Title: Cabbage production guide.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084470/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cabbage production guide.
Series Title: Cabbage production guide.
Alternate Title: Circular 117 ; Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: September 1953
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084470
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 221971144

Full Text
Dusts should be applied at a rate of 20 to 35 lbs.
per acre and sprays at a rate of 75 to 150 gals.
per acre, depending on the size of plants.
Precautions.-Insecticides and their residues
are poisonous to man and animals. Do not spill
them on the body or inhale spray mist or dust.
Carefully read and follow precautions on the labels
of packages.
Do not apply DDT, chlordane and toxaphene
later than 30 days, or parathion later than 15
days before first cutting. TEPP can be used 24
hours before cutting.

DISEASES AND CONTROLS
SSeedbed
Downy Mildew and Alternaria Leaf Spot-Spergon wet-
table, 48% 4 lbs. per 100 gals. water. 12% Spergon
dust.
Begin applications 7 to 10 days after planting
m.nd repeat three times a week until plants are
set in the field.
Plants are susceptible to both diseases at all
stages of growth, but downy mildew is more com-
mon and destructive in the seedbed.
Total number of applications may vary from 6
to 15, depending upon the season and weather.
The amount of spray or dust varies also with
size of the plant. These materials are compatible
with TEPP, parathion, DDT and chlordane.

Field
Downy Mildew and Alternaria Leaf Spot-Nabam (27%)
2 qts. plus % 1 Ib. zinc sulfate per 100 gals. water.
Where seed is sown directly in the field spray
seedlings two to three times a week, beginning
when seedlings have emerged and stopping when
plants are thinned to a stand. If Alternaria leaf
spot is developing rapidly when heads are half-
grown, resume spraying and using 100 to 150 gal-
lons spray per acre every four or five days.
Nabam is very effective against Alternaria leaf
spot in the field and gives good control of downy
mildew. Use 2 to 3 ounces of spreader-sticker
per 100 gallons.
(Nabam is compatible with TEPP, parathion,
DDT and toxaphene.)


Black Rot-Hot Water Treatment, 122"F. for 25 minutes.
Fill cheesecloth bags about two-thirds full of
seed, tie the tops and immerse in a container of
water at the temperature indicated. Keep the
water within 1 of that specified. Keep the seed
under water and stir to maintain uniform tem-
perature. At the end of the period remove seed
from the hot water and plunge into cold water-
spread out and dry. Treatment is a delicate oper-
ation and is best performed by a trained operator
using special equipment.
Test seed for germination before treating with
hot water. Weak seed may be killed while good
seed will stand treatment and germinate well if
planted the same season it is treated. Seed grown
in the Puget Sound area does not need treatment.
The disease organism is short-lived, but it is not
advisable to plant cabbage on land planted to
crucifers the previous year.
Black Leg.-Use same treatment as for black
rot.
Use seed grown in areas where black leg does
not usually occur, such as the Puget Sound area.
When in doubt of seed source-treat.
Yellows.-No control after soil is infected ex-
cept use of resistant varieties. Growers should
take every possible precaution to secure disease-
free plants.

SEED TREATMENTS FOR PREVENTING SEED
DECAY AND IMPROVING STAND
Ounces per 100 Teaspoonfuls
Pounds Seed per Pound Seed
Thiram (50%) .............. 4
Semesan (30%) ............. 6 %
Rotate seedbeds to reduce injury from damp-
ing-off.


Circular 117


September 1953


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director






CABBAGE PRODUCTION
GUIDE
(Prepared in cooperation with workers of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations)

Production practices are subject to rapid change-
by new problems arising and the application of
research results to meet these needs. No attempt
is made here to foresee all the complications pos-
sible, but instead to present the current pertinent
facts on cabbage production. Experienced grow-
ers may have several modifications of these prac-
tices for their specific conditions.
Additional information is available in several
publications of the University of Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Stations including (1) Bul. 492
and (2) Bul. 501. The supply of a given pub-
lication may be irregular. For currently avail-
able publications and for further details on local
problems, contact your County Agricultural Agent
of the University of Florida Agricultural Exten-
sion Service.

FLORIDA AND LEADING COUNTIES' HARVESTED
ACREAGE 1951-52: 15,600 ACRES TOTAL
Flagler ......... 1,050 Seminole ........ 2,450
Glades ........... 600 St. Johns ........ 2,650
Palm Beach .... 4,550 All others ...... 3,050
Putnam ..... 1,250




AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




FIVE SEASONS' (1947-48 to 1951-52) AVERAGE YIELD,
COSTS AND RETURNS PER 50-POUND
SACK BY AREA:
(Based on Representative Growers' Records and Estimates)


Ever-
glades
50-lb. sacks per acre .. 326
Production costs .......... $0.45
Harvesting costs ........ .73
Sales F.O.B ................... 1.30
Net return ............ .12


Manatee-
Hastings Ruskin
353 331
$0.59 $0.78
.53 .51
1.06 1.27
-.06 -.02


Sanford
455
$0.59
.51
1.29
.19


TRANSPLANTING DATES DAYS TO MATURITY
North Florida ...... Sept.-Feb. From Plants ........ 65-100
Central Florida .... Sept.-Jan. Direct Seeding .... 90-125
South Florida ...... Sept.-Jan.
To obtain transplants from seed generally requires a
period of 35 to 56 days.

