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Title: Commercial vegetable insect and disease control guide
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 Material Information
Title: Commercial vegetable insect and disease control guide
Series Title: Commercial vegetable insect and disease control guide
Alternate Title: Circular 193 ; Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Brogdon, James
Marvel, M. E.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: March 1959
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084449
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 229449162

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Index
        Page 43
Full Text


Circular 193


March 1959


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA







Commercial Vegetable Insect

And Disease Control Guide

J. E. BROGDON and M. E. MARVEL
Entomologist and Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist


Spraying cabbage with an air-blast row-crop sprayer.























This Guide has been prepared in cooperation with the follow-
ing Agricultural Experiment Station workers:

A. N. Tissot, L. C. Kuitert, P. Decke:, A. A. Cook, C. H. Van Middelem,
Main Station, Gainesville.
W. G. Genung, E. D. Harris, J. H. Simons, P. L. Thayer, Everglades Station,
Belle Glade.

D. O. Wolfenbarger, R. A. Conover, R. M. Baranowski, Sub-Tropical Sta-
tion, Homestead.
E. G. Kelsheimer, J. M. Walter, Gulf Coast Station, Bradenton.
J. W. Wilson, J. F. Darby, Central Florida Station, Sanford.
J. M. Crall, N. C. Schenck, W. C. Adlerz, Watermelon and Grape Labora-
tory, Leesbuig.
N. C. Hayslip, R. E. Stall, Indian River Field Laboratory, Ft. P erce.
A. H. Eddins, R. B. Workman, Potato Field Labor'atory, Hastings.
A. N. Brooks, Strawberry Field Laboratory, Plant City.
W. B. Tappan, North Florida Station, Quincy.











COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director









Commercial Vegetable Insect and

Disease Control Guide

J. E. BROGDON and M. E. MARVEL
Entomologist and Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist

Control measures recommended herein are the most effective
within limits of research results and observations with ap-
proved pesticides. Information is given on pesticide tolerances
and minimum days between last application and harvest. There
will be changes; therefore the user is strongly urged to keep
abreast of developments.

AMOUNTS, RATES, COVERAGE, TIMING, COMPATABILITY
Definite information offered in relation to particular crops,
pests and pesticides is stated in appropriate places in the text.
Spray materials are shown in amounts or equivalent per 100
gallons water. Wettable powder formulations of insecticides are
given in most instances. Equivalent amounts of liquid concen-
trates can be used. Suggested acre rates should be adjusted to
insure complete coverage but, in general, 20-35 pounds of dust,
75-150 gallons of spray or 30-50 pounds of bait are accepted
amounts from which adjustments may be made.
There is no substitute for close observations and supervision
in developing and maintaining an effective vegetable pest con-
trol program. Constant consideration must be given to weather,
potential incidence of disease or insect, economics, correct identi-
fication, proper timing, nozzle placement, pressure, wind direc-
tion and velocity, uniformity and layout of field, stage of devel-
opment in relation to other plantings, speed of equipment and
others.
Give consideration to the compatibility of pesticide combina-
tions. Although there can be many suitable mixtures of chem-
icals, a given application must meet several requirements, in-
cluding: (1) Each component must be fully effective; (2) must
not be harmful to crop; and (3) the materials must mix readily
and cause no difficulty in operation and maintenance of equip-
ment. In case of questionable compatibility of a mixture of pesti-
3






cides, do not attempt the combination. Generally it is not desir-
able to mix wettable powders with emulsifiable concentrates.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Most insecticides are poisonous to man and animals and should
be handled with all precautions given on the label. The relatively
few deaths among workers handling large amounts of poisonous
agricultural products or economic poisons can be traced to dis-
regard of even the minimum safety directions and precautions
found on product labels. Some violations occur through ignorance
or misunderstanding of the available information. Many more
violations result from plain carelessness-or what is worse,
recklessness on the part of workers who have been adequately
informed. The key to safe handling is understanding coupled
with the diligent practice of safe working habits. Accidents with
pesticides can be prevented. Some of the major causes are: (1)
Leaving the material within reach of irresponsible persons;
(2) failure to read and follow the use precautions on the labels;
(3) carelessness in the disposal of empty containers.
Parathion belongs to the phosphate group of insecticides
which includes demeton (Systox), TEPP and phosdrin. These
materials are extremely poisonous-take special precautions
when you use them. When handling, mixing and applying such
materials, use protective clothing, wear rubber gloves and wear
an approved respirator. Members of the chlorinated hydrocarbon
group, which includes DDT, lindane, chlordane, aldrin, dieldrin
and others, are generally less hazardous to man than most of the
phosphatic insecticides. However, handle even them with proper
precautions. If a worker suspects excessive exposure to any in-
secticide, he should see a doctor immediately.

PESTICIDE TOLERANCES AND MINIMUM DAYS BETWEEN
LAST APPLICATION AND HARVEST *
Some of the agricultural chemicals used on vegetables may
remain on them when they are harvested. In excessive amounts
many of them are injurious to humans. Any contamination of
vegetables and other agricultural foods is a matter of concern
to growers, shippers, the chemical industry, agricultural and
public health authorities, law enforcement officials and the
consumer.
Particularly subject to revision, depending on more current informa-
tion.






WHAT IS A TOLERANCE?


To avoid harmful amounts of residues of agricultural chem-
icals in our foods, rules for their safe use are provided by law.
One such rule is "tolerance."
"Tolerance" is simply the amount of a pesticide which scien-
tists have determined may safely remain as a residue on the food
crop without injury to the consumer. The "tolerance" is specific
for the pesticide and the crop and is established by regulation.
The Food and Drug Administration first considers evidence of
safety and the amount of residue which will remain if the
product is used according to directions on the label. FDA then
sets a "tolerance" which will be safe and which can be met if
the directions are followed. If a tolerance is not necessary for
protection of the consumer, FDA may exempt a particular
product from requirements for a tolerance.
A limited number of pesticide chemicals have been officially
declared safe, and do not require either a tolerance or exemption.
Except for these products, no amount of residue of a particular
chemical on a specified crop is permitted if (1) there is no toler-
ance or exemption or (2) the tolerance is zero. However, the
absence of a published tolerance or exemption does not neces-
sarily imply that a pesticide chemical may not be used. Some
pesticide uses-for example, certain dormant sprays and soil
treatments-do not result in residues of the chemical on the
harvested crop. Uses which do not leave residues do not require
tolerances or exemptions and do not have to be passed upon by
the Food and Drug Administration.

THE LAW AND CONSUMER PROTECTION
Under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, a food containing
residue in excess of the tolerance is defined as "adulterated" and
must not be shipped across state lines. Most states have laws to
deal with crops produced and consumed within their own boun-
daries.
The Food and Drug Administration checks up on conditions
and practices during the growing season of each crop, and on any
spray-removal practice by shippers. If excessive residues from a
particular area are suspected, samples are examined from out-
going shipments of the crop. If excessive residues are then found,
the shipment is removed from the market by a Federal court
order. The law also provides for action against persons and busi-
ness firms responsible for violations.
5






HOW GROWERS CAN AVOID EXCESSIVE RESIDUES
Generally, growers can avoid excessive residues on harvested
crops by applying pesticides on the crops specified, in the
amounts specified and at the times specified in this publication
or on the pesticide label. In many instances the minimum number
of days to be allowed between last application and harvest given
in the Pesticide Interval Chart in this publication will differ
from the number of days specified on the pesticide label. The
intervals not in parentheses in the chart are based on Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station residue research conducted
under Florida weather conditions and in accordance with Florida
dosage recommendations.
The labeling for all pesticides shipped interstate must be reg-
istered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture under the Fed-
eral Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. All labeling
submitted to the Department of Agriculture with applications
for registration is thoroughly examined to remove or modify
any directions for use on particular crops which do not appear
to fulfill the requirements of that law. Among other considera-
tions, USDA determines if any pesticidally effective treatment
is likely to leave excessive chemical residues on the harvested
raw agricultural commodities. If a crop is not named on the
label of a particular pesticide, this may mean that no residue of
that pesticide is permitted on that crop; and hence the treated
crop could not be shipped if it contains a residue of that chemical.
It is not safe to reason that "if a little is good, more will be
better." Observance of the recommended time of application gives
assurance that the pesticide will not contaminate the edible por-
tion of the fruit or vegetable, or will have been removed or
sufficiently decreased by weathering, decomposition, or other
process so that at harvest the residue will not be excessive.
If you employ airplane or other custom applicators, be sure
they know their business and follow good agricultural practices.

RULES FOR THE PACKER-SHIPPER
How does the packer-shipper who handles the produce of
many individual growers make sure that he does not ship a prod-
uct containing excessive residue? Here are two suggestions.
1. He should make it a point to ask each grower and satisfy
himself (during the growing season if possible) that any pesti-
cides used were used only in accordance with registered label
directions or other highly authoritative recommendations.
6






2. He should follow good commercial practice for the area,
the crop, and the pesticide used, with respect to removal of ex-
cessive residues-by washing, brushing, trimming, etc.

