Front Cover

Group Title: Circular
Title: Field corn production guide
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084404/00001
 Material Information
Title: Field corn production guide
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 16 : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Henderson, J. R
Strayer, John
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1968
Subject: Corn -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by J.R. Henderson in cooperation with J.R. Strayer.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January, 1968."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084404
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82507012

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text

F( 3 6

From the standpoint of acreage, corn is the
most important field crop grown in Florida. Ap-
proximately 500,000 acres are planted each year.
Most of the crop is grown in the area north and
west of Ocala, but some field corn is grown in al-
most every county. In 1967, about 86 percent of
the crop was harvested for grain and about 11
percent was hogged-off. A small acreage was cut
for silage.
Most of the field corn acreage is planted on
mineral soils, but a fairly large acreage is grown
on organic soils, mainly in Marion and Lake coun-
ties. The mineral soils used for production of corn
vary considerably in texture, organic matter and
drainage and, consequently, in their abilities to
retain and supply soil moisture to the growing
crop. In many cases, low fertility is a limiting
factor in corn production.
Results of research show that corn yields in
Florida can be improved economically by planting
good seed of adapted hybrids, applications of ade-
quate quantities of needed plant nurients, and
spacing plants in accordance with the fertility
of the soil and its ability to supply moisture dur-
ing the growing season.
Wider use of improved corn production practices
by Florida farmers during recent years has re-
sulted in substantial increases in average yield per
acre. For instance, the average yield for the 10-
year period 1958-1967 was more than twice that
for the preceding 10-year period 1948-1957, and
the average yield for 1967 was 5 times that for
Much of the gain resulting from the use of im-
proved production practices is nullified by failure
to control rats and weevils, which every year de-
stroy a high percentage of the grain stored on
Florida farms. Rat-proof storage facilities and
proper use of fumigants for the control of weevils
will protect the money and labor invested in the
crop and permit marketing to better advantage.

The field corn hybrids recommended for differ-
ent sections of Florida and for various uses of the
crop, listed by maturity groups and other char-
acteristics, are as follows:
A. Central, northeastern, and northwestern Florida:*
1. Late hybrids for cribbing, combining or hog-

a. Yellow: Florida 200A; Pennington 7-C-11A;
McCurdy M307; Dixie 18; Funk's G-5945;
Funk's G-4949; Greenwood 18; Greenwood
471; Greenwood 61; McNair 440-V; Coker
67; Coker 71; Coker 74; Pioneer 3009.
b. White: Coker 811A; Coker 811.
2. Medium late to medium early hybrids for com-
bining early or hogging-off early:
a. Yellow: Funk's G-5858; Pioneer 3059;
Pioneer 309B; Embro Jarvis E-l; McNair
340-V; Coker 52.
b. White: Funk's G-795-W.
3. Early hybrids for combining early or hogging-
off early:
a. Asgrow 204.
b. White: None.
B. Southern Florida:*
1. Late hybrids for cribbing, combining or hog-
a. Yellow: Poey T-63; Poey T-66; Corneli 54.
b. White: Poey T-23; Rocamex H-507; Roca-
mex H-504; Rocamex H-503; Rocamex H-501.
*For the purpose of these recommendations, the boundary
between central and southern Florida is a line extending
eastward from the southwest corner of Hillsborough
County to Vero Beach.

Since its release in 1965, Florida 200A has been
the standard late hybrid for central, northeastern
and northwestern Florida. It produces high yields,
stands up well and has good weevil resistance and
excellent grain quality. Each of the other late
hybrids recommended for those areas is as good
or nearly as good as Florida 200A in'one or more
of these characteristics, as may be noted from the
summary of field corn variety tests at six loca-
tions in northern Florida in 1967, presented in
Table 1.
The medium-late to medium-early and the early
hybrids recommended for combining early or hog-
ging-off early are listed in approximate order of
rank in limited variety tests. Under most condi-
tions only a few of these hybrids yield as well as
the recommended late hybrids. Because of lower
yields and higher susceptibility to damage by
insects and ear-rot organisms, the acreage planted
to these hybrids for hogging-off should not be
larger than that required to supply feed until the
late hybrids are ready for use.
The hybrids recommended for southern Florida
are those that performed best in variety tests at
the Everglades Experiment Station in 1964 and
earlier. Almost none of the hybrids recommended
for other sections of the state have been tested at
any of the experiment stations in southern Flor-
ida. Probably, many of them are adapted to that
section, but this is not known.

