Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Fatal farm accidents in Florid...
 Farm machinery safety
 Safety with hand tools
 Lifting and carrying safety
 Safety in the home
 Safety with electricity
 Power mowers
 Safety with farm animals and household...
 Water safety
 Hunting safety
 Safety in the woods
 Lightning safety
 Farm fire prevention
 Home fire inspection
 Fire extinguishers
 Bicycle safety

Group Title: Bulletin. New series
Title: Tips on farm & home safety
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084437/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tips on farm & home safety by A. M. Pettis
Series Title: Bulletin, Florida Department of Agriculture ; 139
Alternate Title: Tips on farm and homesafety
Physical Description: 49 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pettis, A. M ( Aubrey Marshall ), 1920-
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: June, 1961
Edition: Rev. ed.
Subject: Agriculture -- Safety measures   ( lcsh )
Accidents -- Prevention   ( lcsh )
Agricultural machinery -- Safety measures   ( lcsh )
Home accidents -- Prevention   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: "R June 1961."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084437
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 129716962

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Fatal farm accidents in Florida
        Page 5
    Farm machinery safety
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Safety with hand tools
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Lifting and carrying safety
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Safety in the home
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Safety with electricity
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Power mowers
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Safety with farm animals and household pets
        Page 24
    Water safety
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Hunting safety
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Safety in the woods
        Page 33
    Lightning safety
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Farm fire prevention
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Home fire inspection
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Fire extinguishers
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Bicycle safety
        Page 48
        Page 49
Full Text

Tips on
Farm & Home








R JUNE 1961


7 A;

loopp, -W




General __---------------.--------.... ---------- -. 3
Fatal Beliefs ------------------------- ----- --------- --- 3
Fatal Farm Accidents in Florida ----- 5
Machinery ------------------------ --_----- 5
Burns ---------------------------------------------- 5
Drownings ---------------- --------------- 5
Lightning ------------------------------- 6
Electricity and Firearms ------ 6
Farm Machinery Safety --------------- -----------.------ 6
Safety With Hand Tools ------------------------------ 9
Lifting and Carrying Safety -......... ...... ------11
Ladder Safety ------------------- -- --... ------ 11
Safety in the Home .------------------------.--- 13
Safety With Electricity ..... ... ..-------- --------- 16
Poisons ------------------ -------------- 17
Power Mowers --_____------------------------ 21
Safety with Farm Animals and Household Pets --- 24
Water Safety _------------------------------ 25
Hunting Safety ------------------.................. 31
Safety in the Woods .------- .....----- -...----------- 33
Lightning Safety -----------------------------.---- 34
Farm Fire Prevention ----------------------------- 36
Home Fire Inspection ................... --------38
Fire Extinguishers --------------------------.--......- 44
Highway Safety ----------------------------------- 44
Bicycle Safety ------------------------.----- -- 48

This scene could happen to a parent and a child
anywhere and at any time. A grieving mother kneels
by the body of her 4-year-old son who fell out of the
back seat of her car and was struck by two cars
behind her. (Copyright 1960 by S. G. Ehrlich, San

Acknowledgment is hereby given to the following for
valuable suggestions in this revision of the publication, "Safety
on the Farm":

*FRANCES C. CANNON, Safety Leader, Florida Agricultural Ex-
tension Service, Florida State University, Tallahassee
*W. T. LOFTEN, Vocational Agricultural Education, University
of Florida, Gainesville
*R. M. PALMER, State A.S.C. Safety 'Officer, Agricultural
Stabilization and Conservation Committee, Gainesville
*C. J. WALKER, Accident Prevention Program, Florida State
Board of Health, Jacksonville
*GEORGE KARELAS, M. D., Florida Committee on Rural Health,
Florida Medical Association, Newberry
*GEORGE CAPPE, Safety Director, Florida Farm Bureau,
*D. E. ADAMS, Director, Agricultural Development, Florida
Power & Light Company, Palatka
MAYNARD COE, Director Farm Safety, National Safety Coun-
cil, Chicago
A. S. JENSEN, Assistant Farm Forester, Florida Agricultural
Extension Service, University of Florida, Gainesville
D. S. HARRISON, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Florida
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
C. B. PLUMMER, JR., D.V.M., Extension Veterinarian, Florida
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
*JACK SHOEMAKER, Chief, Agricultural Information Section,
State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee
*Member, Florida Farm Safety Committee.




More accidental deaths occur each year in farming than
in any other major industry. More accidents occur in the
home than anywhere else.
In an average year, there are 11,700 accidental deaths to
farm residents in the United States; of this number, more
than 3,000 people lose their lives in farm work accidents. In
addition, approximately a million farm people are stricken
each year by disabling accidental injuries and the accompany-
ing disabilities, miseries, and financial hardships.
The basic cause of accidents is human failure. In almost
every case, human failure to recognize and correct a hazard
is the real cause of accidental deaths and injuries.
In other words, accidents don't "just happen" They
Are Caused!!
Why do farm and home accidents happen? How can
these accidents be prevented?
The proper mental attitude is absolutely necessary for
accident reduction and elimination. There are fatal beliefs
in the minds of some people. These fatal beliefs must be
stamped out; and, in their place substituted truth, knowledge,
and facts. Then we will be progressing toward a safer, fuller,
richer life.
Some of these fatal beliefs are listed. There are probably
others that you've heard about. Resolve now to know the
facts and to remove these poisonous, fatal beliefs from your
mind and the minds of others before it is too late.
1. My number was up. I had an accident because it was
my time. Straight thinking people will never accept the
statement that a person had to have an accident just because
his number was up. Safe practices and safe attitudes can
reduce and prevent accidents! If the number theory were true,
safety promotion would be useless.

2. An accident is punishment. Christian peoples the
world over believe in a just, loving God. Scholars of the
Bible and learned religious bodies will not accept the state-
ment that an accident is the Creator's method of punishing
a sinner. All people are sinners and, if the above were true,
very little could be done to reduce accidents. Much can be
done to eliminate accidents.
3. Taking chances is similar to being brave . an
admirable quality. Our forefathers were brave and the found-
ing of this country depended on courageous men who faced
dangers daily.
Are we getting soft or becoming sissies because we seek
to avoid unnecessary hazards? No, our forefathers paved
the way for this great nation of ours by overcoming obstacles
as they met them. They faced certain dangers present during
that period of time. Carelessness and unsafe practices claimed
their toll of lives then as today.
Today it takes courage and convictions to be a leader for
safety! Eliminating hazards and unsafe practices of you
and your family is the place to start. Certainly it's not sissy
to save someone's life. Each in his own way can contribute
so much to the cause of safety.
4. It will happen to the other fellow . not me. This
belief is simply not true. Why would the demon, Accident,
and the grim reaper, Death, skip over you and get someone
else? Are you such a special person that you can take any
number of dangerous chances and do any number of danger-
ous acts and always escape?
Go to any hospital. Talk with the injured. Did they
expect to be accident victims? No, of course they didn't. Why
are you any different? Make up your mind that you've got
to adopt safe practices and cultivate a safe attitude or you'll
pay the price. Accidents will surely come to those who ask
for them.
Summarizing the above fatal beliefs-is accident preven-
tion impractical, sacrilegious, and effeminate?
And are accidents unavoidable, inevitable, a matter of
luck, predetermined, and the price of modern living? No, but
unless we remove these fatal beliefs from the minds of our
people, we may as well give up the battle for safety.



