'R-r zill I
INCREASEE EFFICIENCY IN PEANUT
*ow peanuts in rotation with other well-
rtilized field crops.
ive soil tested and apply necessary lime and
irn land so that all crop residues and weeds
se high-quality seed of a good variety and
se proper spacing for the variety.
eep crop free of weeds, by approved meth-
apply gypsum soon after the plants begin to
ist to control leafspot disease and insect
g at proper time.
irvest and cure nuts by methods that will
minimize seed damage.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
important neia crop. now-
3ased gradually, from a high
19 to a low of approximately
Most of the crop is grown
west of Bushnell.
I alone or interplanted with
orn. Only 25 percent of the
alone. In contrast, 75 per-
was grown alone. Part of
lone is harvested for nuts
the crop is hogged-off.
; and marketing quotas on
ve been in effect since 1949.
I annually in Florida during
)49 to 1959 ranged from a
in 1950 to a low of 45,620
raged 53,011 acres.
r that the average yield of
364 pounds per acre during
i4 and 1,014 pounds per acre
5 to 1959.
in average yield can be ac-
iider use of good production
rida farmers are harvesting
-quality nuts per acre. One
re than 11/2 tons per acre on
well-drained soils in a 3- or
other crops that have been
rotation should be resistant
ithern blight. Crops recom-
with peanuts include corn,
,ins. Soybeans, tobacco, lu-
*etables, which build up the
,should be avoided in the
ecially as the immediately
Int*f] aCio1 ohnIIIA nni ha i.,animn' A L~r h.
Plant between April 1 and May 15, at times
when temperature and soil moisture conditions
are favorable for germination and growth.
Space seed of Spanish varieties 31/2 inches
apart in 24-inch rows or 3 inches apart in 28-inch
rows, and those of Runner and Virginia varieties
41/2 inches apart in 32-inch rows or 4 inches apart
in 36-inch rows. At these spacings, the number
of pounds of seed required per acre, by types and
Spanish-Argentine, 62; Dixie, 62; and Span-
Runner-Dixie Runner, 40; Early Runner, 49;
and Virginia Bunch 67, 56.
Cover seed 2 to 3 inches in light-textured soils
and 11/2 to 2 inches in heavier soils. After the
seed are covered, the top of the seed rows should
be level with, or slightly above, the middles.
To eliminate need for close cultivation, apply,
at planting time, the proper quantity of the alka-
nol amine salts of DNBP*, in 10 to 20 gallons of
water, to a 12- to 14-inch band centered over the
The rate of application of the herbicide and
the width of the band to which it is applied should
be based on the width of the rows, as shown in
the following table.
Row Width | Band Width Amount of Herbicide
(Inches) I (Inches) (Gals. per A.)
24 12 1%
28 14 1%
32 12 1%
36 12 1
Premerge and Sinox PE are trade names of the herbicide that
contains 3 pounds of the alkanol amine salts of DNBP per gallon.
press-wneel oI me plant-
it. a*J Lt Lb U u ~l i ij 5^ Ii u *l Uli.J
nd of the desired width is
do not become a problem in
nfine cultivation to the mid-
to prevent movement of un-
control is not used, cultivate
:ticing shallow cultivation at
.tion, use weeders or rotary
)r teeth directly over the row
and rotary hoes so as to keep
nical injury to plants.
ion, use sweeps adjusted flat,
f soil onto or toward the row
m. Do not disturb pegs and
p middles free of weeds until
;t covered the ground.
LTION OF GYPSUM
>f the Virginia type, or if the
soil was found by test to be
was not applied, or was ap-
ghly mixed with the topsoil,
ypsum (landplaster), at rate
Super acre, over the entire po-
Ssoon after the plants begin
DISEASES AND INSECTS
eafspot, begin dusting vines
r or copper-sulfur (3.4% cop-
e disease first appears and
;intervals of 10 to 14 days,
Harvest time. Use 15 to 20
early applications and 20 to
or later applications. If rain
;hin 12 hours after it is ap-
tion as soon as possible.
