Group Title: Circular
Title: Field corn production guide
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084405/00001
 Material Information
Title: Field corn production guide
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 12 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Henderson, J. R
Jones, D. W
Strayer, John
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1966
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by J.R. Henderson and D.W. Jones in cooperation with J.R. Strayer.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January, 1966."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084405
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 83697569

Full Text
January, 1966 Circular 144C


FIELD CORN

PRODUCTION GUIDE












O' INCREASE EFFICIENCY IN
CORN 0 PRODUCTION:
S1. Have sof tesied.
2. Apply recommended kind and amount of lime.
stone.
3. Prepare a good seedbed.
4. Use good seed of :hybrids that produce high
ye.lds and .re wall-suited to the one and for
t* i be madjmeof the .rop.
Plant duri edpntin es for te area,
at times when temperature:. end il moisture
conditions ar favorable for germination and
growth.
6. Base spacing of plante on the lnhereit ability
of the soil to retain aend supply moisture du.r-i..
ing the growing seasonm.i
7. Fertilise on basis of plant population and soil

I i a dBiltw.~ cultirat*on and lay by when
plrat tsore 2'"2 feet high.
9. Avoid contamination of harvested .grain by
seed of poisonous species of crotalaria.
0. Store -rvested grain it clean, at-prooFbein.
and fm mi~f te ti control weevils.
t-' i lt'ral. Ex teuais Service
: universityy of Florida
Gaineaville, Florida


.kc',,l i .. _...-.-.'.. ;*.i..







FIELD CORN PRODUCTION
From the standpoint of acreage corn is the
most important field crop grown in Florida. Ap-
proximately 500,000 acres are planted each year.
Most of the crop is grown in the area north and
west of Ocala, but some field corn is grown in
almost every county. About 80 percent of the
crop is harvested for grain and about 18 percent
is hogged-off. A small acreage is cut for silage.
Most of the field corn acreage is planted on
mineral soils, but a fairly large acreage is grown
on organic soils, mainly in Marion and Palm
Beach counties. The mineral soils used for pro-
duction of corn vary considerably in texture,
organic matter content and drainage and, conse-
quently, in their abilities to retain and supply soil
moisture to the growing crop. In many cases, low
fertility is a limiting factor in corn production.
Results of research show that corn yields in
Florida can be improved economically by planting
good seed of adapted hybrids, application of ade-
quate quantities of needed plant nutrients, and
spacing plants in accordance with the fertility of
the soil and its ability to supply moisture during
the growing season.
Wider use of improved corn production prac-
tices by Florida farmers during recent years has
resulted in substantial increases in average yield
per acre. For instance, the average yield for the
9-year period 1957-1965 was almost twice that
for the preceding 9-year period 1948-1956, and the
average yield in 1965 was almost 41/ times that
for 1948.
Much of the gain resulting from the use o
improved production practices is nullified by fail
ure to control rats and weevils, which every yea
destroy a high percentage of the grain stored o
Florida farms. Rat-proof storage facilities an
proper use of fumigants for the control of weevil
will protect the money and labor invested in th
crop and permit marketing to better advantage.
LIMING
In early fall if a winter cover crop is to b
planted, or during winter if the soil is to be lef
bare until corn planting time, have soil test
shred crop residues, broadcast the recommended
kind and amount of limestone, and disk land t
incorporate lime and crop residues.








