Title: Onion production guide.
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 Material Information
Title: Onion production guide.
Series Title: Onion production guide.
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
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Bibliographic ID: UF00084460
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 229351678

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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University and
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins. Director





0








ONION


REDUCTIONN GUIDE

(Prepared in cooperation with workers
of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations)








*









AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


___





PART I.-BULBING TYPES

Onions can be grown on most of the soil ty
found in Florida. Excellent yields can be obtain
with the newer varieties and hybrids relea
within the past few years. Lack of suitable
mate at harvest time is a major factor limit
the production of onions on a commercial sc
in Florida. The humid, showery weather
spring in most years will not generally per
proper curing of onion bulbs without artifi
drying equipment.

VARIETIES'

TEXAS GRANO 502.-Medium early maturi
Bulb globe-shaped with straw colored skin. Fl
white and mild in flavor.
EXCEL.-Early maturing. Bulb thick, f
with light yellow skin. Flesh white, sweet !
mild.
GRANEX (HYBRID).-Medium early mat
ing. Bulb semi-globe shaped, yellow. Mild fl
ored. Good yielder.
WHITE GRANEX and ECLIPSE.-Same
above except white.
RED CREOLE.-Late maturing. Bulbs se
globe shaped, red-skinned. Strong in flavor
excellent for storage.
Trans-
Seeding planting Harvesti
Dates* Dates** Dates,
North Florida ........ Sept.-Dec. Nov.-Jan. Apr.-Ju
Central Florida .... Aug.-Nov. Oct.-Dec. Mar.-M
South Florida ........ Oct.-Nov. Oct.-Dec. Mar.-M
Onions can be direct-seeded in the production field or seed
plant beds for production of transplants.
** Onion seedlings should be about "pencil-size" and vigorous a
ing for transplanting. Root and top pruning should be kept
minimum and used only to facilitate handling. Excessive prt
retards recovery of the transplant.
t Onion bulbs continue to "size-up" even after the green tops
fallen over. Harvest when most of the tops are down.
Planting
Planting Distances Depth Seed Required
Between rows 12" to 24" '" Direct seeding =
4 to 5 lbs.
Between plants 2" to 3" Seedbed (transpla
acre) = 1 to 2
Produce 1,000 ph
= 1 ounce

1The above varieties will grow under short-day
editions of winter and bulb in the spring in the So
Plant only short-day varieties recommended for the So





FERTILIZATION
Seedbeds for production of transplants should
fertilized with 1,500 to 2,000 pounds of 6-8-6
xr acre. It should be worked into the upper inch
- two of soil about 10 days before seeding. The
4il should be kept in a moist condition.
For the production field, best results may be
>tained by applying fertilizer before or at time
I planting in two bands, each located 2 to 3 inches
low and 2 to 3 inches to the side of the plants.
Soil Type Fertilizer Pounds per Acre
Marl* 6-8-6 750
Muck 0-12-12 800
Peat** 0-8-24, 0-10-20 800
Sand* 6-8-6 1,500
A 4-8-8 may be used in place of 6-8-6 provided equivalent amounts
nitrogen are used.
** On virgin peats, start with 0-8-24 or 0-10-20. Change after 3 to
crops to 0-12-12 and finally to 0-15-5, depending on types of crop
be grown.
The amount of fertilizer recommended for
Lndy soils may be applied as follows: One-half
Planting time and the balance 30 to 40 days
ter. One or two side-dressings with 16 to 32
pounds of nitrogen from 100 to 200 pounds of
nitrate of soda or nitrate of potash or 50 to 100
)unds of ammonium nitrate may be necessary
Hiring the growing season depending on weather
editionss.
INSECTS AND CONTROLS
Sprays** Dusts Last Applica-
100 Gals. 20 to 35 tion Before
sect HaO Lbs./Acre Harvest
hrips Heptachlor Heptachlor
(25% WP) 2%% 5 days
2 lbs.




ifk'UU'I'I1Ni: A cnemical Ureatmenl JLU o Lo
days before tops are mature, using 5 lbs. of 30%
maleic hydrazide per acre prevents high respira-
tion and sprouting in storage.

CURING
Onions must be adequately dried or they will
rot within a few days after harvest. As the
onions are harvested they can be placed in wind-
rows for field drying, weather permitting, or they
can be cleaned by clipping roots and tops and
dried in shallow crates under sheds. Mechanical
driers with blowers and artificial heat are now
being used.
STORAGE
Of the varieties recommended, only Red Creole
can be stored safely for more than about 30 days.
Discard all diseased and injured bulbs and store
only well cured bulbs. Cool temperature and low
humidity (preferably 32' to 350 F. and 70% to
75% relative humidity) are ideal for storage of
onions.


PART II.-GREEN-BUNCHING

Green-bunching onions can be grown from
"sets" or seed. Sets are small onion bulbs meas-
uring about 3/ inch in diameter. Under good
growing conditions, the bulbs produce sprouts
that can be ready for market as green-bunching
onions within 30 to 60 days after planting. Onions
for green-bunching can be started from seed, but
to produce salable green onions by this method
requires three to five months. Sets should be
used for production of green-bunching onions for
late fall and early winter marketing and seed for
later harvest.
VARIETIES
Sets for the production of green-bunching
onions are often sold without true variety labels
as "white, red or yellow sets." When a grower
has found a satisfactory variety from a reliable
source, he should, by all means, stick to that
variety and source. The following varieties are
sugrested for ulantine:




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