What kinds of accidents cause farm deaths in Florida?
A recent USDA study showed that in a five-year period, 176
men, women and children were killed in accidents on farms
in Florida.
The following graph shows contributing factors involved
in these farm deaths in the state. Each object or situation
normally given as the cause of accidents is shown with the
percentage of fatal Florida farm accidents attributed to it.

2. BLOWS ::::::
5. ELECTRICITY ........-7
6. FALLS ::: :::: :::::d
7. FIREARMS ::::... :.:: .
9. MACHINERY ................: .-: ..

0 5 10 15 20 25
Machinery is involved in more fatal farm accidents by
far than any other single thing. In machinery accidents in
the United States, about 86 per cent occur with the tractor.
Burns rank second among contributing factors of fatal
Florida farm accidents. Each year fires cause a financial
loss totaling $175 million on U.S. farms.
Drownings account for one farm death in eight in
Florida. Boating and swimming are favorite pastimes and
Acknowledgement is hereby given to the National Safety Council and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture for statistics used.

pleasures in Florida because our state is blessed with numer-
ous lakes and streams and a mild climate. The tragedy is
that too many people, especially children and non-swimmers,
die needlessly each year.
Lightning is the cause of about one farm death in ten
in Florida. Florida has the highest intensity of lightning
storms of any state in the nation. The area of greatest con-
centration is in a radius of 50 to 100 miles of Tampa.
Electricity and Firearms each are involved in about eight
per cent of the fatal Florida farm accidents.
Electricity is one of the greatest blessings to come to
farms and homes. Almost all Florida farms enjoy electric
service. Ordinary precautions and common sense will enable
you to enjoy this blessing to the fullest.
More than one-third of firearm accidents in the United
States occur to youths between 10 and 19 years of age. Almost
half of the fatalities occur in the fall hunting season -
October, November and December.



In a recent study, farm machinery accounted for 31
per cent of fatal farm accidents in the United States. The
tractor was involved in a large percentage of these fatal

An indispensable farm implement is the tractor, made
sturdier and safer each year. But it is a power machine.
As such it is not made for children to use.
Yet, annually two out of three victims of the farm trac-
tor are under 14 years of age. Don't let your child become
a headline statistic! Don't EVER take a child for a ride on
a tractor!!

Members of the Florida Farm Safety Committee demonstrate tractor
safety with the use of this full size tractor and a dummy.

1. Do not refuel hot or running engines, and do not
smoke when refueling. Refuel LP gas engines ac-
cording to instructions.
2. To insure control while driving your tractor, keep
brakes, steering mechanism, clutch, and hydraulics
in proper adjustment.
3. Reduce tractor tipping hazards by spreading tractor
wheels as far as practicable.
4. Oil, grease and service engine before starting, not
while engine is running.
5. To remove pressure radiator cap when engine is hot,
first turn cap to safety stop and let all pressure and
steam escape before removing.
6. A few dollars for a fire extinguisher and first aid
kit may save a life and thousands of dollars in equip-
ment. Carry these safety tools on your tractor.
7. One-third of all fatal tractor accidents occur on public
roads. Whenever possible, avoid heavily traveled
roads when moving farm equipment.

8. Put all controls in neutral before starting the engine.
9. Clean dirt, trash and grease from the operator's
platform, pedals, steps, steering wheel, and other
places where it may cause an accident.
10. Avoid loose fitting clothing; a hanging sleeve or open
coat is more apt to catch in moving parts.
11. Use red warning flags in daytime and lights and red
reflective tape at night to alert fast-moving traffic
when you move equipment on public roads.
12. Set drawbar in lowest position when hitching to a
heavy load.
13. Pull only from the drawbar; never hitch to the axle
housing. Shift transmission to neutral and lock the
brakes before dismounting to hitch implements.
14. Safety shielding is for your protection. Keep it in
place when using the power take-off.
15. Only the driver should ride on the tractor, and he
should sit on the seat or stand on the platform.
16. Keep children away from tractors and equipment.
17. Reduce speed before making a turn or applying
18. Avoid sudden starts, excessive speeds, or sudden
stops when operating on hillsides, rough ground, or
most off-the-road operations.
19. When moving on the highway, or from field to field,
lock brake pedals together for simultaneous operation
when making a stop.
20. Operate your tractor inside a building only when
doors are open.
21. Do not remove belt while pulley is in motion.
22. Disengage PTO before adjusting or unclogging power-
driven machinery.
23. Carefully supervise inexperienced and young drivers
during training period.
24. Do not leave the engine running unattended.
25. Do not dismount while tractor is in motion.
26. Disengage power take-off before dismounting.
27. Lower all equipment before leaving the tractor.
28. Shut off engine and remove ignition key.
29. Lock the brakes so tractor will not roll.

With the increased complexity of farm machinery, great-
er understanding of its safe handling and use must be the
objective of every machinery operator.
About 11 per cent of all fatal accidents to rural residents
(excluding motor vehicle and tractors) involved farm
When using the following equipment be especially care-
Corn Pickers Harrows
Cotton Pickers Fertilizer Spreaders
Mowing Machines Unloaders
Combines Hay Balers
Always stop equipment before attempting to remove
foreign matter from it. Do not oil or adjust machines that
are running.



No matter how small or how large the farm, it cannot
operate without the use of hand tools. There are hundreds
of different hand tools, and these are designed for specific
jobs. Misusing tools or using the wrong tool often results in
injury to the user and may damage or break the hand tool.
Many thousands of hours are lost by farm workers who
misuse, misplace or mistreat hand tools. Accidents involving
hand tools most often occur under the following conditions:
1. Failure to use the right tool for the job.
2. Failure to use the tool properly.
3. Failure to maintain tools in good usable condition.
4. Failure to have tools in a safe, accessible place.
Sharpening-All edged tools such as axes, knives and
chisels should be kept sharp and have the right cutting angle.
Digging tools such as picks often need more frequent sharpen-
ing and attention than some other types of hand tools.

Proper storage of tools
around the home and farm
will help prevent accidents.

