Title: Electric demonstrations made easy
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084476/00001
 Material Information
Title: Electric demonstrations made easy
Series Title: Electric demonstrations made easy
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Pettis, A. M.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084476
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 135030281

Full Text
Circular 124

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June 1954

Electric Demonstrations Made Easy

Farm Electrification Specialist, Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Electric demonstrations are easy to give. They should be
interesting to most people, since nearly everyone has electricity.
This material has been prepared to help 4-H boys and girls to
give demonstrations on electricity. The demonstrations in this
circular are only a few of the many electric demonstrations pos-
sible. Circular 112, "Electricity Made Easy," should be used
with this circular in learning to give electric demonstrations.
The script given is only a suggestion to help 4-H members
get started. Do not memorize this script! It is better to read
it over carefully until you have the general idea, then present
the information in your own words.

Materials Needed.-A piece of lamp cord (two cloth-covered
twisted wires) about 6 inches long for the one giving the demon-
stration and for each person to be taught.
1st Person: My name is and I am a member
of the --- 4-H Club. Today I am going to teach
you to tie the electrician's knot and tell you about it. This knot
is used on appliance cords and extension cords at the plug cap.
The purpose of the knot is to relieve the strain from the screws
of the plug cap and keep the wires from pulling out.
Now, each one take a piece of this wire and I will teach you
to tie the electrician's knot. (Pass the wires to the audience.
Then turn your back to the audience and hold the lamp cord
above your head while you slowly tie the knot and explain
it at the same time. This is very important, for if you tie the
knot facing your audience it will be hard to follow.)
Take the wire on the right and make a loop the way I do.
(Demonstration will follow the drawings in "Electricity Made
Easy.") Next, we'll bring the left wire around in front of the
first wire and through the loop from the back side. (Go slowly
so audience can keep up with you.) Now put the two ends of the
wires together and pull tightly. This completes the electrician's
knot. (Repeat if necessary until everyone can tie the knot.)

Materials Needed.-Several approved-type hard rubber (or
unbreakable plastic) plug caps and several small screw drivers
and sharp pocket knives. One or two poor-type plug caps, which
have no grip or will break.

Tying the electrician's knot.

1st Person: My name is and my partner is
.We are members of the 4-H
Club. We are going to show you how to replace a broken plug
cap which is used on the end of appliance cords and extension
These plug caps break or wear out fairly often but it is easy
to replace them. The plug cap should be made of hard rubber
with a grip so it can be removed easily from the electric outlet
without pulling on the wire. (Show approved type and a poor

type of plug cap.) After going through the plug cap, the cord
needs an electrician's knot tied in it. Now my partner is going
to show you how to tie the electrician's knot.
2nd Person: Gives demonstration No. 1.
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Replacing the plug cap.
1st Person: (Show the audience while you talk, then let them
do it.) Remove the insulation from about 1/2 inch of the two
wires with a sharp knife. Cut the insulation like you would
sharpen a pencil, but be careful not to cut or nick the shiny
brass wires. Now, pass the cord through the plug cap and tie
the electrician's knot. Then bring the wires around the cap
prongs as shown (see "Electricity Made Easy"). Twist the
shiny brass wires tightly, then put them around the screws in
a clockwise direction (the way a clock's hands turn) so the
screws will hold the wire firmly when tightened. Tighten the
screws with the screw driver, and replace the thin cardboard

cover on the plug cap. (Give personal help as needed until
audience learns to replace the plug cap.)

Materials Needed.-Pointer-type meter face (made of plywood
or cardboard with movable pointers. When constructing, refer
to "Electricity Made Easy." If unable to make a dummy meter
face, use a blackboard.)
1st Person: My name is and this is my part-
ner, We are members of the
4-H Club, and we're going to teach you how to read an electric
meter. Some of you probably have complained at some time or
other about your electric bill being too high-but how many of
you know how to read an electric meter and tell exactly how
much electricity you have used?
To find the electricity used in a month it is necessary to read
the meter on the first of the month and then read it again a
month later. Then subtract the first reading from the one taken
at the end of the month.
2nd Person: There are two types of electric meters-the
speedometer type and the pointer type. The speedometer type
has four numbers just like a speedometer on a car and it is read
from left to right; for example, 4962 kilowatt-hours. This type
meter is easy to read.

Reading an electric meter.

