Title: What every citrus grower should know
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 Material Information
Title: What every citrus grower should know
Series Title: What every citrus grower should know
Alternate Title: Circular 191 ; Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Soule, Mortimer J.
Lawrence, F. P.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date: January 1959
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084450
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 229448914

Full Text



January 1959


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. 0. Watkins, Director



What Every Citrus Grower Should Know-

Maturity Tests for Fresh Fruit

By
M. J. SOULE, JR., AND F. P. LAWRENCE
Associate Professor of Fruit Crops and Extension Citriculturist

One of the principal marketing channels for the citrus indus-
try of Florida consists of fruits shipped in fresh form by commer-
cial packinghouses. Despite the great demand for frozen con-
centrate, chilled juice, and other processed products, some 40
million boxes, or about a fourth of the oranges, half of the
grapefruit, two thirds of the tangerines, and all of the tangelos
produced in the state, are sold annually as fresh fruit. They
are transported by truck, rail, or boat, often thousands of miles
to Northern destinations or overseas.
Many people prefer the full-bodied flavor and aroma of fresh
citrus, but they have also become accustomed to the generally
high quality, ease of preparation, and uniformity of processed
products. Fresh fruits are purchased mainly on the basis of
external quality-bright color, smooth texture, good shape, and
uniform size. Florida has always had difficulty with color; hence
many of the oranges, tangelos, and a limited number of Temple
oranges are color-added. Internal quality of the individual fruit
is equally important, siice fresh oranges are squeezed for juice
or sliced into sections a few at a time, grapefruit are served
as halves, and tangerines, Temple oranges, and tangelos are
eaten one by one as a rule.
The citrus grower has a vital interest in the fresh fruit
market. It affords him an opportunity to dispose of his oranges
and grapefruit with high external and internal quality more
profitably in most cases than if they were sent to a processing
plant. It is also the major outlet for the specialty fruits, par-

SAcknowledgment is made to Dr. L. W. Ziegler, professor of fruit crops,
who originally compiled the tables on legal maturity used in this circular.


Circular 191






ticularly tangerines, tangelos, and pink and red grapefruit, which
bring low prices at the cannery.
Maturity standards for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, Tem-
ple oranges, and tangelos are set forth in the Florida Citrus
Code of 1949, as amended, and in the regulations, rules, and
orders of the Florida Citrus Commission. While they are com-
monly called maturity standards, these requirements are really
minimum quality standards. They are designed to keep off the
market green and raw, immature fruits which proved so detri-
mental to the interests of citrus growers and shippers in past
years. To this end, certain requirements are higher early in
the season of a variety and progressively lower later on, since
it is recognized that citrus fruits undergo favorable changes in
juice content, sugars, acidity, flavor, and aroma as they ripen
to prime quality. Unlike apples, pears, or bananas, citrus fruits
contain little or no starch and will not ripen after they are har-
vested. Quality thus must be obtained while the fruits are still
on the tree.
Maturity tests of citrus in Florida are utilized in two ways.
As the shipping season of a variety approaches, the grower or
member of the organization who will harvest the fruits collects
periodic samples in the grove. These tests serve the important
function of providing information on the progress of maturity.
They are used, along with certain other factors such as market
conditions and weather, to determine when part or all of the crop
may be picked. With the present strong emphasis on. the high-
est possible quality for fresh fruit, the trees will often be spot
picked for maturity, color, or size several times during the
season before a final clean picking is made. Official tests for
maturity are made on each lot of fruit delivered to a packing-
house. Samples from at least the smallest size and the largest
size in each lot are tested by a Federal-State inspector of the
Citrus and Vegetable Inspection Division, Florida Department
of Agriculture, in cooperation with the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, to ensure that the lot meets the minimum
legal standards and can be certified for shipment. Except for
color break which must be observed before the fruits are de-
greened, the tests are ordinarily run on samples taken from the
bins. They can, however, be made at any stage from the grove
to packed boxes ready for loading, and, if the inspector desires,
can be run on all of the sizes, grades, or other divisions of the
lot. Official tests must be made only by a duly authorized in-
spector and without interference of any sort.
2






Maturity tests are based on five factors: a color break caused
solely by nature (excludes sunburn, spray burn, insect damage,
etc.), volume of juice, total soluble solids, total acid, and ratio
of total soluble solids to total acid. Except for the color-break
test which is made on not less than 50 fruits, an official sample
consists of 10 oranges, 5 grapefruit, 15 tangerines, 10 Temple
oranges, or 10 tangelos. Testing of individual fruits is permitted.
The standard packed box for citrus contains one and three-fifths
bushels, or a weight of 90 pounds for oranges, Temple oranges,
and tangelos, 85 pounds for grapefruit, and 95 pounds for tan-
gerines.

