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Title: Land judging and homesite evaluation in Florida
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Title: Land judging and homesite evaluation in Florida
Series Title: Land judging and homesite evaluation in Florida
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Creator: Herbert, John H.
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Acknowledgement
        Page 27
Full Text
Circular 242-F


SAND JUDGING AND
i00UV i9 984
...s.. HniHOmESITE EVALUATION


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension


7-
)UCt


IN


FLORIDA













LAND JUDGING IN FLORIDA
AND HOMESITE EVALUATION

BY J. H. HERBERT, JR.

EXTENSION CONSERVATIONIST,
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



Soils always have been a basic resource! They will continue to be a most
important item in our individual and national economy.

Soils differ one from another. Because of these differences land capabil-
ities vary from place to place. A knowledge of soil characteristics will help
to determine the capability of land, the proper use of land the conservation
practices necessary.

These differences in soil characteristics can be described in rather
definite terms. Once we have learned the proper terms, we can discuss soil
differences with anyone else who "speaks the language".

First we must know several things about our soils. From this knowledge,
we can determine what our land is capable of and just how we will have to
treat it. We will need to know about soil texture, organic matter, thickness
of rooting zone, permeability, slope, erosion and drainage. Soils with cer-
tain combinations of these characteristics are called soil types. Groups
of similar types may be suited to similar agricultural uses. We arrange
these groups into land capability classes. Understanding capability classi-
fication makes it easier to plan for conservation farming, ranching or
grove management.


DEFINITIONS OF LAND CHARACTERISTICS

Texture

Texture is a soil property that is related to the proportion of sand,
silt and clay that a soil contains. The soil should be moist to determine
its texture by sense of touch. When soil is rubbed between the fingers:
(a) sand is gritty, (b) silt is smooth and (c) clay is slick and sticky.
Fourteen textural grades have been established but are grouped into three
broad textural groups for land judging purposes.








Coarse Textured
Very Sandy Soils


2. Loamy Soils









3. Clayey Soils


Moderately Coarse
Textured Soils



Medium Textured Soils



Moderately Fine
Textured Soils

Fine-Textured Soils
Fine-Textured Soils


I. Sandy


SANDY

Feels and sounds
gritty. Ball
usually breaks
in your hand.

No ribbon


LOAMY

Usually smooth.
Ball shows some
finger marks and
holds its shape.
Has short
thick
ribbon.

CLAYEY
Feels smooth and
sticky. Ball shows
finger marks.
Holds shape.

Long thin
ribbon.


F~


Organic Matter


This is the residue of plant and animal material in various stages of
decomposition. It helps hold both water-and fertilizer in the plant root
zone and upon decomposition becomes plant food. Organic matter of the sur-
face soil (from the surface down to the first significant change in color) is
determined by examining the darkness of color of an air dry sample. Usually
the darker the color of the surface soil, the higher the organic matter con-
tent. It is generally agreed that where the soil organic matter is between
zero and two percent it is low, between two and five percent it is medium
and where it is over five percent it is high.


TSands
Loamy Sands

Sandy Loam
Fine Sandy Loam

Very Fine Sandy Loam
Loam
Silt Loam
Silt

Clay Loam
SSandy Clay Loam
Silty Clay Loam

Sandy Clay
Silty Clay
Clay










Thickness of Rooting Zone


This is the total thickness of surface and subsoil layers readily pene-
trated by plant roots. Dense hardpan, clay pan, rock or a permanently high
water table limits rooting zone.


Thin
Thick
Very Thick


0-20 inches
20-40 inches
40 inches or more


Permeability

Movement of air and water in the soil is limited by the soil layer
through which they move the slowest. Permeability can be estimated from
texture, compaction and arrangement of soil particles (structure).

Rapid


These soils have loose or open sandy subsoil with
defined structure other than single grained (very
tion to movement of water and air).


little if any
little restric-


Moderate


These soils have friable to slightly firm, usually loamy subsoils
with blocky, platy and prismatic structure. Weakly cemented sandy
material is also included.


Slow


These soils have firm to very firm loamy and clayey subsoils with
blocky, platy, prismatic and massive structure. Strongly cemented
sandy material is also included.