1st Person: The other type meter is the pointer type (show
audience the dummy meter face). It has four pointers that
show the four numbers in the reading. These pointers turn in
the direction from 0 around the dial toward 9. (Show direction
each pointer turns.) When a pointer is between two numbers
the reading will be the smaller number. For example, the pointer
is between 4 and 5, the number is four. Each pointer shows a
figure and the reading is from left to right, for example, 7641
KWH. (Set the pointers to give this reading.)
2nd Person: I am now going to set the pointers and ask some-
one in the audience to read the meter. Remember, when the
pointer is between two numbers the reading is the smaller num-
ber. (Set the pointers and call on someone to read it. Repeat
two or three times.)
1st Person: Now that everyone can read the meter, remem-
ber, to find how many kilowatt-hours of electricity one uses in
a month, take a reading, then take another reading a month
later, and subtract the first one from the second one.

Materials Needed.-A small length of water pipe and faucet
and an electric fuse box and breaker box (or a blackboard or
sign showing these things). You will also need a 115V con-
venience outlet, 230V range outlet, several fuses of different
sizes, one circuit breaker, and a penny.
1st Person: My name is and my partner is
SWe belong to the 4-H Club,
and today we're going to explain some things to you about elec-
tricity. Some people think electricity is hard to understand, but
it's really very simple. Here, I'll show you. Suppose we com-
pare the electric system in the home to the water system.
Everyone knows that in a water system you must have large
pipes to carry lots of water and give the pressure needed at the
end of the pipe. (Show faucet.) If the pipe is long and of small
size, the pressure will be low at this faucet and we won't get
much water. Now electricity works the same way-we must
have big wires to carry lots of electricity and to have the proper
"electric pressure." The word meaning "electric pressure" is
volts or voltage. We have 115 volts at convenience outlets for
radios, lamps, fans, etc. (Show convenience outlet.) A special
outlet is needed to bring twice this much-230 volts-to a range
or water heater. (Show range outlet.)

2nd Person: In a water system, the amount of water flowing
in a pipe is called gallons per minute. The amount of electricity
flowing in a wire is called amperes or amps. Fuses are rated
in amps. This means they will allow only a certain amount of
electricity to flow. For example, a 15 amp fuse will allow only
15 amps to flow (show 15A fuse).
(Hold up penny.) This penny is the most dangerous thing
around your house, if you've been using one behind blown fuses
to turn on the electricity. Don't ever do this again or you may
burn down your house! If there is a short circuit, the wires
will keep getting hotter until they will likely cause a fire.
Always use 15A fuses for lights and wall plugs (wall outlets)
in all rooms except the kitchen and dining room. Use 20A fuses
for the kitchen and dining room outlets. The water pump,
range and water heater should be on separate circuits. This
equipment should have the size of fuse recommended by the
Fuses and circuit-breakers protect your wiring from getting
too hot and starting a fire that may burn down your house. A
circuit-breaker takes the place of a fuse and it trips off if the
line is overloaded. (Show circuit-breaker.) After the trouble
has been corrected, the circuit-breaker can be reset (show how).
It can be used over and over again, and there is no fuse to buy.
Circuit-breakers will cost slightly more than fuses at the time
they are installed, but in the long run they will be cheaper and
Explaining electric terms.

Equipment Needed.-Blackboard or chart with a rate used
in your area listed on it. Also, use the blackboard or another
chart to show how a bill is figured.
1st Person: My name is and my partner is
.We are members of the 4-H
Club. Lots of people complain about their electric bills, but
some of those people don't know how to figure their bill to see
if they have been overcharged. We are going to show you how
to figure an electric bill. The rate we will use may not be your
rate, so let me emphasize that you should get a copy of the
rates from your power supplier before you try to figure your
own bill.
2nd Person: Electric rates vary over the state. All rates are
set up in steps so that as more electricity is used, the cost is
cheaper per KWH. Here is a typical rate from the (name of
local power supplier*):
First 25 KWH or less ..........$2.45
Next 25 KWH @ .................---. 44 per KWH
Next 50 KWH @ ............-... 34 per KWH
Next 100 KWH @( ...........-....--- 24 per KWH
Over 200 KWH @ .-------....-...... 1.54 per KWH
Note: The above rate is only a sample rate. Use the rate of your own
local power supplier. Read rate out loud from the chart while you show
it to the audience.
Figuring an electric bill.