&h under Seedbed Preparation,
County Grown with Harvested
Total** Alone Other for
Alachua .... 7,332 6,321 1,011 1,693
Baker ........ 415 202 213
Dalhoun .... 1,653 1,549 104 1,678
Columbia .. 6,036 2,931 3,105 503
Dixie .......... 1,649 762 887 8
3adsden .. 704 699 5 852
Silchrist .. 7,572 7,321 251 249
Hamilton .. 855 664 191 123
Holmes .... 3,185 3,173 12 2,692
Jackson .... 27,467 27,313 154 22,987
Jefferson .. 1,157 1,142 15 795
Lafayette 2,282 1,038 1,244 172
Leon .......... 267 267 255
Levy .......... 13,214 6,853 6,361 2,270
Madison .... 415 345 70 173
Marion ...... 11,419 7,901 1 3,518 2,046
Okaloosa .. 630 629 1 601
Santa Rosa 5,541 5,536 5 5,143
Sumter ...... 619 469 150
Suwannee 16,417 6,117 10,300 1,201
Wakulla ... 586 586 394
Walton ...... 1,300 1,286 14 967
ton ........ 940 931 9 774
Others t .... 1,413(25) 1,055(24) 358(15) 44(1)
TOTALS 113,068 85,090 27,978 45,620
From 1960 U. S. Census of Agriculture and 1959 ASC Statistical
** Counties with fewer than 200 acres omitted.
t Figures in parentheses indicate number of counties.
This guide was prepared by J. R. Henderson, Agronomist,
in cooperation with J. E. Brogdon, Entomologist,
R. S. Mullin, Plant Pathologist, and
T. C. Skinner, Agricultural Engineer
Circular 145 was originally printed in January 1956.
This printing February 1961.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University and
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins. Director
mestone and disk land to in-
before planting time, broad-
I kind and amount of ferti-
Sthat all plant material will
ast 4 inches of soil.
>1 of white-fringed beetle or
ts is indicated, broadcast al-
e ingredient per acre, or diel-
active ingredient per acre,
time and immediately disk
inches of the soil.
ind apply the recommended
of limestone and fertilizer,
-edbed preparation as indi-
iendations as to the kind and
that should be applied are
)n of the pH value and the
Im contents of the soil sam-
kinds-calcic and dolomitic.
izing soil acidity, calcic lime-
.nt nutrient calicum and dol-
lies calcium and magnesium.
of well-filled nuts, an ade-
um must be available in the
1 as in the rooting zone, of
lerefore, to be most effective
ium, the limestone applied
and thoroughly mixed with
rer before the crop is planted.
.y fertilizer that is needed
st before the land is turned.
, it should be placed in bands
of the seed row and 4 inches
e seed. Recommendations as
unts of fertilizer that should
ous conditions are presented
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FERTILIZATION OF
PEANUTS UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS.
Without Nitrogen With Nitrogen
Grade* | Lbs/A Grade* | Lbs/A
A. ON BASIS OF SOIL-TEST RESULTS
Low 0-12-12 600 2-12-12 600
Low Med. 0-15-10 480 2-12- 8 600
High 0-15- 5 480 2-12- 4 600
Low 0-12-18 400 2-18-12 600
Med. Med. 0-12-12 400 3-12-12 400
High 0-16- 8 300 3-12- 6 400
Low 0- 8-24 300 3- 6-18 400
High Med. 0-10-20 240 4- 8-16 300
High 0-12-12 200 5-10-10 240
B. WITHOUT BENEFIT OF SOIL-TEST RESULTS
Sand 0-10-20 360 3- 9-18 400
Loamy sand or 0-12-12 500 2-12-12 500
Other grades of the same ratios may be substituted on basis of
Choose a variety, of each type desired, that
produces good yields of high-quality nuts and is
well-suited for the uses to be made of the crop.
Varieties recommended for Florida, by commer-
cial types, with average number of days from
planting to maturity in parentheses, are:
Spanish.-Argentine (120), Dixie (120) and
Spanette (120). All these outyield GFA and
common small white Spanish. Average yields in
tests in Florida during the 3-year period 1956 to
1958 were: Argentine, 1,426; Dixie, 1,349; and
Spanette, 1,368 pounds per acre.
Runner.-Dixie Runner (145), Early Runner
(135) and Virginia Bunch 67 (135). All produce
higher yields and have more resistance to visible
and concealed seed damage than Florida Runner.
