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Title: Let's grow a 4-H garden
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084463/00001
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Title: Let's grow a 4-H garden
Series Title: Let's grow a 4-H garden
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Norton, Joseph D.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service
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Bibliographic ID: UF00084463
Volume ID: VID00001
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Table of Contents
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        Front Cover
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Full Text

Circular 179

May 1958



First and Second Year Gardeners

Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
Vegetable Crops Specialist

So you are raising a vegetable garden this year! Maybe
you're an old hand at it-or maybe you're a greenhorn, but you
can always pick up new tips on how to make the job easier and
more successful. This book gives simple directions aimed at just
that. Use it, along with advice you'll receive from your leader.
When the sun comes beating down, your garden chores won't
end. Weeds grow, soil becomes packed and needs stirring, and
diseases and bugs set up housekeeping in the garden, regardless
of the weather.

Use your Head -To draw up a garden plan.
To select seed and supplies.
To choose the right kind of soil.

Use your Hands-To plow.
To plant.
To hoe.
To harvest.

Use your Heart--To learn love for growing plants.
To appreciate the earth's goodness.
To be thankful for our blessings.
To enjoy success.
Better Health will come from working in the sun and eating
good, nourishing vegetables you will pick. Successful garden-
ing is a sure-fire way to stronger bodies, stronger minds, stronger

You're eligible to raise a 4-H garden if:
1. You are a 4-H Club member.
2. You will plant vegetables and take care of them.
3. You have a space of ground 200 square feet in size or 120
feet of row.
4. You will keep an accurate record of your garden's progress.
5. You will write a story about your work at season's end
for your County Extension Agent or club leader.
6. You will exhibit your produce at a community, county,
district or state vegetable show or fair.
7. You will attend all meetings of your 4-H Club and garden
special interest group.


You wouldn't take a vacation trip without taking along a
map. It's important to "map" your garden, too, before you do
anything else. Then you'll know where you're going. To plan
a garden, you should ask yourself these questions:
Which crops will I grow?
Which varieties are best?
How much seed will I need?
How far apart should the crops be planted?
When is the best time to plant?

Do you know the answers to these questions? If you do,
then you are a long way toward making a plan. Your County
Agent or 4-H leader will give you assistance in making decisions,
if you are stumped. Mom and Dad can help, too.
Maybe you're wondering how big your garden should be.
Remember, it's better to have a tiny garden that's well cared for
than a big garden growing up in weeds. A garden spot near the
house is handiest. How big your garden is will depend on how
many are in your family, how rich your soil is, how many veg-
etables your mother will can or freeze, and how much help you


Row Spacing Planting
in Feet Crop Date
2 Strawberries Sept.-Oct.
3 Collards Sept.-Nov.
3 Onions Aug.-Nov.

S 2 Turnip, Mustard, Radish Aug-cApr
S 2Y2 Cabbage Sept.-Feb.
2Yz Beans, Snap Aug.-Sept.
Sqh Mar.-April
3 Squash Aug.
3 Tomatoes Aug.

4 Corn, Sweet Mar.-April
50 feet long


Row Spacing Planting
in Feet Crop Date
2 Strawberries Sept.-Oct.
3 Collards Jan.-April
3 Collards Aug.-Nov.
3 Onis Jan.-March
3 OionsAug.-Nov.
2 Turnip, Mustard, Radish Sept.-Nov.

22 Cabbage Sept.-Jan.
21/2 Beans, Snap Sept.

SSquash Feb.-March
3 Squash Aug.
3 Tomatoes Sept.

4 Corn, Sweet Feb.-March
4 Corn, Sweet Feb.-March
50 feet long


Row Spacing Planting
in Feet Crop Date
2 Strawberries Oct.-Nov.
3 Collards Sept.-Nov.
3 Onions Sept.-Nov.

2 Turnip, Mustard, Radish Oct.-Feb.
2% Cabbage Sept.-Jan.
2% Beans, Snap Sept.-April

3 Squash Jan.-March
3 Tomatoes Aug.-March
4 Corn, Sweet Jan.-Feb.
4 Corn, Sweet Jan.-Feb.
50 feet long

have to take care of the garden. Generally 1/ or 1/2 acre will
raise enough for Mother, Father, and three children.
A garden spot handy to the kitchen is best. Plenty of water
should be nearby to carry the garden through dry spells. The
ground should be as rich as possible and should not be shaded
by trees.
How you arrange the vegetables in the garden is important.
Keep tall vegetables, such as corn, to one side, and low-growing
plants, as cucumbers or radishes, off to another side. Otherwise,
the tall plants will shade the little ones. Most vegetables love
the sun. That's why it would be foolish to plant a garden under
trees or near buildings. Run the rows north and south, rather

/ / I

than east and west. In that way more sunlight strikes the
Choose level ground. If your garden must be on a slope,
pick a south slope. Run the rows across the slope, never up
and down.