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1st Person: Let us suppose that we used 300 KWH last month.
Using the rate my partner showed you, let's figure the bill.
(Use blackboard or chart to do figuring. If chart is used, it
would be best to cover it with several strips of paper and then
remove one at a time as each step is explained.)
25 KWH $2.45
25 KWH @ 4c = 25 x 4 = 1.00
50 KWH @ 3( = 50 x 3 = 1.50
100 KWH @ 2 = 100 x 2 = 2.00
100 KWH @ 1.50 = 100 x 1.5 = 1.50
Total 300 KWH $8.45 plus taxes
2nd Person: Some power suppliers give a special low rate for
water heaters or other electric equipment. If this applies to
you, be certain to use this special rate when figuring your bill.
Every electric bill has a state utility tax added, and those
on city lines may have a city tax added to their bill. Many
Florida power suppliers add a fuel clause to the bill which means
that the price of fuel oil at a certain time in the past determines
the base rate. Then each increase in the cost of fuel oil means
a small percentage increase in the electric bill. When the fuel
oil price goes back down to normal this extra charge will be
Equipment Needed.-Blackboard or charts showing the fol-
lowing: outline of floor plan, electric symbols and completed
floor plan.
1st Person: My name is and my partner is
.We are members of the 4-H
Club. Today we are going to show you how to draw a plan of
your house, showing the parts of the electric system-such as
switches, lights and wall outlets. If you are building a home
or remodeling and increasing the wiring in your home, this plan
will be very helpful. By using such a plan you can have wiring
installed that will give you safe, convenient use of electric equip-
ment for many years to come.
First, we should draw a rough outline of the floor plan, show-
ing the various rooms, walls and doorways. It may be necessary
to measure the dimensions of rooms before we begin, in order
to make this plan fairly accurate. The house plan may look
something like this: (Draw the plan on a blackboard or show
a chart. The house plan will be similar to the one in "Electricity
Made Easy" but leave off wiring symbols and give the dimensions
of rooms.)

2nd Person: Wiring symbols are used on a plan instead of
writing in the words "this is a light, or a switch, or a wall out-
let," because the symbol doesn't use much space. Here are some
commonly used wiring symbols:

+ Lighting outlet in ceiling

- Pull chain light

S 115V convenience outlet (wall plug) Note: These two symbols
are always drawn with the
straight lines perpendicular
230V outlet for range or water heater to the wall of the room.

S Ordinary wall switch

S3 3-way switch (two of these switches will control lights or
equipment from two points)
S4 4-way switch (one of these switches is used with two 3-way
switches to give control from three points)

1st Person: Now let's add wiring symbols to show the wiring
in our homes at present. (Do this on the blackboard or show
a chart.)
2nd Person: Now we've seen how to draw a plan. Let's sup-
pose we want to have a home wired or have the existing wiring
improved. A plan would be a great help in deciding where to

Pointing out wiring symbols on a house plan.

put outlets, switches and lights. So let's change this plan and
put in improvements over the existing wiring.
1st Person: This Extension Circular, Number 93, entitled
"Planning Farm Wiring," will be helpful in making the improved
plan. (Hold up circular and show audience.) It tells where
wall outlets, switches and lighting should be located. It also
contains other valuable information about electricity.
In bedrooms, living rooms and dining rooms, outlets should
be located preferably every 12 feet along the wall. Then lamps,
radios and other appliances with 6 foot cords can be used any-
where along the wall. In kitchens, the outlets should be located
near work areas and where large equipment such as refrigerators
will be used. (Using the house plan showing existing wiring,
add wall outlets that are needed.)
2nd Person: My partner has added the needed wall outlets
to the plan; now I'll add the lighting and the switches that are
needed. Switches should always be placed on the lock side of
doors so it will be easy to turn them on or off when going through
the door. In large rooms with several doors, such as the living
room, it is a good idea to control the lights from switches near
each door. Two 3-way switches will control lights from two
points. To have control from more than two points, two 3-way
switches will be needed and, in addition a 4-way switch will be
needed at each other point. (See "Electricity Made Easy" for
more information on 3-way and 4-way switches.)
For good general lighting, most homes should have a ceiling
fixture in the living room, dining room and each bedroom.
Fluorescent lighting would be desirable in the kitchen because
it is cooler than incandescent lights. Also, it can be arranged
to give better light on the work surfaces. (Put in the lighting
and switches needed on the floor plan.)
1st Person: Other rooms, like the bathroom, will need special
lighting. Lights over the mirror or on both sides of the mirror
will probably be best for the bathroom. Closets for clothes could
use a pull-chain switch or a wall switch by the door. (Add these
symbols to the plan and anything else needed, such as a range
outlet, porch lighting, etc.)
2nd Person: Now we've all seen how easy it is to draw a
house plan showing improvements in the electric wiring. There
probably isn't a single home with too many outlets, because
people are buying lots more electrical equipment than they
thought they would when the house was wired. If you are

building a home or remodeling, be sure to plan for future uses
of electricity.