Average yields in tests in Florida during the
4-year period 1956 to 1959 were: Dixie Runner,
1,546; Early Runner, 1,981; and Virginia Bunch
67, 1,684 pounds per acre.
to clip off the top third of upright varieties and
top half of spreading varieties 2 to 4 days before
Dig, shake, fill in the furrow and window in
as few separate operations as equipment will per-
mit. Operate shaker so as to place most of the
nuts clear of the ground and to form a loose, fluffy
window, not more than 30 inches wide. If too
much soil adheres to the plants, re-shake wind-
rows while the plants are still in the wilt stage.
Combine nuts from the window as soon as
they will rattle slightly when handled. Adjust
and operate the combine so as to keep trashiness
and cracking of pods to a minimum.
Dry the harvested nuts in a crop drier with an
air flow of not less than 10 cubic feet per minute
per cubic foot of peanuts, at a temperature not in
excess of 1000 F., until the moisture content of the
shelled seed has been reduced to at least 9 percent
but not below 7 percent.
The nuts may be dried loose or in burlap bags.
If drying in bags, fill them to not more than 75
percent of capacity and crisscross them in the
stack. The total thickness of the layers of bags
or of loose nuts above the floor of the drier should
not exceed 4 feet.
CARE OF HARVESTED NUTS
To reduce the possibility of insect infestation,
use commercially cleaned, fumigated or new bags
for catching peanuts off the combine or picker
and haul the harvested nuts in equipment that is
free of old peanuts, grain, animal feed, etc.
If peanuts are to be held on the farm, even for
a short time, apply an approved protectant to the
nuts as they are placed in clean, insect-free, rat-
Begin hogging-off when the nuts are mature
(see Harvesting above). Seed of Spanish varie-
ties sprout soon if left in the ground after they
reach maturity. Seed of Runner varieties usually
will remain dormant in the ground for several
months after they mature, but hogging-off of
these varieties should be completed by the last of
December. For best results, hogs on peanuts
should be fed a mineral supplement.
page 3, for recommendations for control of white-
fringed beetles and other soil-borne insects.
For control of other insect pests of peanuts,
use, at rate of 15 to 20 pounds per acre, the follow-
Leafhoppers.-A leafspot dust (sulfur or cop-
per-sulfur) containing 5 percent DDT.
Thrips.-20 percent toxaphene or a leafspot
dust (sulfur or copper-sulfur) containing 5 per-
Cutworms or Armyworms.-20 percent toxa-
Velvetbean Caterpillar.-20 percent toxaphene
or 10 percent DDT.
Do not feed hay from fields treated with DDT
or toxaphene to dairy cows or cattle being finished
Start harvesting operations when most of the
pods are filled and as soon as insides of hulls have
turned dark and have begun to exhibit veining,
but before nuts begin to sprout or shed from the
Stackpole Method.-Plow up plants, shake soil
from roots, and allow vines to dry on the ground
for 3 to 6 hours or until the leaves have wilted.
Place wilted vines around a pole about 3 inches
in diameter and 8 to 9 feet long, which has been
set 2 to 21/2 feet in the ground and to which 2
crosspieces 2 to 3 feet long have been nailed 15
to 18 inches above the ground.
In stacking, turn roots of plants toward the
pole and keep center of the stack open and higher
than the edges. Bring stack to a point at least 6
inches above the top of the pole and cap it with
straw or hay.
Allow peanuts to cure in the stack until they
have dried to a moisture content of not more than
10 percent before picking them. This will require
4 to 6 weeks, depending on weather conditions.
When picking the nuts do not overload picker
or run it too fast. Overloading results in poor
picking and trashy nuts and high speeds result
in many pods being shelled and the seed being
split or damaged.
Windrow Method.-If vine growth is heavy
and hay is not to be saved, use a rotary mower
all seed, especially those shelled by ma-
reduce seed decay and seedling damage.
ended chemicals and rates of application,
s per 100 pounds of shelled seed, are:
75% (Arasan), 2; Chloranil, 96% (Sper-
and 2% Ceresan, 3.
certified seed are treated before they are
he market, and most shelling plants are
to treat seed.
ed are not certified, and seed-treatment
s not available, treat them on the farm
r a barrel or other large container not
in half full of weighed seed, adding the