Facilities, Equipment, and Chemicals for Maturity Tests
Each packinghouse must provide a suitable place, with run-
ning water, a sink and drainboard, lights, at least one 110-volt
power outlet, and adequate desk space, where the inspector can
carry out maturity tests. Similar facilities may be established
elsewhere in the building for the packinghouse's own tests.

TABLE 1.-EQUIPMENT AND CHEMICALS FOR MATURITY TESTS.*

Brix hydrometer sealed from 5 to 15 degrees in 0.1 degree divisions
Centigrade thermometer scaled from 0 to 50 degrees in 1 degree
divisions
25 cc. pipette
25 cc. burette graduated in.0.1 cc. divisions
Burette support
Graduated glass cylinder of 400 cc. or 500 cc. capacity
Small glass funnel
250 cc. Erlenmyer flask
Pan or pot of approximately one half gallon capacity
Cheesecloth of prescribed mesh for straining juice.
Medicine dropper
Maturity chart
Juide chart
Official reamer with grapefruit and orange burrs
Official fruit sizer
Official color plaque
Standard solution of sodium hydroxide, each cubic centimeter of
which is equivalent to 20 mg. of anhydrous citric acid
Phenolphthalein indicator solution

*Adapted from Citrus and Vegetable Inspection Division, Florida Department of
Agriculture.

The equipment and chemicals for maturity tests are listed
in Table 1. Those used by the inspector are furnished him by
the Citrus and Vegetable Inspection Division. The equipment,
indicator solution, and standard alkali may be purchased at
nominal cost from chemical or citrus supply houses for non-
official tests. Automatic burettes which read directly in percent






citric acid are available. The official reamer for extraction of
juice is equipped with two burrs, the larger for grapefruit and
the smaller for oranges, tangerines, Temple oranges, and tan-
gelos. It may be turned by hand or motor, provided the speed
of the burr does not exceed 400 revolutions per minute.


cc. er

2600


2400


2200,


2000.


1800


1600


1400-


1200.


1000.


800.


600


400
A


10 Fruit


Gallons


96


125(126)

1500

175(176)


250
S288(294)
; 324


per Box
3.5


4.0


4.5


5.0


5.5


6.0


6.5


7.0


Fig. 1.-Conversion of cubic centimeters of juice per 10 oranges to
gallons per box.






Maturity Tests of Oranges
Color Break.-Before oranges for fresh fruit shipments can
be harvested, the dark-green color of the immature fruits must
be replaced or converted solely by nature to the extent that a
yellow or orange tinge is present. The test for color break is
made on a representative sample of at least 50 oranges which
are removed from the lot before the fruits are degreened with
ethylene. Each fruit is compared with a standard color disk
(Color L-2 on Plate 22 in Dictionary of Color, Maerz and Paul,
1930). At least 75 percent of the fruits in the sample must
meet the required color break. A test made at night under
artificial light may be repeated in daylight if either the inspector
or packinghouse representative so desires. From August 1
through November 15, all oranges except Parson Brown must
have yellow color predominating on at least 50 percent of the
fruit's surface in the aggregate. Parson Brown oranges need
a break color of only 25 percent, as do all varieties from Novem-
ber 16 through July 31 (Table 2).
Juice Content.-The test for juice content is made on 10
oranges of a given size. The fruits are cut in half across the
stem-to-blossom axis. The juice is extracted either by hand or
with the official fruit reamer and orange burr. It is strained
through a double thickness of cheesecloth with sufficient pres-
sure applied by hand to squeeze out the juice while leaving the
juice sacs, pulp, seeds, and slime behind. Too little pressure will
result in a lower volume of juice; too much will introduce par-
ticles which may interfere with pipetting. The strained juice
is measured in a graduated cylinder to obtain the volume per
10 fruit. This is then converted to gallons per standard packed
box by means of the nomograph for juice (Figure 1). For ex-
ample, if a test of size 216 oranges measured 790 cc. of juice, the
gallons per box would be found by placing a straight edge at
790 on line A, lining it up with the proper size, 216, on line B
and reading the result, 4.5, on line C. Natural-color oranges are
required to have 4.5 gallons per box and color-added oranges 5.0
gallons (Table 2).
Total Soluble Solids.-The juice of citrus fruits contains a
large number of soluble constituents, chiefly sugars, with smaller
amounts of citric acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, essential oils, gluco-
sides, and other compounds also present. Approximately 85
percent of the total soluble solids are sugars. They are measured
as such by means of a Brix hydrometer. This instrument, which
5







