Title: Celery production guide.
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 Material Information
Title: Celery production guide.
Series Title: Celery production guide.
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service
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Bibliographic ID: UF00084473
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 221974391

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Circular 121 February 1!


(Acts of May 8 a
cultural Extension Sex
Florida State
d States Department
H. G. Clayt


I HUMBl ECUNUMIUS
nd June 30, 1914)
vice, University of Florida
University and
of Agriculture, Cooperating
on, Director


CELERY


PRODUCTION GUIDE


(Prepared in

Florida Agricull

Additional inform
lowing publications
Agricultural Experil


sup


)eration with workers
f the
1 Experiment Stations)

on is available in the
the University of Floi
it Stations: (1) Cir. S
104 and (4) Bul. 486.
:ation for distribution r
mntly available publicati
on local problems, coni
'al Agent of the Univers
1 Extension Service.


ACREAGE (1952-53 SEASON), 10,100 ACRES TC
Winter S]
Lake and Orange .................................... 750 1
Palm Beach ............................................ 2,725 1
Sarasota ........................-.......................... 800
Sem inole .................................................. 1,875
O others ....................................................... 50
TOTAL ....................-- ...... ................... 6,200 3

FIVE SEASONS (1947-48 to 1951-52) AVERAGE YI]
COSTS, AND RETURNS PER CRATE BY ARE
(Based on Representative Growers' Records and Estimates)
Ever- San- Sara-
glades Oviedo ford sota
Crates per acre ...... 521 733 561 765
Production costs .... $0.87 $0.88 $1.06 $0.93
Harvesting costs .... 1.18 1.03 1.15 1.19
Sales F.O.B. ............ 2.30 2.20 2.14 2.23
Net returns ....-.....-. 0.25 0.29 0.07 0.11


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


As
Ur


, < .,- ." A .- .1





SEEDBED DISEASES AND CONTROLS
DAMPING-OFF
Fumigation.-One pound of methyl bromide ap-
lied to 50 sq. ft. of seedbed area will control
reeds and nematodes as well as damping-off. Soil
aould be prepared and ready for planting before
imigating.
Seed Treatment.-If seedbed fumigation is not
practiced, one of the following may be beneficial:

Ounces per Teaspoonfuls
material 100 Lbs. Seed per Lb. Seed
iprocide (80%) ..................... 8 %
or
)ergon (48%) ........................ 12 1
Post-Emergence Treatment:
Spergon (48%)-3 lbs. per 100 gallons water
or
Thiram (50%)-1 lb. per 100 gallons water

Begin application soon after plants emerge and
!peat at 4- to 7-day intervals, depending on
weather. Apply about 15 gallons of the spray per
200 square feet of bed area. Increase amount
i plants become larger. These materials are com-
itible with DDT.

FIELD DISEASES AND CONTROLS
EARLY BLIGHT
iterial Amt. per 100 Gallons Water
abam (27%) ...... 2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc sulfate
mzate .............. 1 lbs.
ieb (65%) ...... 2 lbs.
*am (76%) ........ 2 lbs.
Red coppers ...... Equivalent to 1% lbs. metallic copper
In the Everglades area begin applications 7 to
days after the plants are set and repeat every
to 5 days. After 2 applications of any of the
ganic materials, follow with 1 application of
pper. Nabam gives best results in the Ever-
ides area.
In the Sanford area apply at weekly intervals
less more frequent applications are necessary.
!rbam, ziram, Manzate and copper have given
od results here.

BLACK HEART
A physiological disorder causing a blackening




itions of a cal-


.rouoDe may Di


[uantity and frequency or application neeaea are
dependent on severity of existing conditions.
Treatment is necessary usually at least once a
veek. Five to 10 pounds of calcium chloride or
.0 to 20 pounds of calcium nitrate per 100 gallons
if water applied at rates of 100 to 200 gallons per
Lcre has been used successfully and safely.

CRACKED STEM
A physiological disorder recognized by pin-hair
,racks developing on petioles. It can be corrected
)y the application of boron (see "Fertilization").

PREMATURE SEEDING OR BOLTING
Exposure to continuous low temperatures (40
;o 500 F.) for 10 days or longer during the grow-
ng period will result in bolting. The duration of
exposure and cultural conditions following ex-
>osure will determine time of appearance of seed
talks. Young plants and certain varieties are
particularlyy susceptible. Using resistant varieties
ind protecting seedbeds will aid materially in re-
lucing losses.

SCLEROTINIA (PINK ROT)
In the Sarasota muck area cyanamid applied
It the rate of 800 pounds per acre gives a measure
)f control. The material should be distributed
evenly over the surface and disked into the top
I inches of soil. The nitrogen supplied by cal-
:ium cyanamid must be considered in the fertil-
zer program.