C 0



F o


Drawings illustrating some of the types of soil structure: A,
prisnmatic; B, columnar; C, angular blocky; D, subangular blocky; E,
platy; and F, granular.


A B


I


I -- -~









Slope

Slope is measured in feet fall or rise per 100 feet of horizontal travel
and is expressed in percent.

A. Nearly level 0- 2%
B. Gently sloping 2- 5%
C. Moderately sloping 5- 8%
D. Strongly sloping 8-12%
E. Steep 12-17%
F. Very steep 17% or more

Erosion -- Wind and Water

Erosion is the loss of soil by forces of water and wind. Following
are the definitions of erosion terms.

None to slight: Less than 25 percent of surface soil removed.
No gullies.

Moderate: 25 to 75 percent of surface soil removed with or
without gullies.

Severe: 75 percent or more of the surface soil removed with
or without occasional uncrossable gullies.

Very severe: All of the surface soil removed and up to 75
percent of the subsoil lost.

Drainage

Drainage can be regarded as an index of the natural condition of wetness.
It is associated with the rate at which water is removed under natural condi-
tions. Wetness of a soil is influenced by many factors including internal
drainage, permeability, and depth to the water table. Generally, internal
drainage is a reflection of permeability, for example, a very slowly per-
meable soil exhibits poor to very poor internal drainage. The presence
and depth of a water table is not necessarily a reflection of permeability.
Establishing depth and permanency of water table requires study during
different seasons of the year.

Poor: Water is removed so slowly that the soil remains wet for a large
part of the time. The water table is commonly within 20 inches of the
surface during a considerable part of the year. Poorly drained conditions
are due to a high water table, to a slowly permeable layer within the pro-
file, to seepage or to some combination of these conditions. Poorly
drained soils are usually characterized by uniform gray or mottled colors
immediately below the surface soil. Some poorly drained sandy soils may
be light gray from the surface downward with or without mottles. Mottling
is normally associated with loamy or clayey subsoils. A spodic layer at
depths of 10-40 inches is an indicator of wetness when accompanied by
wetness indicators previously described.





5









Somewhat poor: Water is removed from the soil slowly enough to keep it
wet for significant periods. Water table is at depths of 20-40 inches
for a considerable part of the year. Somewhat poorly drained conditions
are due to a moderately high water table, to a slowly permeable layer
within the profile, to seepage, or to some combination of these conditions.
Somewhat poorly drained soils are usually characterized by uniform grayish,
brownish, or yellowish colors in the upper profile and commonly have
mottles between 20-40 inches. Somewhat poorly drained sandy soils may be
gray from the surface downward with or without mottles. Mottling is
normally associated with loamy or clayey subsoils.

Moderately well and well: Water is removed from the soil somewhat slowly
so that the profile is wet for a small but significant part of the time.
The water table is commonly between 40 and 72 inches. Moderately well
drained soils commonly have a slowly permeable layer within or immediately
beneath the subsoil, a relatively high water table, additions of water
through seepage or some combinations of these conditions. Moderately well
and well drained soils normally have uniform colors in surface soils and
upper subsoil and are mottled in the lower subsoil (below 40 inches).

Excessive: Water is removed from the soil readily. Water table occurs
at depths below 72 inches. The soil material is almost free of mottling
throughout the profile. Dominant colors are pale brown, yellow and red.
Some well drained sandy soils are white or light gray in color and lack
evidence of wetness.

FACTORS DETERMINING CAPABILITY CLASS

SOME COMBINATIONS OF THE SEVEN LAND CHARACTERISTICS
JUST DESCRIBED WILL DETERMINE THE CAPABILITY CLASS.


Land Capability Classes:

Class 1: Soils in this class are suitable for cultivation over
a long period of time. They are moderately well to well
drained, deep, productive, nearly level, not subject to more
than slight erosion regardless of treatment and are free
from overflows that interfere with planting, growing, or
harvesting of crops.

Class 11: This class includes soils which are suitable for culti-
vation over a long period of time; however, they have
some hazards and limitations such as gentle slopes,
slight erosion, or moderate wetness. Following are some
of the practices which may be needed to overcome the hazards
and limitationsof soils in this class: rotations that
include soil conserving and improving crops at least one-
half of the time, water control, contour sloping lands,
diversion of overhead water and applications of fertilizers
and lime as needed.