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN EXCESSIVE RESIDUES OCCUR?
If FDA finds excessive residues on shipments, the first action
is to protect the consumer by seizure of the goods if possible.
If a shipment is seized, the owner has three choices as to
courses of action:
1. He may admit the violation as charged and ask the court
for permission to take the goods under bond for removal of ex-
cessive residues. This must be done under supervision of the
Food and Drug Administration. If reconditioning is successful,
the goods are released.
2. He may deny the violation as charged and have the case
tried on its merits in the Federal court.
3. He may do nothing, in which case the goods will be de-
stroyed, or otherwise disposed of as determined by the Court.
Because of the highly perishable nature of most produce, the
owner should act promptly (a return date of 10 days is usually
specified) if he wishes to act under 1 or 2 above. Prosecution and
court injunction are additional legal measures. They may be
taken against persons or business firms or both.
Most of the pesticide tolerance information above was taken
from Leaflet No. 6, "Protecting Crops and Consumers," Food
and Drug Administration, U. S. Department of Health, Educa-
tion and Welfare.

VEGETABLE PESTICIDE INTERVAL CHART
The purpose of the chart is to give the minimum number of
days between last application and harvest for foliar application
of approved pesticides as of March 15, 1959. The absence of an
interval for many of the pesticides on some crops in the chart
does not necessarily imply that the pesticides may not be used
on those crops. In many instances a tolerance has been set, but
a definite interval has not been established. These uses would
require such restrictions as "do not apply after blooms appear"-
or "do not apply after edible parts start to form," and others.
Also preplanting soil treatments, which generally do not require
time limitations, are not included in the chart.
(Continued on Page 9.)
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VEGETABLE PESTICIDE INTERVALS (See Chart Page 8)
Chlordane: tomatoes; strawberries 14 days; washed strawberries 7 days;
peas (15) days; potatoes (NTL); carrots (NTL) do not use tops for
food or feed.
Demeton (Systox) (Foliage application only): Beans 14 days; broccoli, cab-
bage, cauliflower, lettuce 21 days; muskmelons, potatoes (21) days;
washed strawberries 7 days.
Endrin (zero tolerance): tomatoes; eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, summer
squash (14) days; potatoes (3) days; cabbage 35 days; sweet corn
(45) days.
Heptachlor: onions (5) days; potatoes (NTL); peas (including cowpeas,
blackeye) (10) days (dust); (15) days (spray); sweet potatoes (NTL)
(30) days.
Kelthane: cantaloupe, watermelons, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes, egg-
plants, peppers, strawberries (2) days; beans (7) days.
Lindane: melons, including cantaloupe (NTL); cucumbers, squash (remove
excess residue).
TDE (DDD): cucumbers, eggplant, melons, peppers, squash, tomatoes (1)
day; strawberries (5) days; potatoes (NTL).
TEPP (zero tolerance): truck and vegetable crops (3) days.
Thiodan: potatoes (NTL).
Trithion: strawberries (3) days; cantaloupes, watermelons (5) days; beans,
eggplants, peas, peppers, tomatoes (7) days; spinach (21) days; pota-
toes (NTL).

The listing of a pesticide for a crop does not necessarily con-
stitute a recommendation for control of insects or diseases on
that crop by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service and
Experiment Stations. Recommendations are given under individ-
ual crops or groups.
The number of days not in parentheses in the chart are based
on Florida Agricultural Experiment Station research which in-
cluded foliar application under Florida conditions and in accord-
ance with Florida dosage recommendations given in this Circular.
If these dosages are exceeded, the minimum days given in the
chart are not applicable and a longer interval should be allowed
between last application and harvest. Each grower should plan
and follow a pest control program which will assure him of vege-
tables that do not contain excessive pesticide residues. Vegetables
marketed with residues exceeding tolerances set by Food and
Drug Administration are potentially injurious to consumers;
may result in serious financial loss to the grower; and may
reduce public acceptance of fresh Florida vegetables.
In the absence of Florida data, other minimum days between
last application and harvest are shown in parentheses and have
been compiled from information from various USDA Agencies.
These intervals have been established in accordance with speci-
fied dosages or recommendations by USDA. Do not exceed the
dosage given on the pesticide label.
9






INSECT CONTROL


BUSH AND POLE BEANS
Spray Dust
Armyworms (Fall, Toxaphene wp, 21/ Ibs. 40% Toxaphene 10%
Southern, Yellow- DDT wp, 2 Ibs. 50% DDT 5%
Striped), Corn
Earworm
Apply when armyworms appear, continue at 7-day intervals
until control is complete. Armyworms often migrate into field or
moths lay eggs and young develop on grass. When grass is de-
stroyed, worms migrate to beans. Sulfur may be used as all, or
a part, of the diluent in dusts for beans. Toxaphene may cause
burn and stunting of pole beans.

Spray Dust
Cowpea curculio Toxaphene wp, 21/ Ibs. 40% Toxaphene 5%
Apply when pods begin to set and repeat weekly. Note com-
ments on toxaphene on pole beans above.

Spray Dust
Bean leafhopper DDT wp, 2 Ibs. 50% DDT 5%
and leaf-roller
Apply at first signs of leaf-hoppers, 1 to 3 applications at
10-day intervals, last treatment just before blooming. Under
conditions of severe infestations the time interval between ap-
plications may need to be reduced. See remarks above relative
to using sulfur as a diluent.
In Everglades, Lower East Coast and West Coast areas leaf-
hoppers most severe in spring during warm dry periods, in cen-
tral and northern Florida most prevalent in the fall. Young plants
suffer most.
Wait for fairly heavy population before applying insecticide.
Dust borders of large fields with airplane. Usually not necessary
to treat whole field unless small or infestation severe.

Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 2/2 lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 2%%
Chlordane wp, 21/2 lbs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
Endrin em 2% pts. (1.6 lbs.
per gal.)
Apply insecticide before planting if cutworms are known to
be present. Watch young plants for injury and bait, dust or spray
immediately. Do not use chlordane spray or dust after blooms ap-
pear. Use endrin as pre-emergence treatment only. Note com-
ments on toxaphene on pole beans under armyworms.






A home-made bait can be prepared by thoroughly mixing 5
pounds of 40% wettable chlordane or 6 pounds of 40% wettable
toxaphene with 100 pounds of wheat bran. Moisten bait slightly
just prior to applying. Best to apply bait in late afternoon.

Spray Dust
Mexican bean beetle Parathion wp, 3 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
Malathion wp, 6 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Methoxychlor wp, 3 lbs. 50% Methoxychlor 5%
Rotenone wp, 21/ lbs. 5% Rotenone 1%
Apply when insects are noticed or damage becomes evident.
Spot control may be effective if infestation is found early. Mexi-
can bean beetles are a problem in the North and West Florida
areas and recommendations for control are based on USDA re-
search. Grower observations in the Gainesville area indicate that
lower dosages of parathion give satisfactory control except when
infestations are very heavy.

Spray Dust
Cucumber beetles, Diazinon wp, 1 lb. 25% Diazinon 2%
serpentine leaf Parathion wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
miner
Diazinon is the preferred material for leaf miners. Sulfur is
the recommended diluent for diazinon dusts.

Spray Dust
Thrips Parathion wp, 1-112 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Thrips may be a problem on leaves and pods. DDT or Toxa-
phene used for other pests are also effective. Note comments on
toxaphene-see armyworms.

Spray Dust
Stinkbugs Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%
Apply when insects appear. Especially important to insure
low population when pods begin to set.
Lesser cornstalk See under Sweet Corn
borer

CELERY
Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1-11/2 Ibs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Aphids transmit some virus diseases. This fact makes their
control important. Keep ditches and roadways free of weeds
and watch closely for aphids. DDT emulsifiable concentrate is
effective as a preventive if used in a regular 7 to 10-day schedule,







but is not too effective against established infestations. Under
some conditions DDT emulsion causes injury to small seedlings
and should be used with caution on young plants. Good coverage
is essential.
Spray Dust
Armyworms and Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%
cutworms
Spray Dust
Thrips DDT em, 1 qt. 25%
Garden fleahopper
Spray Dust
Serpentine leaf Parathion wp, 1-11/ lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
miner
SWEET CORN
Spray Dust
Aphids and Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
red spiders
Infestations of these insects may become heavy enough to
require control measures in some areas of the state.
Spray
Fall armyworms DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50%
and corn earworms Toxaphene wp, 4 lbs. 40%
feeding in corn bud
Make first application for budworms when feeding is ob-
served. Repeat at 1 to 2-week intervals, depending on severity
of infestation. Direct the spray from above and from each side
of the plant to the upper leaves to thoroughly wet and run down
into the bud-whorl.
Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 2 lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 21 %
Chlordane wp, 2 lbs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
Aldrin wp, 2 lbs. 25%
Endrin em, 2 pts. (1.6 lbs.
per gal.)
Use dust, spray or bait as pre-emergence treatments. Also
inspect germinating corn for early detection of cutworm damage
and treat at once at first signs. After plants are growing, apply
bait.
Spray Dust
Earworm DDT em, 3-4 qts. 25% DDT 10%
Parathion 2%
DDT 5% Parathion 1%

Timing and good coverage are absolutely essential for good
earworm control. All treatments must be started when the silks
first appear and continued until all the silks are dry or brown.






Applications of one of the insecticide materials recommended
above will give adequate control when applied at 48-hour inter-
vals to sweet corn silking during the fall, winter and early
springs. The DDT emulsion should be applied in 50 gallons of
water per acre. The dust should be applied at the rate of 25 to
30 pounds per acre. Dust or spray should be directed at the silks.
Earworm infestations become heavier as the spring season
progresses. Apply 4 quarts 25% DDT emulsion in 50 gallons of
water per acre at 48-hour intervals or one of the recommended
dusts at 24-hour intervals from midspring to early summer. In
late spring or early summer, the effectiveness of the emulsion
can be increased by adding 1.75 gallons of white mineral oil to
50 gallons of spray. Apply white mineral oil only when heavy
earworm infestations are expected, as it may reduce yield. Never
use the white mineral oil when growing conditions are poor and
the corn has a tendency to be unthrifty. Under such conditions
white mineral oil may cause husk discoloration and stunted ears.