TABLE 2.-LEGAL MATURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ORANGES.*

Fresh Fruit Shipments-Natural Color **

SAug. 1 Nov. 1 Nov. 16
Through Through Through
Oct. 31t Nov. 15 July 31

Color Break: Parson Brown ................ 25% 25% 25%
Others ................................ 50% 50% 25%
Minimum Juice ............................ ..... 4.5 gal.T 4.5 gal. 4.5 gal.
Minimum Solids ................................ 9.0% 8.7% 8.5%
Minimum Acid ........................................-- 0.4% 0.4% 0.4%
Minimum Ratio .................................... 8.00 to 1 8.00 to 1 8.00 to 1
Required Ratio ....................................- __ See below -


Fresh Fruit Shipments-Color Added


Color Break: Parson Brown ..................
Others .......................
Minimum Juice .................................
Minimum Solids ....................................
Minimum Acid .............................
Minimum Ratio ...... .......................---
Required Ratio ..............................


25% 25% 25%
50% 50% 25%
5.0 gal.1 5.0 gal. 5.0 gal.
9.2% 9.0% 8.7%
0.5% 0.5% 0.5%
8.50 to 1 8.50 to 1 8.50 to 1
_--- See below ---


Required Ratios of Total Soluble Solids to Total Acid (Section 601.20)

Solids Solids Solids Solids
Not Required Not Required Not Required Not I Required
Less Ratio Less Ratio Less1 Ratio Less I Ratio
Than Than Than ___ Than I

8.0% 10.00 to 1 9.1% 9.45 to 1 10.2% 8.90 to 1 11.3% 8.35 to 1
8.1 9.95 to 1 9.2 9.40 to 1 10.3 8.85 to 1 11.4 8.30 to 1
8.2 9.90 to 1 9.3 9.35 to 1 10.4 8.80 to 1 11.5 8.25 to 1
8.3 9.85 to 1 9.4 9.30 to 1 10.5 8.75 to 1 11.6 8.20 to 1
8.4 9.80 to 1 9.5 9.25 to 1 10.6 8.70 to 1 11.7 8.15 to 1
8.5 9.75 to 1 9.6 9.20 to 1 10.7 8.65 to 1 11.8 8.10 to 1
8.6 9.70 to 1 9.7 9.15 to 1 10.8 8.60 to 1 11.9 8.05 to 1
8.7 9.65 to 1 9.8 9.10 to 1 10.9 8.55 to 1 12.0% 8.00 to 1
8.8 9.60 to 1 9.9 9.05 to 1 11.0 8.50 to 1 or
8.9 9.55 to 1 10.0 9.00 to 1 11.1 8.45 to 1 above
9.0% 9.50 to 1 10.1% 8.95 to 1 11.2% 8.40 to 1


Compiled from Florida Citrus Commission, State of Florida Citrus laws, Sections
601.19, 601.20, 601.81, November, 1957.
** From August 1 through November 30, requirements of fruit for processing are the
same as those for natural color; from December 1 through July 31, the requirements are
minimum solids of 8.0% and required ratio as per Section 601.20, with no minimum for
color break, juice, or acid.
t If, after a public hearing held not earlier than October 5, maturity is found to be
earlier than normal, the Florida Citrus Commission may by rule, order, or regulation, to
become effective not later than October 10, advance the periods two weeks, or from August
1 through October 16, October 17 through October 31, and November 1 through July 31.
t Per standard packed box or equivalent.
For actual total soluble solids in the juice.

