chickens, and
work animals need a certain amount of it. Twenty-five percent
of the grain ration and 50% of the hay needed for work animals
have been saved by permitting them to graze on good pasture
at night, during Sundays, and at other idle times.


Fig. 1.-Clover is making excellent growth on hundreds of farms
scattered throughout a good part of Florida. Moist soils, good seedbeds,
seed inoculation, adapted varieties, and proper fertilization are the
secrets of success.

June, 1942

Cooperative Extension Work

1. SOIL.-The soil for clovers should hold moisture well,
and may range from damp to wet. "Seepy" land on which free
water does not stand will grow clover. Any excess seepage
may be relieved by hillside or other ditches. Clover may be
planted on raw unimproved land, improved cultivated land, or on
grass sod. To establish and maintain clover on dry lands is very
2. SEEDBED.-The seedbed should be firm and most of the
vegetation should be destroyed. If it has been plowed or disked
it can be packed by rains or other means before the seed are
sown. Grass sod should be grazed very closely before clover
seed are sown to insure the seed coming into contact with the
damp soil.
3. FERTILIZATION.-The following kinds and amounts of
fertilizers should be applied per acre and worked into the sur-
face soil before clover seed are sown:
2,000 pounds of raw limestone (high calcium preferred for
California Bur, Sweet, and Black Medic but dolomite can be
used for others).
500 to 600 pounds of 16% or 20% superphosphate or equiva-
100 to 150 pounds of 50% or 60% muriate of potash.
A little manure or 75 to 100 pounds of nitrate of soda per
acre or its equivalent may be added to the above to improve
the early growth on raw lands. Two hundred to 300 pounds super-
phosphate and 25 to 50 pounds potash should be applied annually.
Succeeding applications of lime may consist of approximately
500 pounds annually or 2,000 pounds every few years. These
materials must be evenly distributed over all the lands or spots
of poor growth will result. These poor spots should receive
more materials before the next growing season.
On muck soils having a calcareous subsoil 500 pounds of a
complete fertilizer analyzing 4% phosphoric acid, 6% nitrogen
and 24% potash should be applied ordinarily to get satisfactory
clover growth. On these soils a mixture of 50 pounds of copper
sulphate, 50 pounds of manganese sulphate and 10 pounds of
zinc sulphate per acre may be necessary, depending upon pre-
vious soil treatments.
On sandy soils having a calcareous subsoil 1,000 pounds of
a complete fertilizer analyzing 4% phosphoric acid, 6% nitro-
gen, and 12% potash will suffice. The elements (phosphate,



When reference is made to AAA in this publication
and it is different from the following, it is in
error and the following is correct.

Very material assistance can be secured from the AAA Program in establishing pastures and for
certain grazing crops. In 1944 such assistance is as follows: (1) For the preparation and
seeding or sodding permanent pastures $5.00 per acre, including Napier grass in 5 foot rows
and 1 1/2 feet apart; (2) Establishing a cover of White Dutch or California Bur Clover $2.50
per acre (The payment for these two practices will be at these rates times the extent (number
of acres) carried out and is not limited by the farm allowance); (3) Establish a permanent
cover of kudzu $6.00 per acre; (4) Reseeding depleted pasture 25 cents per pound of seed;
(5) Mowing or chopping permanent pasture to control weeds and shrubs 50 cents per acre for
one mowing and $1.00 per acre for two or more mowing, (6) Control of Myrtle applicablee only
in South Florida) $2.00 per acre; (7) Control of 'sWhrface water on pastures 6 cents per cubic
yard of earth removed; (8) Establishing a cover of ryegrass $2.00 per acre; (9) Establishing
a cover of oats or rye seeded in fall of 1943 $1.50 per acre; (10) For the application of
superphosphate either alone or in mixtures Po improved pastures, kudzu, White Dutch or Cali-
fornia Bur Clover 4 cents per pmnnd of,;Q this is equivalent to $16.00 per ton for 20 per-
cent material; (11) For other phosphate -aterials, the rates of assistance are: 3asic slag,
$7.50 per ton; 28 percent raw rock ov colloidel, $5.75 per ton; 18 percent raw rock or col-
loidal, $5.00 per ton; (12) For applying dolomite $5.00 per ton and for applying other lime-
stone $3.50 per ton. The practiceS listed in items (3) through (12) above are limited by the
farm allowance.