Spray Dust
Silk fly Parathion wp, 2 Ibs. 15% Parathion 2%
Chlordane wp, 21/2 lbs. 40%
Check for adult flies and if present make first application just
before silking. One to three applications may be needed.

Wireworm
Apply 3 to 5 pounds actual aldrin or heptachlor or 4 to 6
pounds actual chlordane per acre 2 to 3 weeks before planting.
Distribute evenly over the soil surface and disk into the soil to a
depth of 6 inches. Use the higher dosage on muck. These ma-
terials mixed with fertilizers and applied in bands are generally
less effective than application by the above method.
The wireworm that is troublesome in the Hastings area is
not controlled by aldrin, heptachlor or chlordane. For that area
2 pounds actual parathion applied in the above manner is sug-
gested until further research is done.

Lesser cornstalk borer
In the Everglades area apply parathion or aldrin or hepta-
chlor, using wetting agent or detergent in spray water to help
wet soil and webbing; make first application broadcast (covering
rows and middles) just before crop emerges using 3 pounds 15%
parathion wp or 2 quarts aldrin or heptachlor emulsion (2 pounds
aldrin or heptachlor per gallon) per acre; make second applica-







tion as soon as crop emerges and before cultivation, using 3
pounds 15% parathion wp or 1 quart aldrin or heptachlor emul-
sion per acre. Higher gallonage (up to 300 per acre) of more
dilute coarse sprays at about 100 pounds pressure may be more
effective. In West Coast area DDT or chlordane at 11/2 pounds
actual material per acre as a spray or dust is recommended at
the time young plants break through the ground. High gallon-
age coarse sprays at about 100 pounds pressure are preferred.

CRUCIFIERS

(Cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli)

(Adding a spreader-sticker in sprays applied to the foliage
of crucifers at rate recommended by the manufacturer may im-
prove control.)


Spray
Parathion em, 1 pt. 25%
TEPP em, 1/ pt. 40%
Demeton (Systox) em, 11/ pts.
(2 lbs. per gal.)
Phosdrin em, 1 pt. 25%


Dust
Parathion 2%
TEPP 1%


TEPP dust should be fresh.


Serpentine leaf
miner

Cabbage looper,
armyworms, other
caterpillars


Spray
Parathion em, 1 pt. 25%

Spray
Endrin em, 1 pt. (1.6 lbs.
per gal.)
Parathion em, 1-2 pts. 25%
Toxaphene em, 1/2-2 pts.
(6 lbs. per gal.)
Phosdrin em, 1-2 pts. 25%


Dust
Parathion 2%

Dust
Endrin 2%
Parathion 2%
Toxaphene 10%


Spray Dust
Cutworms Toxaphene em, 1%-2 pts. Toxaphene
(6 Ibs. per gal.)
Endrin em, 2% pts. (1.6 Ibs.
per gal.)


Bait
10% Toxaphene 212%


Apply insecticide before planting if worms are present. Watch
young plants for injury and bait, dust or spray immediately.
See home-made bait under Bush and Pole Beans.

Mole-cricket
Apply 2 pounds actual aldrin or 4 pounds actual chlordane as
a spray or dust, or a 2% chlordane or aldrin bait evenly over
the soil surface before seeding or transplanting if tunnels are


Aphids







evident. After plants are up, use a bait. Apply bait in late after-
noon when soil is moist and warm.
For seedbeds use a poison bait; or drench with an emulsion
containing 1/4 pound actual chlordane in 100 gallons of water
per 1,000 square feet of seedbed area.

Wireworm See under Sweet Corn.

CUCURBITS
(Cantaloupe, cucumber, squash and watermelon)
Spray Dust
Serpentine leaf Parathion wp, 1-11/ lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
miner Diazinon* wp, 1 lb. 25% Diazinon* 2%

Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1-11/ lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%

Melonworm, squash Parathion wp, 1-1% lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
bug, pickleworm, Lindane wp, 1 lb. 25% Lindane 1%%
cucumber beetles Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%

Rindworms on Phosdrin wp, 1-2 lbs. 25%
watermelons Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
The corn earworm feeding as a rindworm has been quite
troublesome in central and south Florida. DDT is the specific
control for corn earworms, but is not generally recommended on
cucurbits because of possible injury to plants. However, after
the melons are near maturity, the possibility of injury may be
so slight that improved control with DDT may warrant its use.
To avoid injury to bees which are necessary for pollination,
spraying or dusting with insecticides should be delayed until
late afternoon or evening. It is suggested that parathion spray
be applied early enough that it dries before dew fall, reducing
possibilities of foliage burn. Do not apply parathion when plants
are wet or very young.

EGGPLANT
Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1-1% lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
TEPP em, 1/2 pt. 40%
Begin applications when aphids appear; repeat at 10-day to
2-week intervals.
Diazinon cleared on cucumbers only as of March 15, 1959. See residue
chart.







Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 2/2 lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 21/2%
Chlordane wp, 212 lbs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%

Apply before planting if worms are present or at first signs
of worm damage to young plants. See home-made bait under
Bush and Pole Beans. Moisten slightly just prior to applying.
Best to apply bait in late afternoon.


Corn earworm,
other caterpillars
flea beetles,
Colorado potato
beetles


Spray
DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50%


Spray Dust
Spider mites Kelthane wp, 112-2 lbs. 182 % Kelthane 2%
(red spiders) Malathion wp, 4 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
TEPP em, % pt. 40%
More than one kind of spider mite infest eggplant. Parathion,
malathion, and sulfur are effective against the common red
spider, but do not control certain other species. Kelthane is a
new miticide that has given good control of all species that infest
eggplant. Sulfur is the suggested diluent for parathion and mala-
thion dusts.


Spray Dust
Thrips DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
Parathion wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Sulfur may be used as a diluent for DDT or parathion dust,
thus aiding in the control of spider mites (red spiders).


Serpentine leaf
miner


Spray
Parathion wp, 1-1 lbs. 15%


Dust
Parathion 1-2%


Apply when infestation appears; 1 to 2 applications at 7-day
intervals should be sufficient.

LETTUCE AND ENDIVE (ESCAROLE)


Spray
Parathion wp, 1-1% lbs. 15%
Phosdrin* wp, 1 lb. 25%


Dust
Parathion 1-2%


Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 21/2 Ibs. 40% Toxaphene 5% Toxaphene 2/2 %
Chlordane wp, 2 Ibs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
If possible prepare land at least a month before planting and
apply bait, spray or dust a week before seeding or transplanting.


Dust
DDT 5%


Aphids







See home-made bait under Bush and Pole Beans. Toxaphene
dusts and sprays may injure young seedlings or newly trans-
planted lettuce or endive.


Banded cucumber
beetle, caterpillars


Spray
DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50%
Parathion wp, 1-1/2 lbs. 15%
Phosdrin* wp, 1-2 lbs. 25%


Dust
DDT 5%
Parathion 1-2%


Spray
Lygus bug DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50%

Apply when damage is noted.


Mole-cricket
Wireworm


See mole-cricket under Crucifers.

See under Sweet Corn.


OKRA
Spray
Parathion wp, 1-11/ lbs. 15%
TEPP em, % pt. 40%


Aphids


Dust
Parathion 1-2%


Begin applications when aphids appear; repeat at 10-day to
2-week intervals.

Spray Dust
Okra caterpillar DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%

Apply when infestation or leaf injury is first noted.


Serpentine leaf
miner


Spray Dust
Parathion wp, 1-1%/ Ibs. 15% Parathion 1-2%


Apply when infestation seems general; 1
7-day intervals should be sufficient.


Stinkbugs


Spray
Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15%


to 2 applications at


Dust
Parathion 2%


Apply when insects appear.

ONION
Spray Dust
Thrips Heptachlor wp, 2 lbs. 25% Heptachlor 2 %
Parathion wp, 1-11/ lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Malathion wp, 3 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Apply when thrips appear; repeat when necessary. Use 250-
300 pounds pressure and direct nozzles over rows close to plants.
Addition of spreader-sticker to spray is suggested and coverage
down into sheaths is very important.
Phosdrin not cleared on endive as of March 15, 1959. See residue chart.


Dust
DDT 5%







Spray
Cutworms Heptachlor wp,
2 Ibs. 25%


Dust Bait
Heptachlor 21/%% Toxaphene 21/2 %
Chlordane 2%


Apply before planting if cutworms are present or at first
signs of worm damage to young plants. Apply baits in late after-
noon. See home-made bait under Bush and Pole Beans.

ENGLISH PEA


Aphids,
serpentine leaf
miner


Spray Dust
Parathion wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%


Begin applications as soon as insects appear; repeat at 10-day
intervals as needed.

SOUTHERN PEA


Cowpea curculio


Spray
Toxaphene wp, 21 lbs. 40%


Dust
Toxaphene 5%


Apply when pods begin to set and repeat weekly.


Serpentine leaf
miner


Spray Dust
Parathion wp, 1-11/ Ibs. 15% Parathion 1-2%


Apply when infestations seem general; 1 to 2 applications
at 7-day intervals should be sufficient.

Spray Dust
Stinkbugs Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
Toxaphene wp, 21/ lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%

Apply when insects appear. Especially important to insure
low population when pods begin to set.


Leafhopper and
leaf-roller


Spray
DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50%


See comments on these insects under Bush and Pole Beans.


