Title: Peanut production guide
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Title: Peanut production guide
Series Title: Peanut production guide
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Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
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Full Text


January
January '
/is &


145, E


PRODUCTION GUIDE


TO INCREASE EFFICIENCY IN PEANUT
PRODUCTION:

1. Grow peanuts in rotation with other well-
fertilized field crops.
2. Have soil tested and apply necessary lime
and fertilizer.
3Turn land so that all crop residues and
weeds are buried.
4. Use high-quality seed of a recommended
variety.
5. Use proper spacing for the variety.
6. Keep crop free of weeds.
7. Apply gypsum soon after the plants begin to
bloom freely.
8. Control leafspot disease and insect pests.
9. Dig at proper time.
10. Harvest and cure nuts by methods that will
minimize seed damage.



FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE


97-IUME LIBRA Yla


JUL 24 1973


iEAN 'J ida


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Peanut yields have increased sharply in recent
years. This increase has been due to several factors;
including planting the Florunner variety; better
weed, disease and insect control; improved harvesting
equipment and more attention to management.
Many growers now produce around 5000 pounds of
peanuts per acre. The same techniques that these
growers use are available to all peanut farmers.

SOILS AND ROTATIONS

Peanuts should be grown on well-drained soils in a
2, 3, or 4-year rotation with other crops that have
been well fertilized.
Other crops in the rotation should be resistant to
nematodes and southern blight. Crops recommended
for rotation with peanuts include corn, small grains
and other grasses. Most legumes and many vegetable
crops build up the nematode population and should
be avoided in the peanut rotation, especially as im-
mediately preceding crops.

LIMING AND FERTILIZATION

Improve soil fertility of fields to be planted to
peanuts by liming and fertilizing for maximum
economic production of other crops in the rotation.
Liming-Recommendations as to the kind and
amount of limestone that should be applied are based
on pH preferences and calcium and magnesium
requirements of the crops in the rotation and of the
pH value and calcium and magnesium contents of soil
samples analyzed in the laboratory.
Limestone is of two kinds-calcic and dolomite. In
addition to reducing soil acidity, calcic limestone
supplies the plant nutrient calcium and dolomitic
limestone supplies calcium and magnesium.
For development of well-filled nuts, an adequate
supply of calcium must be available in the fruiting
zone, as well as in the rooting zone, of the peanut
plant. Therefore, to be most effective as a source of
calcium, and to not interfere with proper preparation
of a good seedbed for peanuts, the recommended kind
and amount of limestone should be broadcast evenly
over the surface and thoroughly mixed with the soil in
the plow layer before the preceding spring crop is
planted.
Fertilization-Peanuts often respond as well or
better to residual soil fertility than to direct fertiliza-





tion. For this reason, emphasis is placed on proper
fertilization of the preceding crop.
Peanuts do not normally respond to inoculation
with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, limited ob-
servations on recently-cleared deep sands that had
few legumes in the native state, have shown that
peanuts can respond to inoculation. There are no in-
dications that inoculation is needed on soils that have
grown peanuts or other legumes in the cowpea
inoculation group within the preceding five years.
Peanuts, when inoculated with the proper strain of
nitrogen-fixing bacteria, do not respond to applica-
tions of fertilizer nitrogen. However, nitrogen is often
included with the phosphorus and potash. This ni-
trogen will often stimulate early growth. A rate of 32
pounds of nitrogen per acre is adequate for this pur-
pose.
If phosphorus and/or potash levels are low or if
maintenance of high fertility is desired, use recom-
mendations in Table 1 as guides for fertilization of the
peanut crop.

TABLE 1. Recommended P.O. and KO Fertilization for Peanuts
Based on Soil Test Results.