To secure this assistance these practices must conform to the specifications found in the
1944 Florida Handbook.

Grazing for Florida Livestock

nitrogen and potash) constituting the above mixture may be
applied together or separately. Very small quantities of the
minor elements will suffice for the sandy soils.
On low marl hammock soils 600 pounds of 16% superphos-
phate and 150 pounds of muriate of potash may be used. To in-
sure better early growth 75 pounds of nitrate of soda or its
equivalent may be added. A complete fertilizer carrying these
elements may be used instead.
4. SEED AND SEEDING.-The following kinds and amounts
of seed are recommended when clover is being planted alone
(there is no assistance offered by AAA for seeding clover alone):
On Wet lands 3 to 5 pounds of Louisiana White Dutch
or a mixture of
2 to 3 pounds of Louisiana White Dutch
1 to 3 pounds of Persian.
Five to 8 pounds of California Bur may be added to the above
when seeded on alkaline muck or sandy muck soils of southern
Florida. One to 2 pounds of Alsike may be added when sowing on
acid muck soils. Five to 7 pounds of Italian rye grass added to
the mixture for alkaline muck and sandy muck soils will in-
crease the grazing considerably. The same can be used on the
acid muck soils, or 3 to 6 pounds of Redtop can be substituted.
On Moist to Wet well drained soils one of the following mix-
tures may be used:
1% to 22 pounds of Louisiana White Dutch,
3 to 5 pounds of California Bur,
1% to 2% pounds of Little Hop and
1% to 2% pounds of Black Medic
5 to 8 pounds of California Bur
2 to 3 pounds of Little Hop and
2 to 3 pounds of Black Medic
Seeding should be done during the last of October or during
November. A more uniform seeding will be secured if a me-
chanical seeder, such as the Cyclone, is used. If the seed are
sown during a rain they will not need covering; otherwise they
should be covered very lightly immediately after being sowed
to protect inoculation. They can be covered sufficiently with
a brush drag, a weeder, or a roller if the soil is loose. If they
are sown on a grass sod they should be covered by running a

Cooperative Extension Work

disk over it, set nearly straight, so that the seed will be shaken
down to the damp earth and a small amount of earth will be
thrown over them. The land may be disked before the seed
are sown and then they can be covered by a brush, a weeder, or
a spike-tooth harrow.
5. INOCULATION.-All clover seed must be inoculated.
California Bur and Black Medic require Culture "A". White
Dutch, Little Hop and Persian take Culture "B". These letters
are usually placed on the can or package by the manufacturer.
Three to five times the quantity usually recommended by the
manufacturer should be used for best results in Florida.
The seed should be placed in a tub and a thin syrup added
and stirred until each seed is thinly covered with it. The proper
amount of culture should be added and the mixture stirred thor-
oughly again. Dry soil or preferably peanut meal or cottonseed
meal should then be added to the mixture and all stirred for
the third time until the seed are separate and dry enough for
sowing. The inoculated seed should be kept in the shade until
sown and then covered immediately. Seed on which different
cultures are used should be inoculated separately but may be
sown together.
6. RESEEDING.-Clovers should be grazed but permitted
to reseed heavily the first year.
Carpet, Dallis and Vasey grasses are suited to damp or wet
soils. Vasey seed are very seldom obtainable. Ten pounds of
Carpet or Vasey or 12 to 14 pounds of Dallis seed should be sown
per acre. Bermuda and Bahia are suited to moist soil. Ten
pounds of Bermuda or 12 to 14 pounds of Bahia seed per acre is
the proper amount to sow. A mixture of at least 10 pounds of
Carpet and Dallis or Bermuda and Bahia per acre may be used
if desired. Bermuda, Bahia or Carpet may be established by sod
pieces or rooted runners set 21/2 feet apart and adequately cov-
ered. Carib, Para, and giant Bermuda are suited to the muck
or better soils of southern Florida and may be established in
the same way. St. Lucie grass is suitable for the muck soils of
southern Florida. Dallis has proven best suited to northwestern
Florida and the Everglades, but may be successfully grown on
the damp fertile hammocks of central Florida.
Some grass seed can be sown any time it is convenient, but
it is thought best to plant at the beginning of the summer rainy