Lesser cornstalk
borer



Serpentine leaf
miner


See under Sweet Corn.


PEPPER
Spray
Diazinon wp, 1 lb. 25%
Parathion wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 15%


Dust
Diazinon 2%
Parathion 1-2%


Aphids


Parathion wp, 1-11/2 Ibs. 15% Parathion 1-2%


Aphids may transmit certain viruses which cause mosaic
diseases.


Dust
DDT 5%







Spray Dust
Fall armyworm, DDT wp, 2 Ibs. 50% DDT 5%
Southern armyworm,
corn earworm
Apply when worms appear and at intervals of about 10 days
if infestation continues.

Spray Dust
Pepper weevil DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%

Apply when infestation becomes evident. Cut open fallen
blossom buds and small fruits for evidence of infestations.

Spray Dust
Thrips Parathion wp, 1-1 Ibs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
DDT wp, 2 Ibs. 50% DDT 5%

Apply when thrips are noted in blooms; repeat with 1 to 3
applications at 7-day intervals. Attempt thorough coverage just
before blooming.

NOTE: The use of dust or wettable powder formulations of
DDT without an aphicide is likely to result in a build-up of
aphids.

Mole-cricket See under Crucifers.
Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 2% lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 2% %
Chlordane wp, 21/2 lbs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%

Apply before planting if cutworms ,are present or at first
signs of cutworm damage to young plants. Best to apply bait in
late afternoon. See home-made bait under Bush and Pole Beans.
Lesser cornstalk See under Sweet Corn.
borer
IRISH POTATO
Spray Dust
Aphids Thiodan wp, 2 lbs. 25%
Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%
Parathion wp, 1-1%/ lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%

Armyworms, other Toxaphene wp, 21/ lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10%
caterpillars Chlordane wp, 2% lbs. 40% Chlordane 5%
DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
Thiodan wp, 2 Ibs. 25%

Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, 21 lbs. 40% Toxaphene 10% Toxaphene 2%%
Chlordane wp, 2% Ibs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
See home-made bait under Bush and Pole Beans.

19







Spray Dust
Colorado potato DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
beetle
NOTE: The use of dust or wettable powder formulations of
DDT without an aphicide is likely to result in a build-up of
aphids.
Spray Dust
Leaf-footed plant Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%
bug, green stink- Chlordane wp, 21/ lbs. 40% Chlordane 5%
bug Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
Thiodan wp, 2 lbs. 25%

Serpentine leaf Diazinon wp, 1 lb. 25% Diazinon 2%
miner, banded Parathion wp, 1-11/ lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
cucumber beetle
Wireworm See under Sweet Corn.

SWEET POTATO
Spray Dust
Armyworms, horn- DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
worms, other
caterpillars,
gold bug
Begin applications when insects appear; 1 to 2 applications
usually sufficient. Thorough coverage is difficult where vines
are dense. It may be necessary to insert dust nozzles into vines
to get adequate coverage and satisfactory control.
Sweet potato weevil: Sanitation. Use certified or weevil-free
seed.
Based on research conducted on the control of sweet potato
weevils by the USDA, growers who are in need of a chemical con-
trol may use the following treatments.
Seedbed Treatment.-Dust with 2 percent dieldrin or 21/2
percent heptachlor. Make the first application using dieldrin when
the first scattered plants show color in the stems. Make the sec-
ond application with dieldrin or heptachlor when all the plants
are up. Make additional applications with dieldrin or heptachlor
after each pulling. Apply the material so as to cover all of the
soil surface around the plants, using at each application 1/1 pound
of dust per 100 feet of row, or on beds 1/4 pound per 80 square
feet of surface.
Field Treatment.-When the vines begin to meet in the mid-
dle or the largest roots are 1/2 inch in diameter, use 75 pounds
per acre of 2 percent dieldrin or 21/2 percent heptachlor dust.
Apply the insecticide to the soil rather than the foliage in a
6-to-8-inch band on each row along the plant crowns.
20






Ask your local inspector or county agent how best to apply
the insecticide.
Harvest all sweet potatoes before December 1 and cull out
any infested ones.
When storing or banking sweet potatoes dust them with 10
percent DDT at the rate of 1 ounce per bushel as you bank
them. Dust the ground and straw used. CAUTION: Wash all
potatoes which have been dusted before eating or feeding to
livestock.
Pasture sweet potato fields after harvest and destroy all
culled potatoes or feed them to livestock. Plow sweet potato fields
at least twice during the winter so that there will be no potatoes
left and no volunteers later on.
Try to use all your potatoes by March 1, being certain to
destroy all infested potatoes, and do not allow volunteer plants
around old storage sites. These, and the plants left in the field,
are almost certain to carry over weevils from year to year.

RADISH, TURNIP AND MUSTARD
Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Malathion wp, 4 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Phosdrin* wp, 1 lb. 25%
TEPP em, % pt. 40%

Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Toxaphene 2%1/ %
Chlordane 2%
See home-made bait under Bush and Pole Beans.

Spray Dust Bait
Mole-cricket Chlordane 2%

Apply before seeding.

SPINACH
Spray Dust
Aphids, cater- Parathion wp, 1-1 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
pillars, other Malathion wp, 4 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
chewing insects Phosdrin wp, 1-2 lbs. 25%

STRAWBERRY
Spray Dust
Pameras DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
Parathion wp, 1-11% lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%
Malathion wp, 4 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%
Parathion gives better control than malathion. Malathion is
Phosdrin not cleared on radish as of March 15, 1959. See residue chart.








safer than parathion, but should be handled with the proper
precautions. See caution below on use of parathion and malathion.


Flower thrips


Spray Dust
Parathion wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%


Note comments on parathion.

Spray Dust Bait
Cutworms Chlordane wp, 21/2 lbs. 40% Chlordane 5% Chlordane 2%
For control of cutworms distribute the dust or spray evenly
over the soil surface. Baits should be moistened and applied in
late afternoon. See home-made bait under Bush and Pole Beans.


Lesser cornstalk
borer, field
cricket

Flea beetles,
Leaf rollers

Spider mites
(red spiders)


Spray
Chlordane wp, 21/2 lbs. 40%
DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50%
Parathion wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 15%


Dust
Chlordane 5%
DDT 5%
Parathion 1-2%


DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
Parathion wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%

Kelthane wp, 11/2-2 lbs. 18%% Kelthane 2%
Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15% Parathion 2%
Malathion wp, 4 lbs. 25% Malathion 5%


More than one kind of spider mite infest strawberries. Para-
thion, malathion and sulfur are effective against the common
red spider, but do not control certain other species. Kelthane is a
new miticide that has given control of all species that infest
strawberries. Sulfur is the suggested diluent for parathion and
malathion dusts. See Cautions below on use of parathion and
malathion.


Mole-crickets


See Mole-crickets under Crucifers.


Wireworms, citrus See Wireworms under Sweet Corn.
root weevil
CAUTION: To prevent injury to leaves, apply insecticides
when plants are dry. Where recommended and needed, parathion
and malathion should be applied immediately after harvesting.
Wait 3 days for parathion and 1 day for malathion before har-
vesting again and wash berries before packing.

TOMATO


Spray
'Southern armyworm, DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50%
tomato fruitworm, TDE (DDD) wp, 2 lbs. 50%
fall armyworm Phosdrin wp, 1-2 lbs. 25%


Dust
DDT 5%
TDE (DDD) 5%







Spray
Toxaphene wp,
21/2 lbs. 40%
Chlordane wp,
21/ lbs. 40%


Dust Bait
Toxaphene 10% 21/2 % Toxaphene

Chlordane 5% 2% Chlordane


For the control of soil-infesting cutworms spray or dust
evenly over the soil surface. Moisten baits and distribute in late
afternoon. Apply toxaphene or chlordane sprays or dusts to the
soil before plants emerge or plant setting in the field. Regular
sprays of DDT, TDE or parathion will prevent the establishment
of cutworms after the crop is planted. See home-made bait under
Bush and Pole Beans.


Serpentine leaf
miner, banded
cucumber beetle


Spray Dust
Diazinon wp, 1 lb. 25% Diazinon 2%
Parathion wp, 1-11/2 lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%


Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insecticide twice a week
when there are heavy migrations of adult leaf miners from
nearby abandoned host vegetable fields.

Spray Dust
Aphids Parathion wp, 1-1% lbs. 15% Parathion 1-2%


Mole-cricket,
field cricket


Tomato hornworm
Parathion is


Stinkbug, other
plant bugs


Wireworm


See Mole-cricket under Crucifers.


Spray Dust
TDE (DDD) wp, 2 lbs. 50% TDE (DDD) 5%
effective against newly hatched hornworms.


Spray
Phosdrin wp, 1 lb. 25%
Parathion wp, 2 lbs. 15%

See under Sweet Corn.