Recommended Fertilization
Soil-Test Results (lbs/acre of P,O or KO)


Low 96
Medium 64
High 48


Fertilizer should be broadcast just before the land is
turned. If for any reason it becomes necessary to apply
fertilizer at planting time, rather than before the land
is turned, it should be placed in bands three to four
inches to each side of the seed row and three to four
inches below the level of the seed.
Boron applications are often necessary to produce
high-quality and high-yields of peanuts, especially on
the sandy soils. Boron can be supplied by adding a
complete minor element frit to the fertilizer at a rate
that will result in application of 20 pounds of the frit
per acre. Other methods of supplying boron, would be
to add soluble boron at the rate of 1 1/2 pounds of B2O,
(1/2 pounds of B) per acre in the fertilizer at planting
time, in the gypsum applied at blooming time, or in the
first application of a fungicide for leafspot control.





Copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are other minor
elements that have been deficient in peanuts in
Florida, but these are not common deficiencies.

SEEDBED PREPARATION

In early fall, have soil tested; shred crop residues; if
lime is needed, apply the recommended kind and
amount of limestone; and disk land to incorporate
limestone and crop residues into the top three to four
inches of soil. The partially incorporated residues will
tend to protect the soil against erosion by wind and
water during winter and early spring.
If additional soil protection is desired or if winter
grazing is needed, apply the proper kind and amount
of fertilizer just ahead of the disking operation and
plant rye, or another small grain of your choice. Just
before time to turn land for peanut crop, graze plants
to ground level, or reduce plant height by use of ro-
tary mower set close to the ground, and break up root
sod by disking land thoroughly to depth of three to
four inches.
Three to four weeks before planting time, broadcast
the recommended kind and amount of fertilizer and
turn land with a moldboard plow, equipped with
coulters, so that all litter will be covered with at least
four inches of soil.

VARIETIES

Florunner, released by the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station in 1969, has easily become the
most popular peanut ever grown in Florida. Almost
100 percent of the Florida acreage was planted to this
variety in 1972. Florunner is the only runner-type
peanut variety recommended at present.
Florigiant is superior to all other Virginia-type
peanuts tested in Florida in yield and resistance to
seed damage. Starr, Tifspan and Spancross are the
Spanish varieties recommended for planting in
Florida.
If the crop is to be hogged-off, choose a variety of
the runner-type. Seed of these varieties, if left in the
ground after they reach maturity, usually will remain
dormant for several months.

SEED

Plant sound, well-matured, disease-free seed of
known pedigree, purity and performance. Florida





certified peanut seed, which are grown and processed
under strict regulations and close supervision, are true
to variety and of high quality. Florunner seed is about
10 percent larger than Early Runner, therefore
planting rates should be adjusted accordingly.
There has been some interest in planting seed that
has been sized. Sized seed could allow for more
precision planting and uniform stands and growth.
Plants from larger seed should grow faster soon after
germination and also withstand adverse conditions
better than smaller seed because of the greater supply
of food reserves in large seed. On the other hand, large
seed would normally be damaged more than small
seed in the sizing process and therefore be more sus-
ceptible to seedling diseases.

PLANTING

Space seed of Spanish varieties two to three inches
apart in 24- to 30-inch rows, and those of runner and
Virginia varieties three to four inches apart in 30- to
36-inch rows. For Runner and Virginia varieties, a
modified two-row pattern, in which the middle
beneath the tractor is one rear tire width narrower
than the wheel middle, permits more satisfactory
operation of spraying or dusting equipment,
especially in the latter part of the growing season. For
Spanish varieties, a four-close-row pattern in which
paired rows 10 inches apart straddle the position nor-
mally occupied by single rows in the modified two-row
system, may aid in weed control and may result in
higher yields.
Cover the seed two to three inches in light-textured
soils and 1 1/2 to 2 inches in heavier-textured soils.
After they are covered, the top of the seed row should
be level with, or slightly above, the middles.
Level or ridge planting, which is required for non-
dirting of peanut plants and for proper application of
weed control chemicals, can be accomplished through
use of sweeps, set flat and shallow, followed by
planters equipped with covering knives and wide
press-wheels.

