Circular 131 May 1955
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University and
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director
Lychee Insect Control
Several insects have been recorded on lychees
in Florida. Many thousand trees are now estab-
lished and growing within the State. As acreages
increase, growers may expect additional insect
problems, particularly where trees are planted in
KINDS OF INSECTS
Scale Insects.-The most serious scale-insect
on lychees is the lychee bark scale, Pseudaulacaspis
major, which is found on bark and fruit. This is
an armored scale and the female is generally oval
in shape, convex, and a dusty-white in color.
The next most serious scale-insect is the green
shield scale, Pulvinaria psidii, a soft scale. The
mature female, before egg deposition, is green
in color, oval, smooth and moderately convex. With
egg-laying, the female extrudes the eggs into a
developing mass of cotton-like material. The female
becomes shrivelled or mis-shapen and is usually
surrounded by the cottony egg-sac. Several other
scales of lesser importance infest lychees.
Red Spiders (Mites).-A number of mites, in-
cluding the avocado red mite, have been reported
on lychees. Mites are not true insects. They have
sucking mouthparts and are mainly pests of the
foliage, causing it to turn a bronze color. The tiny
mites are so small that careful examination is nec-
essary to detect their presence.
Plant Bugs.-The big-legged plant bug and the
green stink-bug belong to this group of insects.
They have piercing-sucking mouthparts and cause
injury by feeding on the fruit. This injury provides
an entrance for the fungus causing anthracnose
when full grown. Another is a leaf roller, tier
fruit scarring worm that is yellowish-green in co
It ties the bloom stems together and feeds on
tender stems and young fruit. Other caterpillars
lesser importance cause damage to lychees.
Thrips.-Thrips may damage foliage by caus
a curling of the leaves and light-brown discoloratii
Insect Material Amo
Lychee bark scale Parathion 15% wettable 1 lb.
(other armored powder plus summer oil plus
Summer oil concentrate 1 ga
Green shield scale Malathion 25% 4 Ib:
(other soft scales) wettable powder plus
plus summer oil oil (
materials for lychee Sami
bark scale scal
Red spiders Wettable sulfur 8 lb.
Dusting Sulfur 35 tv
Plant bugs Parathion 15% wettable 1-1'
(stink bugs and powder para
related insects) or water
Lindane 25% wettable 1 lb.
Caterpillars Parathion 15% wettable 1 lb.
Lindane 25% wettable 1 lb.
Ambrosia beetles Lindane 25% wettable 1 lb.
Thrips Dieldrin 50% wettable % lb
Parathion or lindane Same
Grasshoppers, Dieldrin 50% wettable % lb
Katydids powder per
Grasshoppers and Katydids.-These insects
ive chewing mouth parts and are general feeders.
occasionally, they may become a problem in lychee
oves. Katydids are green in color, feed mostly at
ght and deposit their eggs along the leaf margins.
rasshoppers lay their eggs in the soil. When the
;gs hatch, the young grasshoppers or nymphs
,nerally feed on the available ground cover vegeta-
on in the grove, and around the margins of the
ove, before migrating to the trees to feed.
Application of insecticides to these areas at
e proper time usually will prevent them from be-
>ming established in the trees. Dieldrin as listed
Sthe spray chart or any of the commonly used
rasshopper insecticides, such as aldrin or chlor-
ine, is effective. In groves where grasshoppers
'e expected to be a problem, it is possible to ob-
iin considerable control by special cultivation
practices (see Florida Agricultural Experiment
nation Bulletin 496).
Various percentages of emulsifiable concentrate
id wettable powder formulations are available. No
:tempt has been made to list all of them in the
iart. Equivalent amounts of emulsifiable concen-
ates or other wettable powder formulations may be
,ed in place of those listed in the control chart.
example: Approximately 1% pints of 50% malathion
nulsifiable concentrate may be substituted for 4