Equipment Needed.-An electric soldering iron, rosin-core
solder, file, rosin soldering paste, splices to solder, rags, rubber
tape and friction tape (or plastic tape in place of both).
1st Person: My name is and my partner is
SWe are members of the 4-H
Club. Today we're going to show you how to solder and tape
wires the right way. Soldering wires can be easy if the soldering
iron is properly cared for and the right procedure is used. (Be-
fore demonstration starts plug iron in so it will be hot.)
First, I'm going to show you how to clean the tip of a solder-
ing iron and tin it. (Place hot iron on a piece of metal and file
the tip on all sides, using long even strokes.) Next, I will tin
the tip. (Dip the tip in the soldering paste and then coat it
with solder.) Using this rag I have here, I'll wipe off excess
paste and solder, leaving the iron ready to use.

Soldering and taping wires.

2nd Person: Now that the iron is ready, I'll show you how
to solder this splice I have made. (Make splice similar to the
one shown in "Electricity Made Easy.") Now I'll apply a small
amount of soldering paste to the splice. Always hold the tip
of the iron flat against the work to be soldered. By holding it
flat against the wires the fullest amount of heat is transferred
to the wires. When the wires (not the iron) are hot enough
to melt solder, apply solder to the splice, continuing to hold the
iron against the wires. Solder should flow evenly over the splice,
then remove iron. While splice is still hot, shake it gently to
remove excess solder. (Do these things while talking about them.)
1st Person: (After wires cool.) I will show you the right
way to apply rubber tape to the splice. Rubber tape keeps out
moisture. It is put on the splice first. (If splice is longer than
31% inch, use pliers to cut it to this length.)
Take the rubber tape and tear off several inches needed to
do the job. Remove backing from the tape like this. (Do these
things as you talk.) Then place the rubber tape around the
spliced wires covering 1/4 inch of the original insulation and
stick tape against tape. After tape is stuck, stretch it and
wrap it tightly around splice, covering it completely. When you
come to the end of the wire fold the tape over the end like you'd
wrap up a sore finger, then continue wrapping another layer of
rubber tape all the way up the splice to the insulation.
2nd Person: The rubber tape alone put on the wire insulates
it, but rubber tape can be torn easily. For this reason, we need
friction tape to cover the rubber tape and protect it. The fric-
tion tape is tough, but it's not hard to tear with your hands if
you practice this. (Show how to tear tape.)
Now tear off enough tape to cover the splice. Bring tape
around the wire on the insulation and stick tape to tape. Wrap
around just like the rubber tape was put on. (When through,
pass roll of friction tape around audience so everyone can learn
to tear the friction tape. Give assistance to anyone needing
it on how to tear friction tape.)

Equipment Needed.-(This demonstration uses equipment
built according to USDA Circular, "Make This Motor Table."
If you can't build this equipment, you can borrow it from the
Agricultural Extension Service.)

1st Person: My name is and this is my part-
ner, We are members of the
4-H Club. We are going to show you how one small electric
motor can be used to turn different pieces of equipment that
are usually turned by hand. There are many people in Florida
with electricity who still spend lots of time and energy doing
work a small electric motor could do for very little cost. I think
you will be interested in this demonstration, because some of you
may be wearing your arm out when electricity could do the work
easily. (Have motor table set up ready to use when demon-
stration begins. Leave motor on the floor in front of the table.)

Using a motor table.

2nd Person: (Picking up motor.) This small 1/4 hp (or 1/3 hp)
motor has been made portable by fastening a handle on it and
by bolting this piece of broom handle (or pipe) to the base.