Keen edged tools should be sharpened with a grindstone.
An electric emery wheel may ruin the tool by over-grinding
and over-heating, causing the temper to be destroyed. A per-
son who sharpens tools should know what he is doing.
Handles-Broken, cracked or otherwise defective tool
handles should and must be thrown away. Loose handles can
often be tightened. If tightening is impossible, the handle
should be replaced. Handles should be smooth and free from
slivers. Wood handles are commonly made from hickory,
ash or maple.
Driven and Pointed Tools-Tools of this type, such as
chisels, require grinding of their edges and striking faces
for efficient use. Mushroomed heads cause tool destruction,
and flying metal pieces may cause serious accidents.
Storing of Tools-"A place for every tool and every tool
in its place", is a good motto. Provide storage space for
tools such as tool houses, bins, boxes or racks. Tools with
sharp cutting edges such as axes must be properly stored to
help prevent people from being accidentally cut.



The proper handling of materials or objects on the farm
is very important because every farm person will at some
time lift, carry or lower something. Many people do these
things frequently in the course of the day's activities.
Accidents may result when materials are not properly
lifted or handled. Factors contributing to lifting and carry-
ing accidents are:
1. Lifting or attempting to carry loads that are too
2. Lifting or lowering with the back muscles instead of
the leg muscles.
3. Lifting loads with insecure grip and failing to watch
where the hands are placed.
4. Lifting loads without sufficient help or not using
mechanical means where loads are too heavy.
5. Lifting before getting a good firm footing.
6. Lifting or lowering with jerky twisting movements
or when the body is in an awkward position.
Carrying-The method of carrying should be suited to
the size, shape and weight of the object. Any object should be
carried in a manner that will not interfere with the vision and
the natural manner of walking of the person carrying it. Do
not attempt to carry a load that will cause difficulty in


Ladders are needed around every farm and in most
homes. A sturdy step-ladder or step-stool will help prevent
accidents from falls in the kitchen.
Fire prevention rules require that every farm have
ladders that will reach the roof of every building.
Too frequently little attention is given the ladder until
it fails and someone is injured.

This is a proper use of a
ladder since it indicates that
there is little danger of the
bottom of the ladder slipping
or of the top toppling over

1. Stepladders should be carefully footed and leveled
before using.
2. A straight ladder should be placed so the distance of
the foot of the ladder from the support is equal to
one-fourth its height.
3. Face the ladder when climbing and descending and
grip firmly. Place each foot firmly on the rungs as
close to the side rail of the ladder as possible.
4. Always hold with at least one hand when on a ladder.
Avoid over-reaching, pushing or pulling.
5. Remember what goes up, can come down suddenly,
and it might be you!

Inspect ladders before using, or periodically, if used
often. If defective, either repair or discard.
Do not paint ladders. Cover with shellac, varnish or
linseed oil. Paint may hide defects.
Do not allow ladders to fall or be mistreated. If damaged,
the ladder could result in a serious fall for someone.
Always store ladders in an easily accessible location out
of the weather.



More injuries occur in the home than anywhere else.
In a recent year, there were approximately 6,000 injuries and
621 fatal accidents in Florida homes. The majority of people
spend more hours each day in and around the home than any
other place.
In this publication there are sections that deal directly
or indirectly with hazards around the home. Some of these
are Safety with Electricity, Poisons, Power Mowers and Fire
The following information may also help you avoid ac-
cidents in the home. Each room or area of the home has
certain hazards that should be avoided.
Kitchen 1. Always use a step-ladder or step-stool to
reach high objects. Don't ever stand on
chairs or boxes.
2. Keep cutting knives sharp and in a knife
rack, not in the silverware drawer.
3. Keep handles of boilers and pans used on
the range turned to the inside but not pro-
jecting over other heated units. If facing
outward, small children or adults may ac-
cidentally overturn the contents.
4. Wear well-fitted clothes. Loose-fitting
clothes with flowing sleeves, ties, project-


I 'J1

Always stand on a sturdy step stool or ladder when reaching for high places.

zrr I~

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ing pockets and bows might catch on equip-
Bath 1. Use a rubber bath mat in the tub to help
prevent slipping.
2. Electrical equipment and outlets should not
be within reach of the tub.
3. Place medicine cabinet out of the reach of
children and keep it up to date.
Bedroom 1. Have a light within reach of the bed. This
may prevent falls when arising at night.
2. Arrange appliance cords so there's no
danger of tripping (for example, electric
blanket, clock, radio and fan).
General 1. Adequate lighting in the home and around
the yard will help prevent accidents. Light-
ing for stairways should be controlled from
the top and bottom of the stairs. Room
lighting should be controlled by wall
switches placed on the lock side of doors.
Night lights will help prevent falls and ac-
cidents in the dark.

Slip rugs on highly polished floors can be dangerous.

2. Throw rugs are often hazardous. Place non-
skid backing on them. Use a floor wax
that does not greatly reduce traction. If
necessary, anchor the rugs.
3. Be especially careful of unvented flame
heaters and cookstoves. Don't ever leave an
unvented oil or gas heater burning while
you sleep. You may not wake up!
4. All stairs should have a tread or railing to
help prevent falls.
5. Clean up and straighten up! Junk and
clutter may cause a fall. Keep children's
toys out of the paths of traffic. Oily rags
may cause spontaneous combustion.
6. With small children take extra precautions,
such as, keep out of their reach small and
sharp objects, electric fan blades, and non-
edible substances. Don't leave children un-
7. Use guards around fireplaces.



Look over your electrical wiring. Any pennies behind
blown fuses? The fuse and the circuit-breaker are policemen
in your home; they protect the wires from being overloaded
which causes overheating, Don't ever use pennies behind blown
fuses-to do so will likely cause a fire. Instead, replace blown
fuses with new ones of the proper size. Size 15 amps is
ample for lighting. If wall outlets have No. 12 wire, a 20
A fuse may be used; otherwise, use a 15 A fuse.
Wire Size Fuse Size
No. 14 wire 15 A
No. 12 wire 20 A
No. 10 wire (special circuit) 30 A
No. 8 wire (special circuit) 40 A
No. 6 wire (special circuit) 55 A

If oversize fuses are used, the wires may overheat and
result in fires.
Electricity and water do not mix. Don't ever change
fuses or plug in anything electrical if the hands or feet are
wet, or if you're touching the plumbing.
A slight tingle; sparks; overheated wires or motors; un-
explained smoke; frayed, bare or damaged wires-all these
are danger signals. When there's trouble, have an experienced
electrician correct it immediately, before someone is injured
or a fire is started.
Small electrical hand tools have shocked and fatally
injured people. This equipment is safe when properly ground-
ed as required by the National Electrical Code.
Extension cords are not recommended; it's much better
to plug equipment into convenient outlets. If it's necessary
to use an extension cord as temporary wiring, by all means
use a heavy duty cord. Extension cords should never be run
under rugs, through doors or windows, or near heat sources
where they may be damaged and could cause fires.
All electrical work should be done in accordance with the
National Electrical Code and the regulations of the power
suppliers. Many Florida cities and some counties have their
own electrical codes. Don't ever attempt to do your own elec-
trical work unless you know what you're doing. If you're
inexperienced, it's safer and cheaper in the long run to hire
a reputable, qualified electrician to do the work.