T's Y' 9'" 98
8'8 97' Z's 96
Z'c 9'g 0'S 68
O' '07 9"' 16

IL JaoioD
'L .aaoo
6008 JOaauo!d
T9 pooAxuaa.D

g'8 97"
6'8 0"8
6'" S'g
67 *89

9', L'Z
2'V L'Z

96 86
001 96
001 801

L6 O8T
O8T 901
00 LOT

90T 60T

9'7 9'g 9"1

0'8 8'7 8'1

L9 .310D0
AOTf J1reM-3
1LT pooAuaa.I3

6t16-D s,Nunf
f69-D sfunjd
81 aix!i
LO8W ApPn33D

81 pooM0ua0D
VTT-0-L uoguluuajc
VOOZg p!Uol[
sp!aqCH R711

,a8l ,ZV ",,6 'AV "8T .1 ,6 "V
vsmax 3jsnH S!lunb "IH Juaojad 'SIUeId pajag aaV/slaqsng 'ploia p!uqXH
s!AaqauI 'Uop u! s(ue'ld uaaMag aaueis!i

Tup!JolA ujaqijoN uI! Sl!OS Ieau!l uo slsajL a'JuA ujoD plaiU p!.iqH L961 JO slnsat jo SaeuiunS *1 I'lilVJl

"SIUO anI-I pu aeliAsau!iFJ uOIj agr Ve4ep I!AaON
aeiq.!sap ;sou- aqq 2uiaq T '9 o T pO alo a v uo passq @au sapi3.D
pasn aWaa SMAO q3uT-88 9TaqAM 'anL'H puE a alIAstaUVD qu tdaoxa x ;ds satpu! 98 a~aM
smou "2u!peds qava xoj suoijua!idai otA ql-.A 'Atoa aq4 ui s~upOsds ,8T puie ,'Zg ,'6 1s umoj2 s-M Buu eu (W q qtq 4da;xa Isal qoug
"anfH pu a~ILisaureD suo!juaol o A AIUO e paosao aJaA sppuqAq A oa aOq4 puB Aprea
turnpau oq a, [s un!patu aqjL *ur puu wuui!ii.Ay 'Aaun?) ':piO aa.q 'oan2lH 'al!AsaU!pe suotcoi xis j, pasa4 ajaM sp!q qAq alI aqjl I

-g'8 .Z 001 96 08 T6 L L6 801 T'l6 0gZ AoXjsV
spujqAH Sj.eg

.T 9'2 L6 86 86 86 8L 88 S6 9'98 Z9 1IOD
00" 0 OGOT V6 06 86 8L 96 88 TL8 A0O8 !NIBN3DI
g' 8'9g 001 '6 68 P6 L8 96 26 0"36 81608 OOaauoI

.. 0'g 96 06 6L 88 68 96 86 086 TI- spAuf odqtug
07. 9g L6 96 86 66 T6 68 OTi 8916 6908 1aauo!d
6T1 L'Z OOT V6 L6 L6 L8 86 9TI 9'OOT 898g-D s,1und
sp!aqSH Apgl wnip9I 01e atI' uinipaNi

,,8T .,z 6 '"V ,,81 ,,ZT .6 'RAV
% E oP er Ea pe l (l0 ,_)
sjea 3IsnH Al!lnb "H uaaOad 'sUulEid laag aj3y/ Saqsng plain P!-iqAH
I!Aaa isaqauI 'MoI u! sBUlId uaaAlag aaueIsi

Uepi!oil ujaqijo.0 u! Sl!OS lueau!1I uo sIsaO APauIA UJOD Plaij pP!qA(H L961 jo slInsoa jo CXjmuinS -I arlVn L

Planting Dates
Plant during the planting season recommended
for the area, at times when temperature and soil
moisture conditions are favorable for germination
and growth. Recommended planting dates, by
areas, are:
Southern Florida Feb. 15 to Mar. 15
Central Florida Mar. 1 to Mar. 31
Northeastern Florida Mar. 15 to Apr. 15
Northwestern Florida Mar. 15 to Apr. 15