It can be used in a workshop to operate tools. With this motor
table, it can be used to run other equipment. (Place motor on
motor table and connect belt to pulley. Before the demonstra-
tion begins unscrew the pulley from the ice cream freezer and
screw on the handle. Now place the freezer with handle at-
tached on top of the motor table and start talking.)
Let me see the hands of everyone who likes homemade freezer
ice cream. I'm going to show you how easy it is to make your
ice cream freezer into an electric one. First, unscrew the
handle, then screw this pulley right on the shaft. Now attach
the belt and turn on the switch. (Let freezer operate about
10 seconds, then turn it off to continue demonstration.)
1st Person: We've all seen how easy it is for electricity to
take the hard work out of that good homemade ice cream. Now
suppose we wanted to churn some milk. It takes lots of work
to churn by hand, but with electricity it's easy. If you already
have a 1/4 hp motor there's no need to buy an electric churn.
Just set the ice cream freezer off and put the churn on the
table. Now attach belt and turn on the switch. (Allow to run
10 seconds, then turn off to continue demonstration.)
2nd Person: There may be some tools around the farm that
need sharpening and if we already have an electric motor like
this we won't need to buy an electric grinder. Just set the
churn off and set the emery wheel on. (Note: The belt on
the emery wheel goes directly to the motor. The speed-reducing
pulley is not used.)
Folks, let me call your attention to two rules on safety to fol-
low when sharpening tools. Always wear goggles to protect
your eyes and use a tool rest to hold the tool steady. (Operate
the emery wheel 10 seconds, then turn off.)
1st Person: Any of you who want a set of these plans for
building this motor table can have them. (Hold up plans.) For
a very low cost a person can make this motor table and use
electricity to save time and work.

Materials Needed.-A wiring panel with equipment can be
built, or it can be borrowed from the Agricultural Extension
Service. A blackboard or chart should be used showing the
5% voltage drop causes 10% less heat
10% voltage drop causes 30% less light
10% voltage drop causes 19% less power

1st Person: My name is and this is my part-
ner, We are members of the
4-H Club and we are going to show you some helpful things
about using electricity. Let me see the hands of everyone who
has complained, or heard someone complain, that the electric
bill was too high. Well, I'm sure that nearly all of us have heard
of high bills. We're going to show you some things that may
be causing your bill to be too high.
2nd Person: Electricity is easy to understand if we compare
it to a water system. All of you know that it takes large pipes to
carry a large amount of water and to give the needed pressure
at the end of the pipeline. The same is true with electricity-
we must have large wires to carry lots of electricity.
The word meaning electric pressure is volts or voltage. If
the wires are small and overloaded, the voltage will drop. This
will cause lights to be dim, motors to have less power, and heat-
ing equipment will take longer to do its work. (Point to chart.)
On this chart we see that a 5% drop in voltage gives us 10%
less heat. That is why irons and toasters take longer to heat
when used on extension cords or plugged into droplights.

Showing voltage drop.

Also, this chart shows that if the voltage drops 10% we get
30% less light. That is why the lights sometimes dim when
an appliance is plugged in. This 10% drop also gives 19%
less power for motors. That is why motors sometimes get hot
or have trouble getting started. If the voltage is too low, motors
will be damaged or ruined.
Now we are going to put aside this chart and run a little ex-
periment to see if these facts are true.
1st Person: (Before starting, plug main cable into conven-
ience outlet.) On the left side of this wiring panel we have two
coils of wire, both the same length-200 feet. One coil is the
size (No. 12) used in houses for wall outlets; the other is the
small wire (No. 18) commonly used for extension cords. We
are going to plug in an iron, a toaster and a fan on each coil of
wire and see the difference in operation.
2nd Person: (Turn the two breaker switches on to make out-
lets hot. Then plug heavy wire and small wire into outlets to
make lights come on.) Now I want everyone to notice that
these two bulbs are equally bright. This is because they are
the same size bulbs and this small wire is large enough to carry
the small amount of electricity this tiny bulb uses. But as
appliances are plugged in I believe we can see a difference in
1st Person: Now my partner is going to plug an iron and a
toaster on each of the coils of wire. Everybody notice the dif-
ference in the brightness of the bulbs. (The bulb on small wire
will not be as bright as the other.)
Now we will put bread into the toasters at the same time and
see which one gets brown first. While the toast is getting brown
my partner will plug a fan into each of the coils and see the
difference in power. (Keep talking to audience while toasters
are working. Review what has been shown and tell group that
using extension cords and plugging appliances in droplights
causes the bill to be higher because heating equipment will take
longer to do its work and the meter goes around and around
longer and it clicks off the pennies and the nickels. Also, they
have seen here the three main uses of electricity in the home
and on the farm-light, heat and power.
(Remove both slices of bread as soon as the first slice is brown.
Other slice should still be white. Hold both pieces of bread up
for audience to compare the results of the two toasters. Then
unplug all equipment and turn off switches.)

