Title: Roughages for wintering calves
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084352/00001
 Material Information
Title: Roughages for wintering calves
Series Title: Roughages for wintering calves
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Baker, F. S.
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
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Bibliographic ID: UF00084352
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 228302259

Full Text

/ NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
QUINCY, FLORIDA
June 5, 1957

NFES Mimeo Rpt. 57-11.

ROUGHAGES FOR WINTERING CALVES
By F. S. Baker, Jr.

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Supplementing Coastal Bermuda grass silage, Coastal Bermuda hay, or a
combination of grass silage and grass hay with 2.75 lbs, of a modified Purdue A
type supplement resulted in rather disappointing winter calf gains. Also,
costs of wintering and costs of gain were excessive.

Based on results of previous trials, it is recommended that grass hay
and/or grass bilage cut from improved pasture be supplemented each day with
1.0 to 1.5 Ibse 41% cottonseed meal, 5.0 lbs, citrus molasses or 4.0 Ibs. ground
snapped corn, and free choice minerals for wintering calves.

Ground cobs and shucks plus the modified,Purdue A supplement gave
excellent results for wintering calves. The suppidmeht consisted of 2.25 Ibs.
41% cottonseed meal, 0.25 lb. citrus molasses, 0.18 lb. bonemeali 0.06 lb. salt,
and 0.01 lb. vitamin A concentrate per calf daily.

Hegari silage plus the modified Purdue A supplement gave satisfactory
but somewhat expensive winter calf gains. Results from previous trials indicate
that a smaller quantity of supplement with hegari silage (e.g., 1.5 Ibs. 41%
cottonseed meal per calf daily) might give as satisfactory gains at a lower
cost. Because of the similarity in composition of hegari and corn silage, the
feeding value of the two could be expected to be similar provided the grain and
forage yield per acre are about the same.

INTRODUCTION

Two years' results have shown the advisability of adding a protein
supplement to both grass and grain sorghum silages for wintering calves.1
In addition, 5.0 lbs. molasses improved the grass silage ration but did not
greatly improve results with grain sorghum silage. Five pounds citrus molasses
did not satisfactorily substitute for 1.5 lbs. cottonseed meal with either grass
or grain sorghum silage. Calves ate larger quantities of grain sorghum silage,
and costs of the grain sorghum silage rations were somewhat higher than those of
the corresponding grass silage rations.

In three wintering trials, grass hay cut from improved pasture plus a
protein supplement and minerals proved to be an inexpensive ration but did not
produce much winter gain unless supplemented with a carbohydrate feed (5.0 Ibs.
citrus molasses per calf daily).2


1/ Baker, F. S. Jr. NFES Mimeo Rpt. 55-6. 1955. NFES Prog. Rpt. 1955-56.
2/ NFES Prog. Rpt. 1954.




NFES Mimeo Rpt. 57-11 cont'd.


Ground corn cobs and shucks supplemented with a modified Purdue A
type supplement gave very satisfactory yearling steer gains at a low cost per
100 pounds gain.

PROCEDURE

Because of the favorable results with the Purdue A type supplement with
yearling steers,3 a wintering trial was conducted to test this supplement with
various roughages for wintering calves. The calves used in this trial were
being wintered to be used for further grazing at the end of the winter.

Thirty-six Hereford-Angus crossbred steer and heifer calves were divided
into six approximately equal groups. .he calves did not have much fill at the
beginning and the initial weights were not shrunk. Four percent was deducted
from final weights to overcome the fill gained during the trials

The following rations were fed in dry lot:

Lot l.--Coastal Bermuda silage, 2.75 lbs. modified Purdue A supplement,
trace mineralized block salt.
Lot 2.--Grain sorghum hegarii) silage, 2.75 lbs. modified Purdue A
supplement, trace mineralized block salt.
Lot 3.--Coastal Bermuda hay, 2.75 lbs. modified Purdue A supplement,
trace mineralized block salt.
Lot 4.--Coastal Bermuda hay and Coastal Bermuda silage, 2.75 Ibs.
modified Purdue A supplement, trace mineralized block salt.
Lot 5.--Argentine Bahia hay, 2.75 lbs. modified Purdue A supplement,
trace mineralized block salt.
Lot 6.--Ground cobs and shucks, 2.75 lbs. modified Purdue A supplement,
trace mineralized block salt.

The various roughages were self-fed according to appetite. Approximately
one-third as much hay as silage was fed to Lot 4.

Coastal Bermuda silage was cut in'June, and Coastal Bermuda hay was cut
about October 1 from the same pasture. Argentine Bahia hay was eut in early fall,
also.

Following was the supplement fed (pounds):
Per head daily Per ton
41% Cottonseed meal 2.25 1636
Citrus molasses 0.25 182
Steamed bonemeal 0.18 131
Salt 0.06. 44
Vitamin A concentrate 0.01 7
2.75 2000


3/ Baker, F. S., Jr. NFES Mimeo Rpt. 57-7.


1957.





NFES Mimeo Rpt. 57-11 cont'd.


RESULTS

Results of the wintering trial are contained in Table 1-543. Because
of the late spring pastures delayed by unfavorable weather, it was necessary to
keep the calves on trial longer than the normal 90-112 day winter period.
Results are shown for both 106 and 150 days.

All the groups wintered in thrifty condition, but several calves on
Coastal silage and Coastal hay (Lots 1, 3, and 4) were in thin flesh at the end
of the trial. It is doubtful that these calves will gain enough on summer pasture
to be ready for the feedlot as early as the calves in the other groups.