Dust

Parathion 2%


Cutworms






DISEASE CONTROL


BUSH BEAN
Rust.-For severe rust condition, usually during spring
months when sulfur alone will not give control, the following
program is advised:
Spray with maneb at 1.5 pounds per 100 gallons water or use
sulfur + 3.5% maneb dust, beginning at emergence and con-
tinuing at 7-day intervals until a few days before harvest.
When rust is less severe during fall and winter, sulfur spray
at 16 pounds per 100 gallons water or sulfur dust should give ade-
quate control.
To be most effective, rust control should be started before
the leaves are infected. The control obtained before flowering
has more effect on yield than control later in the crop.
Powdery Mildew.-Rust control program will control powdery
mildew.
Bacterial Blight.-No fungicidal control.
Halo blight and common bacterial blight are carried in and
on the seed (also soil). Seed treatment is not beneficial and
sprays in the field usually are not effective. Secure blight-free
seed from Western areas where proper production precautions
have been taken. Rotate crops.
Root Rots.-All cover crops should be chopped down and al-
lowed to dry completely before plowing under. Plow under cover
crops 6 to 8 weeks in advance of planting and prepare seedbed
5 to 10 days ahead of planting.
Spraying seed and soil in a 6- to 8-inch band in the opened
furrow at planting time with a 50-50 mixture of Captan 50%
and PCNB 75% at the rate of 8 pounds per acre has resulted in
improved stands. Protection cannot be expected for more than
a week or two after seed germinates. Be sure not to exceed 8
pounds per acre, particularly during cool rainy periods of mid-
winter.
Sclerotinia.-Flooding fields for 5 to 6 weeks during summer
months may be effective in killing sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils apply 500 to 700 pounds of cyanamid per acre.
Broadcast and disk in prior to planting; no waiting period nec-
essary on marl. Cyanamid not necessary if land is flooded 3
weeks or more during summer.






POLE BEANS
Rust.-Use rust-resistant varieties where these are locally
adapted.
For the most severe rust conditions, which usually occur dur-
ing the spring months beginning with February, when sulfur
alone will not give adequate control, the following program is
advised:
1. Spray with maneb 70%, 1.5 pounds per 100 gallons water
beginning with emergence and continuing until poles are set.
Apply sprays often enough to cover new growth as it appears.
2. After staking, dust with sulfur + 3.5% maneb twice
weekly until beans are setting, thereafter at 5 day intervals
until about 10 days before harvest ceases. Use 30 to 50 pounds
per acre per application, depending on plant size.
When rust is less severe, during fall and winter months, sul-
fur dust alone will give adequate control. Also, if sulfur + maneb
dust is used during this period, the interval between applications
may be lengthened to 5 to 7 days.
To be most effective, rust control should be started before
the leaves are infected. The control obtained before flowering
has more effect on yield than control later in the crop.
Powdery Mildew.-Rust control program will control pow-
dery mildew.
Bacterial Blight.-Same as bush beans.
Root Rots.-Same as bush beans.
Sclerotinia.-Same as bush beans.

LIMA BEANS
Bacterial Blight.-Same as bush beans.
Powdery Mildew.-Same as bush beans.
Sclerotinia.-Same as bush beans.

CARROTS
Alternaria Leaf Blight (Macrosporium)
Spray
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus 3 lb. zinc sulfate 36%
Copper, equiv. 1% lbs. metallic
Ziram 76%, 2 lbs.
In early plantings it may be satisfactory to begin applications
when plants are 5 to 8 inches high and repeat at weekly inter-
vals. In later plantings, if the disease is established in the area,






it may be necessary to begin applications shortly after emergence
of the seedlings (3-inch stage).
Leaf blights of carrot are serious in some localities and of
minor importance in other seasons or localities.
Bacterial Blight.-Seed treatment in corrosive sublimate
(1:1000) or hot water. Treat seed 10 minutes in water at 1260
F., or 10 minutes in 1:1000 corrosive sublimate (1 ounce crystals
in 71/2 gallons water). Wash seed and dry.

CELERY
SEEDBED DISEASES
Fungi, Nematode and Weeds
Methyl Bromide and Chloropicrin.-Release methyl bromide
under a gas-proof cover with a special applicator. Inject chloro-
picrin at a depth of 6 inches at 1-foot intervals and cover it with
a gas-proof cover to confine the gas to the area to be treated.
In each case the covers may be removed 24 to 48 hours after
application. Allow 3 to 7 days after treatment for the gases to
escape from the soil before seeding. Two gallons of chloropicrin
or 24 pounds of methyl bromide per 1,200 square feet of soil
are recommended, but half these amounts have been effective
after August.
These gases are highly toxic and should not be inhaled.
The Drenches.-Chemicals in water may be substituted for
the gases under cover. They cost less and are more convenient
to apply, but they are less effective, particularly during July
and August when the soil temperature sometimes goes above
850 F. A waiting period of 2 weeks between treatment and
seeding is necessary for most of the drenches, except treatment
9 in Table 1, which requires only a 3- to 7-day waiting period.
If you follow this method of fumigation, prepare the seedbeds
and keep them moist at least one week before application to
insure effective herbicidal activity. Apply the chemicals or mix-
tures of chemicals with a watering cart, garden hose propor-
tioner, or a sprinkling can. Agitate the solutions or emulsions
when applying to prevent settling out. Approximately 20 gallons
of water per 100 square feet of seedbed or 250 gallons per 1,200
square feet of seedbed is necessary to obtain adequate penetra-
tion. After treatment, the seedbed should not be raked or
cultivated beyond a depth of 2 inches because of the danger of
exposing viable weed seeds.
The chemicals in some of the drenches are highly toxic and







should not be allowed to come in contact with the skin or in-
haled. Wear a gas mask containing a canister for protection
against organic vapors, rubber gloves, boots, and apron when
mixing or applying the chemicals. This is particularly important
when a person is exposed to the chemicals over a period of sev-
eral days.
The chemicals listed in Table 1 may be purchased separately
and mixed or some of them may be purchased already mixed,
bottled and ready to use.

TABLE 1.-CHEMICALS OR MIXTURES OF CHEMICALS RECOMMENDED FOR THE
CONTROL OF SOIL PESTS IN CELERY SEEDBEDS.

Quantity per
Chemicals 1200 sq. ft. seedbed
1. M ethyl brom ide ....... ...... .. .... - ..... ...................24.0 lbs.
2. Chloropicrin --............... .... --... ......--..... 2.0 gals.
3. Allyl alcohol -.............. ..- ..............-. .-.......~ --....... 1.1 gals.
EDB (ethylene dibromide 83% emulsible) ............................ 1.3 pts.
Formaldehyde 40% 1 ----...................................-- -----.. 2.8 gals.
4. A llyl alcohol ............................... .........-. ............ .. 1.1 gals.
DD (1,3-dichloropropene-1,2-dichloropropane
90% emulsible mixture) ................-........ ......... ..... 3.3 qts.
Formaldehyde 40% 1 ... . ................ -- .............. 2.8 gals.
5. Sodium methyl dithiocarbamate (Vapam, VPM, SMDC).... 2.1 gals.
6. M ylone 85 W (DM TT) ..................... .... ... .................... 8.3 lbs.
or M ylone 50D ................ ............ ....... ................. 13.8 lbs.
7. Allyl alcohol .......................... ........... 1.1 gals.
DD (90% emulsible) ........... ................... ... .... 3.3 qts.
8. A llyl alcohol ............................................. 1.1 gals.
EDB (83% emulsible) ......... ............- .... ...... 1.3 pts.
9. Allyl alcohol .-...................-.... ...... .. .......... ..... ........... 1.1 gals.
1,2 dibromo-3-chloropropane 50% emulsible ................... 3.0 pts.
1 1.8 gallons of U.F. Concentrate-85 may be substituted for the 2.8 gallons of formal-
dehyde 40% U.F. concentrate-85 contains 25% urea and 60% formaldehyde and is
available from Allied Chemical and Dye Corporation, Nitrogen Division, Ironton,
Ohio.
SThis mixture is available under the trade name of Kildrench #4, Kilgore Seed Co.,
Plant City, Florida.
SThis mixture is available under the trade name of Kildrench #3, Kilgore Seed Co.,
Plant City, Florida, and Soil Drench, Soil Fumigants Company, Orlando, Florida.
4 This mixture is available under the trade name of Bedrench, Niagara Chemical
Division, Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation, Jacksonville, Florida.
r This mixture Is available under the trade name of Kildrench #t5, Kilgore Seed Co.,
Plant City, Florida.

Post-emergence Treatment.-Spray with chloranil 48%, 3
pounds, or Thiram 50%, 1 pound in 100 gallons of water.
Begin application soon after plants emerge and repeat at
4- to 7-day intervals, depending on weather. Apply about 15
gallons of the spray per 1200 square feet of bed area. Increase
amount as plants become larger.
In the Everglades area, spray at 4- to 7-day intervals with
zineb (2 pounds per 100 gallons) plus thiram (11/2 pounds per
100 gallons) + streptomycin 50 ppm. Neutral copper (equiva-






lent to 1 pounds metallic per 100 gallons) or chloranil (4 pounds
per 100 gallons) may be substituted for thiram if desired. If
Sclerotinia (pink rot) develops, spray with PCNB 75% WP
(2 pounds per 100 gallons).
FIELD DISEASES (CELERY)
Early Blight
Spray
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. 1 lb. zinc sulfate
Maneb 70%, 11 lbs.
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs.
Ziram 76%, 2 Ibs.
Fixed coppers-equiv. to 11/ lbs. metallic copper
Ferbam 76%, 2 lbs., 15 lbs.
Dyrene 50%, 2 lbs.
Sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate
(SDD) 40% plus 1 lb. zinc sulfate
SDD plus 1 lb. ferrous sulfate
Terraclor 75%, Ferbam 76% mixture 5 to 7.5 lbs. each
Begin applications 7 to 10 days after the plants are set and
repeat every 4 to 5 days. After 2 applications of any of the or-
ganic materials, follow with 1 application of copper. Nabam gives
best results in the Everglades area.
In the Sanford-Oviedo-Zellwood areas, apply at weekly inter-
vals unless more frequent applications are necessary. Ferbam,
ziram, maneb and copper have given good results in the Sanford
area. Dyrene has been the most effective material tested in the
past 3 years. SDD plus zinc or iron sulfate has also been satis-
factory.
Late Blight. (Both Little Spot and Big Spot Types).-In
the Sanford area Dyrene, SDD plus zinc sulfate, SDD plus fer-
rous sulfate and copper on a 5- to 7-day schedule is suggested.
A minimum of 3 nozzles (1 overhead and 1 on each side of the
plant) per row and 100 gallons per acre are necessary to control
the disease on young plants. On plants approaching maturity 5
nozzles (1 overhead and 2 on each side) per row and 200 gallons
per acre are necessary.
Sclerotinia (Pink Rot).-In the Sanford area a reduction in
amount of pink rot may be obtained by spraying with PCNB
(Terraclor) and ferbam when the disease first appears and
repeating after each cultivation. Direct the spray at the stalks
and the soil surrounding them. Use no overhead nozzles, since
PCNB causes a slight chlorosis of the outer perimeter of leaves.
Up to 200 gallons per acre is necessary for control. A mixture
of 5 to 71/2 pounds of each fungicide together is suggested for
use.