6






actually measures specific gravity, is calibrated to read directly
in degrees Brix, or percent pure sucrose, at a temperature of
17.50C. The term "Brix", or "degrees Brix", is frequently used
instead of total soluble solids by processors.
The test for total soluble solids may be run on the same juice
which was measured previously or on a separate sample of 10
oranges of a size. The Brix hydrometer and a thermometer are
inserted into a tall cylinder filled with juice. After a few mo-
ments to permit air trapped in the juice to escape and for the
hydrometer to come to rest, both instruments are read. The
value for percent total soluble solids corrected to 17.50C. may
then be obtained from the nomograph for solids (Figure 2).
During the season there is a stepwise decrease in the legal re-
quirements for total soluble solids from 9.0 to 8.5 percent for
natural-color oranges and from 9.2 to 8.7 percent for color-added
oranges (Table 2).
Total Acid.-Citrus juices contain principally citric acid in
addition to malic, tartaric, and succinic acids. Twenty-five cc.
of the same juice used for the solids test are drawn up in a
pipette and drained into an Erlenmyer flask. Three or four drops
of phenolphthalein indicator solution are added. The burette is
filled with the solution of standard sodium hydroxide and ad-
justed to the zero mark. The alkali is added slowly to the flask
with constant agitation until the pink endpoint is reached. The
quantity of alkali consumed is read to the nearest 0.1 cc. on the
burette and converted to percent total acid by means of the
graph for acid (Figure 3). Values up to 26.0 cc. are read on
the vertical scale; those above, on the horizontal. Natural-color
oranges are required to have at least 0.4 percent acid and color-
added fruits, 0.5 percent (Table 2). The maximum amount of
acid permitted is governed by the minimum ratio of solids to
acid required for the actual total soluble solids present in the
sample.
Ratio of Total Soluble Solids to Total Acid.-Ratio is the
proportion of total soluble solids to total acid, commonly ex-
pressed as 8.00 to 1 or 8.00-1, for example. It is determined by
dividing percent total soluble solids by percent total acid or,
more easily, by means of the nomograph for ratio (Figure 5).
Legal requirements for ratio are on a sliding scale which permits
fruits with higher solids to have higher acid or a lower ratio
than those with lower solids. For each increase of 0.1 percent
in solids above the minimum prescribed, there is a decrease of

7







0.05 in ratio. The minimum ratio for natural-color oranges is
8.00 to 1 with solids of 12.0 percent or above and that for color-
added fruits, 8.50 to 1 with solids of 11.0 percent or above
(Table 2).


Degrees
Brix
10.0 15.0





9.0 14.0





8.0 13.0





7.0 12.0





6.0 11.0





5.0 10.0
A


Temperature
Correction
c
Correction 6,7
Factor 9,10

-0.45 14
0.00 17,17.
19
+0.50 20
21
+ 1.00 2_23
24.
25
26
1>7


Fig. 2.-Temperature correction of degrees Brix to percent total soluble
solids at 17.5 C. For hydrometer readings from 5 to 10, use left side of
lines A and C; from 10.0 to 15.0, use right side.


Percent
Soluble
5.0





6.0





7.0





8.0





9.0




10.0
C


Total
Solids
10.0





S1.0





12.0





13.0





14.0





15.0





Percent Acid
0.2 T


0.4 6.0


0,6 8.0

10.0
0,8
8 12.0 cc. Alkali
1.0
14.0
40.0
1.2 16.0
38.0
18.0
1.4 36.0
20.0 34.0
1.6
22.0 32.0

1.8 4.0 30.0
28.0
2.0 i: ... 1111111111,1111 Percent Acid
2.0 22 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

Fig. 3.-ConVersion of cubic centimeters of standard alkali to percent
acid. For values below 26.0 cc, use vertical percent acid scale; above 26.0
cc, use horizontal scale.

Certificate of Inspection.-A certificate of inspection for ma-
turity (and grade) is required of all commercial shipments of
fresh oranges, except for certain exempt categories such as gift
packages, fruit for charitable organizations, U. S. government
shipments, and fruit for consumption or use within the state.
After the tests for color break, juice, solids, acid, and ratio are
completed in a satisfactory manner and revenue fees for inspec-
tion and advertising are paid, the inspector will issue an inspec-
tion certificate for the lot of fruit which was sampled. One
copy is given to the truck driver or railroad agent and another
to the shipper.





Percent Solids
(Pounds Solids per Gallon)
17.0 (1.515)

Pounds S<
16.0 (1.420)unds S


15.0 (1.326)


14.0 (1.232)
o

13.0 (1,140)
a10 10 N

12.0 (1.048) 6 .oj0ro S


11.0 (0.957) so
-o %

10.0 (0.866) B C


9.0 (0.777)


8.0 (0.688)


7.0 (0.599)


6.0(0.512)
A
Fig. 4.-Conversion of percent total soluble solids and gallons or pounds of juice pe
Citrus Mutual T

10









Dollars p Box
6.00

lids per Box 5.50
2.0 5.50


3.0 |5.00

"4.0 Price per .
4.0 Pound Solids 450
1.00
0.90
5.0 0.80 4.00
0.70
I 0.60
6.0 0.60 3.50
0.55
0.50
0.45
3.00
7.0 0.40 3.04
0.35
8.0 0.30 2.50

0.25
9.0 0.20 2.00


10.0 0.15 1.50


11.0 0'10 1.00
D
E 0E05F 0.50
F
ox into pounds of solids per box and price per box of oranges. (Adapted from Florida
gle, Vol. 6, No. 16.)