TABLE 2. Summary of Results of 1967 Hybrid Field
Corn Variety Tests on Organic Soil at Zellwood.
Yield, Bushels per Acre
Ear Plant
Hybrid Plant Pop, Thous./Acre Height Height
(Feet) (Feet)
Ave. 20 15 10 (Feet) (Feet)
Late Hybrids
Greenwood 18 150.7 154 138 160 6.3 12.0
Pioneer 3009 145.7 152 148 137 5.1 10.7
Pioneer 3048 145.0 145 145 145 5.2 11.0
Pennington 7-C-11A 142.7 132 154 142 5.7 11.8
McNair 440V 148.0 161 166 117 5.4 11.7
Coker 67 138.3 161 138 116 5.0 10.8
Funk's G-4949 137.3 124 159 129 5.0 10.7
McCurdy M307 136.3 145 145 119 6.1 12.1
Funk's G-5945 135.7 132 148 127 5.1 10.4
Florida 200A 134.7 136 128 140 6.0 12.0
Coker 71 126.3 135 125 119 5.3 10.6
Greenwood 61 123.7 111 142 118 5.2 11.1
Dixie 18 121.7 148 114 103 6.4 12.4
Coker 74 115.0 119 106 120 4.8 10.3
Greenwood 471 110.3 117 121 93 5.6 10.9
Medium Late to Medium Early Hybrids
Embro Jarvis E-l 180.0 197 147 196 4.2 9.1
McNair 340V 174.3 192 172 159 4.6 9.8
Funk's G-5858 172.0 206 141 169 4.4 10.0
Pioneer 309B 170.0 182 170 158 4.6 9.7
Pioneer 3059 154.3 177 146 140 4.6 10.3
Coker 52 152.3 189 125 143 4.3 9.7
Early Hybrids
Asgrow 204 153.7 189 137 135 4.7 10.1

TABLE 3. Recommended Plant Populations, Planting Ra

Desired Planting
Kind of Soil and Population* Rate
Related Conditions (Plants/A.) (Kernels/A.)

Mineral Soils
Very low moisture capacity 7,500 8,300
Low moisture capacity 10,000 11,100
Medium moisture capacity 12.500 13,900'
High moisture capacity 15,000 16,700
Organic Soils
Very high moisture capacity 20,000 22,200
* Assuming that final plant population will be 90 percent of

To reduce the hazards of unfavorable weather,
make plantings on different dates within the
planting season recommended for the area.


During fall or winter, have soil tested; shred
crop residues; broadcast the kind and amount of
limestone needed for reduction of soil acidity and
establishment of adequate calcium and magne-
sium levels in the soil; and disk land to incor-
porate lime and crop residues.

Spacing and Fertilization
Base spacing of plants on the inherent ability of
the soil to retain and supply moisture during the
growing season and base fertilization practices on
the spacing of plants and the nutrient levels in
the soil. Spacing and fertilization recommenda-
tions for different kinds of soil and under various
related conditions are presented in Tables 3, 4
and 5.
Additional information, for use in interpreting
and applying the recommendations, follows:

Soils The soils used for corn production in
Florida are grouped, on the basis of moisture ca-
pacity, as follows:

1. Soils with very low moisture capacity:
a. Well drained light colored sands with sandy clay
or clay subsoils at depths below 30 inches.
2. Soils with low moisture capacity:
a. Well drained light colored loamy sands with sandy
clay or clay subsoils at depths more than 30 inches.
b. Well drained light colored sands with sandy clay or
clay subsoils within 30 inches of the surface.
c. Well drained dark colored sands with sandy clay or
clay subsoils at depths below 30 inches.

and Spacings for Field Corn on Different Kinds of SoiL
Distance in Inches Between Kernels in Rows:
28" 30" 32" 34" 36" 38" 40" 42"
Apart Apart Apart Apart Apart Apart Apart Apart

26.9 25.1 23.5 22.1 20.9 19.8 18.8 17.9
20.2 18.8 17.6 16.6 15.7 14.9 14.1 13.4
16.1 15.1 14.1 13.3 12.5 11.9 11.3 10.8
13.4 12.5 11.8 11.1 10.5 9.9 9.4 9.0

10.1 9.4 8.8 8.3 7.8 7.4 7.1 6.7
planting rate.