Class III:












Class IV:


These are good soils for cultivated crops but they have
severe limitations that reduce the variety of plants
that can be grown, require special conservation practices
or both. Following are the treatments which may be
needed: terracing and contour cultivation, strip
cropping and crop residue management. They also need
intensive crop rotations which include soil conserving
and improving crops at least two-thirds of the time,
diversion of overhead water and application of ferti-
lizers and lime as needed. If the soils are wet they
need water control for crop production.

Soils making up this class have very severe limitations
that restrict the choice of plants, require very care-
ful management, or both. Some of the limitations are
steep slopes, excessive wetness or poor soil charac-
teristics. They should be managed in a rotation which
includes soil conserving and improving crops at least
three-fourths of the time. When cultivated, sloping
land should be broken in strips and will require prac-
tices such as terracing and contour farming. Wet
lands will require water control. Both sloping and
wet land will require conservation of all organic resi-
dues and the application of fertilizers and lime as
needed. As a rule they are best suited for pasture
or hay.


Class V: These soils are not suitable for cultivation. They
may be used for permanent vegetation. They are not
more than slightly susceptible to deterioration and
therefore require no special conservation practices
or restrictions in use. These soils may be frequently
flooded or poorly drained. The treatment needed is
good grazing management if utilized for pasture or
range and good timber management if used for woodland.
All areas should be protected from wildfire.


Class VI:


Soils in Class VI have severe limitations that make
them generally unsuited for cultivation and limit their
use largely to pasture or range, woodland, or wild-
life food and cover. Restrictions commonly needed
on pasture and range are deferred and rotational grazing
to maintain a good soil cover at all times. Timber
land should be protected from grazing. All areas
should be protected from wildfire.










Class VII: Soils in Class VII have very severe limitations that
make them unsuited for cultivation and that restrict
their use to woodland or wildlife. Practices required
are protection from grazing, protection from wildfire
and other practices to increase woodland production
and wildlife population.

Class VIII: This is land that is not suitable for cultivation and
not suitable for useful permanent vegetation or wood-
land. It is land of little or no economic value agri-
culturally, except for wildlife or recreational pur-
poses. It needs protection from wildfire and restric-
tion from grazing.

LAND CLASSES AND SAFE LAND USES

THE LENGTH OF BAR SHOWS THE SAFE USES FOR EACH CLASS OF LAND
NOTE: THE SHORTER THE BARS THE FEWER THE SAFE USES

VERY
CLASS RECREATION FORESTRY LIMITED INTENSIVE LIMITED MODERATE INTENSIVE INTENSIVE
WILDLIFE GRAZING GRAZING CULTIVATION CULTIVATION CULTIVATION CULTIVATION


I




III

IV

V NO CULTIVATION BELOW
CLASS IV

VI

VII

VIII


SOIL TAXONOMY


Soil classification systems of various sorts have been used for hundreds
of years. Many of the systems were based on one soil characteristic like
color (red, black), elevation (high, low), moisture (wet, dry), fertility
(rich, poor), or acidity-alkalinity (sour, sweet)o These systems of class-
fication served a particular purpose for local conditions but were based on
opinions which are difficult to reproduce so they had very limited meaning.
The Capability Class classification system was an improvement over the older










systems because it included rating several soil characteristics by observa-
tions and measurements which can be reproduced. The Capability Class system
has helped many people recognize the importance of various soil characteris-
tics, however, science and technology have expanded since it was first deve-
loped.

A new classification system was begun in 1951, and after several re-
visions was adopted in 1965. This new system, Soil Taxonomy, is based on
physical, chemical and mineralogical properties and can be used anywhere in
the world. The taxonomic system recognizes six categories: Order, Sub-
order, Great Group, Subgroup, Family and Series. Soil Order is the only
category which is required in Land Judging Contests. Dominant features
of soil orders follows. Percent base saturation will be given information.