WEED CONTROL

A successful weed control program depends on all
factors of peanut production being optimum. Crop
rotation, use of weed-free crop seed, optimum plant
populations, cultivation and keeping weeds from go-





ing to seed are directly related to low weed popula-
tions and high peanut yields. If weeds were controlled
in corn last year, the weed problem will be reduced in
the peanuts grown in that same field this year. Her-
bicides will supplement these sound farm
management principles to provide optimum weed
control at the least cost to the peanut producer.
Weed competition reduces peanut yield mostly
during the first four weeks after planting however,
late-season populations of morningglory and
cocklebur may also reduce yields and interfere with
harvesting efficiency. The highest yields of peanuts are
usually from areas receiving a herbicide program of
one of the preplant incorporated herbicides followed
by one of the cracking-time treatments. An example of
such a program would be benefin (Balan) preplant
followed by naptalam + dinoseb (Dyanap) at cracking
time. Other chemicals listed in Table 2 under each
time of application may be used and should be selected
on the basis of the specific weeds to be controlled.
All label instruction and precautions should be
followed carefully, since rates higher than needed may
injure the crop and lower rates may not provide ac-
ceptable weed control. Be sure that application is
properly timed in relation to the stage of growth of the
crop and the weeds.
For application of herbicides, use a tractor-mounted
sprayer that is equipped with a corrosion resistant
tank, power take-off-operated nylon roller pump,
pressure regulator with gauge and nozzles of the
proper type and size. The sprayer should be clean, in
good working order and properly calibrated to deliver
the required rate of chemical in 15 to 20 gallons of
water per acre.
Do not allow spray to drift to cotton, tobacco or
other sensitive crops nor use spray unit for spraying
sensitive crops.

NEMATODE CONTROL

The major nematode pests of peanuts in Florida are
the peanut root-knot, root lesion and ring nematodes.
The peanut root-knot nematode causes large galls or
knots on pegs, pods, and roots. When present in heavy
numbers it causes severe losses in peanut yields.
Damage incited by the root-lesion nematode is
generally limited to causing brown lesions on the
peanut hulls. The root-lesion and ring nematode








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affect the peanut quality without causing marked
reductions in yields.
Control by Chemicals-Row application with
DBCP (Fumazone, Nemagon, or Oxy BBC), is
the general practice used in treating peanut fields. In
fields heavily infested with the peanut root-knot
nematode, apply these materials overall or with two
chisels per row. If two chisels are used, apply at the
same rate as for one chisel per row. Space the two
chisels 8-10 inches apart. See Table 3 for recommen-
dations.

TABLE 3. Recommended Nematicides for Peanuts.
Overall' Row
Fl. oz./chisel
Fl. oz./chisel per 1000 linear
per 1000 Gal./AcreS ft. (any
Nematicide2 Gal./Acre linear feet (36" Row) row spacing)
D-D
Vidden D 20-25 59-73 8-10 73-90
Dowfume W-854
Soilbrom 854 3.0-4.5 8.8-13 1.0-1.5 8.8-13
Fumazone 86 or 86E4
Nemagon 12.1C
or 12.1EC4
Oxy BBC 124
Oxy BBC 12E4 1.5-2.0 4.4-6.0 0.75 7.0
Nemagon 8.6EC4 2.0-3.0 5.9-8.8 1.0 8.8
Telone 15-20 43-59 6-8 53-73
Terr-o-cide 155 3-5 26-44

'The overall rate per acre listed below is based on 12-inch chisel
spacing.
2D-D, Vidden D, Dowfume W-85, Soilbrom-85, Telone and Terro-o-cide
15 should be used as preplant soil fumigants. They can be applied
overall, or in the row 2-3 weeks before planting with any of the com-
mon soil chisel injectors.
Fumazone, Nemagon and BBC can be applied overall, or in the
row, before or at planting.
'The rates listed below are given as a guide to determine total amount
of chemical needed for a field. Closer row spacing will require more
chemical per acre; wider row spacing, less.
4Do not feed, sell, or introduce into commerce hay or hulls taken from
treated soil. Forage crops grown on treated soil should not be used 2
years after row treatment or 3 years after overall treatment.
'Apply 6-8 inches below the soil surface. Seal by listing 8-10 inch high
peaked beds over the chisel marks with disk hillers. After 2 weeks.
knock the peaked beds down and plant directly over the treated strips.