VARIETIES
A. Central, northeastern, and northwestern Florida: *
1. Late hybrids for cribbing, making silage or hogging-
off:
a. Yellow: Florida 200A; Florida 200; Dixie 18;
Greenwood 18; Greenwood 471; Coker 67; Coker
71; Coker 74; Funk G-745A; Funk G-4949.
b. White: Coker 811A; 811.
2. Medium late hybrids for combining early, making
silage, or hogging-off early:
a. Yellow: Pioneer 309B; McNair 444; Funk G-732;
Coker 52.
b. White: Funk G-795W.
3. Medium early hybrids for combining early, making
silage, or hogging-off early:
a. Yellow: Funk G-707; McNair 6302; Pioneer 310;
Coker 15.
b. White: None.
4. Early hybrids for combining early, making silage,
or hogging-off early:
a. Yellow: Funk G-144; DeKalb 805; Asgrow 200;
Coker 12.
b. White: None.
B. Southern Florida*
1. Late hybrids for cribbing, making silage, or hog-
ging-off:
a. Yellow: Poey T-63; Poey T-66; Corneli 54; Funk
G-745.
b. White: Poey T-23; Rocamex H-507; Rocamex
H-504; Rocamex H-503; Rocamex H-501.
For the purpose of these recommendations, the boundary between
central and southern Florida is a line extending eastward from the
southwest corner of Hillsborough County to Vero Beach.
Since its release in 1948, Dixie 18 has been the
standard late hybrid for central, northeastern and
northwestern Florida. It produces high yields,
stands up well and has good weevil resistance.
Each of the other late hybrids recommended for
those areas is as good or nearly as good as Dixie
18 in one or more of these characteristics, as may
be noted from the following summary of field corn
variety tests at six locations in northern Florida
in 1965.
Erect Weevily Ear
Yield Plants Ears Height
Hybrid (Bus./A.) (%) (%) (Feet)
Florida 200A 80.0 87 37 3.9
Coker 67 78.3 89 45 3.5
Dixie 18 78.2 85 32 4.1
Florida 200 78.2 80 39 4.1
Funk G-745A 76.3 89 54 3.5
Greenwood 18 76.3 83 30 4.1
Funk G-4949 75.5 96 50 3.1
Coker 71 75.2 83 33 3.5
Greenwood 471 74.7 82 32 3.6
Coker 811A 74.2 92 27 3.1
Coker 74* 74.0 94 25 2.7
Coker 811 67.2 84 32 3.3
Data not directly comparable with that for other hybrids.







The medium-late, medium-early, and early hy-
brids recommended for combining early, making
silage or hogging-off early are listed in approx-
imate order of rank in limited variety tests. Under
most conditions only a few of these hybrids yield
as well as the recommended late hybrids. Because
of lower yields and higher susceptibility to dam-
age by insects and ear-rot organisms, the acreage
planted to these hybrids for hogging-off should
not be larger than that required to supply feed
until the long-season hybrids are ready for use.
The hybrids recommended for southern Florida
are those that have performed best in variety
tests at the Everglades Experiment Station.

PLANTING DATES
Plant during the planting season recommended
for the area, at times when temperature and soil
moisture conditions are favorable for germination
and growth. Recommended planting dates, by
areas, are:
Southern Florida .--------- Feb. 1 to Mar. 20
Central Florida .---- Feb. 10. to April 1
Northeastern Florida ---- Feb. 20 to April 10
Northwestern Florida _---- Mar. 1 to April 20
To reduce the hazards of unfavorable weather,
make plantings on different dates within the
planting season recommended for the area.

SPACING AND FERTILIZATION
Base spacing of plants on the inherent ability
of the soil to retain and supply moisture during
the growing season and base fertilization prac-
tices on the spacing of plants and the nutrient
levels in the soil. Spacing and fertilization recom-
mendations for different kinds of soil and under
various related conditions are presented in Tables
1, 2 and 3.
Additional information, for use in interpreting
and applying the recommendations, follows.
Soils.-The mineral soils used for corn produc-
tion in Florida are grouped, on the basis of mois-
ture capacity, as follows:
1. Soils with very low moisture capacity:
a. Well drained deep sands with sandy clay or clay
subsoils absent or at depths below 30 inches.
2. Soils with low moisture capacity:
a. Well drained loamy sands with sandy clay or clay
subsoils at depths more than 30 inches.







b. Well drained sands with sandy clay or clay subsoils
within 30 inches of the surface.
3. Soils with medium moisture capacity:
a. Well drained loamy sands with sandy clay or clay
subsoils within 30 inches of the surface.
b. Well drained sandy loams on sloping relief with
sandy clay or clay subsoils within 30 inches of the
surface.
c. Light gray to gray imperfectly to poorly drained
sands, with water control where needed.
4. Soils with high moisture capacity:
a. Well drained sandy loams on flat relief with clay
subsoils within 12 inches of the surface.
b. Light to gray imperfectly to poorly drained loamy
sands and sandy loams and dark gray to black im-
perfectly to poorly drained soils, with water control
where needed.

