University of Florida,
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Anthracnose.-Copper-3 pounds of 53% in- ana maatnmon austs.
soluble copper in 100 gallons water, plus spreader- The insecticides and fungicides recon
sticker. This disease occurs in rainy seasons, so may be applied in combination or separ,
weekly or more frequent applications are neces- sprays or dusts.
sary. Caution.-Apply only when plants arn
Spray: Dust: prevent injury to leaves. Do not use DD'
(Amt. in 100 gals. water) (30-40 lbs. per A.) dane, aldrin or heptachlor during harvest
Leaf Spots Captan 50% 2 lbs. or 6.5% parathion or malathion, when needed, imir
Zineb 65% 2 lbs. or 6.5% after picking. A waiting period of 3 dE
Nabam 19% 2 qts. + % lb. parathion before harvesting again and 1 (
zinc sulfate ..... malathion is necessary. Captan may be
In the nursery, captain is not recommended. during harvest with no waiting period. I
Copper as recommended for anthracnose control tional safety precautions, tolerances, n
will give good leaf spot control, days between last application and harve.
Plants produced free of leaf spot in nursery to Extension Circular 193.
reduces incidence on the fruiting plants.
Rhizoctonia Bud Rot.-A single application of NEMATODE CONTROL
PCNB (Terraclor) 75%, 10 pounds in 100 gallons
water and 300 gallons of spray per acre. Spray Use nematocides only where nemato(
the soil surface and work it in 1 to 2 inches before lems are limiting crop production. The si
transplanting, or apply as a directed spray (to gants can be applied broadcast before
avoid hitting plants) onto the soil after trans- The material is placed in bands 12 inch
planting just prior to applying plastic mulch. and 6 inches deep, resulting in all the c
Frequent shallow cultivations to keep soil surface being treated. Another method is called
dry will also reduce incidence of this disease. row" treatment. In this method, the mE
applied in 1 or 2 bands, 6-inches deep in
Insects Spray Dust during or following bedding. The rates sl
Pameras DDT 50% 2 1bs. or 5% "in-the-row" application are calculated foi
Parathion 15% wp 1-11/ lbs. or 1-2%
Malathion 25%b 4 lbs. 5% single-row beds or 48-inch two-row bed
Flower thrips Parathion 15% wp 1-11/2 lbs. 1-2% portional rates for wider or narrower be
Lesser corn Chlordane 40% wp 2% lbs. or 5% be calculated.
stalk borer, DDT 50% 2 lbs. or 5% Amt. per 100
Field Crickets Parathion 15% wp 1-11 lbs. 1-2% Type of Bed Material Ft. of Row
Flea beetles and DDT 50% 2 lbs. or 5% Single row
leaf rollers Parathion 15% wp 1-1'/ lbs. 1-2% (36") ...... DD or Telone ...... % to % pt. 8
Spider mites Kelthane 18%% wp 1-2 lbs. or 2% EDB (40%) ........ to % pt. 7
(red spiders) Parathion 15% wp 1-1/ lbs. or 1-2% SMDC (vapam,
Malathion 25% 4 lbs. 5% vpm) ............1 pt. 18
Mole crickets Chlordane 4 lbs. actual/acre Double ro D
applied evenly over the soil (48") ........ DD or Telone ...... Y to % pt. 12
surface before transplanting. Two bands
After plants are set, use a 12" apart .. EDB (40%) ........ % to % pt. 10
bait as for cutworms, or SMDC (vapam,
Aldrin 2 lbs. actual/acre vpm) ................ 1 pt. 27
Wireworms Chlordane 4 lbs. actual/acre
applied evenly over the soil Fumigants must be applied when soil 1
and disked in to 6-inch depth level is optimum for transplanting. In (
2 to 3 weeks before transplant- soils the fumigant will not distribute thr(
ing. These materials mixed in soil nor escape rapidly enough and ma:
fertilizers and applied in bandsants. In dry soil the fumigant
are less effective than when ap- transplants. In dry soil the fumigant
plied by the above method, or very rapidly and does not penetrate
Aldrin 3 lbs. actual/acre, or nematodes.
Heptachlor 3 lbs. actual/acre. Apply the fumigants 6 to 8 inches d
Cutworms Chlordane wp 40% 2% lbs. 5% seal the surface of the soil by dragging
Distribute dust or spray evenly over soil sur- or light overhead irrigation. Opening t
face. Moisten baits (2% chlordane) and apply after 2 weeks may be necessary under co<
in late afternoon. conditions to allow gas to escape.