3. Soils with medium moisture capacity:
a. Well drained loamy sands with sandy clay or clay
subsoils within 30 inches of the surface.
b. Well drained dark colored loamy sands with sandy
clay or clay subsoils at depths below 30 inches.
c. Well drained sandy loams on sloping relief with
sandy clay or clay subsoils within 30 inches of the
d. Light colored imperfectly to poorly drained sands,
with water control where needed.
4. Soils with high moisture capacity:
a. Well drained sandy loams on flat relief with clay
subsoils within 12 inches of the surface.
b. Light colored imperfectly to poorly drained loamy
sands, and sandy loams and dark colored imperfectly
to poorly drained soils, with water control where
5. Soils with very high moisture capacity:
a. Organic soils (peat and muck), with water table
controlled at depths between 2 and 3 feet below the
Application of Mixed Fertilizer* The mixed
fertilizer may be applied as indicated in Tables
4 and 5 most of it broadcast and plowed down
before planting and the remainder banded by the
seed row at planting or all of it may be broad-
cast and plowed down before planting. If part of
the mixed fertilizer is applied at planting it should
be placed in continuous bands 2 to 3 inches to
either or both sides of the seed row and 1 to 2
inches below the level of the seed.
Application of mixed fertilizer before or at
planting may not be necessary if the immediately
preceding crop was a heavily fertilized winter
Side-Dressing The side-dressing material,
except in the case of anhydrous ammonia, should
be applied 5 to 7 weeks after planting, just prior
to or at the last cultivation. Anhydrous ammonia
should be applied just after planting or at the
first cultivation, or if each bottom plow is properly
equipped with an applicator it, as well as the
mixed fertilizer, may be plowed down 10 to 30
days before planting time, in which case an O-X-X
fertilizer of the proper ratio may be substituted
for the complete fertilizer and all of the nitrogen
applied as anhydrous ammonia.
Where corn on mineral soils follows a heavily
fertilized winter vegetable crop and no fertilizer
is applied at planting time, a mixed fertilizer of

* If liquid or high-analysis dry fertilizer is used it should
include a sulfur carrier in an amount sufficient to supply
not less than 16 pounds of sulfur (S) per acre.

'g '(OnD) ap!xo aaddoo :svesa aaoux 0o auo paddoaj uaaq svi Igqj puvI uo
*" '(,Ot1) oplxo ouoq
puEs 3 '(OuZ) apixo uuz :OT '(OUN) eapxo asawusautu i '(ono) apIxo .addoO :AIsno!iAa.d paddoza uaaq 4ou svq ivqj purl u0
ajv .ad spunod u! saqe Su!lwolloJ atq 4v s uluuala .ouiui Alddns ol saaueW a;eudojdd3 aoq Jo salilumnb qua! ujns u!uruoo plnoqs irazijijaaj
uaA pJiq Aj~aAa aata ad spunod 0 Jo aou ae 'j0u I JdA & J o 80og Ij 'ajnfx!im quawuoIa aao pal'i
aoalduio3 V jo uo1uia1ddg Aq paouaAaod aq setu squatuaia .ouiuW oaqqo aqj jo saiouaiayap pul A uaioiyap auiZ "aD Jad OuZ Jo spunod
TI A1ptu;ixoaddu A-ddns ol a ijins DuIz JuoaIgns ureiuow pinoqs iazj!aa3j jo uoi. aiIddg isuapmoJq aqq 'j.nao oo Alai![ s! ,,pnqa !iq,, jI

89T-96 -0 -- --- 87.-96 -0 000'07 o g sdo.0 u

09T-08 -0 091-08 -0 000'0o aTa TI sdoaj uij .luvjo
6T-iV -0 g6I-'9 -0 000'0 IHoS u!g2.!A
tl-f-Zg61 0 -0 -0 -fl t -z -g8 Z0-OgI-0t 000'9T uluOq ApuBS jo
OgT-O0g-091 0 -0 -OgT P' -1Z -8 96 -96 -7g 00o'gl PuVS Atuio"1 AAeaH
'11-96 -g61 0 -0 -mii 1g -91 -8 OZT-08 -0 000',I
Ogi-08 -09T 0 -0 -Og 19 -9T -8 96 -P9 --8 0'I pu s Aureoj
96 -19 -8ST 0 -0 -96 fZ -9T -8 9L -81 -PZ 000'01 WriI Jo puug
ZL -8f -96 0 -0 -ZL T19 -91 -8 8v -9Z -9 O009'L
OIx-OZ d-N Ox--%Ozd-N O1x-%Ozd-N ON-I-'Old-N (.aqmnN)
suoI 2u!ssajpp UIluvId IV Su!ilugId oajoagf aaV XJOS!H i!o0
-"!ljddvy 1v -ap!S S AMOH paaS UAMOQ paMoljd ad u!ddoJa Jo I!oS Jo puIx
J.oJ sl91OJ1 pa!lddV Aq papueg puge s8apeoiog uBeld aaBjjnS jo a.inixaj,
arJV/'sqr' 'sjluaIjnN lUBld JoCFBU a qi jo suoilu;iiddV Jo salog
SinsoaH IsaJ !OS JO pIV Inoql!M uiJO2 pl!i Jo uo0zilZ~MiJa jo suo!lpspuaumuoaaH -i HrIaVJ