For a small garden only a few simple tools are needed. When
your garden gets bigger, larger ones are necessary. Do you
have these tools in your garage or tool shed?

Spade or Fork

To dig the garden soil

To set out plants


To level and break clods

Hand Fork
For hand weeding

To loosen the topsoil
and destroy weeds

Watering Can
To supply water to newly
planted seeds and plants

Ball of Twine and 2 Stakes
For straight rows

Why use plant boxes?
1. You will have stronger plants and better stands.
2. Watering and other care are less work.
3. Tender plants will get started earlier in the spring. This
lets you have vegetables sooner.
4. Tomatoes, peppers, eggplants and other long-season crops
get an early start.
5. Plants may be set in the fall garden at a good time.

Plant Box
18" x 24" x 4" Tin Can 6" Flower Pot

Early plants may be grown in a plant box, tin can or flower
pot. Holes must be made in the bottom of the container for
water drainage.
Add 3/ inch of gravel to bottom of box. Fill box with a good
garden soil. Firm soil with a flat board. The soil may be steri-
lized by baking in the oven for one hour at 3500 to 4000 F.
Make shallow rows two inches apart. Plant seed 6 to 8 weeks

2" APA.T

before time to set out in the garden. When plants are two inches
tall, thin to one plant every two inches. Transplant excess to
other boxes, flower pots, tin cans or paper bands.

Plant Box

Flower Pot Tin Can Paper Band

Put the plant containers out-of-doors one week before trans-
planting into the garden. The sun and wind will harden them
and fewer plants will die after transplanting.

Spade or plow the soil long enough before transplanting for
it to be rained on. The fertilizer should be broadcast over the
soil and worked in one to two weeks before planting or band
placed at planting.
Transplant when conditions are best.

Soon after a rain or when cloudy or in late afternoon

Handle plants carefully when transplanting.

Use a trowel or Dip roots Water when Firm soil around
large spoon to lift in soft mud. or setting, roots and put dry
the plants carefully (Starter soil over moist
from the box. Leave solution may soil.
as much soil on the be used.)
roots as possible.

To make a starter solution, use 2 tablespoons of 6-8-6 ferti-
lizer per gallon of water. Apply 1/2 to 1 pint to each plant. This
will get your plants off to a quick start.

You should place a cardboard band
around the base of the plant to pro-
tect it from cutworms. Cardboard
such as a postcard is good to keep out
cutworms. 01

Protect plants 2 to 4 days after transplanting.

Palmetto Leaf

Newspaper Board Flower Pot

Commercial fertilizer and organic matter are the important
materials to add to the soil to help your plants grow. Lime
may be needed.
How to Take Soil Sample for Testing:

Take samples from Take a slice of ground
5 different places in to spade depth at each
your garden spot

Place sample from bucket in clean container
and address on the container.

Place the samples
in bucket and mix

with your name

Ice cream package 1 lb. coffee can

Ask your 4-H leader or County Agent to test the soil to deter-
mine whether it is acid or alkaline. The best pH for gardens
is 5.5 to 6.0. If your soil tests pH 5.5 or above, don't use lime.
If it tests under, then it's sour and needs lime.
Use 3 pounds of finely ground limestone to every 100 square
feet of garden.



Just before plowing or spading the garden spread the follow-
ing fertilizer for each 100 square feet of garden:

Soil Fertilizer Grade Amount
Sand or Clay 6-8-6 4 lbs.
Muck or Peat 0-10-20 2 lbs.

The lime may also be spread at this time. Then turn under
Another method of applying fertilizer before or at time
of planting is to place it in one or two bands. Each band should
be 3 inches to the side and 2 inches below the level of the seed
or planting row.
Steps in banding fertilizer:

L5x .IZ l XF.|E flANT1N44 Row

FF.mT (L. I E W_


Organic matter will loosen heavy soils and put sandy soils
in better condition by holding fertility and moisture. It con-
tains small amounts of plant nutrients. Organic materials are
well rotted manures, half-rotted leaves, peat, half-rotted saw-
dust, crop residues such as cornstalks, peavines or compost. If
available, place a 2-inch layer of these over the soil before dig-
ging or plowing.

Preparing the Soil:
Fertilizer and lime may be sprinkled over the soil by hand be-
fore spading or plowing.
Use shovel or rake for evenly distributing manure and other
organic materials over the soil.
Don't work soil when it is wet. Wait until it crumbles in your
hand when squeezed.