Mosaic.-This disease is caused by a virus that is transmitted
by aphids. At present the only effective control measure consists
of eradicating the principal weed host, wandering jew, from the
vicinity of the crop. It is particularly important to do this in the
seedbed areas. This eradication must be complete before the
celery seedbeds are planted.

SWEET CORN
Helminthosporium Leaf Blights
Spray
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus 3 lb. zinc sulfate 36%
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs.
Maneb 70%, 11/2 lbs.
Nabam or zineb properly applied once or twice weekly, de-
pending on weather and disease conditions and locations, will
give economic control. For crops in the "whorl stage" of growth
the sprayer should have 2 nozzles over the row to direct a gen-
erous quantity of the spray into the whorl, in addition to the
side nozzles required for complete coverage of unfurled leaves.
Application of fungicide should cease 10 days before harvest
unless younger corn is growing nearby. These same materials
may also control corn rust.
In the Everglades and Sanford areas, maneb, 70% (11/2
lbs./100) is also recommended. It may also control corn rust.
In the Sanford area during "normal" seasons, 4 applications
of fungicide may be sufficient.
In the Homestead area maneb and nabam + Mn have caused
injury.

CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER, BROCCOLI, BRUSSEL SPROUTS,
CHINESE CABBAGE, COLLARDS, KALE AND KOHLRABI
Spray materials do not stick easily to the waxy leaves of most
crucifers. Use a sticker spreader as recommended by the manu-
facturer on large plants in seedbeds and on plants in the field.

SEEDBED
Seedbed Fumigation.-See celery seedbed fumigation.
Downy Mildew and Alternaria Leaf Spot.-Chloranil wettable
48% (4 pounds per 100 gallons water) or 5% chloranil dust pro-
vide best control. If an alternate material is desired, spray the
plants with nabam 19% (2 quarts plus /4 pound zinc sulfate 36%
per 100 gallons water) or zineb 65% (2 pounds per 100 gallons
water).






Begin applications 7 to 10 days after planting, or before.
Repeat 3 times a week. Continue the treatment until plants are
set in the field. Total number of applications may vary from 6
to 15, depending upon season and weather. Use 80 to 150 gallons
spray or 15 to 35 pounds dust per acre at each application, de-
pending on size of plants. There is less danger of injuring small
plants by overtreatment with nabam-ZnSO, and zineb than with
chloranil.
Plow under abandoned seedbeds and harvested fields to pre-
vent diseases from spreading to new plantings.
FIELD
Downy Mildew and Alternaria Leaf Spot
Spray Dust
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb.
zinc sulfate 36%
Chloranil 50%, 2 lbs. Chloranil 5%
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. Zineb 6.5%
Where seed is sown directly in the field, spray seedlings as
recommended for downy mildew in seedbeds. Stop treatment
when plants are thinned to a stand. If alternaria leaf spot and
downy mildew are developing rapidly when heads are half grown,
resume treatment with nabam + zinc sulfate or zineb and use
100 to 150 gallons spray per acre every 6 to 7 days. Residue tol-
erance for nabam + zinc sulfate and zineb is 7 ppm and 7 days
is the minimum time between the last application and harvest.
Nabam + zinc sulfate is very effective against Alternaria
leaf spot in the field and gives good control of downy mildew.
Black Rot.-Take every possible precaution to secure disease-
free plants.
Hot Water Seed Treatment
1220 F. for 25 minutes, cabbage and brussel sprouts; 18 min-
utes, broccoli, cauliflower, collards, Chinese cabbage, kale, kohl-
rabi, rutabaga and turnips.
At Hastings, and possibly in other areas, it may be more
convenient and economical to have seed treated at central seed
treating plants.
Some Treatment Details
Fill cheesecloth bags about two thirds full of seed. Tie the tops
and immerse in a container of water at the temperature indi-
cated. Keep the water within 10 of that specified. Keep the seed
under water and stir to maintain uniform temperature. At the
end of the period, remove seed from the hot water and plunge






into cold water, then spread out and dry. Treatment is a delicate
operation and is best performed by a trained operator using
special equipment.
Test seed for germination before treating with hot water.
Weak seed may be killed while good seed will stand treatment
and germinate well if planted the same season.
Cabbage seed grown in the Puget Sound area are reported
to be free of black rot, but the hot water treatment is recom-
mended regardless of source.
It is not advisable to locate seedbeds or field plantings on
land planted to crucifers the previous year.
Blackleg.-Use same treatment as for black rot.
Yellows.-No control after soil is infected except use of re-
sistant varieties. Growers should take every possible precaution
to secure disease-free transplants.
TURNIPS AND MUSTARD
Downy Mildew
Spray
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sulfate 36%
When weather favors development of the disease, begin ap-
plications when seedlings emerge and repeat at 3- to 4-day inter-
vals. Addition of a spreader-sticker may be advisable.
In the Hastings area, downy mildew is seldom observed and
is of no consequence. Cabbage downy mildew fungus does not
attack turnip and mustard.
Leaf Spots.-The exact cause and control of the various leaf
spot conditions reported on these crops have not been fully de-
termined. Alternaria might be controlled by nabam applications.
Cercosporella may be still another cause and nabam has not been
an effective control.
CUCUMBER, CANTALOUPE AND SQUASH
Downy Mildew
Spray Dust
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. + 34 lb. ZnSO,
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. Zineb, 4-612%
Maneb 70%, 11/ lbs.
Downy mildew is serious in all parts of the state during warm,
damp weather, and spraying every 3 to 4 days, beginning before
runners start, is necessary to control it. In seasons of light infec-
tion, applications may be delayed until runners form and inter-
vals may be somewhat longer. Zineb dust and weekly sprays are
not generally sufficient to control the disease.

31






Maneb may be injurious to cantaloupe and cucumbers; zineb
alternating with maneb is preferred because it is less injurious.
There are several varieties of cucumbers resistant to downy
mildew.
Anthracnose.-Same as for downy mildew.

Powdery Mildew
Spray
Karathane 8 to 16 oz.
The fungicides used for downy mildew give some control of
powdery mildew but often will not give sufficient control. Kara-
thane may be added to the carbamates to eradicate powdery
mildew when it appears. If powdery mildew is a persistent prob-
lem, for best results use Karathane on a preventive basis; i.e.,
on a regular schedule (every 5 to 7 days) before the disease
appears.
During cool weather sulfur may be used on squash (2 to 4
pounds) and on cucumber (no more than 2 pounds) 2 or 3 times
to eradicate powdery mildew. Sulfur should never be used on
cantaloupe.
Angular Leaf Spot.-Use only disease-free seed, or treat seed
for 6 minutes in mercuric chloride (1 ounce crystals in 71/2 gal-
lons water), followed by rinsing in clear water and drying.
Weekly applications of copper sprays (equivalent to 11/2
pounds metallic per 100 gallons) help to control spread of the
disease in the field. Copper will not give satisfactory control of
downy mildew and thus is not a substitute for the carbamates.
Repeated copper applications may cause yellowing of leaf mar-
gins and possibly reduce yields.
Blossom Blight.-No control recommended.
Rodent Control.-See Watermelons.
Mosaic.-Most mosaic symptoms in these crops are caused
by an aphid-transmitted virus that occurs naturally in wild cu-
cumber. Elimination of this weed from around the field before
planting will help greatly in reducing losses from this virus.

WATERMELONS
Anthracnose, gummy stem blight and downy mildew are the
major diseases of watermelons that may be controlled with fungi-
cides. The severity of these diseases varies from year to year,
depending on weather and other factors. Usually one or more
of them may cause damage in Florida. In dry seasons the value






of fungicides may not be apparent, especially in northern Flor-
ida. Higher yields of higher quality melons usually result from
a systematic disease control program.
Inadequate coverage of foliage is probably the most common
cause of poor disease control. Complete coverage of both foliage
and fruit is essential for adequate disease control. Spraying is
preferable to dusting because more adequate coverage is pos-
sible. The use of a spreader-sticker is recommended.
Apply fungicides before diseases appear and continue them
afterwards. Make the first application soon after plants begin
to grow and before runners start. Weather conditions will govern
the number and timing of subsequent applications. In general,
3 to 5 sprays are sufficient in northern and central Florida, while
7 or more may be needed in southern Florida.