The Argentine Bahia hay was cut from one of the older pastures on the
Station. Because of the number of clover crops grown on this land in the past 15
years, the soil fertility was probably at a higher level than that of the
relatively new pasture land from which the Coastal Bermuda was cut. Consequently
it is assumed that the somewhat better results from the Argentir Bahia hay
(Lot 5 compared to Lot 3) were due to quality of hay rather than difference in
species of grass.

With the exception of the ground cob and shuck ration (Lot 6), all the
rations were too expensive for wintering calves both from the standpoint of total
cost for the winter and cost per 100 pounds gain. It appears that the calves were
not able to consume enough roughage to make sufficient gain to give a reasonable
cost per 100 pounds gain except in the case of the ground cobs and shucks. No
explanation can be given for the superiority of ground cobs and shucks over grass
hays and grass silage from well-fertilized, improved pasture.

Based on the results of preceding trials4, it appears that a supplement
consisting of 1.0 to 1.5 Ibs. 41% cottonseed meal, 5.0 Ibs. citrus molasses or
4.0 Ibs. ground snapped corn, and minerals would give better results with grass hay
and grass silage than the modified Purdue A type supplement used in this trial.
With hegari silage, 1.0 to 1.5 Ibs. 41% cottonseed meal plus minerals might be
expected to produce more economical gains than the modified Purdue A. The very
satisfactory gains made by Lot 6 suggested that the modified Purdue A is an
excellent supplement for ground cobs and shucks.

Results from feeding grass silage, grass hay, or a combination of the
two did not differ greatly in this trial (Lots 1, 3, and 4).






---------------------------------------

4/ See footnote, Page 1.


FSB
6/6/57
350 cc






Table 1-543. Results calf wintering trial, 1956-1957.


Lot 1 :
Coastal grass:
silage :
106 150 :
days days :


Number calves 6
Average initial weight 496
Average final weight 531
Average gain 35
Average daily gain 0.
Average feed per calf for wJ.
Silage 2823
Hay ---
Grn. cobs & shucks ---
Supplement 291
Mineralized salt 16
Cost $ 23


6
496
550
54
.33 0.36
rter:
4225


.5 412.5
.7 25.0
.37 34.03


Cobs & shucks @ 6.50 --
Cobs & shucks O 12.CO --- --
Cobs & shucks @ 15.00 --


Average daily ration:


Lot 2
Hegari
silage
106 150 :
days days :
6 6
499 499
600 654
101 155
0.95 1.04:


.3933 5971


: 291.5 412.5 :
: 12.5 18.3
:$ 27.70 40.84:


Lot 3
Coastal
hay


106
days


150
days


6 6
499 499
537 565
38 66
0.36 0.44:


1241 1851

291.5 412.5
3.0 4.3
$ 24.15 35.12:


Lot 4 : Lot 5
Coastal hay :Argentine
Coastal silage:Bahia hay
106 150 : 106 150
days days : days days


6
499
530
31
0.29


6
499
553
54
0.36.


6 6
498 498
566 602
68 104
0.64 0.70;


1415 2106 ----- I
497 727 : 1129 1704


291.5 412.5 :
8.3 14.0
$ 22.50 32.54:
--- --- :


291.5 412.5
5.2 7.3
23.08 33.72:


--- --- --- -
: -


: --- ---: -------: ----:


Lot 6
Ground cobs &
shucks
106 150
days days


6
499
599
100
0.94


6
499
648
148
0.99


1167 1749
291.5 412.5
8.3 10.7

$ 15.66 22.46
18.87 27.27
20.62 29..90


Silage 26.63 28.17 : 37.11 39.81: ---- --- : 1335 14.04:--- --- : ---
Hay -- -- ---- -- 11.70 12.34: 4.69 4.84: 10.65 11.36: ---
Grn. cobs & shucks --- --- ----- -- ----- -----: -- -- .: 11.01 11.66
Supplement 2.75 2.75 : 2.75 2.75: 2.75 2.75: 2.75 2.75: 2.75 2.75: 2.75 2.75
Mineralized salt 0.16 0.17 : 0.12 0.12: 0.03 0.03: 0.08 O.C9: 0.05 0.05: 0.08 0.07
Cost* $ 0.2205 0,2270:$0.2614 0.2722:$0.2278 0.2342:$0.2123 0.2169:$ 0.2178 0.2249:
Cobs & shucks @ 6.50 ---- --- : ----- --- --- : :---- --- :$0.1478 $0.1497
Cobs & shucks @ 12.00 -- --- ---- --- ---- : --- ------ --- : 0.1781 0.1818
Cobs & shucks @ 15.00 ----- -- -- ---- ------ : --- : 0.1946 0.1993
Average pounds feed-Der 100 pounds eain: : :


Silage 7988 7800
Hay
Grn. cobs & shucks
Supplement 825 762
Mineralized salt 46
Cost* $ 66.13 62.83
Cobs & shucks @ 6.50---- ---
Cobs & shucks @12.00--- --
Cobs & shucks 01.5.00 --- ---
* Feed prices used: Silage, $8 ton;


:3901 3844 : --- ---- : 4639 3924
: : 3264 2805 : 1631 1354
* .9 -
:289 266 :767 625 956 769
12 12.4 8 : 2
:$ 27.4 26.32 $ 63.52 53.23 $ 73.79 60.6

y: $2;-- -- e: $0;i ---inr d
y, 12 supplement, _6680; mineralized salt,


1652 1630

427 395
$33.79 33.28:
~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ :


1167 1178
292 278
8 7.

20.63 20..


$50; cobs & shucks, as shown.


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