TABLE 5. Recommendations for Fertilization of Field Corn on Basis of Soil-Test Results
Rates of Application of the Major Plant Nutrients, Lbs./Acre

Soil-Test Results Plants Broadcast and Banded by Applied Totals for
Kind of Per Plowed Down Seed Row as Side- All Applica-
Soil Phos. Potash Acre Before Planting at Planting dressing tions




16- 48- 48
24- 72- 72
32- 96- 96

8- 24- 24
8- 24- 24
8- 24- 24
8- 24- 24

72- 0- 0
96- 0- 0
120- 0- 0
144- 0- 0


96- 72- 72
128- 96- 96

7,500 16- 48- 32 8- 24- 16 72- 0- 0 96- 72- 48
10,000 24- 72- 48 8- 24- 16 96- 0- 0 128- 96- 64
Low High 12,500 32- 96- 64 8- 24- 16 120- 0- 0 160-120- 80
15,000 40-120- 80 8- 24- 16 144- 0- 0 192-144- 96

7,500 16- 32- 48 8- 16--24 72- 0- 0 96- 48- 72
10,000 24-.48- 72 8- 16- 24 96- 0- 0 128- 64- 96
High Low 12,500 32- 64- 96 8- 16- 24 120- 0- 0 160- 80-120
15,000 40- 80-120 8- 16- 24 144- 0- 0 192- 96-144


'(onc) aprxo iaddoa :sauaS aaot .io auo paddoao uoaq s'ar juiq4 puti Uo
8 '(;o0a) aplxo a3ioq
pute '(OUZ) GpIxo Dutz IOT 'OUW) aptxo asaueuaum !9Ti '(OnD) ap!xo addoa :A1CsnolAaid paddoaa uaaq 4ou svq qui{l puul uQ :qjau
Jad spunod UT 'salJ 2uiTmojoJ aq4 IV s~uquIale zourUt S1ddns 01 slaouav almidoaddu atp jo sa!q;quvnb juOairns utsjuoa pinots xaz!m T9, z
'Juas panrqq AJaA8 eaae x ad spunod OZ jO aqi IV '1pOg j ao CO 809 fI1a 'lITlxitu uatuale 9av. pal
-4;1i- aaldwoo v ;o UOT;eailddu Aq pluaUaad aq Stum squoumpa xouiux uaq,4o at{ jo saiouapwjap puu Aouaiayap ornZ 10.13v zd ouZ jo spunod
r Alalsrunxoaddu 1ddns ol aejlns autz luar~njjns uiuluoa pInots aaziq!;raa jo uoilvailddt ;surpeoaq ap' .inno ol Alaylm si ,,pnqa4!iqm,, jj I

09T-09 -0 -- 0Z-09 -0 o00'o0 MzIH IqXIH

08V09 -0 --- --- 08T-09 -0 000'02 MO'] VIR
OZT-06 -0 O0T-06 -0 000'02 tf8I MO']

08T-06 -o -- 081-06 -o ooo'oz MO'] MO']
96 -96 -961 0 -0 -Vv7 91 -9T -8 08 -08 -01, 000'9T
,08 -08 -091 0 -0 -091 91 -91 -8 V9 -P9 -s 0092;1 1121H MqllH 'Mlo2 'I1JauTH
1'9 -f9 -81T 0 -0 -96 91 -91 -8 8P -8v -*I' 000'01
8t -8t -96 0 -0 -2L 91 -91 -8 98 -ZR -91 009'L

suoil 2uissalp 2u!W ld IV 2IiIud RlJOJE[ aisslod qad I!oS
-vi!iddV IIV SI MOaJ upagS UMOfId JO puItl
1oj sjwRoj1 pailddV Xq papuuIg puL IslapgIOJf sJuvld slInsaH jsaL-j!OS
9.jaV/-sqr 'sjuaijgfln 4Urld jolvIIN a Jo uoilvaiddV jo salva

slInsanI lsaL-I!oS jO sisBa uo ujo3 plaij jo uo!euziiulv ajOJ suoilupuauh1uoma a9jEIV