Fertilization at Planting.-For plant popula-
ions above 6,223 apply three fourths of the fer-
ilizer broadcast and plow it under or disk it in
just ahead of planting, and place the remainder
n continuous bands 2 to 3 inches to either or both
ides of seed row and 1 to 2 inches below the level
f the seed during the planting operation. For
lant populations below 6,223, on soils with very
ow moisture capacity, place all of the fertilizer
n bands during the planting operation.
Fertilization at planting time may not be neces-
ary if the immediately preceding crop was a
heavilyy fertilized vegetable.
Side-Dressing.-The side-dressing material, ex-
ept in the case of anhydrous ammonia, should be
applied 5 to 7 weeks after planting, just prior to
r at the last cultivation. Anhydrous ammonia
should be applied just after planting or at the
rst cultivation.
The nitrogen side-dressing may be reduced to
alf the recommended amount where corn follows
good growth of a winter legume.
Where corn on mineral soils follows a heavily
rtilized vegetable crop and no fertilizer is ap-
ied at planting time, 15-0-15, 20-0-10 or similar
rtilizer should be used as the source of the
trogen applied as a side-dressing.
The appropriate amounts of various nitrogen
materials required to supply 20 pounds of nitro-
n are: anhydrous ammonia, 25; ammonium
trate, 60; ammonium nitrate-limestone, 98; am-
onium nitrate solution, 96; ammonium nitrate-
'ea solution, 63; nitrate of soda, 125; sulfate of
monia, 98; and urea, 45.








TABLE 1-RECOMMENDED SPACINGS AND RA'
ON DIFFER


Kind of Soil Plants
and per
Acre 3
Related Conditions (Number)

4,976
Mineral Soils to
Very low moisture capacity 6,223

6,223
Low moisture capacity to
8,297

8,297
Medium moisture capacity to
9,957

9,957
High moisture capacity to
12,446

12,446
Organic Soils to
16,594

* Specific recommendations as to grades and amounts of mixed fertili
2 and 3, respectively.


TABLE 2.-RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FE
Rates of Applicatio
4,976 to 6,223
Plants per Acre
Grade of Mixed Nitrogen
Mixed Fert. at As Side-
Fertilizer* Planting Dressing


Soil-Test Results
Phosphorus Potash
Low
Low
High

Low
High
High


Texture of Surface Soil
Sand or Light
Loamy Sand

Heavy Loamy Sand
or Sandy Loam


A. On Basis of Soil-Test Resu


4-12-12 300-400 36-48
4-12-8 300-400 36-48

5-10-15 240-320 36-48
6-12-12 200-267 36-48
B. Without Benefit of Soil-T


5-10-15 240-320 36-48

4-12-12 300-400 36-48


* If "whitebud" is known to occur, the fertilizer should contain sul
For different rates of application of mixed fertilizer, the percent
pounds, 1.0%; 400 pounds, 0.76%; 500 pounds, 0.6%; 600 pounds, 0
** Other grades of mixed fertilizer of the same ratio may be substi








OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION FOR FIELD CORN
KINDS OF SOIL

Spacing in Rows Rate of Nitrogen Application
Spacing in Rows
In Mixed Ferti- As Side-
b Apart 3% Feet Apart lizer at Planting* dressing
ches) (Inches) (Pounds per Acre)

35 30 12 36
to to to to
28 24 16 48

824 16 48
o to to to
!1 18 20 60

1 18 20 60
o to to to
7% 15 24 72

7% 15 24 72
o to to to
4 12 30 90

4 12 -
o to
0% 9

pply at planting on mineral soils and on organic soils are presented in Tables



NATION OF FIELD CORN ON MINERAL SOILS*
ds Per Acre
23 to 8,297 8,297 to 9,957 9,957 to 12,446
ats per Acre Plants per Acre Plants per Acre
!d Nitrogen Mixed Nitrogen Mixed Nitrogen
at As Side- Fert. at As Side- Fert. at As Side-
ing Dressing Planting Dressing Planting Dressing




00 48-60 500-600 60-72 600-750 72-90
00 48-60 500-600 60-72 600-750 72-90

00 48-60 400-480 60-72 480-600 72-90
33 48-60 333-400 60-72 400-500 72-90
ts


00 48-60 400-480 60-72 480-600 72-90

00 48-60 500-600 60-72 600-750 72-90

sulfate to supply approximately three pounds of zinc oxide (ZnO) per acre.
oxide required to supply three pounds per acre are: 200 pounds, 1.5%; 300
50 pounds, 0.4%.
e basis of equivalent quantities of nutrients.