APPLICATION OF GYPSUM

If the calcium level in the soil was found by test to
be inadequate and lime was not applied or was applied
but not thoroughly mixed with the top soil, or if the
variety is of the Virginia type, apply agricultural
gypsum (landplaster) over the entire potential peg-
ging zone after the plants begin to bloom freely.
Rate of application of the gypsum should be 600 to
1000 pounds per acre for Virginia type peanuts and
400 to 600 pounds per acre for other types.





Research on soluble calcium sources to replace
gypsum has not been sufficiently conclusive to
warrant a general recommendation for their use. Trial
applications should be made on only a portion of the
acreage where soil calcium levels are above minimum
requirements.

IRRIGATION

Irrigation of peanuts has given favorable results in
most cases where good weed control and cultural
practices were followed. More yield increase has been
reported where peanuts were on light sandy soils.
Yield increases from 9%-70% have been experienced
through University of Georgia and Florida field trials.
One-half to three-fourths inch of water applied just
before planting has proven to be very effective in
producing good stands. During the growing season in
Florida, peanuts will require from four to eight inches
of supplemental irrigation each year for optimum
production. Growers who irrigate once or twice each
year at random frequencies may not experience a sig-
nificant increase in yield.
Herbicides are more effective when used in com-
bination with a well-timed irrigation program.
Where limited water supplies or facilities are not
available for full-season irrigation, growers should
time irrigation for the main fruiting period. Late
season irrigation on Spanish, where pods have reached
near maturity, may result in pod splitting. This tend-
ency is especially true where pods have stopped
growth prior to applying water.
Usually, irrigation commenced at 50% moisture
depletion during the peak growing season will result
in maximum yield. This will require one application
every 4-5 days on light sandy soils, and every 6-8 days
on heavier soils. One inch per application should be
sufficient for light sandy soils whereas 1.5 inches may
be necessary for heavy soils.
Systems considered suitable for peanut irrigation
are center pivot, traveling guns and portable pipe.
Initial costs of these systems will be in the neigh-
borhood of $175 to $250 per acre. Variable costs will be
between $1.25 and $2.50 per acre-inch. Considering
both variable and fixed costs, the total cost, on an
annual basis, for six applications should be
approximately $30.00 per acre.





GROWTH REGULATORS


In 1972, a chemical that will prevent excessive vine
growth was cleared for use on peanuts. Application of
this chemical, Kylar, will cause internodes to be
shorter, but the number of leaves will not be reduced.
Fungicide and insecticide applications should be more
effective with the more compact plants. Ground
equipment for applying chemicals can be used later in
the season without damaging the vines. It will be
easier to keep tractor tires in the middles during har-
vest because the central stem of plant is prominent.
There are indications that treated plants have
increased drought-tolerance.
Kylar is applied broadcast at the rate of one pound
per acre when the vines begin to meet in the middles.
The plants should be in an active growing condition at
the time of application. Kylar should not be applied
to wilted plants. Treated plants will become darker
green in color a few days after application. If condi-
tions warrant, a second application of 1/2 pound per
acre may be made up to 30 days prior to harvest.

DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAM

Seed decay and seedling blight
1. Use a crop rotation plan that excludes peanuts,
soybeans and other non-grass crops in the previous 3-4
years. 2. Deep plow crop residues at least 6 inches. 3.
Avoid deep planting if soil moisture near the surface is
adequate. 4. Use a seed treatment fungicide such as:
thiram (Arasan 50, Arasan 75), captan-botran (Ortho
Orthocide-Botran), difolitan-botran (Ortho Difoli-
tan-Botran) or maneb-captan (Granox PFM or
Granox PF).
Root rots, stem rots, peg rots and pod rots
Use those methods recommended for control of
seedling diseases, nematode control, insect control and
leaf spot control. Rot diseases of peanuts are complex
and thus they require more than one control measure.
Leaf spot and rust control
Fungicide usage may be interpreted by many to be
the only control measure for leaf spot but in actuality
those controls for seedling blights and rots also aid in
control of peanut leaf spot. See Table 4 for effective
fungicides. Sprays are more effective than dusts.