11







Fruit for Processing (All Varieties)t
Aug. 1 Dec. 1 Jan. 1
Through Through Through
Nov. 30 Dec. 31 July 31

Color break .............................. Same as ..........
Minimum juice ...................... fresh fruit .............
Minimum solids ...................... according 7.0% 6.5%
Minimum ratio ................... to variety ........ 6.0 to 1
Required ratio** ........................ -- See below
Minimum Juice Content (Section 601.18)
Aug. 1 Oct. 16 Mar. 2
Size Through Through Through
Oct. 15 Mar. 1 July 31
cc. per fruit
28 400 380 360
36 350 335 320
46 320 305 290
54 280' 270 255
64 255 240 230
70 230 220 210
80 210 200 190
96 185 180 170
112 175 170 160
126 165 160 150
150 145 135 130
Required Ratios of Total Soluble Solids to Total Acid (Section 601.17)
Solids Solids Solids
Not Less Required Not Less Ratio Not Less Required
Than Ratio Than Required Than Ratio

6.5% 7.00 to 1 10.0% 6.50 to 1 11.0% 6.25 to 1
9.1 6.95 to 1 10.1 6.475 to 1 11.1 6.225 to 1
9.2 6.90 to 1 10.2 6.45 to 1 11.2 6.20 to 1
9.3 6.85 to 1 10.3 6.425 to 1 11.3 6.175 to 1
9.4 6.80 to 1 10.4 6.40 to 1 11.4 6.15 to 1
9.5 6.75 to 1 10.5 6.375 to 1 11.5 6.125 to 1
9.6 6.70 to 1 10.6 6.35 to 1 11.6 6.10 to 1
9.7 6.65 to 1 10.7 6.325 to 1 11.7 6.075 to 1
9.8 6.60 to 1 10.8 6.30 to 1 11.8 6.05 to 1
9.9% 6.55 to 1 10.9% 6.275 to 1 11.9 6.025 to 1
12.0% 6.00 to 1
or above __
Compiled from Florida Citrus Commission, State of Florida citrus laws, Sections
601.16, 601.17, 601.18, November, 1957.
** For actual total soluble solids in juice.
t Florida Citrus Commission Regulation 19, Section 1 (f) 2 provides that raw fruit
for frozen concentrated grapefruit juice must have minimum solids of 9.5% and minimum
ratio of 7.5 to 1 (1958).
t No requirement.
Section 601.18 (4) provides if the Florida Citrus Commission determines that unusual
or abnormal conditions exist and that a change in the juice requirements will be in the
best interests of the citrus industry, it may, by resolution, decrease the required juice
content of grapefruit, by varieties, during the period beginning October 16 and ending
March 1, but in no event shall the required juice content during this period be less than
the juice content required during the period beginning March 2.

The crop year is divided into four periods for color break, total
soluble solids, and ratio of total soluble solids to total acid of
fresh fruit, August 1 through November 30, December 1 through

14






December 31, January 1 through April 14, and April 15 through
July 31. The periods for cannery fruit are the same except that
the last two are combined into one. There are also three periods
for juice content, August 1 through October 15, October 16
through March 1, and March 2 through July 31. These provide
for a stepwise decrease in the required juice content of grape-
fruit during the crop season. If unusual or abnormal conditions
exist, however, the Florida Citrus Commission can reduce the
juice requirements, by varieties, during the period of October
16 through March 1 to a level not below those prevailing from
March 2 through July 31.
Maturity tests of grapefruit are made in the same manner
as for oranges, except that a sample consists of 5 fruits of a size
and the volume of juice is converted to cubic centimeters per fruit.
Processing plants utilize grapefruit for a variety of products,
among them sections, single-strength juice, blends, frozen con-
centrate, and chilled juice. Sections are made principally from
medium-sized white-seeded fruits. The latter bring higher prices
at the cannery than grapefruit for most other purposes. Pink
and red grapefruit in particular are not desired, as their quality
is generally so low that they can be used only for juice and then
in small quantities where their muddy color will not be objection-
able. Grapefruit for processing are generally sold by the weight
box, although some for concentrating are sold on a juice-pounds
solids basis. The present volume of fruit being made into frozen
concentrate and sections, as well as chilled juice, is still rather
small but is growing rapidly. The efforts of the citrus industry
to produce a really high quality frozen concentrate, and thus to
stimulate its acceptance by consumers, are reflected in the strin-
gent requirements for raw fruit (footnote, Table 3).