Anthracnose, Gummy Stem Blight and *Downy Mildew
Spray Dust
Alternate applications of:
Zineb, 65%, 2 lbs. per Zineb, 4-61/ %
100 gals., plus sticker
and
Maneb, 70%, 1 lbs. per
100 gals., plus sticker
Wilt.-Fusarium wilt is soil-borne and cannot be controlled
with fungicides. The use of resistant varieties, along with rota-
tions and new land, is the best control measure. Resistant varie-
ties (Blacklee, Fairfax, Charleston Gray) should not be planted
for 3 years or more following watermelons. When it is necessary
to use land which has been previously planted to watermelons,
delayed thinning is recommended with Charleston Gray. For wilt-
susceptible varieties a minimum of 8 years between crops is
desirable.
There is always danger of wilt occurring on new land con-
taminated by Fusarium from water, tools and cattle which came
in contact with infected fields.
White Heart and Hollow Heart.-These conditions are be-
lieved to be hereditary and are expressed only under certain en-
vironmental conditions. Certain varieties and strains-among
them Blacklee and Charleston Gray-appear to be more resistant
than others to these troubles.
Seed Treatment for Field Mice Control.-Place 5 pounds of
seed in a 5-gallon container with a dust-proof lid.
Copper, 1/2 lbs. metallic per 100 gals., may be used alternately with Zineb or
maneb where downy mildew is the only disease of importance. Copper sprays will
not control anthracose and some coppers cause leaf burning on watermelons.
33






Make a 10% latex-water mixture by putting 0.8 ounce of
Dow Latex 512-R in a 1/-pint container and filling with water.
Then pour this solution over seed. Place lid on container and
tumble seed until uniformly moistened with adhesive.
Measure out 0.8 ounce endrin 50W and 5.0 ounces thiram 75
and blend together, then add mixture to seed and tumble until
seed are evenly coated.
Measure out 0.8 ounce of aluminum powder (extra fine) and
add to seed and tumble until seed are evenly coated. Weigh out
materials before starting treatment.
NOTE.-This entire seed treatment must be completed within
3 to 5 minutes, before the adhesive sets.
Finally, spread the treated seed out to dry for 24 hours be-
fore planting. Treat only 5 pounds of seed in 5-gallon con-
tainer. You may treat larger quantities with larger equipment.
PRECAUTIONS.-Endrin is extremely toxic and should not
be breathed or allowed to get on clothing or skin. If accidentally
spilled on skin or clothing, change clothes and wash immediately
with soap and water. Read and follow labels on packages ex-
plicitly. Commercially prepared packets of all ingredients with
measuring bottle are available in 5-, 10- and 20-pound packets
through pesticide distributors in Florida.
Where rodent control seed treatment which contains thiram
as an ingredient is not used, a seed treatment for control of
seed-borne diseases is recommended.
Ounces per Teaspoons per
100 Lbs. Seed Pound of Seed
Chloranil 48% 6 %
Thiram 50% 4 %

EGGPLANT
Florida Beauty is still resistant to Phomopsis blight. How-
ever, more of the disease has been found in the field the past
2 seasons. Only disease-free plants should be transplanted from
the seedbed to the field.
The recommended disease control should be used for seed-
lings in the seedbed.
Spray
Spergon 2 ozs. in 3 gal. water, apply as a drench
Two applications of ferbam or zineb
3 lbs. 76% ferbam
or
2 lbs. 65% zineb in 100 gal. water
To make 6 gals. spray, use 3 ozs. ferbam or 2 ozs. zineb.






Make 2 applications 10 days apart, with the first at the first
signs of any damping off in the seedbed.
No field control recommendations, provided healthy plants
are set to the field.

LETTUCE AND ENDIVE
Downy Mildew
Spray
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sulfate 36%
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs.
Maneb 70%, 1/2 lbs.
Begin applications when disease appears; repeat at 4- to 5-day
intervals.
Spray twice weekly during cool, wet weather. Where rows are
spaced 18 inches apart, apply 150 to 200 gallons spray per acre.
Nabam may cause injury.

Alternaria Leaf Spot
Spray
Ziram 76%, 2 lbs.
Begin applications when disease appears; repeat at 4- to 5-day
intervals.
Nabam as applied for downy mildew control should offer a
measure of control for leaf spot; suggested at 7-day intervals.
Sclerotinia.-Flooding fields for 5 or 6 weeks during summer
months may be effective in killing sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils apply 500 to 700 pounds of cyanamid per acre.
Broadcast and disk in 7 to 10 days before setting plants. Cyana-
mid not needed if land is flooded.
Ferbam 76,% at 15 pounds per 100 gallons and 2 applications
at 200 gallons per acre has reduced drop. Make first application
just after transplanting and second just after last cultivation.
Make application to cover surrounding soil as well as plants.

ONIONS
Downy Mildew
Spray Dust
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus %
lb. zinc sulfate 36%
plus spreader-sticker
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. plus sticker Zineb 4-61/ %
When weather conditions favor the development of disease,
begin applications when seedlings emerge; repeat at intervals of
3 to 4 days. In certain seasons it may be possible to begin appli-






cations on a weekly schedule, shifting to twice-weekly applica-
tions if necessary.
It is extremely difficult to obtain adequate foliage coverage
due to the waxy nature of the onion plant. Successful control
has been reported by timing dust applications to coincide with
fine films of moisture forming on the leaf surface at certain
periods of the day.
ENGLISH PEA
Powdery Mildew
Spray Dust
Sulfur wp, 10 lbs. Dusting sulfur, 325 mesh
Begin applications when signs of disease appear. Repeat at
10- to 14-day intervals, or often enough to keep the disease
under control. Do not apply when plants are wet or during peri-
ods of high temperature (above 900 F.).
Powdery mildew sometimes becomes serious during the winter
months. It is usually necessary to adhere to a strict spray pro-
gram to keep it under control.

PEPPER
Damping-off.-Avoid planting on low or poorly drained areas.
Do not follow peppers with peppers-rotate with non-susceptible
crops. A chemical soil treatment with SMDC (Vapam, VPM) on
direct-seeded peppers may be tried where damping-off and other
soil-borne troubles such as weeds and nematodes are a problem.
Inject 5 to 6 inches deep on the prepared bed at the rate of 1
pint per 100 lineal feet of row or in 2 bands at the same rate for
2 row beds. Good moisture for seeding and compaction of the
bed following application is essential for success. A wait of at
least 3 weeks before seeding is necessary for chemicals to escape.
The PCNB + captain treatment same as for beans.

Seedbed Sterilization
Same as for celery seedbeds.
Viruses.-Use tobacco mosaic-resistant varieties where pos-
sible. Those recommended are Yolo Wonder, Resistant Giant and
Allbig.
Workers handling pepper plants should wash hands with
strong soap and water or 70% alcohol before handling plants.
This is most important for workers who use tobacco.
To reduce insect transmission from wild host plants (night-
shade, ground cherry) several practices are suggested:






1. Eradicate wild plants in fencerows and on ditchbanks
during season when crops are not growing.
2. Plant barrier crops around pepper fields. A 50-foot strip
of a non-susceptible crop such as corn, beans, etc., tends to trap
insects flying in until they become non-infective.
3. Spray barrier crop at least weekly to reduce population of
insect vectors. See insect control recommendations.

Frogeye Spot
Spray
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc sulfate 36%
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs.
Ziram 76%, 2 Ibs.
Copper, equiv. to 11% lbs. metallic
In plant beds, begin spraying when plants are 2 to 3 inches
high and repeat at 7-day intervals. In fields after plants have
become established, repeat at 7- to 10-day intervals as needed.
Frogeye spot is not usually a serious disease and when
weather conditions are not favorable for its development, the
spray schedule may be modified.
A weekly spray schedule alternating copper and nabam is
suggested.

Bacterial Spot
Spray
Copper, equiv. to 2 lbs. metallic
+ 200 PPM streptomycin sulfate
In plant beds, begin when plants emerge and repeat at 7-day
intervals; in the fields after plants have become established,
repeat at 7- to 10-day intervals as needed. Copper may offer a
measure of control during periods of light infection. However,
it will not give control during rainy, windy periods particularly
favorable for spread of the disease.
A suggested seedbed program is as follows: during rainy
periods, spray once weekly with copper (equivalent 2 pounds
metallic) plus streptomycin 200 ppm. At other times, spray
only with copper.
For field control, streptomycin (100 ppm) plus copper (2
pounds metallic) will reduce disease during rainy season.

POTATO
Numerous virus, bacterial and fungus diseases are con-
trolled by always planting certified seed.






Late Blight and Early Blight
Spray
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lbs. zinc sulfate 36%
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs.
Maneb 70%, 1%/ lbs.
In south Florida, begin spraying for late blight when plants
have emerged and continue at 4- to 5-day intervals. In the Hast-
ings area begin when the plants are 6 to 8 inches high, if late
blight does not show earlier, and continue at 4- to 5-day intervals.
Scab.-Treat seed with hot or cold formaldehyde solution or
acidulated mercuric chloride solution in areas where soil reaction
is usually pH 6.0 or higher and scab has caused excessive losses.
Do not treat seed when potatoes are to be grown in areas where
scab has caused little trouble.
(1) COLD FORMALDEHYDE: 1 pint 40% in 30 gallons
water.
Soak uncut tubers 11/2 hours, then remove and air out
thoroughly. This treatment is more effective when
sacked tubers are first soaked in water for 2 minutes
before soaking them in formaldehyde or mercury solu-
tions. This softens the scab lesions.
(2) HOT FORMALDEHYDE: 3.3 quarts 40% per 100 gal-
lons water.
Dip uncut sacked tubers for 3 to 4 minutes in the solu-
tion held at 1220 to 1240 F. Stack sacks on end to dry.
Potatoes may be cut for planting any time after the
sacks have dried. Temperature of the hot solution must
be kept within the range indicated to give control of
the disease without injuring the tubers.
(3) ACIDULATED MERCURIC CHLORIDE: 6 ounces mer-
curic chloride plus 1 quart commercial hydrochloric acid
in 25 gallons water.
Soak sacked uncut tubers for 5 minutes, allow to drip
and plant immediately, or dry out. This treatment is
safe for potatoes planted on sandy and marl soils, but
not safe on muck and peat soils. This material is poison-
ous and corrosive and treated seed should not be eaten
or fed to livestock.
Sclerotinia.-Flooding fields for 5 to 6 weeks during summer
months may be effective in killing sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils, where sclerotinia has attacked the previous
crop, apply 400 to 600 pounds of cyanamid per acre before plant-






ing. Distribute evenly and thoroughly mix with the surface soil.
Cyanamid is not necessary if soil has been flooded 3 or more
weeks during summer.