INSECT CONTROL

Peanuts are attacked by a wide variety of insect





and mite pests. Since infestations vary seasonally
from one location to another, it is very important to
check fields and apply control measures only when
they are actually needed.
The most important insects on peanuts in Florida
are cutworms, foliage caterpillars armywormss, corn
earworms) and lesser cornstalk borers. Other pests
that have been problems are wireworms, white grubs,
white fringed beetles, leafhoppers, thrips and spider
mites.
The accompanying chart (Table 5) lists current
pest control recommendations. Sprays should be
applied in enough water to obtain thorough, uniform
coverage. Nozzles, booms, hoses, strainers and tanks
should receive frequent attention to insure proper
operation. Calibrate and recheck sprayers regularly
.since calibration can change with equipment wear.
Always read the label and follow precautions and
limitations related to the pesticide in use. Store all
pesticides in their original labeled container away
from food, feed, livestock, and children.


HARVESTING

With average days to maturity for the variety as a
guide, inspect each field to determine the stage of
development of the nuts. Pull several plants from
different parts of the field, pick off all pods, break pods
open and determine the percentage of hull insides
turning dark for Spanish varieties and the percentage
with a deep pink seedcoat color the Runner varieties
and Florigiant. Delay digging until 80 percent (4 out
of 5) of the Spanish hulls are turning dark on the
inside and until two thirds (2 out of 3) of the kernels of
the Runner varieties or Florigiant are deep pink color.
When using kernel color to determine time to harvest
Runner peanuts, remember that kernels of the
Florunner variety have a lighter color than those of
the Early Runner variety. For Florigiant, check the
condition of the pods stems frequently as maturity
approaches; if examination shows a weakening of pod
stems, dig soon regardless of the percentages of ker-
nels showing pink color.
Vine Clipping-Use a rotary or flail type cutter with
sharp blades to clip foliage, preferably 3 to 4 days
before digging. Do not clip excessively, but only the
top 1/3 of Spanish and top 1/2 of other types.








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TABLE 5. Recommendations for Peanut Insect Control1.


White Grubs
Wireworms


Thrips


20 lbs. of 10% parathion G or
equivalent spray. Broadcast on soil
surface and mix into top 3-4 inches
immediately. Apply 2 weeks before /
planting.
Systemic insecticides can be afplteS
in the row at planting. 4-7 lbs.4f
15% Di-Syston or 10% Thimet'G
or equivalent liquid. Apply gran-
ules in row with seed at planting
time. When using liquid, apply 1-2
inches to the side of the seed.
Lower rates for light soils.


Cutworms 15-20 lbs. 5% Dylox Bait
15-20 lbs. 10%Sevin D
1 1/4 lbs. 80% Sevin WP
14 lbs. 14% Diazinon G apply
granules in 16-18 inch band over
the row.
White-Fringed Chlordane Broadcast 5 lbs.
Beetle Actual/Acre or Row 1-2 lbs.
Actual/Acre.
Broadcast when preparing soil for
planting and work immediately in-
to upper 3-4 inches, or apply alone
or mixed with fertilizer in row at
time of planting.
Lesser Cornstalk 20 lbs. 10% parathion granules in
Borer a 16 to 18 inch band over the row.
Make close observation for infesta-
tions from early July to harvest.
Thrips, 20 lbs. 5% Sevin D
Leafhoppers 1 lb. 80% Sevin WP
1 pt. toxaphene 8 EC
1/2 pt. parathion 4 EC
Do not feed toxaphene treated
vines to dairy animals or animals
being finished for slaughter.
Foliage Caterpillars 1/2 1 lb. 90% Lannate WP
(Armyworms, 15-20 lbs. 10% Sevin D
corn earworms 1 1 1/4 lbs. 80% Sevin WP
Velvetbean 1 pt. toxaphene 8 EC
caterpillars) 20 lbs. 5% Dylox B
Do not apply Lannate more than
3 times per season or within 14
days of digging. Do not feed Lan.
nate treated vines to livestock.
Aphids 15-20 Ibs. 5% malathion D
1 1 1/2 pts. malathion 5 EC
1/2-3/4 pts. parathion 4 EC
1/4-1/2 lb. 90% Lannate WP
Do not apply malathion within 30
days of harvest.