Maturity Tests of Tangerines, Temple Oranges, and Tangelos
Tangerines, Temple oranges, and tangelos are specialty fruits
whose principal channel of utilization is the fresh fruit market.
Only about a third of the tangerines and even fewer of the
Temple oranges and tangelos produced in Florida are processed.
A substantial quantity of all three, especially Temple oranges
and tangelos, are shipped as gift fruit.
Tangerines.-Legal maturity requirements for tangerines are
given in Table 4. There are two periods during the crop year,
August 1 through November 14 and November 15 through July
31. A sample for maturity tests consists of 15 tangerines of a







size. As there is no juice requirement, only sufficient juice needs
to be extracted for the tests of total soluble solids and total acid.
Tangerines for processing have the same requirements as for
fresh shipments from August 1 through November 14; during
the remainder of the crop year, a color break is not required.
As they are presently defined under the Florida Citrus Code
of 1949, as amended, tangerines do not include the yellow-orange
skinned varieties of Citrus reticulata known as mandarins or
King oranges or satsumas. Maturity tests are not required for
these fruits, but they must meet standards for grade before they
can be shipped.

TABLE 4.-LEGAL MATURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR TANGERINES.*
Aug. 1 Nov. 15
Through Through
Nov. 14 July 31

Color break ..................... 50% 50%**
Minimum solids ................ 9.00% 8.75%
Required ratio ................ See below-
Required Ratios of Total Soluble Solids to Total Acid (Section 601.22)
Aug. 1 Through Nov. 14
Solids
Solids Required Not Less Required
Not Less Than Ratios Than Ratios

9.0% 9.00 to 1 9.8% 8.20 to 1
9.1 8.90 to 1 9.9 8.10 to 1
9.2 8.80 to 1 10.0 8.00 to 1
9.3 8.70 to 1 10.1 7.90 to 1
9.4 8.60 to 1 10.2 7.80 to 1
9.5 8.50 to 1 10.3 7.70 to 1
9.6 8.40 to 1 10.4 7.60 to 1
9.7% 8.30 to 1 10.5% 7.50 to 1
or above

Nov. 15 through July 31

8.75% 8.75 to 1 9.70% 8.05 to 1
8.80 8.75 to 1 9.80 7.95 to 1
8.90 8.75 to 1 9.90 7.85 to 1
9.00 8.75 to 1 10.00 7.75 to 1
9.10 8.65 to 1 10.10 7.65 to 1
9.20 8.55 to 1 10.20 7.55 to 1
9.30 8.45 to 1 10.30 7.45 to 1
9.40 8.35 to 1 10.40 7.35 to 1
9.50 8.25 to 1 10.50% 7.25 to 1
9.60% 8.15 to 1 or above


Compiled from Florida Citrus Commission, State of Florida
601.21, 601.22, November, 1957.
** Not required of fruits for processing.
t For actual total soluble solids in the juice.
16


citrus laws. Sections








Temple Oranges.-Legal maturity requirements for Temple
oranges are shown in Table 5. There are two periods during the
crop year, August 1 through November 30 and December 1
through July 31. Up to 300,000 boxes annually of Temple
oranges may be color-added under special permit. The require-
ments for these fruits are the same as for natural color except
for a higher minimum ratio. A sample for maturity tests con-
sists of 10 Temple oranges of a size. There is no juice require-
ment. Fruits for processing have the same requirements as
for natural-color fresh shipments; there is no color break or
minimum ratio during the remainder of the crop year.

TABLE 5.-LEGAL MATURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPLE ORANGES.*

Aug. 1 Dec. 1
Through Through
Nov. 30 July 31
Color break ....... ........... 50% 50%**
Minimum solids ................ 9.0% 9.0%
Minimum ratio .............. 8.00 to 1** 8.00 to 1**
Required ratio .................. -See below -

Required Ratios of Total Soluble Solids to Total Acid (Section 601.22)

Solids I
Solids Required Not Less Required
Not Less Than Ratio Than Ratio

9.0% 9.00 to 1 9.6% 8.40 to 1
9.1 8.90 to 1 9.7 8.30 to 1
9.2 8.80 to 1 9.8 8.20 to 1
9.3 8.70 to 1 9.9 8.10 to 1
9.4 8.60 to 1 10.0% 8.00 to 1
9.5% 8.50 to 1 or above

Compiled from Florida Citrus Commission, State of Florida citrus laws, Sections
601.21, 601.22, 601.79, November, 1957. Section 601.79 empowers the Florida Citrus Com-
mission to issue special permits not to exceed 300,000 boxes annually for color-added
Temple oranges. This authorization expires July 31, 1959.
** Not required of fruit for processing.
tA minimum ratio of 8.50 to 1 is required for color-added fruit.