2nd Person: Now the next part of this demonstration has to
do with fuses and circuit-breakers. Everyone of you has at home
either a fuse box or a circuit-breaker box which has little switches
on it that trip off if the wiring is overloaded. Let's see the
hands of all who have a fuse box at home. Fine. Now let's
see the hands of all who have a breaker box at home.
I've heard of some people who were afraid to change a fuse
if one blew out, but I'm going to show you how easy it is to do
this. First, we screw the fuse in to make the outlet hot. Then
plug in the heavy wire to make the light come on. Now my
partner will plug in equipment until the fuse blows. (Use 10
amp fuse or smaller and plug in equipment until fuse blows.)
Now the fuse has blown. The first thing to do is to unplug
all the equipment that overloaded the line. Then unscrew the
fuse and replace it with a good one. (Show this step of changing
the fuse.)
(Important!! Be sure to tell how dangerous it is to put a
penny or tinfoil behind a blown fuse. Some people do this to
save buying a fuse, but they are taking a chance on burning
down their house. When wires are shorted something must get
hot. If there is no fuse to blow when wires are shorted, the wires
will get hot and very likely cause a fire. Also, tell the group to
keep a box of spare fuses always on hand, because if one of these
fuses ever blows it will probably be on Sunday or at night when
they can't run down to the store and buy some.)
1st Person: Now we'll show you how the circuit-breaker
operates. Both the fuse box and the circuit-breaker are ap-
proved and both are safe, if fuses of the right size are used in
the fuse box. With the breaker box, we don't have to buy fuses;
for it simply trips off when overloaded. The breaker box costs
a little more than the fuse box at time of installation, but over
the years it will be more convenient and cheaper because no
fuses have to be bought. (Turn on 5 amp breaker in upper
left corner of wiring panel.)
Now my partner will plug in the heavy wire and then put
appliances on the line until the breaker trips. Everybody watch
the breaker (show them where to watch). Don't watch me or
my partner, just watch the breaker. When the breaker trips,
we will unplug the equipment that caused the overload. Then
reset the breaker and it is ready to go again. It will keep tripping
off each time it is overloaded for many years.
2nd Person: Now we've shown you some things that may be
causing your electric bill to be too high. Look around when

you get home and see if you are using extension cords or if you
have appliances plugged into the droplights. If so, don't com-
plain when your bill is higher than it should be.
Also, you've seen how easy it is to change fuses and reset
circuit-breakers. Always check your fuse box or breaker before
calling the people who supply you with electricity.
If you have any questions on electricity, this Extension Cir-
cular 93, entitled "Planning Farm Wiring," will probably have
the answer. Each person may have one copy. (Hold up circular
for all to see.)

Materials Needed.-A kerosene lamp; electric adapter; as-
sembly of socket, cord and plug; bulb; and shade.
1st Person: My name is and this is my part-
ner, We are members of the
4-H Club. Today we are going to show you how to convert that
old kerosene lamp you have around the house into a beautiful
electric lamp. Before we begin, I'd like to say that an old kero-
sene lamp, or a bottle, jar or other container can be used to
make a nice lamp. If you want to make a lamp to read or study
by, the kerosene lamp base will be too low, so it must be raised.
We can raise it by fastening a round block of wood on the bot-
tom of the base so the bottom of the shade will be 15 inches
from the top of the table. This will help to make it a good read-
ing lamp.
2nd Person: (Showing materials.) Here we have the ma-
terials necessary to convert a kerosene lamp to electric. They are
an adapter, a cord and socket assembly, a bulb and a shade. First,
we'll unscrew the kerosene lamp wick holder and in its place
screw the adapter. So far so good. Now the socket, complete
with cord and plug cap, screws right on this adapter. (Do the
work while talking. It may be necessary to show how to attach
cord to socket and to plug cap. If so, give demonstration No. 2.)
1st Person: Now, I'll screw the bulb in the socket. When I
put the shade on and plug it in, the lamp is complete and ready
for use. (Do these things while talking.) The lamp is fine as
it is for decoration. To make a good reading lamp, let me repeat
that the base should be raised until the bottom of the shade is
15 inches from the table. The bulb should be 150W size. If an
ordinary 150W bulb is used a diffusing bowl will be needed, or
else use a 150W indirect bulb.

Converting a kerosene lamp.

2nd Person: For reading, the shade should be white on the
inside and flared at the bottom. It should be translucent-that
is, it will pass some of the light through it. This USDA leaflet
may be helpful if you want to convert a kerosene lamp. It is
entitled "Electric Lamps You Can Make or Modernize." (Hold
up leaflet for audience to see.) Each person may have one copy.

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

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