Many people die each year as a result of accidental
poisoning. Some deaths are caused by insecticides, but by
far the larger number result from preparations which are
commonly found around the average home and are not thought
of as poisons. Chemicals included in the latter group are
kerosene, carbon tetrachloride, rust removers, drain clean-
ers, lighter fluid, household bleach, toilet bowl cleaners and
even aspirin.
Pesticides, including chemicals for control of insects (in-
secticides), rodents (rodenticides) and plant diseases (fungi-

cides), are essential to the agricultural economy of Florida.
Most pesticides in common use today are more or less toxic
to all animals, including man. This does not mean that you
should be afraid to use them-you should recognize their
danger to people.
Follow these rules to help avoid injury from poisons:
1. Read and follow the directions and precautions on
the label of the poison.
2. Always store sprays, dusts and other poisons in origi-
nal containers and keep them tightly closed. Never
transfer to an unlabeled container (for example from
a torn sack to an unmarked jar or can).
3. Avoid inhaling sprays and dusts. When directed on
the label, wear protective clothing and masks.
4. Keep all poisons out of the reach of children and
pets. It is best to keep them in a dry location that is
locked. This includes pesticides and also common
materials that children should not swallow, such as
kerosene, turpentine, cleaning fluid, bleaches and
washing preparations.
5. Cover food and water containers when using poison
around the livestock or pet areas.
6. Always dispose of empty containers so that they pose
no hazard to humans or animals. This means bury
the containers or remove them to a safe location.

First-aid for poisoning is given to lessen the absorption
of the poison. It is important to have a physician called at
once. In the meantime, first-aid measures given immediately
may save the victim's life.
1. Make the patient vomit immediately, except as noted
below. (To induce vomiting, place your finger or the
blunt end of a spoon at the back of patient's throat
or give two tablespoons salt in a glass of warm water).

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Medicines and poisons should be kept out of reach of curious children.

Syrup of ipecac will cause vomiting. This material
may be obtained from your druggist.
a. Patient is in a coma or unconscious.
b. Victim is having convulsions.

c. A corrosive poison has been swallowed. (See cor-
rosive poisons below.)
d. Petroleum products have been swallowed. (Gas-
oline, kerosene, lighter fluid, naptha)
3. Keep patient warm.
4. Do not give alcohol in any form.
5. When vomiting begins, place victim with head lower
than hips and face down. (This keeps poison from
getting into the lungs and causing further damage.)
Acid and acid-like corrosives include toilet bowl cleaners,
acetic acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, oxalic acid, hydrofluoric
acid (rust removers), iodine, silver nitrate (styptic pencil).
Alkali corrosives include sodium hydroxide-lye (drain
cleaners), sodium carbonate (washing soda), ammonia water,
sodium hypochlorite (household bleach).
If the patient can swallow after taking a corrosive
poison, give the following:
For acids-milk of magnesia (1 tablespoon to 1 cup
of water), milk or water.
For alkalis-milk, water, any fruit juice, or vinegar.
Dosage: For patient 1 to 5 years old, 1 to 2 cups;
for patient 5 years and older, up to 1 quart.
1. Carry person to fresh air immediately.
2. Open all doors and windows, loosen clothing and apply
artificial respiration if breathing has stopped or is
3. Prevent chilling-do not give alcohol in any form.
1. Drench skin with water.
2. Apply stream of water on skin while removing cloth-
3. Cleanse skin thoroughly with water (rapid washing is
most important to reduce extent of injury).
1. Hold victim's eyelids open and wash with running
water immediately.

2. Continue washing until doctor arrives.
3. Use nothing but water (chemical eyewashes may
cause injury to damaged tissues).
1. Wash with large amount of running water.
2. Immediately cover with loosely applied clean cloth.
3. Do not use ointments, greases, powders or drugs in
the treatment of chemical burns.
4. Keep victim flat and keep him warm until doctor
1. Apply tourniquet above wound (loosen for 1 minute
every 15 minutes).
2. Open wound with sharp instrument.
3. Suck poison from wound (use suction device or
4. Have patient lie down.
5. Carry patient to doctor or hospital (do not let him
Note: An approved snake-bite kit should be included in
first-aid supplies in the home and the automobile. Such a
kit should be taken on hunting and fishing trips and other
trips into the woods.
Most of the information on first-aid measures for poison-
ing has been taken from recommendations of the Committee
on Toxicology, American Medical Association. This informa-
tion has been approved by the University of Florida College
of Medicine.


This information has been prepared to help users of
power mowers to avoid accidents with this equipment. The
suggestions given and the hazards listed do not cover all un-
safe practices with power mowers.
If a person uses common sense and realizes that no ma-
chine is safer than the operator who uses it, he should be
able to avoid accidents with power mowers.

Cleaning up yards is the first step of accident prevention around the
home. It also adds beauty to your surroundings.

1. Read Instruction Manual. The manufacturer wants
you to get good service and not be injured. Follow
the instructions given.
2. Keep your lawn mower clean. Inspect mower before
using-remove all weeds, rope and wire that may be
tangled around mower blade. Wipe off any excess oil
left on the engine. A clean machine is much easier
to work on when you make periodic adjustments.
Sharpen the blades as needed.
3. Clean up yard before mowing. Inspect your lawn.
Pick up stones, sticks, wire and other debris in the
4. Keep other people, especially children, away from the
vicinity of the mower while in use. Power mowers
have been known to strike foreign objects sending
them traveling a great distance at high speed. These
could kill or injure people. Also children might touch
a moving part of the mower and be injured.

5. Don't attempt to adjust belts or remove trash from
mower while it is running. Never raise a mower on
the side while it is running. Be extra careful when
getting close to a gasoline engine or electric motor
that is running.
1. Learn the controls, especially how to stop the mower,
before operating it.
2. Gasoline storage and use:
a. Do not refill while engine is hot.
b. Store gasoline in an approved metal container,
not a glass jug that could break.
c. Allow expansion space when filling fuel tank. Heat
causes gasoline to expand and if it spills over
the hot engine, fire will likely result.
3. Adequate ventilation-Crank Outdoors. Gasoline en-
gines have exhaust gases containing carbon monoxide,
a deadly poison.
4. Starting the Engine. When starting the mower, stand
firmly and make sure your feet are in a safe position.
5. Keep clothing away from mower. Loose clothing may
become entangled in the moving parts of the mower.
This could result in injury or death to the operator.
1. Do not operate electric mowers when the ground is
wet. If the cord were accidentally cut, or if the
mower has a short in the wiring, the operator is in
great danger. A person on wet ground may be killed
if he touches a live wire.
2. Be careful not to cut cord. In using an electric mower,
move back and forth, working away from power
source. If the electric mower is used properly, there
is little danger of cutting the cord. When all areas
of the lawn can be reached with 100 feet of heavy
conductor cord and there are not too many trees and
other obstacles, an electric mower will probably be
3. Always turn off an electric mower and disconnect the
cord when you leave it.