Tangelos.-Legal maturity requirements for tangelos are
given in Table 6. There are five periods for fresh fruit during
the crop year, August 1 through October 31, November 1 through
November 15, November 16 through November 30, December 1
through January 31, and February 1 through July 31. Color-added
fruits have the same requirements as for natural-color fruit. A
color break of 50 percent is required all year. There is a stepwise
decrease in minimum total soluble solids from 9.0 to 8.0 in the
first three periods. A minimum total acid content of 0.4% and a






ratio based on actual solids in the juice are also required prior to
December 1. From December 1 through January 31 there is a
flat minimum ratio of 8.55 to 1 and from February 1 through
July 31, 8.00 to 1. There is no requirement for juice. A sample
for maturity tests consists of 10 tangelos of a size. Fruits for
processing have the same requirements as for fresh shipments
prior to December 1. During the remainder of the crop year,
a flat minimum ratio of 8.00 to 1 is required.

TABLE 6.-LEGAL MATURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR TANGELOS.*
Fresh Fruit Shipments**
Aug. 1 Nov. 1 Nov. 16 Dec. 1 Feb. 1
Through Through Through Through Through
Oct. 31 Nov. 15 Nov. 30 Jan. 31 July 31

Color break .... 50% 50% 50% 50% 50%
Minimum solids 9.0% 8.5% 8.0% .... t.. ......
Minimum acid. 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% ........ ........
Minimum ratio .... .... .... 8.55 to 1 8.00 to 1
Required ratioS -See below_
Fruit for Processing
Aug. 1 Nov. 1 Nov. 16 Dec. 1
Through Through Through Through
Oct. 31 Nov. 15 Nov. 30 July 31

Color break .... 50% 50% 50%
Minimum solids 9.0% 8.5% 8.0% ....
Minimum acid.. 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% ...
Minimum ratio .... .... .... 8.00 to 1
Required ratio See below _
Required Ratios of Total Soluble Solids to Acid (Section 601.232)
SSolids Solids
Solids Required Not Less Required Not Less Required
Not Less Than Ratio Than Ratio Than Ratio

8.0% 10.50 to 1 9.5% 9.75 to 1 11.0% 9.00 to 1
8.1 10.45 to 1 9.6 9.70 to 1 11.1 8.95 to 1
8.2 10.40 to 1 9.7 9.65 to 1 11.2 8.90 to 1
8.3 10.35 to 1 9.8 9.60 to 1 11.3 8.85 to 1
8.4 10.30 to 1 9.9 9.55 to 1 11.4 8.80 to 1
8.5 10.25 to 1 10.0 9.50 to 1 11.5 8.75 to 1
8.6 10.20 to 1 10.1 9.45 to 1 11.6 8.70 to 1
8.7 10.15 to 1 10.2 9.40 to 1 11.7 8.65 to 1
8.8 10.10 to 1 10.3 9.35 to 1 11.8 8.60 to 1
8.9 10.05 to 1 10.4 9.30 to 1 11.9% 8.55 to 1
9.0 10.00 to 1 10.5 9.25 to 1 or above
9.1 9.95 to 1 10.6 9.20 to 1
9.2 9.90 to 1 10.7 9.15 to 1
9.3 9.85 to 1 10.8 9.10 to 1
9.4% 9.80 to 1 10.9% 9.05 to 1


Compiled from Florida Citrus Commission,
601.231, 601.232, 601.83, November, 1957.
** Natural color or color added.
t No requirement.
For actual total soluble solids in the juice.
18


State of Florida citrus laws, Sections









Even the Folks in
CALIFORNIA
Like the New Book-


FLORIDA GUIDE TO
CITRUS INSECTS, DISEASES
and
NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS
IN COLOR


Floridians are buying thousands of copies. Other copies are
going to all citrus growing areas of the world.


For further information


write


Editor
Agricultural Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida







ADDENDA FOR CIRCULAR 191
AGRICULTURAL EXTE:SIOH SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
BY
M. J. SOLE, JR. AND FRED P. LAWRENCE

THE 1959 LEGISLATURE ENACTED A NUMBER OF AMENDOMENTS TO THE STATE OF
FLCRICA CITnus Lpis. CHANGES IN LEGAL MATURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ORANGES,
GRAPEFRUIT AlND T:N?LE ORANGES AND A NEW REGULATION ISSUED FOR MURCOTT HONEY
ORANGES ARE NEEDED IN CIRCULAR 191 TO RING IT UP TO DATE.A