Grazing for Florida Livestock 5

Fig. 2.-This permanent pasture of carpet, bermuda, Dallis and les-
pedeza provides excellent grazing for these dairy cows.

season when there is a consistent supply of moisture. This is es-
pecially true for Bahia and Dallis.
All grasses should be sown on well prepared seedbeds. The
AAA program requires a minimum of double disking, stirring of
top soil and destroying the natural vegetation. Carpet and
Bermuda seed should be sown on firmed seedbeds and covered
very lightly. A brush drag or weeder is suitable to cover them.
Bahia or Dallis should be covered from 1/z to 1 inch deep unless
it is sown on rough loose earth during or just before a heavy
rain, when no covering is necessary. If no rain or only a light
rain falls a roller should be used. Dallis and Bahia grasses will
do better (in both stand and growth) when fertilized with 1,000
pounds of lime and 300 to 400 pounds of 16% or 20% super-
phosphate and 25 to 50 pounds of muriate of potash per acre.
Seventy-five to 100 pounds per acre of nitrate of soda or its
equivalent will also help materially in establishing these grasses
on most lands. In addition to the lime, from 200 to 400 pounds
of 4-7-5, 8-8-5 or 6-8-4 may be used instead of the materials. A
like application of a complete fertilizer will be beneficial in es-
tablishing all other grasses on raw lands.
NAPIER GRASS, which is suitable for any well drained soil,
will furnish an abundance of late spring and summer grazing
when properly managed. It is suited to a wider range of soils
than most sod grasses. It may be propagated by roots or cut-

Cooperative Extension Work

tings laid like sugarcane in a water furrow and covered 2 to 4
inches deep depending upon the type of soil or three-joint cut-
tings may be set upright or slanting two or three feet apart in
the drill with one joint above the surface of the ground. The
rows should be five or six feet apart. This will take from 2,500
to 3,500 cuttings per acre. It should be cultivated similar to
sugarcane during the first year, but disking the middle will be
sufficient the following years.
Four or five hundred pounds of complete fertilizer per acre
should be applied to it on most soils of Florida in late winter or
early spring and an application of 100 pounds or more of nitrate
of soda or its equivalent may be added after each grazing period,
depending upon the fertility of the soil.
Napier grass should not be grazed until it is well established
and should never be very closely grazed continuously. It is bet-
ter to have two or more small pastures and rotate the grazing,
letting one or more grow while one is being grazed.
It will furnish grazing or hay or may be used as an ensilage
or soiling crop. LESPEDEZA
Fifteen or more (AAA requires 25) pounds of common, Ten-
nessee 76 or Kobe lespedeza should be sown when being sown
alone or 5 or more pounds with 7 pounds or more of any of the
pasture grasses singly, or in combinations, except when they are
set on wet lands. It will also do well on soils too light for most
sod grasses. It prefers clay subsoil lands of North Florida but
may be grown on the sandy soils of the flat pine woods. The
superphosphate, lime, and potash application suggested for Dallis
and Bahia will assist in getting a good growth of lespedeza. On
some lands inoculation of seed will help.
The most profitable pasture will probably be a mixture of
grasses, clovers, and lespedeza, if kinds are chosen to suit the
soil. Dallis and/or Carpet, White Dutch and Persian clover
would be an excellent mixture for wet lands. A mixture of
Dallis, Bahia and/or Carpet grasses, White Dutch clover and
lespedeza is suitable for lands ranging from very damp to wet.
Bahia, Bermuda, or a mixture of Bahia and Bermuda grasses,
Little Hop, California Bur, and either Black Medic clover or
lespedeza or both should make a good pasture on moist to very
damp soils. Bahia and Bermuda grasses and lespedeza are
better suited to the dryer soils than other grasses but none of