Dominant Features of Soil Orders


Name of Order


Dominant Feature


Alfisols


Aridisols

Ent i sols

Histosols


Inceptisols

Mollisols


Well-developed soils with a finer-textured horizon


Well-developed soils with a finer-textured horizon
that has more than 35% base saturation.

Dry soils that occur in arid or semi-arid regions.

Soils with little or no horizon development.

Soils composed of relatively thick organic
materials. (Mucks and Peats)

Soils of humid regions with weak horizon development.

Soils with thick, dark surfaces that have more than
50% base saturation in subhorizons.


Oxisols


Highly weathered soils of the tropics.


Spodosols



Ultisols


Vertisols


Soils with a spodic horizon (a subhorizon with a
mixture of organic matter and aluminum, with or
without iron).

Well-developed soils with a finer-textured horizon
that has less than 35% base saturation.

Soils with more than 30% clay which appreciably
expand upon wetting and contract upon drying.







S O I L S O F FL RI D A


SOIL ORDERS


1. ALFISOLS*
2. ARIDISOLS***
o
3. ENTISOLS
4. HISTOSOLS
5. INCEPTISOLS**
6. MOLLISOLS**-
7. OXISOLS**'
8. SPODOSOLS
9. ULTISOLS
10. VERTISOLS***


*Widely interspersed areas
**Minor occurrence
***None recognized in Florida


Note: Small areas of contrasting soils would be shown at a larger mapping scale.










Conservation Practices


Note: Local conditions may require some modifications of the following
recommendations; consult your County Extension Agent, District Conserva-
tionist or Vocational Agriculture Teacher.

Vegetative:

Numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4. Use soil conserving and improving crops:
Prevent or retard erosion, maintain or improve rather than deplete soil
organic matter, improve soil structure--tilth, increase water intake,
increase fertility. Use practice No. 1 on Class I every year between
cash crops, practice No. 2 on Class II every other year, practice No. 3
on Class III two years out of three and practice No. 4 on Class IV three
years out of four.

Number 5. Contour strip cropping: Grow row crops and strips or
bands of close growing cover crops in a systematic arrangement on the
contour. Use on Classes II through IV where the slope is two percent
or more and the surface texture is sandy excepting excessively drained sands.

Number 6. Manage crop residue: Turn in rather than burn off
crop residue or provide a protective cover leaving the residue of
any previous crops as a mulch on the surface. Use on Classes I
through IV.

Number 7. Use sod based rotation: Grow crops in recurring
succession on the same land using grass pasture three years out of
four or six years out of eight. Use on Class IV.

Number 8. Wind strip cropping: Produce row crops in long, rela-
tively narrow strips between strips of tall growing grasses or legumes,
placed across the direction of the prevailing wind. Use on Classes I
through IV when a wind erosion problem is indicated on the conditions
poster.

Number 9. Use field windbreaks: Use a border of trees and shrubs,
usually three or more rows, to reduce or check the force of the wind.
Established for the protection of fields, orchards, groves, feedlots,
and homesteads. Use on Classes I through IV when a wind erosion problem
is indicated on the conditions poster.

Number 10. Control noxious plants: Keep to a minimum undesirable
vegetation. Mowing and spraying with chemicals are two methods of con-
trol. Use on Classes I through VII.

Number 11. Establish recommended grasses and/or legumes: Estab-
lish a protective cover on land not producing suitable permanent vege-
tation or on unprotected land not suitable for cultivated crops. Use
on Classes V and VIo










Number 12. Manage pasture or range properly: Apply practices to
keep plants growing actively over as long a period as possible and en-
courage the growth of desirable grasses and legumes through controlled
grazing and use of fertilizers and lime. Use on Classes V and VI.

Number 13. Protect from wildfire: Self-explanatory. Use on
Classes V through VIII.

Number 14. Plant recommended trees: Use recommended varieties
of trees for post lots and woodland plantings. Use on Class VII.

Number 15. Harvest trees selectively: Remove mature or un-
desirable trees and encourage reproduction under the remaining stand.
Use on Class VII.

Number 16. Use for wildlife or recreational area: Protect or
develop areas that are not suitable for cultivation, grazing or
forestry. Use on Class VIll

Mechanical:

Number 18. Terrace: Use terraces which are ridges or embank-
ments of soil constructed across the slope to control runoff, mini-
mize erosion and increase percolation of water into the soil. Use on
Class II through IV when slope is more than 2 percent but less than 8
percent and surface texture is loamy or clayey.