TABLE. 3.-RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FERTILIZA-
TION OF FIELD CORN ON ORGANIC SOILS*

Mixed Fertilizer at Planting
Grade** Pounds per Acre

A. On Basis of Soil-Test Results
Soil-Test Results
Phosphorus Potash


Low


High


Low
High

Low
High


0-12-12
0-15-10

0-12-18
0-12-12


B. Without Benefit of Soil-Test Results

No. of Years
in Cultivation
0- 8-24 51
0 or o
0-10-20 6(
0-10-20 41
1 or o
0-12-18 5(


2 or more


0-12-18
or
0-14-14


* Fertilizer should contain sufficient quantities of the appropriate
carriers to supply minor elements at the following rates, in pounds
per acre:
On land that has not been cropped previously: Copper
oxide (CuO), 15; manganese oxide (MnO), 10; zinc oxide
(ZnO), 5; and borix oxide (B.O0), 3.
On land that has been cropped one or more years: Copper
oxide (CuO), 5.
** Other grades of mixed fertilizer of the same ratios may be substi-
tuted on the basis of equivalent quantities of nutrients.


WEED CONTROL

To reduce or eliminate need for early cultivation
for control of weeds in the row, apply at planting
time 5/e pound of atrazine 80w per acre, in 7 to 14
gallons of water, to a 12 or 14-inch band centered
over the seed row.
For application of the atrazine, mount the
sprayer on the tractor used for planting, attach
a fan-type nozzle just behind the press-wheel of
the planter, and adjust the height of the nozzle
so that the width of the band sprayed is 12 to 14
inches.







Practice shallow cultivation, as necessary, to
control weeds until corn plants are 21/ feet high.
Then stop cultivation. Late deep cultivation
severely prunes the root system and causes a re-
duction in yield.
If volunteer stands of poisonous species of
crotalaria appear after the last cultivation, apply,
with high-clearance equipment, 1/ pound of the
amine salt of 2,4-D per acre, in 10 or more gallons
of water. Use drop nozzles, putting spray on
weeds but insofar as possible keeping it off corn
plants.
When using 2,4-D, read label carefully, follow
instructions and observe precautions. Do not
spray 2,4-D near sensitive crops-cotton, tobacco,
tomatoes, most garden vegetables, flowers and
ornamentals-unless air is calm or wind is blow-
ing away from the sensitive crops. Do not apply
insecticides or fungicides with sprayers used for
application of 2,4-D.

If grain is to be harvested mechanically, es-
pecially if it is to be combined, rogue fields before
harvesting is begun and remove, by hand or
otherwise, all remaining crotalaria plants. If this
is not practical, equip combine with scour-clean
attachment to reduce contamination of the har-
vested grain.

HARVESTING

Do not harvest grain for storage until after
t has dried thoroughly in the field, unless drying
equipmentt is available. For safe storage, the
moisture content of the grain should not be in
excess of 15 percent for ear corn or 12 percent
or shelled corn. Metal bins used for storage of
shelled corn should be equipped with a ventilation
system.

If crop is to be hogged-off, be sure grain has
reached the late dough stage before turning hogs
nto the field. To reduce wastage, use easily mov-
ble electric fences to confine herd, in succession,
small areas, each of which will be hogged-off
mpletely in not more than 3 weeks.
If the crop is to be harvested for silage, cut
while grain is in early dent stage.