VARIETIES RECOMMENDED
COPENHAGEN MARKET.-Early. Medium-
sized, rounded head. Yellow-green, smooth-leaved.
A standard variety. Peat, muck and sandy soils.
GOLDEN ACRE. Early. Heads slightly
smaller but otherwise similar to Copenhagen Mar-
ket. Peat and muck only.
RESISTANT GOLDEN ACRE.-Early. Yel-
lows-resistant. Heads small to medium, globular.
Peat and muck only.
MEDIUM COPENHAGEN RESISTANT.-Yel-
lows-resistant. Early. Heads medium in size,
round and green; leaves smooth. Sandy soils.

. ROUND DUTCH.-Early midseason. Small,
rounded head. Green, smooth-leaved. On peat
and muck only.
GLORY OF ENKHUIZEN.-Midseason. Large,
rounded head. Standard variety on sandy soils.
Green, smooth-leaved.
RESISTANT GLORY.-Yellows-resistant. Mid-
season. Large, rounded head. Green, smooth-
leaved. Sandy soils.

MIDSEASON MARKET.-Midseason. Large,
rounded head. Green, smooth-leaved. Sandy soils.
MARION MARKET.-Yellows-resistant. Mid-
season. Large, rounded head. Green, smooth-
leaved. Peat, muck and sandy soils.


BONANZA.-Late midseason. Small, round,
firm head and holds well in field. Gray-green,
smooth-leaved. Particularly suited to muck. Also
grown on sandy soils.

RED ACRE.-Late midseason. Rounded heads.
Generally smaller than later reds. Peat, muck
and sandy soils.

ROUND RED DUTCH. Late midseason.
Rounded heads. Slightly larger than Red Acre.
Peat, muck and sandy soils.

SAVOY CHIEFTAIN.-Late midseason. Round-
ed top, flattened base. Green, savoyed leaf. Large.
Peat, muck and sandy soils.


PLANTING
DISTANCES
Between rows:
24" to 40"
general
Between plants:
10" to 20"
general


PLANTING
DEPTH
Sand and marl:
Y to %"
Muck:
%" to %"


SEED
REQUIRED
Direct Seeding:
1 lb. per acre
Seedbed, to plant
acre: 1 lb.
Produce 5,000
Plants: 1 ounce


FERTILIZATION
On sandy soils apply fertilizer for seedbeds at
rate of 1,000 to 1,200 pounds per acre in bands
2 to 3 inches to the side of and 1 to 2 inches be-
low the level of the seed. Plants in seedbed may
be side-dressed once or twice with 50 to 75 pounds
nitrate of potash or nitrate of soda per acre.
Cabbage in fields can be fertilized before or
shortly after transplanting, using band place-
ment. Side-dressing two or more times with 150
to 200 pounds nitrate of soda or nitrate of potash
per acre may be necessary, depending on rainfall
and growth of the crop.
It has been a general recommendation in the
past that all of the fertilizer be broadcast on peat
and muck soils before seeding or transplanting.
Responses to the banding method of fertilizer
application have been noted recently on muck
and peat soils having high pH values.


Soil Type
Marl
Muck
Peat
Sand


Fertilizer
4-7-5, 4-8-6
0-12-16
0-8-24
5-7-5, 6-8-8


Pounds per Acre
750
500
500
2,000


Minor Elements.-The following minor elements
may be needed on specific areas:
Copper as copper sulfate at 25 pounds an acre
on muck and peat soil; manganese as manganese
sulfate at 25 to 30 pounds on muck, peat, marl
and sandy soils having a pH of 6.0 or higher;
usually more satisfactory results are obtained
when applied as a spray, using 2 pounds MnSO4
to 100 gallons of water. Zinc as zinc sulfate and
boron as borax on muck and peat soils at rate of
10 to 12 pounds an acre.
Deficiency symptoms on certain sandy soils
have occasionally been observed but are not neces-
sarily corrected by use of boron when applied in
fertilizer or as a spray.


INSECTS AND CONTROLS

Sprays
Dusts (Amt. per 100 gals.
water)

Aphids, serpentine Parathion Parathion wettable,
leaf miners 2% 1 lb.
15% or equiv.
TEPP TEPP emulsion,
1% % pt.
40% or equiv.

Loopers, diamondback DDT 5% DDT emulsion,
moth larvae, import- 1 qt. .
ed cabbage worms, 25% or equiv.
cabbage webworms,
corn earworms, flea Toxaphene Toxaphene wettable,
beetles 10% 2%1 lbs.
40% or equiv.

Wireworms Soil-Fifty lbs. 10% chlordane granular
or equiv. per acre, distributed evenly on
the soil surface and disked into the soil.
Fertilizer mixture-Mix enough chlordane,
wettable or dust, in fertilizer to supply
4 to 5 lbs. of active ingredient per acre.
Not so effective as the above treatment.

Mole-crickets Bait: 1.5 -2% chlordane-wheat bran at
rate of 50 lbs. per acre. Moisten bait
and distribute late in the afternoon.
Drenches*-For mole cricket control in
seedbeds chlordane emulsion, 5 oz. 40%
or equiv. per 100 gals. water per 1,000
sq. ft. of area.
Soil-Treatment same as for wireworms.
Fertilizer mixture-Treatment same as
for wireworms.

Drench treatment is not generally used in the Hastings area.




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