Wiregrass or pine needle cover has been used
for many years and is applied around the plants
at blooming time to keep berries clean and to
Recently black plastic mulch has proven to be
superior. Some of its advantages are: (1) more
vigorous plant growth; (2) high yield of fruit;
(3) earlier ripening of fruit; (4) reduction of soil
rot; (5) elimination of hoeing; (6) more constant
moisture in the bed; (7) prevents leaching of
fertilizer out of bed; (8) prevents washing down
of beds; and (9) less fruit cracking during wet
APPLICATION OF PLASTIC
Test soil, apply lime and fumigate as recom-
mended, then apply 4-8-8 fertilizer broadcast at
the rate of 800 to 1,000 pounds per acre. Broad-
cast and disk in top 6 inches just prior to bedding.
Prepare beds as recommended before, or wait and
apply fertilizer in 2 bands, 3 to 4 inches apart
and 3 to 4 inches deep in the bed at the rate of
1,200 to 1,600 pounds of 4-8-8 per acre.
Set plants 12 inches apart in the row and 12
inches between rows on double row beds. Apply
plastic as soon after setting as possible to elimi-
nate all hoeing. Either 1 or 11/ mil black plastic
may be used in 3 or 4-foot widths, depending on
The plastic can be laid by machine by making
an attachment to fit the cultivator drawbar on
most farm tractors with 1 hilling disk mounted
behind on each side of the row to cover the edges
of the plastic with soil. This plastic may be used
on single, double or four-row beds. It comes in
widths of 3, 4, 6 or more feet and in rolls 500 to
1,000 feet in length.
Caution.-Slit and pull plants immediately after
laying plastic to prevent heat injury to plants.
Slit plastic with a short blade such as a corner
of a razor blade mounted on a handle. A longer
blade may cut plants. Make slit without tearing
HARVESTING AND HANDLING
Strawberries for shipping are harvested every
2 or 3 days. Grading and packing are usually
done on the farm under small field sheds. The
unstemmed berries are packed in pint-size con-
tainers and shipped in crates holding 24 pints.
Most of the berries are sold at daily auctions. A
small part of the strawberry crop is sold directly
to processors. Berries harvested for processing
are stemmed and sold by the pound.
Loss from fruit rots in transit and storage can
be significantly reduced by proper care in harvest-
ing and handling. Berries should be picked dur-
ing the early morning hours and on a regular
schedule to avoid harvesting over-ripe fruit. Ber-
ries must be handled carefully in picking, grading,
packing and shipping. Immediately after crating,
pre-cool berries to about 400F. and refrigerate
them (400F. or slightly lower) until consumed.
CHEMICAL FRUIT ROT CONTROLS
Spraying or dusting with captain throughout
the season as recommended under leaf spot con-
trol will reduce the incidence of fruit rots. A
new material, DHA-S, sold under the trade name
of Harvin,* is also recommended to control fruit
rots. Use it as a dip treatment after harvest at
the rate of 11/2 gallons of 10% DHA-S in 25
gallons water. Immerse packed crate in the solu-
tion and allow to stand for 30 seconds, then re-
move and allow to drip dry. Do not rinse. The
chemical has Food and Drug Administration clear-
ance for use on strawberries.
PROPAGATING RUNNER PLANTS
In March or April select large, vigorous mother
plants or runners from producing fields and trans-
plant to propagating beds. Periodically obtain
virus-free plants for propagating runners. Set
plants 18 to 24 inches apart in single-row beds
(4-5 ft. wide).
Fertilization and control of insects and diseases
is the same as for producing fields. Use broad-
cast method for nematode control. Use only the
largest and most vigorous runner plants for plant-
ing for berry production.
Production practices may change rapidly as
research develops new solutions for old problems.
Experienced growers may find it desirable to
modify certain of the suggested practices for their
Additional information is available in Univer-
sity of Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Circular 193 and USDA Farmers Bulletins 1026,
1043 and 1891. For available publications and
further details on local problems, contact your
County Agricultural Agent of the University of
Florida Agricultural Extension Service.
Use of trade names does not constitute endorsement
of that brand over others containing the same active in-