'D=dust, EC=emulsifiable concentrate, WP=wettable powder B=
bait, G=granules.
Rates are expressed as amounts of the formulated material per acre
unless otherwise specified.


Digging-Sharp, rigid blades with a very slight pitch
provide optimum cutting action when set to cut
taproot just below the pods. Travel at sufficient speed





to produce a "flow" of soil and vines over digger blades
and through shaker. Excessive speeds may strip pods
from stems, whereas, too slow speeds may not allow
soil to flow properly.
Shaking-An aggressive shaking action is desirable
for separating soil from pods and roots. Carefully
regulate forward speed of shaker and rattler bar speed
to lift peanuts gently from the soil. Rattler bar teeth
should "comb" the soil penetrating only as required to
lift the vines. Windrowing rods should be adjusted to
form a uniform, fluffy, well aerated window with no
vines remaining in wheel middles.
Inverting windows has little effect on drying rate
during ideal weather conditions but definitely aids
drying during poor drying conditions. Re-shaking the
inverted window may be advisable where excessive
soil clings to vines and stems but the percentage of
pods in contact with soil will be increased. Prolonged
exposure during hot, dry periods may result in over-
drying of pods in contact with hot, dry soil in full
sunlight.
Use a low shaker with very gentle action and exer-
cise extreme care in re-shaking large-seed varieties.
Combining-combine efficiency depends upon
several variables including window conditions
cylinder speed, forward travel speed, interval adjust-
ments, and special modifications required for
handling large-seeded peanuts. Impact and
mechanical injury during harvest is largely associated
with the separation process.
Machine adjustments such as cylinder speeds
should be set within manufacturers recommendations
as given in the instruction manual. Adjustments must
be made as window moisture and picking conditions
change within a field. Operate at the lowest cylinder
speed that gives good pod separations. A better
measure of combining efficiency is evidenced by
quality of the peanuts coming into the bin rather than
the amounts harvested in a given time. Excessive
speed can be the enemy of peanut quality. Fast mov-
ing combine parts may damage a high percentage of
hulls and kernels. Both visible and non-visible
damage opens the door to insect and mold infesta-
tions.
CURING
Peanuts must be properly cured if desirable flavor,
texture, germination and over-all quality are to be
maintained.