2-0-1 ratio should be used as the source of the ni-
trogen applied as a side-dressing.
The amounts of various nitrogen materials re-
quired to supply 20 pounds of nitrogen are: anhy-
drous ammonia, 25; ammonium nitrate, 60; am-
monium nitrate-limestone, 98; ammonium nitrate
solution, 96; ammonium nitrate-urea solution, 63;
nitrate of soda, 125; sulfate of ammonia, 98; and
urea, 45.
Control of Soil-Borne Insects
If need for preplant control of wireworms or
other soil-borne insects is indicated, broadcast
parathion or diazinon at rate of 2 pounds active
ingredient per acre on mineral soils or parathion
at rate of 5 pounds or diazinon at rate of 4 pounds
active ingredient per acre on organic soils. Dis-
tribute the insecticide evenly over the soilJsurface
10 days to 2 weeks before planting time and im-
mediately mix it into the upper six inches of soil.
If need for control of cutworms or mole crickets
develops after planting, apply one of the following
wheat bran baits evenly over the surface of the
soil at rate of 20 to 40 pounds per acre: 21/ per-
cent toxaphene or 2 percent chlordane, for cut-
worms; 2 percent chlordane or 2 percent aldrin,
for mole crickets.
Weed Control
To reduce need for early cultivation for control
of weeds, apply on a broadcast basis one pound of
2,4-D low-volatile ester or a combination of %
pound 2,4-D low-volatile ester and 1/ pound di-
camba per acre; or apply atrazine over the row,
using 21/ pounds of 80 percent wettable powder
in 20 to 40 gallons of water per acre of treated
For application of the atrazine, mount the
sprayer on the tractor used for planting, attach
a fan-type nozzle just behind the press-wheel of
the planter, and adjust the height of the nozzle
so that a band of the desired width is sprayed.
Practice shallow cultivation, as necessary, to
control weeds until corn plants are 2 feet high.
Then stop cultivation. Late deep cultivation se-
verely prunes the root system and causes a re-
duction in yield.
If volunteer stands of poisonous species of cro-
talaria or other objectionable broadleaf weeds
appear after the last cultivation, apply, with
high-clearance equipment, 1/ pound of the amine
salt of 2,4-D per acre, in 10 or more gallons of

water. Use drop nozzles, putting spray on weeds
but insofar as possible keeping it off corn plants.
When using 2,4-D read label carefully, follow
instructions and observe precautions. Do not
spray 2,4-D near sensitive crops-cotton, tobacco,
tomatoes, most garden vegetables, flowers and
ornamentals-unless air is calm or wind is blow-
ing away from the sensitive crops. Do not apply
insecticides or fungicides with sprayers used for
application of 2,4-D.
If grain is to be harvested mechanically, espe-
cially if it is to be combined, rogue fields before
harvesting is begun and remove, by hand or other-
wise, all remaining crotalaria plants. If this is not
practical, equip combine with scour-clean attach-
ment to reduce contamination of the harvested
Do not harvest grain for storage until after it
has dried thoroughly in the field, unless drying
equipment is available. For safe storage, the
moisture content of the grain should not be in ex-
cess of 15 percent for ear corn or 12 percent for
shelled corn. Metal bins used for storage of shelled
corn should be equipped with a ventilation system.
If crop is to be hogged-off, be sure grain has
reached the late dough stage before turning hogs
into the field. To reduce wastage, use easily mov-
able electric fences to confine the herd, in suc-
cession, to small areas, each of which will be
hogged-off completely in not more than 3 weeks.
Control of Stored Grain Pests
Store properly dried grain in clean, rat-proof
bins that easily can be made air-tight to permit
fumigation for control of insect pests.
To reduce insect population before storing
grain, clean bins thoroughly and spray walls,
floors, and ceilings to the point of "run off" (2
gallons per 1,000 square feet) with one of the
following: 1 pint of 57 percent malathion EC (pre-
mium grade), or 1 quart of 25 percent methoxy-
chlor EC, or 1 pound of 50 percent methoxychlor
WP in 3 gallons of water.
If grain is not to be fumigated apply a protec-
tant and thoroughly mix it with the grain as it is
placed in the storage bins. Use one of the follow-
ing treatments: synergized pyrethrum (0.06 per-
cent pyrethrins, 1.0 percent piperonyl butoxide)
at rate of 10 pounds per 100 bushels; malathion
dust (1 percent "premium grade" malathion in