ORANGES

TABLE 2, PAGE 6: FRESH FRUIT SHIPMENTS NATURAL COLOR
CHANGE MINIMUM RATIO TO 8,50 TO 1 IN ALL 3 COLUMNS.
TABLE 2, PAGE 6: FRESH FRUIT SHIPMENTS COLOR ADDEO
CHANGE MINIMUM RATIO TO 9.00 TO 1 IN ALL 3 COLUMNS.
TABLE 2, PACE 6: REQUIRED RATIOS OF TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS TO TOTAL
AcIo (SECTION 601.20)
SUBSTITUTE THE FOLLOWING TABLE FOR THIS ENTIRE PORTION OF
TABLE 2:


SOLIDS 0 SOLOS SOLIDS
NOT LESS REQUIRED NOT LESS REQUIRED NOT L9SS REQUIRED
THAN R TI0 T.AS RATIO THAN RATIO

8.0% 10.50 TO 1 9.4% 9.80 TO 1 10.8% 9.10 To 1
8.1 10.45 TO 1 9.5 9.75 TO 1 10.9 9.05 TO 1
8.2 10.40 TO 1 9.6 9.70 TO 1 11.0 9.00 TO 1
8.3 10.35 TO 1 9.7 9.65 TO 1 11.1 8.95 TO 1
8,4 10.30 TO 1 9.8 9.60 TO 1 11.2 8.90 TO 1
8,5 10,25 TO 1 9.9 9.55 To 1 11.3 8.85 TO 1
8.6 10.20 TO 1 10.0 9.50 TO 1 11.4 8,80 TO 1
8.7 10.15 To 1 10.1 9,45 TO 1 11.5 8.75 TO 1
8.8 10.10 To 1 10.2 9,40 TO 1 11.6 8,70 TO 1
8.9 10.05 TO 1 10.3 9.35 TO 1 11.7 8.65 To 1
9.0 10.00 TO 1 10.4 9.30 TO 1 11.8 8,60 TO 1
9.1 9.95 TO 1 10.5 9.25 TO 1 11.9 8.55 TO 1
9.2 9.90 TO 1 10.6 9.20 TO 1 12.0% OR 8.50 TO 1
9.3% 9.85 TO 1 10.7% 9.15 TO 1 ABOVE


GRAPEFRUIT


TABLE 3, PAGE 14: FRUIT FOR PROCESSING


(ALL VARIETIES)


INSERT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCE AS A FOOTNOTE TO MINIMUM SOLIDS, JAN.
THROUGH JULY 31: THE FLORIDA CITRUS COMMISSION MAY, AFTER A PUBLIC
HEARING, WAIVE THE MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS OF
GRAPEFRUIT TO BE USED FOR PRFOESSING PURPOSES BETWEEN APRIL 15 AND
JULY 31 OF ANY PARTICULAR YEAR.


i







TEMPLE ORANGES

TABLE 5, PAGE 17: LEGAL MATURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPLE ORIGAES*
CHANGE MINIMUM RATIO TO 8.50 TO 1 IN 8OTH COLUMNS (NATvRAL
COLOR FRUIT) AND FOOTNOTE TO MINIMUM RATIO TO 9.00 TO 1 FOR
COLOR-ADDED FRUIT&
CHANGE THE LAST SENTENCE OF FOOTNOTE* TO JULY 31, 1961.

ADD THE FOLLOWING SECTION AFTER PAGE 18:

MURCOTT HONEY ORANGES

MURCOTT HONEY ORANGES (PROBABLY TANGOR HYBRID, CITRUS RETICULATA
X C. SINENSIS) ARE DEEMED MATURE FOR FRESH FRUIT SHIPMENTS WHEN THE
ACID CONTENT DOES NOT EXCEED 1.0 PERCENT; OR, IF THE ACID CONTENT DOES
EXCEED 1.0 PERCENT, THE RATIO OF TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIOS TO TOTAL ACID IS
12.00 TO 1 OR HIGHER.

MURCOTT HONEY ORANGES FOR CANNING OR CONCENTRATING HAVE THE SAME
REQUIREMENTS AS ORANGES (TABLE 2, PAGE 6) EXCEPT THAT THERE ARE NO MAXI-
MUM REQUIREMENTS FOR JUICE, ACID OR COLOR BREAK.

IT IS UNLAWFUL TO COLOR ADD MURCOTT HONEY ORANCES.








dCOMPILED FROM CHAPTERS 59-8, 59-9, 59-12, 59-13, 59-17, AND
59-32 ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE AS AMENDMENTS TO THE STATE OF FLORIDA
CITRUS LAWS AND REGULATION NO. 34, FLORIDA CITRUS COMMISSION, EFFECTIVE
AUGUST 1, 1959.




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