Moisture reduction is the major consideration in
peanut curing and may be accomplished by natural
window drying or by artificial drying in a
mechanically controlled environment.
Drying methods-Natural window drying may be
done without adversely affecting peanut quality
provided natural climatic conditions are favorable.
Mild temperatures, relatively dry, free-moving air
without rain for five to ten days constitute favorable
natural drying conditions. Too often these conditions
do not occur in combination or for sufficient time to
allow adequate natural drying without weather
damage.
Mechanical drying offers definite advantages in
providing a controlled environment for the peanuts
during the drying period. This drying method is based
on removing free water and much of the original hull
moisture by limited window curing. Peanuts are
allowed to remain in the window one to three days
after digging or until kernels will "rattle" within the
hull. Peanuts from an inverted window have a much
more uniform moisture content, which is an aid in
cured nut quality. Moisture content of the kernels will
range from 18%-24%. Under these moisture conditions,
peanuts will withstand more handling with less im-
pact damage than when very green or very dry.
"Semi-dry" peanuts should be cleaned before drying
when foreign material is excessive. Drying should be
started immediately after combining by providing
adequate forced air to provide approximately 50 cubic
feet per minute per square foot of drying floor area.
Limit the depth of peanuts to four feet or less in the
drying bin. Uniform depth and distribution of peanuts
within the drying bin are important for even flow of
drying air and uniform drying. Air velocity through
any opening in the duct system should be limited to
1000 fpm.
Control rate and amount of moisture removal by
choice of temperature rise needed under the prevailing
natural air conditions. High temperature and low
relative humidity will dry too rapidly and may result
in over drying. Natural air at relatively low tempera-
tures (60'-100 F.) and depth of peanuts (four feet or
less) are critical factors. Reversible air flow at the
above temperature has given excellent drying result-
ing in a more uniform final kernel moisture.
Managing the drying system-Quality control is
dependent upon frequent moisture checks as peanut





kernels approach the 12% level. Under average clima-
tic conditions, heat may be cut off when peanuts reach
9 1/2% to 10% moisture. Drying will continue as a
coasting effect and will lower the moisture 1% to 1
1/2% below cutoff point. This effect is due to unequal
moisture levels between the hulls and kernels. Do not
allow average moisture content to go below 8.5% for
any lot with no portion of the lot containing less than
7% moisture nor more than 10% moisture. Do not
allow unheated air having less than 55% relative
humidity to pass through.peanuts at night.
Drying green peanuts-If peanuts must be placed on
the dryer green or wet, more air flow per unit of time is
necessary to prevent mold.
Drier Safety-Safety controls may be improved by
implementing a purge cycle prior to and at the end of
each burner operation. The purge cycle should reduce
the fire and exposure hazards when operating a dryer.
Adhere to standards of distance between dryer and
L.P. gas tanks. Anchor burner and fan units securely
and use flexible connectors for fuel lines to prevent
leakage of the fuel supply.

STORAGE

Storage facilities for peanuts should be
weatherproof and free from insect and disease bearing
litter. Bins should have provisions to control air cir-
culation and prevent condensation. Provide adequate
air space between surface of stored peanuts and roof
or ceiling of the building. Avoid storage of seed
peanuts in buildings where temperatures may become
too high. Buildings having exposed sheet iron roof or
side walls may reach excessive temperatures during
fall months where no aeration is provided.
Check and follow carefully latest recommendations
as to amount and kind of insecticides to use on stored
nuts. This is extremely important.
Machinery and handling methods must be carefully
planned to maintain quality peanuts. Use belt type
conveyors and elevators whenever possible. The auger
and chain-cleat types may crush pods and divide ker-
nels which invite insect infestation and lower both
grade and germination. If pneumatic conveyors are
used, they should be constructed to prevent cracking
of pods and kernels by impact. Sharp turns in con-
veyor ducts must be avoided and air speed must be
carefully controlled.
When necessary to walk over the surface of stored






peanuts, provide boards as walkways. Boards prevent
crushing and cracking damage to nuts which also in-
vites insect infestation. Remove peanuts from bins by
gravity flow when possible; otherwise, exercise care
not to damage nuts in handling.


This public document was promulgated at an
annual cost of $851.00, or $.085 per copy to in-
form Florida farmers on latest research recom-
mendations for peanut production.


Use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of
products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of
others of suitable composition.

This guide was prepared by E. B. Whitty, Associate Agronomist;
W. L. Currey, Assistant Agronomist; T. C. Skinner, Agricultural
Engineer; D. S. Harrison, Agricultural Engineer; R. P. Cromwell,
Assistant Agricultural Engineer; J. R. Strayer; Associate En-
tomologist; T. A. Kucharek, Assistant Plant Pathologist; and D. W.
Dickson, Assistant Nematologist.
January 1973
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
and
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
Joe N. Busby, Dean
19




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