Number 19. Farm on the contour: Conduct field operations such
as plowing, planting, and cultivation on the contour or at right angles
to the direction of slope with or without the use of terraces and/or
contour strip cropping. Use on Classes II through IV where the slope
is 2 percent or more excepting excessively drained sands.

Number 20. Maintain terraces: Keep terraces in shape to work
effectively. Do not cultivate across them. Use with practices No.
18 or 21,

Number 21. Construct diversion terraces: These are larger
terraces constructed to handle a larger flow of water than a nor-
mal field terrace. Use when an overhead water problem is indicated
on the conditions poster.

Number 22. Develop waterways: Use natural or constructed
courses to accommodate a flow of water. Generally seeded to grass
or hard-surfaced. Use with all terraced and contoured land.

Number 23. Install water control system: Control water on
land by means of surface or sub-surface drains and structures. Use
where the rooting zone is limited by a high water table.

Number 24. Control gullies: Prevent further erosion in gullies.
Use where gullies are present.


L










Number 25. Subsoil: Till soil below the normal plow depth.
Sometimes referred to as chiseling. The intended purpose is to break
or shatter a spodic horizon, claypan or plowpan which has been limiting
the rooting depth and/or impeding internal soil drainage. Use where
a compaction problem is indicated on the conditions poster.

Fertilizer and Soil Amendments:

Use soil analysis as a basis for fertilizer and soil amendment
recommendations. Use limestone where pH is below 6.0.

Number 27. Dolomitic limestone (dolomite): Use dolomitic lime-
stone to adjust the soil pH (reduce soil acidity) and supply calcium
and magnesium.

Number 28. High calcic limestone: Apply high calcic limestone
to adjust soil pH (reduce soil acidity) and supply calcium.

Number 29. Sulphur: Sulphur can be used to adjust soil pH
(increase soil acidity).

Number 30. Manure or Compost: Apply manure or compost when-
ever available to improve soil conditions, add organic matter and
supply some plant foods.

Numbers 31-33. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potash: Apply these
plant foods to correct soil deficiencies. These are major plant foods.

Number 34. Micronutrients: Apply micronutrients to correct
soil deficiencies. These are required by plants in very small quan-
tities. Use where the conditions poster states that one or more of
the following is deficient: copper, manganese, boron, iron, zinc,
cobalt, molybdenum.











LAND CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR
LIMITATIONS ON CAPABILITY CLASS


Best Possible
Factor Land Class

Surface Texture
Sandy .............................................. I
Loamy .............................................. I
Clayey ............................................. III


Organic Matter
High .............................................. I
Medium ........................................... I
Low ................................................ I


Thickness of rooting zone
Thin ............................................... III
Thick .............................................. I
Very thick ......................................... I


Permeability
Rapid ...........................
Moderate ........................
Slow ............................


Slope


Nearly level .........
Gently sloping .......
Moderately sloping ...
Strongly sloping .....
Steep ................


F Very steep ......................................


Erosion
None to slight ...........
Moderate .................
Severe ...................
Very severe ..............


Drainage
Poor ...............................................
Somewhat poor ......................................
Moderately well and well............................
Excessive ...........................................


11111.111


..........
..........
..........
. . .. .


...........................
...........................
...........................
...........................


illllllll


.................
.................
.................
.................












HOW TO USE THE LAND JUDGING SCORE CARD


lo Score cards must ALWAYS be identified with Field No. and Name.

2. An "X" is used to mark your answers for Part One, Part Two and
Soil Order. Land Capability Class should be circled.

3. In case the land is in Class 1, the rule is to mark no factors!
For other classes, the rule is to mark the factors that keep
the land from being Class I.

4. The perfect score of each field is variable depending on the
number of conservation practices required.

5. Conservation practices are listed on the face of the score card.

6. The blank lines on the face of the Land Judging Score Card can be
used to write in soil conserving and improving practices not
listed. When they are to be used, officials will make this
announcement and everyone can write in the practice or practices.