Turn soil completely over when spading. Break all clods
and level with a rake.

_______ 6TAKfe

Measure off first row and pound in Furrows may be made with hoe
stakes. Then draw a string as handle for planting small seeds.
guide for planting the first row.

Treat seed to kill diseases that may be carried on the seed.
Buy treated seed if you can. If you have any doubt as to whether
the seed have been treated, treat them yourself. Use chloranil
48% (Spergon). Place seed in a closed container or jar; put in
1 teaspoonful of chloranil for each pound of seed and shake gent-
ly. Remove seeds from container and plant.
Small packets of seeds may be treated just before planting
by adding a pinch of chloranil to the packet and shaking just
before planting.
REMEMBER.-Chloranil is poison. Do not breathe it or
allow it to touch your skin. Wash hands and face with soap and
water after using chloranil.

Treating seed in packets.


Knock out weeds before they get started. They compete with
the plants for food and water. They may shade the crop. They
give your garden a ragged look.
1. Rake the garden just before planting.
2. If necessary, rake or cultivate the garden after every rain
when the ground is dry enough. Hot sunshine will kill weeds.
3. Pull the weeds out of the row.
4. Kill weeds while they are small.


A mulch keeps your garden growing good. Mulched plants
will give you more vegetables.

A two to four inch mulch will result in the following condi-

1. Keep the weeds from growing. This eliminates hand
2. When not removed, it adds organic matter to the soil.
3. Protects the fruit from soil rots and dirt.
4. Protects the soil from water erosion.
5. You can get in the garden sooner after a rain.

Mulched strawberry plants.


What makes a good mulch? You can use pine straw, news-
paper, old straw, sawdust, old hay, ground corn cobs, grass clip-
pings, well-rotted manure that has a high percentage of straw,
or compost. Plastic mulches may also be used.
Mulch row crops when they are 6 to 8 inches high. Trans-
planted vegetables, like tomatoes and eggplant, should be mulched
soon after planting. Cultivate to kill weeds before applying
A sidedressing with a nitrogen fertilizer may be a good idea
where a mulch has been put on.


This is an eel-like worm you can't see without a microscope.
It causes the roots to swell and become knotted. Don't plant
vegetables where this worm is, if possible.

These roots have been knotted by root-knot nematodes.
These roots have been knotted by root-knot nematodes.

Resistant crops like Crotalaria spectabilis, velvet beans, or
Conch (White Acre) peas help to control them.

For nematode control treat the soil 10 to 14 days before
planting. Open a furrow 6 inches deep. Apply 1/2 to 3/4 pint of
dichloropropenes (DD and Telone) or 40% EDB per 100 feet
of row and rake the soil into the furrow immediately. Open
the row at least 6 hours before planting.
If your plants have been stunted from nematodes, it will prob-
ably pay you to fumigate before planting another crop.

Applying fumigant in the row.

BE CAREFUL-Soil fumigants are poisonous. You should
never breathe the fumes or allow the material to touch your skin.
If accidentally spilled on you or your clothing, remove clothing or
shoes and wash with soap and water.

Know Them:
See the State Department of Agriculture bulletin Grow Your
Own Vegetables or talk to your County Agricultural Agent.

Dusts and Sprays to Kill Bugs:
You can use an insecticide as a dust or spray, depending on
kind of equipment you have.
Dusts are usually better in the home garden. They need no
preparation and can be put on more cheaply.
Whether you use a dust or a spray, make sure it contains
the right amount of the proper active ingredient. Read the
label carefully before you buy.
Go to work on bugs early. Dust or spray at the first sign of
them and repeat in a week or 10 days if insects are found.

Insect Control:
Chlordane may be applied to the soil as a 5% dust or a 2%
bait for killing ants, cutworms, grasshoppers and mole-crickets,
or the dust may be directed right on the insects. Chlordane is
sometimes included in general garden fertilizers and may give
some control of these insects and wireworms.
Malathion is a good all-purpose insecticide to use in killing
the insects in your garden. If caterpillars (often called worms)
become a problem, use DDT. Rotenone will control many of the
garden pests when infestations are light, but may be less effec-
tive than malathion and DDT.

Know Them:
See Grow Your Own Vegetables or talk to your County Agri-
cultural Agent.

Disease Control:
You can use a fungicide as a dust or spray.
Sprays are better for keeping down vegetable disease. They
stick better to the plant than dusts. They do the job best if
you use a compressed air sprayer.
Dusts, too, are good if used properly.
A fungicide should be used before there is any plant damage.
Repeat treatment every week to 10 days. Applications every 3
or 4 days may be necessary if the disease continues to develop.

Killing Diseases on Leaves and Stems:
Zineb (Dithane Z-78, dry Parzate) applied as a 4 to 61/%
dust or 2 level tablespoons of the 65% wettable powder to 1 gal-
lon of water as a spray is suitable.

Damping-off in Seedbed:
Wet the base of the plant stem and upper inch of soil with 1
ounce of wettable chloranil (Spergon) 48% to 3 gallons of water
(2 tablespoons to 1 gallon), or dust chloranil 12% on the soil
and wash in with water.

Other Controls:
1. Sanitation.-Many diseases may be prevented by rotating
garden location, cleaning up crop refuse and early soil prepara-
2. Plant Sources-Transplants should be disease-free. Prac-
tical sterilization of seedbeds may be obtained by placing a 2-
inch-deep layer of soil in a pan and baking it at 3500 to 400 F.
for at least one hour.
3. Seed Treatment-See seed treatment (page 9).

Pesticide Precautions:
Consider all pesticides as potential poisons. Apply strictly
according to manufacturers' precautions and recommendations.
Always wash vegetables from the garden thoroughly before
using. Use pesticides only as necessary to control insects and
diseases. Where possible, stop applications during the harvest-
ing season.


Dusting Equipment:
1. Plunger type (above)
2. Rotary type

Spray Equipment:
1. Pressure type
a. Plunger
b. Others

2. Trombone type
3. Hose type


Exhibiting and judging vegetables is fun. You may show
Dad that he isn't the only good farmer in the family.
Most vegetables will show well if displayed in plates. Certain
leafy vegetables show best when bunched.
Exact requirements must be met by exhibits entered for con-
test. The number called for should be used-no more, no less-
and the same applies to other rules of Exhibit Committee.


Major Crops

Beans, bush green, 1 qt.
Beans, pole green, 1 qt.
Beans, lima, 1 qt.
Broccoli, 3 flower stems
Cabbage, 3
Carrots, 6
Collards, 3 plants
Corn, sweet, 6 ears
Cucumbers, 6
Eggplants, 3
Lettuce, 3
Melon, cantaloupe, 3
Melon, watermelon, 1
Mustard, 1 bunch
Okra, 1 qt.

Artichoke, Globe, 6
Artichoke, Jerusalem, 6
Asparagus, 12 spears
Brussel Sprouts, 1 qt.
Cauliflower, 3
Celery, 3
Chard, Swiss, 1 bunch
Citron, 1
Endive, 1 bunch
Herbs, Collection of 3 kinds
Horseradish roots, 3

Onions, cured, 6
Onions, green, 12
Peas, English, 1 pt.
Peas, Southern, 1 pt.
Peppers, bell, 6
Potato, Irish, 6
Radish, 12
Spinach, 1 bunch
Squash, summer, 3
Squash, winter, 1
Sweetpotato, 6
Tomato, slicing and green-
ripe, 6
Turnip roots, 6
Turnip tops, 1 bunch

Minor Crops
Kale, 1 bunch
Kohlrabi, 6
Leek, 12
Parsley, 1 bunch
Peppers, hot, 1 pt.
Popcorn, 12 ears
Pumpkin, 1
Rhubarb, 6 stalks
Rutabaga, 6
Soybeans, 1 qt.
Tomato, cherry, 1 plate


Every 4-H Club member should give a demonstration. Two
boys or two girls or a team of one boy and one girl can give a
team demonstration. In many instances, one club member may
give a demonstration.

You may prepare a demonstration on any vegetable subject
of interest to you, your club and your community.

References (other information you may need):

1. Vegetable Garden Production Guide, Florida Agricultural
Extension Service Circular 104.

2. Grow Your Own Vegetables, Florida State Department of
Agriculture Bulletin 52.

3. Production Guides on each vegetable crop, Florida Agricul-
tural Extension Service Circulars.

4. Suburban and Farm Vegetable Gardens. H & G 9, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C.

5. Controlling Nematodes in the Home Garden, F 2048,

6. Insects and Diseases of Vegetables in the Home Garden,
H & G 46, USDA.



The National 4-H Club emblem is the four leaf clover with the
letter "H" on each leaf. The four "H's" represent the four-fold
development of Head, Heart, Hands and Health.


"To Make the Best Better"



My Head to clearer thinking
My Heart to greater loyalty
My Hands to larger service, and
My Health to better living, for
My Club, my Community and my Country


The national club colors are green and white; white being
characteristic of purity and green being nature's most common
color in the great out-of-doors and emblematic of springtime, life
and youth.

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director

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