Soil Type Fertilizer* Pounds per j
Marl ....................... 6-8-6 2,250
Muck ....... ............ 0-12-12, 5-5-8** 2,000
Peatt ................... 0-8-24, 0-10-20 2,000
Sandy ................... 6-6-8 5,000
A 4-8-8 may be used in place of 6-8-6 provided equivalent am<
of nitrogen are applied.
** Use 5-5-8 at 4,000 pounds per acre on mucks mixed or under
with sands.
t On virgin peats use 0-8-24 or 0-10-20, gradually changing
crops) to 0-12-12 and 0-15-5 depending on crops to be grown.

On muck and peat soils apply 500 pounds
sulfur per acre for each 0.3 unit above pH
Side-dress with 150-200 pounds of nitrate of s
per acre as needed after heavy rains or dui
periods of cold weather.
For the prevention of cracked stem of cell
boron must be supplied to the plant. In the S
ford area it is generally applied in a spray mixi
at the rate of 10 pounds of borax per 100 gall
of water per acre. The spray nozzles should
directed to the soil near the base of the ph
and the application made 2 to 3 weeks after trn
planting to the field. Borax can be applied bel
transplanting with the fertilizer. Caution.-
amount of borax applied should not exceed
pounds per acre.
In the Everglades area boron deficiency
growing plants may be corrected with sprays i
training 0.5 to 1.0 pound borax per 100 gal
of water per acre and applied to the foliage
the plants.
Copper, zinc and manganese also may be
ficient on muck and peat soils. To correct a]
25 pounds of copper sulfate and 10 to 15 pot
each of zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate
acre with the initial application of fertilizer.
In the Sanford area it is a general practice
add fertilizer containing 2 to 3 percent MgO.

INSECTS AND CONTROLS
Precautions.-Many insecticides and their:
dues are poisonous to man and animals. Carel
read and follow precautions on the labels of p
ages.
Do not apply DDT, chlordane and toxap:
later than 30 days, or parathion later thai
days before harvesting. TEPP can be usei
hours before harvesting. Nicotine sulfate





De usea Ior late applications out is generally ies
effective than other materials.


Sprays: Amt. per 100
Insects Dusts Gallons Water

Aphids Parathion 1% DDT emulsion, 1 qt. 25'
Nicotine sulfate- or equiv.; Parathion
lime 3% wettable, 1 lb. 15% c
equiv.; TEPP % pt.
40% or equiv.; Nicotir
sulfate, 1 pt. 40% plh
spreader

Armyworms Toxaphene wettable, 3 lb
40% or equiv.; DDT
emulsion, 1 qt. 25% c
equiv.

Garden flea- DDT wettable, 2 lbs. 500
hoppers or equiv.

Green cut- Toxaphene wettable, 3 lbI
worms 40% or equiv.

Leaf tiers DDT 5%

rhrips DDT emulsion, 1 qt. 259
or equiv.

Leaf miners Parathion 1% Parathion wettable, 1 11
15% or equiv.; TEPP
% pt. 40% or equiv.


Aphids transmit mosaic, which makes their cor
trol important. Keep ditches and roadways fre
)f weeds and watch closely for aphids. Under
some conditions DDT emulsion causes injury
small seedlings and should be used with caution
)n young plants. Good coverage is essential.





Transplanting Dates: Transplants: Maturity:
. Fla.: January-March 56-70 90-115
ent. Fla.: August-February days from plants
. Fla.: August-February

VARIETIES RECOMMENDED

Summer or Florida Pascal.-Green. Standard
variety, longer season and higher yielding than
,olden or blanching type.

Emerson Pascal.-Green, round, thick peticles.
qew variety of excellent quality. Resistant to
arly blight but not particularly resistant to bolt-
ng.

Supreme Golden.-Yellow. Standard variety
)f the Golden Self-Blanching type, medium early.
Full heart development. Winter crop.

Golden Plume.-Yellow. Similar to Supreme
Golden. Very tall.

Golden No. 15.- Intermediate between Old
Golden and Special. Suited for late plantings.

Tall Non-Bolting Golden Plume. Yellow.
Adapted for late spring. A degree of resistance
to mosaic and to premature seeding.

Planting
Distances Planting Depth Seed Required
(field) (Seedbed) (Seedbed)
Rows: 24" Seeds should be Produce 8,000 plants
to 36" scattered on sur- 1 ounce
Plants: 4" face, watered Produce plants for 1
to 10" and protected acre = % lb. per
from sun. 1,200 sq. ft. of seed-
bed (2-4 ounces, if
fumigated)

FERTILIZATION
On sandy soils initial application should be made
in two bands, each located 2 to 3 inches below
and 3 to 4 inches to the side of the plant roots.
Times of subsequent applications are variable, but
when made these should be drilled close to the
planting row. A suggested program is to divide
the total amount of fertilizer to be applied into
several applications. On muck soils, apply one-
half of the fertilizer broadcast before transplant-
ing and the balance in 2 side-dress applications.




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