7. In selecting conservation practices in Part 2 of the score card
consider the most intensive use that could be made of the land
based on its limitations.

8. If you use more conservation practices than are necessary the
judges will give credit for correct practices and penalty points
for those which are incorrect.

9o Select the number of conservation practices needed for each
field. Use number 1 on Class 1, number 2 on Class II, number
3 on Class III, and number 4 on Class IV. Do not use one'of
the first four practices on Class V, VI, VII or Vill! Prac-
tices I through 9 should generally be used on Classes 1 through
IV. Practice 10 should be used on Classes I through VII.
Practices 11 through 16 will generally be used on Classes V
through VIII. Practices 18 through 25 should be used as needed.
Practices 27 through 35 are selected on the basis of the assumed
soil test. Use practice 30 ONLY when manure or compost is
listed as available.






LAND JUDGING SCORE CARD



Name ..... .................................................... .. .. ........... Field No...............

Indicate your answer by an X in the El


LAND CHARACTERISTIC-PART ONE

SURFACE TEXTURE
Sandy ................ .. .. ................
Loamy ... ........ ........ .................
Clayey ............... ................... i
ORGANIC MATTER (SURFACE SOIL)
High..................... ............... .]
M edium ........ ............ .. ....... C.
Low ......................... .. .... ..... F. J
THICKNESS OF ROOTING ZONE
Thin ..................... ............. .
Thick .................. ................. E
Very Thick ........................ ....... .
MOVEMENT OF AIR AND WATER
IN THE SOIL (PERMEABILITY)
Rapid................ ........... ... ...... .L
Moderate ....................... ..............
Slow . ..................... .............. .
SLOPE
A Nearly level ............... .. ..... ....... ..
B G ently sloping ............................. I
C Moderately sloping ................... ...... .
D Strongly sloping ........................... .
E Steep ............. .................... .
F Very steep .................. .............. 0
EROSION-WIND AND WATER
None to slight ................ ......... .. .
Moderate ............. ....... ............ ..
Severe ...... ............................ D
Very severe ................................ I
DRAINAGE
Poor........... ....... ........ ........... .
Somewhat poor ....................... . . . [
Moderately well and well ................. .. . D
Excessive .................................... .
FACTORS DETERMINING LAND CLASS
Texture ............... .................
O rganic m atter ................ .............. .
Thickness of rooting zone....................... .
Permeability ..................................
Slope .............. .......................
Erosion ........... ........................
Drainage ............................... ...... E
LAND CAPABILITY CLASS
I 11 III IV V VI VII VIII
Circle one of the above
SOIL ORDER
Alfisol ................ [ M ollisol ............... L
A ridisol ............... O xisol ................ I
Entisol .............. . O Spodosol .............. I
Histosol .............. E Ultisol ................ F
Inceptisol ............. Vertisol ............... O


CONSERVATION PRACTICES-PART TWO

VEGETATIVE
Use soil conserving and improving crops:
[ 1. Every year.
] 2. Every other year.
L1 3. Two years out of three.
F1 4. Three years out of four.

F 5. Contour strip cropping.
G 6. Manage crop residue.
D 7. Use sod-based rotation.
n 8. Wind strip cropping.
F 9. Use field windbreaks.
[] 10. Control noxious plants.
LA 11. Establish recommended grasses and/or legumes.
Li 12. Manage pasture or range properly.
L 13. Protect from wildfire.
l 14. Plant recommended trees.
l 15. Harvest trees selectively.
[] 16. Use for wildlife or recreational area.
l 17 . ................................. ......
MECHANICAL
r 18. Terrace.
L 19. Farm on the contour.
[ 20. Maintain terraces.
D 21. Construct diversion terraces.
[] 22. Develop waterways.
[ 23. Install water control system.
L 24. Control gullies.
LC 25. Subsoil.
n[ 26 .. .....................................
FERTILIZER & SOIL AMENDMENTS
O 27. Dolomitic Limestone.
L 28. High Calcic Limestone.
l 29. Sulfur.
[ 30. Manure or Compost.
D 31. Nitrogen.
O 32. Phosphorus.
O 33. Potash.
0 34. Micronutrients.
L 35 . .......................................