SWEET POTATO
Seed Selection.-Many diseases may be reduced by growing
enough seed from vine cuttings to produce next year's seed sup-
ply. Select hills at digging time that are free of disease, have de-
sirable varietal characteristics and have at least 4 or 5 No. 1
potatoes per hill. Seed stock should be free of internal cork, a
disease for which there is no other known control. Seed stock
should be free from injury. Take special care in digging and
storing the seed potatoes, handling as little as possible to pre-
vent bruising.
Plant Bed Site.-Locate the bed where sweet potatoes and
tobacco have never been grown or have not been grown within
3 years. If permanent beds are to be used, remove soil to a depth
of 12 inches, drench the bed and frame with a solution of 1 pint
of formaldehyde per 15 gallons water, then replace with new soil.
Seed Treatment.-(Use only 1 treatment: pay strict atten-
tion to precautionary label statements.)
(1) SEMESAN BEL: 1 pound to 71/2 to 8 gallons water for
1 minute; bed or dry in the shade.
(2) MERCURIC CHLORIDE: Dissolve 4 ounces in 1 gallon
hot water and add to 31 gallons of cold water in a clean
wooden container; dip for 8 to 10 minutes and bed. After
treating 10 bushels, add 1 quart of stock solution (1/2
ounce mercuric chloride per quart water), and add water
to 32-gallon mark on container. Repeat for every addi-
tional 10 bushels and discard for fresh solution after 50
bushels.
(3) CHLORANIL 48%: 1 pound wettable in 5 gallons water;
dip seed in, then right out. Drain and bed.
Plant Treatment.-Use only one depending on specific prob-
lem.
As a general treatment, dip to soil line, but do not wet leaves,
in Semesan Bel, 1 pound per 10 gallons water.
For stem rot or wilt, dip base of stem and plant roots or lower
end of vine cutting in wettable chloranil solution, 1 pound to 8
gallons water.






For scruf, dip base of stem and plant roots in ferbam solu-
tion, 1 pound to 5 gallons water.

RADISH
Downy Mildew
Spray Dust
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus % lb. zinc
sulfate 36%
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. Zineb 4-61/2 %
When weather is favorable for the development of the disease,
apply on a twice weekly schedule.
The zineb dust may be the most practical approach to achieve
adequate coverage. The dust must be directed with considerable
force to penetrate this ground-level foliage.

STRAWBERRY
Anthracnose.-Copper, equivalent 11/2 pounds metallic, plus
spreader-sticker.
Anthracnose occurs during rainy season; apply to plants and
runners every week.

Leaf Spots
Spray
Captan 50%, 2 lbs. per 100 gals. water
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs. per 100 gals. water
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus ~ lb. zinc sulfate 36% per
100 gals. water
Zineb 4 to 61/2% dust
Produce plants free of leaf spot in nursery. No spraying re-
quired in field of fruiting plants.
Rhizoctonia Bud Rot.-No chemical control known. Frequent
shallow cultivations around the plants to keep the soil surface
dry will aid in reducing incidence of the disease.

TOMATO
SEEDBED TREATMENT
Damping-off, etc.-See methyl bromide and SMDC seedbed
treatments on celery.
Bacterial Spot.-Streptomycin, 100 ppm. + copper (equiva-
lent to 2 pounds metallic) is best control available, being superior
to either material alone, but it may not be adequate under the
most severe conditions. Begin applications at emergence of seed-
lings and continue on a 4- to 5-day schedule. Complete coverage







is essential. Control in plant bed helps reduce subsequent losses
in field, if plants are set at end of rainy season.

Late Blight
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs.
Maneb 70%, 1.5 lbs.
In cool, damp weather, begin spraying upon emergence and
continue every 4 to 5 days. Thorough coverage is essential. Alter-
nate maneb and zineb to avoid injury.
Gray Leaf Spot.-As for late blight, except that applications
every 5 to 7 days should be sufficient. Use resistant varieties
where these are adaptable.

FIELD DISEASES
Late Blight
Maneb 70%, 1/2 lbs.
Zineb 65%, 2 lbs.
Dichlone 50%, % lbs.
In southern parts of the state begin applications immediately
after transplanting or emergence and continue at 4- to 5-day
intervals. In areas or seasons when the disease is less severe the
time between applications may be 5 to 7 days.
Nabam + zinc sulfate is too injurious for regular use on
tomatoes.
Early Blight.-Same as for late blight except dichlone is not
effective.
Gray Leaf Spot.-Same as for late blight, except that dyrene,
2 pounds per 100 gallons, is also recommended.
Use resistant varieties where these are recommended.
Dyrene, although superior to maneb and zineb for gray leaf
spot control, is inferior for control of late blight. Therefore, use
dyrene only when gray leaf spot is the principal disease and
when late blight is not a threat.
Bacterial Spot.-Copper (11/2 to 2 pounds metallic) sprays
may be useful under light to moderate conditions but are inade-
quate under severe conditions. Combinations of copper, 4 pounds
of 53%, and streptomycin, 100 ppm, are more effective but are
too costly for use after fruit set. Best results are obtained by
beginning to spray at emergence and continue on 4- to 5-day
schedule, more frequently if rains wash off residues. Applica-
tions begun after the disease is well established have little value.
Phoma.-Same as for late blight.

41






Fusarium Wilt.-No chemical control. Use resistant varieties
or new land.
Sclerotiniose.-Flooding fields for 5 to 6 weeks during sum-
mer months may be effective in killing sclerotia in the soil.
On marl soils apply cyanimid at the rate of 500 to 700 pounds
per acre 7 to 10 days before setting plants in the field; distrib-
ute evenly and disk thoroughly after application. Cyanamid not
needed on soils flooded 3 or more weeks during summer.
Gray Mold.-Spray with dichlone (0.5 pound of 50%) ; substi-
tute ferbam (3.0 pounds of 76%) when temperature is above
800 F. These materials may be added to maneb (1.0 pound of
70%) or zineb (1.5 pounds of 65%) for control of all the im-
portant fungus diseases. It is important to begin spraying with
either dichlone or ferbam when minimum temperatures fall below
650 F. on fall-planted ground tomatoes. For best control of gray
mold, start spraying when vines begin to fall over. Coverage and
penetration are more difficult as vines grow larger. A good rule
would be to add dichlone or ferbam each time maneb or zineb is
used during weather favorable for gray mold. This program will
not eradicate the disease.











INDEX
Page
G general .................. ... ....................... ... ............. .................. 3, 4
Pesticide Tolerances ........................................... ..........................4, 5, 6, 7
Pesticide Interval Chart .....--- ----................................ 8, 9


Insects Diseases


B eans ........................................................... 10-16
Broccoli --------------------------------------------------------------------- 10-16
B broccoli ..................... ................... .................. ................. 14-15
Brussel Sprouts ................ ---.......- ............. ---........- ...............-....


24-25
29-31
29-31


C abbage ..................... ............ ....... .... ....
C cabbage, Chinese ........................................................................
Cantaloupe ....... ........ ..... ................. ... ........
C arrot ........... ..... ...................................
C auliflow er .... ....... ... ......... .................. ......................
C elery .................. .......-...----- ... ...... ......
C ollards ..................... .....................
Corn, Sw eet ...-............-. ..... ..- .....
Cucum ber .................................... ............. ........... ....
E g gplant .......................................................................
Endive and Escarole ........--- ......... .....---- ..............
Kale ---............ -.. ......--- ------ -...- --
Kohlrabi ..-- .......... .. ---------------------......................
L ettuce ..................... ... ...- .........................
M ustard ...... ... ..................... .............. ........................
O k ra -...------.... .... ... ...................
O n ion ... ............................... .. .....-.................
Pea, English ........................................
Pea, Southern ----- --......................
P epper .. ................... ................. .............
P otato ........ ....-- ... ...- .. ............................
Potato, Sweet -..............................................
R adish ..........--..- .................... .. ................... ...... .............
Sp inach ............ ..... .......................................................
Squash ..................................... .............. ...................
Straw berry ........ .. .... ... .......................................................
Tomato ..................
Turnip ................................................................... ............
W aterm elon ............... .... ....................


14-15 29-31
29-31
15 31-32
25-26
14-15 29-31
11-12 26-29
14-15 29-31
12-14 29
15 31-32
15-16 34-35
16-17 35
29-31
29-31


16-17
21
17
17-18
18
18
18-19
19-20
20-21
21
21
15
21-22
22-23
21
15


35
31


35-36
36


36-37
37-39
39-40
40


31-32
40
40-42
31
32-34




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