Persons working with or around livestock should con-
stantly keep in mind that there is danger of being injured
and sometimes killed by farm animals. The animal may be-
come frightened, may get mad, or in some cases may become
playful. Overconfidence and carelessness are the main causes
why people get injured by farm animals.
One should never walk up to and touch a strange animal,
without first asking the owner if the animal is afraid of
strangers. You should never walk up to and touch an animal
until you are sure the animal is aware of your presence.
When approaching an animal, walk toward its head or should-
ers slowly with one hand extended. When first touching the
animal, be sure it is on the neck or shoulders. Never make
quick or jerky movements or make loud noise until you are
sure of the animal's temperament.
Bulls of all breeds of cattle may become dangerous. This
is especially true of the dairy breeds. It is not uncommon for
pet and well-trained bulls to become mean. If bulls are to be
handled daily or frequently by leading, a ring should be put
in their nose so that a lead rope or staff can be attached.
Never walk into an open lot or field when a bull is present
if you are not familiar with his actions and habits.
A person should be very careful around any female
animal that has very young off-spring. It is not uncommon
for female animals that are perfect pets to become vicious
in protecting their newborn from anything-man, another
animal, fowl or a vehicle that comes close by.
When handling animals be sure that the equipment used
is in good condition.
It should not be taken for granted that farm animals,
regardless of their disposition, are harmless. Many fatal in-
juries to man are caused by the animals that are thought to
be harmless. Most farm animals are heavier and stronger
than man, and can cause injuries without malicious intent.
There are safety factors other than injury that should
be taken when handling farm animals. There are a number

of diseases that are transmissible from animal to man, such
as: Undulent Fever, which is called Brucellosis in animals;
Tuberculosis; Leptospirosis; Rabies; Tape Worm; skin in-
fections and many others. Tests can be made on animals to
detect most of the diseases that are transmissible to man.
In many instances, vaccines are available that will protect
the animal against a disease which in turn will protect
Safety precautions should be taken with small animal
pets. Dogs, cats, skunks, opossums and raccoons should be
vaccinated against rabies. Certain skin infections are trans-
missible to man. Dog and cat bites can become infected. A
bite by an animal under usual conditions should be reported
to the authorities and the wounds thoroughly cleaned and
Precautions should be taken when handling a wounded
animal. An animal that is suffering from acute pain due to
an injury may bite anyone including its owner when it is
being moved or petted.


Lakes and farm ponds are becoming an important econ-
omic unit on many Florida farms. During the past quarter
century, farmers and ranchers have built nearly a million
ponds in the United States.
Lakes and ponds are used in many farming programs,
such as water for livestock; sprinkler irrigation water source;
fire protection; and recreation in the form of fishing, boating,
swimming and water skiing.
The first rule of safety around the farm pond or lake is:
Recreation must be supervised at ALL times by an adult.
swim alone
fish alone
boat alone

I can drive nails without

I can drive a tractor
without hands.

I can eat an ear of corn
without hands.


i .

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But believe me, mister, I could do it a lot easier before I lost my hands
in a corn picker.

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The "Buddy check" system helps prevent drowning accidents.

play around the pond or lake alone
allow children or non-swimmers in the water unless
a competent adult swimmer is nearby
Post safety instruction for boating, swimming and water
Mark safe swimming areas.
If the farm pond or lake is located so it gets the drainage
from barnyards or sewers or if livestock are allowed to drink
directly from the pond, do not permit swimming or other
recreation because of sanitary reasons.
Place lifesaving devices such as ring buoys, ropes, long
poles, and boats around swimming areas.
Allow in the water only persons who know how to swim,
unless there is supervision. Encourage children to learn to
swim. Teach your children water safety by setting proper
examples. A course in swimming and water first-aid, taught
by competent instructors is a good investment.
Know accepted methods of artificial respiration.
Place a fence that can't be climbed around the farm pond
so children can't play there without adult supervision.

Clear all trees, stumps, brush, wire and rubbish from
swimming and boating areas.
Boats can be fun when you use common sense:
Know the limitations of your boat .
Balance your load from side to side and bow to stern.
Don't overload.
Avoid sharp turns.
Don't use a motor too powerful for
your boat.
Head at an angle toward waves.
Go slow when waves are high.
A boat is not a toy to be experimented with and played with
by children.
Irrigation is an important aid to agriculture in many
areas of the state. There are two danger areas to beware
with irrigation-electrocution and drowning.
Never allow portable pipe to come in contact with elec-
trical power lines. Irrigation pipes are conductors of elec-
Never allow water from a sprinkler irrigation system to
contact power lines.
Prevent water from collecting near the pump.
Teach small children to stay away from lakes, ponds,
ditches, reservoirs and canals.
Put up sturdy fences that discourage climbing.
Provide escape devices along the canal.
Put warning signs at frequent intervals along the canal.
Effectiveness of warning signs depends on the wording. The
message should be appealing and should avoid threatening
language that may be taken resentfully by the public.

All pleasure boats using a motor over 10 H. P. must be
registered under Florida laws. Registration certificates may
be obtained at the county tax collector's office.
The following types of boats are exempted from regis-
tration in Florida:

a. Those used exclusively for racing.
b. Boats used only on private lakes.
c. Documented boats.
d. Boats from another country using Florida waters
e. A ship's lifeboats.
For complete information concerning boats used in Flor-
ida, waters, see your county sheriff's office. Request a copy
of "Florida's Motorboat Laws and Water Safety Hints". If
unavailable, write:
Extension Safety Leader
Agricultural Extension Service
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
This bulletin covers the following topics:
1, Florida's motorboat and water safety laws.
2. Coast Guard regulations.
3. Fire extinguishers.
4. Lights required on boats underway between sunset
and sunrise.
5. New storm-warning signals.
6. How to signal for help on the water.
7. Safe water skiing is great fun.
8. For safe and happy boating.
The following equipment is recommended for safe opera-
tion of boats:
1. Tool kit
2. Anchor and rope
3. Fire extinguisher (pressurized dry chemical 2 lb.)
4. Waterproof flashlight
5. Distress kit (flares)
6. Life jacket for each person
7. First-aid kit
8. Pump or bailer
*9. Paddles (2) or oars (2)
10. Lines for towing and/or tying up
11. Running lights if boat is used at night
12. Extra gas can of "approved" type if running on long
trips or open waters.
*Oars with row-locks are far superior to paddles but on many boats in use
today, such as runabouts, etc., oars are not practical.