Grazing for Florida Livestock

them will do their best there. When a mixture of grasses and
clovers is planted the fertilizers recommended for clovers should
be used.
On the red clay subsoil lands of western Florida kudzu makes
a valuable pasture and forage crop. A good seedbed should be
prepared before the seedlings or crowns are set. Five hundred
or more plants per acre should be set during the dormant period,
preferably during February and the first half of March. From
200 to 300 pounds of 16% to 20% superphosphate per acre should
be applied at planting. A little manure applied in the hill will
aid materially in establishing kudzu. It should be set in wide
rows and cultivated, backing off from the row as it grows, until
vines cover the ground. Corn or some other clean cultivated
row crop may be grown in the middles during the first season.
It furnishes supplementary summer grazing during a drought
but is better suited to making hay.
For temporary winter and spring pasture oats, rye or rye
grass may be used. Three to four bushels of oats, one bushel
of rye, or 25 pounds of rye grass seed per acre should be sown
in the early fall. A proportionate mixture of any or all of
these may be used. The rye grass does not need to be covered
if it is sown on sod or on soft earth. It should be covered with
a brush drag if sown on firm earth. If oats, rye, and rye grass
are grazed or turned under as green manure crops and not
cut for grain or hay they will count as part of the requirements
for soil erosion-preventing or soil-building crops on cotton, to-
bacco, peanut and potato allotment farms under the ACP pro-
gram, if seeded in the fall preceding the year of payment.
Oats or rye planted in the early fall and Lespedeza sown in
it in the early spring will furnish grazing from December through
till the next November. Lespedeza sown in the oats or rye will
be tramped in by the grazing animals and will not have to be
covered. Lespedeza will reseed the next year if not grazed too
closely and the seed are not covered more than two inches deep.
(See Handbook for subsequent years.) Unless the land is nat-
urally fertile or was well fertilized the year before, 300 to 400
pounds per acre of a complete fertilizer may be applied to oats
or rye at planting time to increase the grazing capacity or the

Cooperative Extension Work

For temporary summer grazing or soiling crops Pearl millet
and Sudan grass are suitable. These may be drilled in rows or
sown broadcast. Twenty to 30 pounds of Sudan grass or 30 to
40 pounds of millet seed should be used per acre. These may be
sown broadcast or drilled in rows. They should be planted on
good soil fertilized with 400 to 600 pounds per acre of a com-
plete fertilizer put down before planting. A top-dressing of
100 pounds of nitrate of soda or its equivalent may be used
every six or eight weeks during the grazing season, or if two or
more pastures are available the application of nitrogen may be
made when stock is moved to another pasture.

When any of the above pasture plants are put on crop land
and used as specified in the Florida Handbook they will help
meet the minimum erosion-preventing or soil-building crops re-
quirements on cotton, tobacco, peanut and potato allotment farms
under the ACP program. (See Florida Handbook for specifica-
tions by years.)
Very material assistance can be secured from the AAA pro-
gram in establishing pastures. Assistance to the extent of $3.50
per acre is offered for seeding permanent pastures, $4.50 for es-
tablishing kudzu, $3.00 per acre for establishing pasture by plant-
ing sod pieces, $1.00 for seeding annual lespedeza not later than
March 31, $1.50 for seeding Sericea lespedeza not later than April
30, 75 cents per acre for seeding annual rye grass, 15 cents per
pound for seed for reseeding depleted pastures; and 50 cents
per acre for mowing and otherwise renovating permanent pas-
tures infested with weeds. Assistance amounting to $1.50 for
each 48 pounds of available phosphate (300 pounds of 16%,
240 pounds of 20% superphosphate or 100 pounds of 48% triple
superphosphate or its equivalent in other phosphates) can be
secured through the AAA program if the phosphate is applied
to the above pasture plants. For basic slag the assistance is
$6.60 per ton, for 28 percent raw rock or colliodal phosphate
$4.80 per ton, and for 18% raw rock or colliodal phosphate $4.20
per ton. Assistance at the rate of $4.00 per ton is offered for
dolomitic limestone and $3.00 per ton for other ground limestone.
To secure this assistance these practices must conform to the
specifications found in the Florida Handbook, and only then if
the allowance to the farm is sufficient to pay all practices done.

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