CONTROL OF STORED GRAIN PESTS


Store properly dried grain in clean, rat-proof
bins that easily can be made air-tight to permit
fumigation for control of insect pests.
To reduce insect population before storing
grain, clean bins thoroughly and spray walls,
floors, and ceilings to the point of "run off" (2
gallons per 1,000 square feet) with one of the
following: 1 pint of 57 percent malathion EC
(premium grade), or 1 quart of 25 percent meth-
oxychlor EC, or 1 pound of 50 percent methoxy-
chlor WP in 3 gallons of water.
If grain is not to be fumigated apply a protect-
ant and thoroughly mix it with the grain as it is
placed in the storage bin. Use one of the follow-
ing treatments: synergized pyrethrum (0.06 per-
cent pyrethrins, 1.0 percent piperonyl butoxide)
at rate of 10 pounds per 100 bushels; malathion
dust (1 percent "premium grade" malathion in
special wheat flour diluent) at rate of 6 pounds
per 100 bushels; or malathion spray (1 pint of
57 percent "premium grade" malathion liqui
concentrate in 5 gallons of water) at rate of 1
gallon per 100 bushels.
Protective sprays and dusts applied to un
shucked corn will suppress spread of weevils fro
ear to ear, but will not control weevils within th
unshucked ears.
Fumigation kills the insects present at time o
treatment, but does not provide protection against
reinfestation. For proper fumigation, bins mus
be air-tight, and the temperature should be above
70*F. Openly constructed storage structure
should be lined with builders' paper before grai
is stored.

Immediately after filling of the storage facility
has been completed, level the surface of the grai
close tightly all floor and wall vents, apply, wit
a sprinkler can or sprayer, one of the mixture
listed below, spread a tarpaulin or plastic cov
over the surface after fumigant is applied, se
the door and attach "DANGER" sign. After
hours, open the door and vents and air the grai
thoroughly.








Gals./1,000 Cu. Ft.
of Grain
Wooden Steel
Fumigant Bins Bins
1 part carbon tetrachloride plus
3 parts ethylene dichloride 6 5
4 parts carbon tetrachloride plus
1 part carbon disulfide 5 4

These and similar mixtures(one of which is a
60-35-5 mixture of carbon tetrachloride, ethylene
dichloride and ethylene dibromide) are available
under various trade names.
Another recommended fumigant is methyl bro-
mide, at the rate of 2 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet
of grain. To apply methyl bromide, place a pan
or other receptacle on the surface of the grain at
the center of bin, put the outer end of the tubing
of the applicator in the receptacle and extend the
tubing to the outside of the bin, place an open
crate or other frame over the receptacle, spread
a plastic cover over the frame and grain surface,
seal door, release gas by use of the special appli-
cator, and attach "DANGER" sign. After 72
hours, open the door and vents and air the grain
thoroughly.
These fumigants are poisonous to man and
other warm-blooded animals. Read the label care-
fully, follow instructions and observe precautions.








CORN ACREAGES IN FLORIDA, 1963*
Planted for Harvested
All Purposes** For Grain
County (Acres) (Acres)


NORTHWESTERN FLORIDA
Calhoun 8,400
Escambia 5,200
Gadsden 27,000
Holmes 27,600
Jackson 73,000
Jefferson 20,300
Leon 13,700
Liberty 1,000
Okaloosa 9,000
Santa Rosa 19,200
Wakulla 2,300
Walton 12,700
Washington 10,700
Others (2)t 700
TOTAL 230,800


NORTHEASTERN FI
Alachua
Baker
Bradford
Columbia
Dixie
Flagler
Gilchrist
Hamilton
Lafayette
Levy
Marion
Madison
Nassau
Putnam
St. Johns
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Others (2)
TOTAL
CENTRAL FLORIDA
Hernando
Sumter
Others (10)
TOTAL


.ORIDA
26,500
3,700
2,400
21,500
1,600
1,300
15,100
24,300
7,300
12,900
10,000
35,200
1,400
2,000
2,000
56,400
1,900
4,600
700
230,800


1,100
2,100
2,850
6,050


SOUTHERN FLORIDA
Palm Beach 1,800
Others (5) 550
TOTAL 2,350
STATE TOTAL 470,000


7,600
5,000
26,300
18,700
65,000
18,800
12,200
600
7,600
17,300
1,300
9,100
8,200
500
198,200

21,400
2,300
1,200
16,600
700
1,100
7,800
20,600
4,000
7,800
5,200
29,800
900
1,500
1,600
48,200
1,400
1,900
550
174,550

500
1,400
1,350
3,250

1,600
400
2,000
378,000


* From report by Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.
County figures are not available for 1964 or 1965.
** Counties with fewer than 1,000 acres omitted.
t Figures in parenthesis indicate number of counties.
This guide was prepared by J. R. Henderson, Agj
omist, and D. W. Jones, Associate Agronomist, in
operation with J. R. Strayer, Assistant Entomologist.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
and
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director




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