Carelessness with guns is inexcusable. Set a good example
for your son by using firearms safely. See that your son is
properly trained in firearm safety before he becomes the
proud owner of a gun.
To be a good hunter, one must have complete control of
his gun and himself. Unless he holds himself in check, he is
likely to blast away at the slightest movement or sound.
Self-control comes with practice. By handling a gun
properly at all times and by waiting to see game, he will train
himself to do so habitually. These good habits will be in-
stinctive when he is in the grip of excitement that comes with
the anticipation of a shot.
Control is largely acquired. Practice it at all times
afield-every time a gun is in your hands.
The safety should be ON at all times and released only
immediately before the shot. Finger should be outside the
trigger guard except when ready to fire. The safety is only
a mechanical device; do not depend on it.
Do not shoot at game over the rise of a hill. Someone
or livestock may be on the other side and in line of fire. Al-
ways know what is in front of and behind your target.
Be sure to shoot in a safe direction. Do not shoot over
livestock or toward buildings.
When carrying guns in the car-unload, dismantle and
carry in case. Check your state laws concerning carrying
guns in vehicles.
When walking in groups, carry the gun so the muzzle is
always pointed in a safe direction. Never allow the gun to
point toward a companion.

Proper handling of firearms
means many additional hunt-
ing trips in the future.

Play it safe by unloading the gun. Place it on the other
side of the fence near a post. Walk farther down the fence
row and cross.

When two or more hunters come to a fence, one should
hold the guns while the other climbs over and takes them.
Then the second follows. The action should always be open
when crossing a fence.

Never shoot over the head of a companion.

Take breaks often to avoid fatigue. But never lean a
loaded gun against tree, stump or building. A dog or some-
one might bump the gun, knock the safety off and trigger it.

Always unload a gun before putting it in the car, in the
house, or before going into camp. Make sure the action is
open on every gun not loaded.
1. Treat every gun, even though unloaded, as if it were
a primed stick of dynamite.
2. Guns carried into camp or home, or when otherwise
not in use, must always be unloaded.
3. Always be sure barrel and action are clear of obstruc-
tions, and that the gun is in good operating condition.
4. Always carry your gun so that you can control the
direction of the muzzle even if you stumble. Keep the
safety on until you are ready to shoot.
5. Be sure of your target before you pull the trigger.
6. Never point a gun at another person unless you in-
tend to kill him.
7. Unload all unattended guns.
8. Don't climb a tree or fence or jump a ditch with a
loaded gun.
9. Never shoot a bullet at water or other flat or hard
10. Never mix gunpowder and alcohol. Avoid alcoholic
drinks before or during shooting.
11. Always store ammunition and guns so that children
and other inexperienced persons cannot get to them.
Do not mix cartridges.



Woods operations are often carried on in isolated places.
Every tree to be felled or log to be cut and loaded on a truck
or into a railroad car presents an individual problem. Ac-
cident prevention and a knowledge of first-aid is of utmost
importance to all wood workers.

Before felling a tree, clear enough space around base to
have plenty of working room and to provide escape in emer-
Check tree for wind direction. Dead limbs, direction of
lean and nearness of other trees determine best method to
Wear clothing and boots suitable for country, climate and
job. Choose safe travel routes and safe stream crossing.
Guard against twigs and branches sticking in your eyes.
Avoid working alone under hazardous conditions.
If you get lost, keep calm. Don't walk aimlessly. Trust
your map and compass.
In case of injury when alone, keep calm. Stay where you
are and build a signal fire.
Carry a pocket sized snake bite kit and know how to use
Use a good insect repellant to repel ticks and mosquitoes.
Avoid touching apparently friendly wild animals en-
countered in the woods-they may have rabies.
If bitten by a wild creature-especially an unprovoked
attack-have animal checked for rabies, if at all possible.


Lightning-protection systems for buildings consist of three
parts-air terminals, conductors and ground connections.
All materials used in lightning-protection systems should
comply with the specifications of the Code for Protection
Against Lightning published by the National Bureau of
Standards. All lightning-protection equipment should be in-
stalled by a reputable company.
A lightning-protection system properly installed and
maintained will give almost complete protection to buildings.

Use common sense and exercise complete caution in lightning storms.


If you are caught outside in a lightning storm, go to the
nearest protected building or automobile. Avoid metal fences
and trees, especially avoid lone trees, or those trees higher
than surrounding vegetation.
When lightning storms approach, swimmers and boaters
should go to shore immediately. A person in a boat is the
highest object on the water; and, therefore, he is in danger
of being struck by lightning. Swimmers have been para-
lyzed-and, as a result, drowned-by a lightning bolt that
struck the water even a great distance away.
Humans and livestock have been injured or killed when
standing near metal fences during a lightning storm. Ground
metal fences at intervals of 150 feet and at corners. Also
break electric continuity of metal fences by inserting insulat-
ing material in breaks in the wires at intervals of 1,000 feet.
These suggestions will help to prevent injury and death
from lightning. Since lightning is an Act of Nature, man-
made protection is not 100 per cent effective.



Fire finds a breeding place in paper, rags and rubbish
which is tucked in closets, attics or corners. Volatile fuels,
paint, cleaners and insecticides should be properly stored-
and proper storage is not in the home.
Is there an opening in the attic for chimney inspection?
Is the attic free of trash?
Does anyone smoke in bed?
Is the fireplace ever used without the screen?
Are there extension cords under rugs?

Is each circuit properly fused?
15 Amp fuse for number 14 wire
20 Amp fuse for number 12 wire
Is the flue pipe protected or at least 18 inches from wood?
Does the house have a fire resistant roof?
Are the chimneys in good condition?
Are matches kept out of reach of children?
Are L. P. Gas containers 5 feet or more from the win-
Are they set on concrete or firm foundations?
Is a shut-off valve provided outside the buildings?
Ts there a fused safety switch?
Are the fuses of proper size for the wire?
Are light bulbs protected by glass or metal guards?
Is the wire size adequate for the load?
Is the tractor used or kept in the barn?
Does anyone smoke in the barn?
Are the lightning rod grounds in good condition?
Are electric grounds in good condition?
Is hay well cured before storing?
Are building roofs leak-proof?
Is gasoline at least 40 feet from all buildings?
Is tractor gasoline tank ever filled while engine is run-
Is tractor gasoline tank ever filled while engine is hot?
Do you use L. P. Gas in your tractor?
If so, is the supply tank at least 50 feet from near-
est building?
Is a good ladder available at all times to reach the
eaves of the highest building?
Has your family discussed the fire fighting technique
they would use in case fire were to break out?



1. Has all rubbish such as old papers, broken furniture
and toys, boxes, old clothes and paint cans and other
useless things been cleaned out of your attic, closets,
garage and yard?
2. Is rubbish disposed of regularly at your home?
3. Frayed electric cords often start fires. Are you sure
all the electric cords in your home are in safe condi-
4. Ask Dad to go with you and inspect the fuse box.
Is the right size fuse in every socket (15 amperes is
the safest size for lighting circuits) ?
5. Have you removed extension cords from under rugs
or over nails?
6. Are the matches and lighters in your house out of
reach of small children?
7. You know it's very dangerous for anybody to play
with matches. Have you promised Mother and Dad
never to use matches unless they say you can?

Cleaning up cluttered areas
will mean fewer accidents
and less danger of fire
around the home and farm.

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8. Have you warned everybody at home never to use
flammable liquids like gasoline for cleaning clothes
or kerosene for starting fires?
9. Are Mother's oily mops hung up and are oily rags
kept in a tightly closed can or thrown away after use?
10. Are there plenty of ash trays in all rooms of your
11. In case your home caught fire when you were asleep,
do you know what you would do? If you don't know,
be sure to ask your Dad and Mom what you should
12. Does your family have fire drills in your home?
13. In case of fire, do you know how to call the fire de-
14. Have you ever visited a fire station?
15. Smokepipes, furnaces and stoves get very hot. Are
they far enough away from the walls and ceilings in
your house?
16. Are the ashes from any stove or fireplace in your
house kept outside in covered metal barrels away
from anything that might catch fire?
17. If your house has a fireplace, do you have fire screens?
18. Do you always watch to make sure there are no
clothes or curtains or furniture near any stove or
heater in the house?
19. If there is an oil stove or heater in your house, is it
kept level and clean and does a stove man inspect
it for defects at least once a year?
20. If there is a gas stove or gas heater in your house, do
you know that you should call the gas company right
away if you ever smell gas?



Have lightning-protection systems of a type approved by
Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., been installed on your prop-
Have lightning rod installations been checked and put in
good condition within the past year?
Are lightning rod systems grounded in moist earth?
Are wire fences attached to buildings properly grounded
at fence post nearest building?
Are grounding cables protected from livestock rubbing
against them, particularly at corners of buildings?
Do radio and television antennas have approved lightn-
ing arrestors?
Has wiring been checked by a qualified person since in-
When new machinery was added to the load on any
motor, was wiring inspected and any necessary new wiring
installed by a qualified electrician?
Is electricity delivered to a centrally located pole and
switch box and distributed from there to buildings?
Are the wires leading to remote buildings of sufficient
size to reduce the possibility of a drop in voltage?
Do you inspect your fuse boxes regularly to see that
approved fuses of specified capacities are being used?
Are exposed light bulbs in barns and other buildings
protected by glass or metal guards from damage by animals,
human carelessness or to keep from setting fire to hay, straw
or dust?
Have you removed all extension cords from over hooks,
nails or beams, or stretched through doors?
Are motor fuels stored away from all combustible mate-
rials ?

Do you have approved safety cans for any necessary
handling and transportation of gasoline?
Are greases, oils and flammable liquids stored in an oil
house located away from other buildings?

Have your stoves been kept in good condition and cleaned
within the past year?
Have all flue connections to chimneys been cleaned and
inspected within the past year?
Have all chimneys been examined for cracks lately, espec-
ially in the attic and above roof line?
Are walls adjacent to stoves protected by metal or plaster
board leaving at least six inches of air space between pro-
tection and wall?
Does your heating system provide adequate heat without
"forcing" or overstoking in very cold weather? (Note: If
"forcing" is necessary, you need better building insulation or
more adequate equipment to provide sufficient heat for your
Are all chimneys, flue connections or gas vents that pass
through combustible partitions in your house or other build-
ings properly protected to prevent the partitions from char-
ring or igniting?
Do you prohibit the use of kerosene for starting or quick-
ening a fire in your home?
Does your fireplace have a metal screen in front of it to
prevent sparks from flying onto carpet or furniture?

Are your portable heaters of a type which has been ex-
amined and listed by Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.?
Is your portable heater always placed on a level floor
in order to insure proper operation?
Do you always refill its fuel tank outdoors and in the
If you use a wick-type portable heater, do you trim the
wick and clean it regularly?
Do you regulate the flame of your portable heater to
keep it from smoking?

Is the latch which fastens the upper to the lower part
of the heater secure?
Do you always turn your portable heater out upon re-
tiring at night or when moving it from one part of the house
to another?
Do you always provide fresh air in a room where unvent-
ed fuel heaters are used?
Are your L. P. Gas (bottled gas) tanks installed outside
the house, away from windows and other openings?
Do you keep grass or weeds cut short around your house,
barn and other buildings?
Are all buildings on your farm accessible to fire trucks
at all times?
Do you have milk cans or other containers available to
carry water to neighbors' property in event of fire there?
Do you have two cables for dragging farm equipment
from burning sheds?
Are light fixtures, fuse boxes and switches kept free of
dirt, dust and chaff?
Is the hay loft well ventilated?
Do you prohibit the stacking of trash and manure against
the barn?
Do you take care not to store damp hay in the barn?
If you have a blower for drying hay, has the installation
been inspected by a competent electrician?
Is smoking in the barn prohibited?
Is storage of tractors and other equipment in the barn
prohibited ?
Is the number of the nearest fire department posted
prominently near the phone?
Have you made arrangements with the nearest fire de-
partment to assure response to your farm at time of fire?
Does the fire department have a map of your farm, with
streams and ponds clearly marked?
Do you have at least 3,000 gallons emergency water sup-
ply on your farm?

Is your emergency water supply accessible to fire trucks
or portable pumps?
Do you have approved fire extinguishers placed conven-
iently near any locations of special fire hazard?
Do you have approved fire extinguishers on motor ve-
Have fire extinguishers been inspected and recharged
within the past year?
Do employees and members of your family know how to
use your fire extinguishers?
Do you have enough garden hose and adequate supply of
buckets for carrying water?
Do you have ladders long enough to reach to the roof
for rescuing members of your family from your home in case
of fire?
Have your family and employees been instructed and
drilled on locating proper exits from house and buildings and
how to close all windows and doors in case of fire?
Have you set up a definite plan of action for a fire
Do crop driers have automatic controls to shut off fans
and close dampers in case of over-heating?
All the following should have Underwriters' Laboratories,
Inc., (U. L.) labels:
Brooders Gasoline dispensing pumps
Electric cooking appliances Incubators
Electric fences Kerosene stoves
Electric irons Liquefied petroleum gas
Electric refrigerators and systems
home freezers Oil burners
Electric heaters Portable kerosene heaters
Electric motors Radios
Electric ranges Roof covering
Fire extinguishers Television sets
Fuel tanks
The information on fire prevention has been approved by the National Safety
Council, Chicago; and the Florida State Fire College, Ocala.


Different types of extinguishers handle different classes
of fires. The following shows classes of fires, and types of ex-
tinguishers recommended for farm fires:

Class A Fires
(Wood, hay, paper,
textiles, etc.)
Class B fires
(Oils, grease, gasoline,
paint, etc.)
Class C Fires
(Live electrical

Extinguisher Types Recommended
for Farm Fires
*Pressurized water (21/2 gal. with
pressure gauge)
*Water Pump (tank type)
Pressurized Dry Chemical
C02 (Carbon Dioxide)

CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)
Pressurized Dry Chemical

There are many other kinds of approved fire extinguish-
ers on the market. Some are designed for special situations,
and are not practical, economical, or adapted for farm use.
Some of these are vaporizing liquid, foam, soda-acid, and the
type pressurized by a gas cartridge.


Since more farm and rural people die from accidents on
the highway than from any other thing, some information on
highway and traffic safety is important. Your Florida High-
way Patrol, Department of Public Safety, and local law en-
forcement agencies can provide statistics and information to
help reduce vehicle accidents.
Defensive driving is the technique used to avoid traffic
accidents by anticipating all hazardous situations created by
the unsafe acts of others and by adverse traffic and weather
conditions. The defensive driver makes all allowances for
*Note: Add wetting agent, 1 oz. per gallon.

the other fellow's carelessness and lack of skill or knowledge.
He drives as if he is literally "under attack".
According to actual records, four out of five fatal traffic
accidents are caused by one or more traffic violations. One
out of five is caused by an error of judgment or lack of skill.
The defensive driver is always prepared for an emer-
gency and tries to anticipate situations that may cause an
accident. One such situation is an approaching truck with
a line of cars following. A defensive driver will look for one
of these cars to pull out of line to pass, even though there
is not enough space, and be prepared to avoid a head-on col-
lision. There are, of course, many other such situations. A
defensive driver can anticipate most of these situations and
by being alert to the possibilities will be able to avoid an ac-
One of the simplest ways to define defensive driving is:
always assume that each approaching car has a nut or a
drunk behind the wheel and be prepared to get out of his

A first aid kit is a valuable item to have in an automobile.

Nearly all safety experts, traffic experts and profes-
sional drivers agree that DEFENSIVE DRIVING is the most
effective way to drive and stay alive.

OBSERVE AND OBEY traffic signs.
SLOW DOWN at night or when visibility is poor or
SCAN the road ahead. Be ready for sudden stops.
GLANCE frequently in your rear view mirror so you
know the traffic picture around and behind you.
FOLLOW at a safe distance. Be ready for sudden stops.
When driving near parked cars, WATCH for signs that
a car may be ready to pull out from the curb. (A person sit-
ting in the driver's seat, a slight movement of the wheels,
lights on, or smoke coming from the exhaust are signs.)
ADJUST SPEED to keep from being boxed in.
KEEP a safe distance. Be ready for sudden stops.
ADJUST SPEED to driving conditions.
WATCH for children between intersections.
WATCH for pedestrians and other cars even when you
are traveling with the green light.
STAY in one lane as much as possible. On the highway
stay over to the right. Cross the center line only when pass-
ing or turning left. Don't weave or hog the road.
ALWAYS SIGNAL your intentions to other drivers.
Check to see if they understand your signal.
When passing, SIGNAL the driver ahead. Be sure he
knows you are going to pass. Pass on the left. Don't cut
back too sharply-wait until you can see the left front head-
light in your rear view mirror. Do not pass on curves, hills,
at intersections or in "no passing" zones.
PREPARE for turns and stops by getting into the proper
lane well in advance and signaling.



1. Brakes should take hold evenly on all wheels. The
hand brake should be able to held the car on any hill. Brake
fluid should be kept clean and at the proper level.
2. Headlights should be aimed for maximum road illum-
ination and minimum glare. Both upper and lower beams
should be in good working condition. Lenses should be clean
and reflectors bright at all times.
3. Rear and stop lights should operate properly. All
bulbs should burn and all controls operate. Lenses must be
clean, clear and free of cracks. Directional signals should be

Seat belts help reduce injuries and deaths in automobile accidents.
Note also the safety check on the windshield which indicates the car
is in perfect operating condition.

4. Tires should be checked for wear and proper inflation.
Check treads and sidewalls for worn spots or fabric that
shows through the rubber. Check for cuts and breaks in
tread or sidewalls. Signs of uneven wear indicate need for
wheel alignment and for rotation of tires.
5. Steering and wheel alignment should be checked. Play
in the steering wheel should not exceed 11/2 to 3-inches. Wheel
alignment should be tested on equipment for this purpose.
6. Exhaust system and muffler should be completely
checked by a qualified mechanic.
7. Windshield wipers should be operating dependably
with blades "live" and clean. If they are in poor condition, they
should be replaced.
8. Glass should be clear, free of cracks and without dis-
coloration. Visibility should not be obscured by unauthorized
9. Horn should be operating properly and should be
audible for 200 feet, but not so loud as to constitute a nuisance.
10. Rear-view mirrors should give a clear view of the
road behind. (Also check any auxiliary equipment such as seat
belts and other items.)
Many safety authorities agree that seat belts, properly
used in automobiles, are the greatest hope of any known device
for reducing the chances of death and injury if you have an
Cornell University Medical College reported in comparing
rural auto accidents that . .
75.5 per cent of those in cars without seat belts suffered
injury. Only 29.9 per cent of those in cars with seat belts suf-
fered injury. The difference is two and one-half to one.
17.4 per cent of those in cars without seat belts were
thrown out and killed. Only 2.2 per cent of those in cars with
seat belts were killed. The difference is eight to one.

A large majority of rural and urban youths ride bicycles
at some time in their lives. Common sense and care will help
to prevent bicycle accidents. Most fatal bicycle accidents in-

volve an automobile or other vehicle. Here are a few precau-
tions to help reduce bicycle accidents:
1. Always ride on the right hand side of the road.
(Pedestrians should walk on the left facing traffic. Bicycles
and all other vehicles should travel on the right hand side.)
2. Make sure you can be seen. Electric lighting on the
front is a necessity at night. Red reflective tape supplements
a metal reflector or electric light on the rear.
3. Know and use the safe rules of bike riding: proper
speed; bike under control at all times; good brakes; single
file, not abreast, on the highway or a well-traveled road;
handlebar and seat properly adjusted for the ride; good
mechanical condition of bike.
4. Use common sense (no smart tricks like riding with
no hands or riding on the handlebars).

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