special wheat flour dilutent) at rate of 6 pounds
per 100 bushels; or malathion spray (1 pint of 57
percent "premium grade" malathion liquid con-
centrate in 5 gallons of water at rate of 1/2 gallon
per 100 bushels.
Protective sprays and dusts applied to un-
shucked corn will suppress spread of weevils from
ear to ear, but will not control weevils within the
unshucked ears.
Fumigation kills the insects present at time of
treatment, but does not provide protection against
reinfestation. For proper fumigation, bins must be
air-tight, and the temperature should be above
70 F. Openly constructed storage structures
should be lined with builders' paper before grain
is stored.
Immediately after filling of the storage facility
has been completed, level the surface of the grain,
close tightly all floor and wall vents, apply with
a sprinkler can or sprayer, one of the mixtures
listed below, spread a tarpaulin or plastic cover
over the surface after fumigant is applied, seal the
door and attach "DANGER" sign. After 72 hours,
open the door and vents and air the grain

Gals./1,000 Bushels of Grain
Fumigant Wooden Bins Steel Bins
1 part carbon tetrachloride plus
3 parts ethylene dichloride 8 6
4 parts carbon tetrachloride plus
1 part carbon disulfide 6 5
These and similar mixtures (one of which is a 60-35-5
mixture of carbon tetrachloride, ethylene dichloride and
ethylene dibromide) are available under various trade

Another recommended fumigant is methyl bro-
mide, at the rate of 2 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet
of grain. To apply methyl bromide, place a pan or
other receptacle on the surface of the grain at
the center of bin, put the outer end of the tubing
of the applicator in the receptacle and extend the
tubing to the outside of the bin, plane an open
crate or other frame over the receptacle, spread
a plastic cover over the frame and grain surface,
seal door, release gas by use of the special appli-
cator, and attach "DANGER" sign. After 72
hours, open the door and vents and air the grain

These fumigants are poisonous to man and other
warm-blooded animals. Read the label carefully,
follow instructions and observe precautions.


Planted for Harvested
All Purposes** For Grain
County (Acres) (Acres)

Northwestern Florida
Calhoun 7,400 6,400
Escambia 3,800 3,000
Gadsden 23,500 21,000
Holmes 22,000 17,800
Jackson 60,000 50,000
Jefferson 18,500 17,000
Leon 12,000 10,100
Liberty 800 500
Okaloosa 6,500 4,300
Santa Rosa 13,000 10,800
Wakulla 950 350
Walton 11,000 7,200
Washington 9,300 6,600
Others (2)*** 750 550
TOTAL 189,500 155,600
Northeastern Florida
Alachua 28,000 20,000
Baker 2,700 1,500
Bradford 1,800 1,000
Columbia 26,500 21,500
Dixie 1,800 650
Flagler 1,000 700
Gilchrist 20,000 15,300
Hamilton 26,000 23,500
Lafayette 10,000 7,000
Levy 14,500 9,300
Madison 33,000 27,000
Marion 10,800 7,200
Nassau 1,000 700
Putnam 1,600 1,200
St. Johns 1,800 900
Suwannee 64,000 55,500
Taylor T, O 1,200
Union 5,500 4,200
Others (2) 1,000 350
TOTAL 252,80Q 198,700
Central Florida
Lake 850 250
Orange 750 150
Sumter 900 600
Others (9) 2,600 1,650
TOTAL 5,100 2,650
Southern Florida
Palm Beach 1,800 1,600
Others (5) 800 450
TOTAL 3,050 2,050
STATE TOTAL <50,0 359,000

* From report by Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
County figures are not available for 1967.
** Counties with fewer than 750 acres omitted.
*** Figures in parenthesis indicate number of counties.

This guide was prepared by J. R.'ienderson, Agrono-
mist, in cooperation with J. R. Strayer, Assistant Ento-

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. 0. Watkins, Director

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs