Agricultural Extension Service
. . ten pigs per litter
ten pigs to market "
HOG CHOLERA VACCINATION
By CHARLES B. PLUMMER
Agricultural Extension Veterinarian
KENNETH L. DURRANCE
Assistant Animal Husbandman
Keeping hog cholera vaccination up to date
on your farm is good management and sound
economics. Without vaccination, losses can be
and sometimes are heavy.
Vaccination is good insurance against losses,
even though it does not provide 100 percent
Hog cholera is caused by a very tiny virus,
which gets into the blood and all tissue of a
sick animal. In some instances it may be more
virulent (stronger) than in others. Very few
hogs have natural immunity to the virus.
THINGS THE PRODUCER SHOULD
KNOW AND DO
0 Vaccinate all pigs at about 6 weeks of age.
* Re-vaccinate brood stock each year.
* Contact your veterinarian and discuss the prob-
lems that might exist in your herd before they
* Be sure.to tell the veterinarian the facts. They
may determine the type of vaccine to be used.
There are several types of vaccines and one may
be better to use than another under your con-
* If the veterinarian thinks the herd is not in con-
dition to vaccinate at the time called, wait and
correct the condition before vaccination. This
may save pigs.
* If cholera is present in a herd when they are
vaccinated, the pigs may still develop the disease
and die from cholera since many already will be
infected with the virus.
qavwner In the know, '
CAUSES OF FAILURE TO IMMUNIZE
A very small percentage of animals
do not have the ability to produce the
antibodies that are required for immun-
ity, and cannot be immunized, regard-
less of what is done.
Also, the following conditions may
cause a vaccine to fail to produce com-
An animal in a state of poor nutrition.
One heavily infested with parasites.
Pigs vaccinated too young that have
been nursing a vaccinated sow.
Pigs that have had hog cholera serum
within 3 to 4 weeks prior to vaccination.
Pigs that already have cholera but show
Pigs that have other infections at time
Pigs that have been subjected to stress,
such as long hauls, withholding feed and
water, and overheating. Anything that
lowers the resistance of the animal will
reduce the ability of its body to manu-
facture antibodies from the vaccine.
HOW IT IS SPREAD...
Cholera is highly contagious. It can be
spread from one animal to another in many
ways. It may be carried on the tires of a feed
truck, on a person's shoes, in old feed sacks,
by dogs, by buzzards, or by contact with other
Animals can become infected by eating pork
scraps in garbage that has not been thoroughly
cooked. The virus can live over in places where
sick animals have been. It will live for long
periods in damp, dark places. It can live under
conditions of extreme cold and it will live for
months in salt and pickling solutions.
The virus is easily killed by sunlight, heat or
Avoid losses by keeping cholera out of your
herd. When adding animals-to your herd, be
sure they are from herds free of cholera or have
been vaccinated more than 2- 3 weeks. Buying
at the auction market, without knowing the herd
from which the animals come, can introduce the
disease to your herd. If the market does not
have proper disinfecting facilities, a cholera-sick
animal going through it may be the means of
spreading the disease to unvaccinated animals
following through the same market for several
Vaccination is the best way to be reasonably
sure of keeping cholera out of your herd. Vac-
cinate all animals every year.
Many things can affect the ability of an ani-
mal to gain immunity through vaccination. Most
of these are known. If the animal is in the
proper condition and the vaccination is done
properly, you can expect a high percentage of
1. Vaccinate a pig that is in poor condition
from inadequate nutrition.
2. Vaccinate pigs that are heavily infested
3. Vaccinate pigs that are less than 5 weeks
4. Vaccinate pigs within 4 weeks follow-
ing the administration of immune serum.
5. Vaccinate pigs that are sick or exposed
to other infections.
6. Vaccinate pigs that have been over-
7. Vaccinate pigs that have been hauled
long distances or had feed or water withheld
for long periods. Wait at least 3 days.
8. Buy pigs that have not been vaccinated.
9. Buy pigs that have been vaccinated less
than 2 3 weeks.
10. Mix purchased pigs with your herd. Ad-
ditions should be segregated for at least
30 60 days.
This is the First of a Series of Circulars on
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMIC!
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida, Florida State
University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director