SCORE PART I ...............

SCORE PART II ..............

TOTALSCORE...............















The sign titled Conditions of Fields, posted at each site, will
give information useful in judging individual sites.








CONDITIONS OF FIELDS FOR LAND JUDGING




FIELD NO.............


1. Assumed soil tests show

a......................

b......................

... .....................


deficiencies in

d.........................

e.........................

f.........................


Pay no attention to practices on the field.


Consider the most intensive use of the land.


Thickness of the surface soil was ....................


Barnyard manure is (........), is not (........) available.


Other conditions are .....................................

..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....














GENERAL RULES FOR LAND JUDGING CONTESTS


* DO NOT USE BULLETINS, BOOKS, NOTES, LEVELS, DRAWINGS,
SOIL SAMPLES, or other devices of assistance or in-
formation in the contest. It is permissible to carry
a small bottle of water to moisten the soil for making
a determination of SURFACE TEXTURE.


* DO NOT COPY information from others in the contest.


* Officials ask that there be NO TALKING BETWEEN CON-
TESTANTS DURING THE TIME OF CONTEST.


STwenty minutes will be allowed to make the placings
on each field unless otherwise designated.


* Location of the fields for the contest will not be
announced before the start of the contest.


SIt is very important that you comply with the rules.
Your cooperation will be appreciated. Please pay
close attention to guides or leaders and be prompt
in following instructions.


* Field 1 will be the first tie breaker. Part 1 of
field No. I will be the first score used to break
a tie. If this does not break the tie, Part 2 of
field 1 will be considered. The tabulators will
continue in this manner with fields No. 2, 3, and
4, if necessary to break a tie.


SPaid agricultural workers are ineligible to com-
pete for prizes.


SDecisions of the judges will be final!









THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES MAY BE HELPFUL IN LEARNING HOW THE FACTORS GO
TOGETHER TO MAKE DIFFERENT LAND CAPABILITY CLASSES.


Ex e Surface Organic Thickness of Permea-
ExamplTexture Matter rooting zone biity Sope Erosion Drainage Cass
Texture Matter rooting zone bility Slope Erosion Drainage Class


Mod.
I I

Mod.
I I

Slight


Mod.
I I

Mod.
II

None


Mod.
II

Severe
I I I


well
I


Somewhat Poor
II

Well
III

well


Poor
III

Poor
III

Somewhat Poor
II


Sandy


Loamy


Sandy


Loamy


Loamy


Sandy


Loamy


Loamy


If one factor keeps a site from being Class I, class determination is simple. In cases where two factors are in-
volved, class determination is still relatively simple. Usually the most severe limitation will determine the
class. Where several factors (3 or more) are involved, the situation is somewhat more complex. Capability class
may be determined by the most limiting factor. More likely the class designation will be penalized by one class
if the single most limiting hazard restricts the site to Class III. If the single most limiting hazard restricts
the site to Class IV, the class designation may be penalized by two classes and fall into Class VI--particularly
if one of the factors is slope.


Low


Med ium


Low


Medium


Low
I




High


Medium

Low
Low
I








I


Thick

Thick

VThick




V. Thick


Thin
III

Thick
I





Thin
III
V. Thick

V. Thick
I


Mod.
II

Slow
If

Rapid
II

Mod.


S I ow
Slow
II

Rapid
II

Slow
I I

Mod.
I


we 1








LAND JUDGING AND HOMESITE EVALUATION


INTRODUCTION


This information is designed to emphasize the importance of soils and
their limitations for non-agricultural purposes. While it is restricted
to homesites, the importance of a soil's suitability for parks and play-
grounds, roads and streets, and other uses should also be stressed.

Many of the features used in judging soils for agricultural use will
also be used in evaluating an area for a homesite.

This discussion of individual soil features is related to limitations
for a specific use. The limitations are defined as follows:

Slight Limitations Soils or locations that have properties favorable
for the planned use and present few or no problems.

Moderate Limitations Soils or locations that have properties only
moderately favorable for the planned use. Limita-
tions can be overcome or modified with special
planning, design or maintenance. Special treatment
of the site for the desired use may be necessary.

Severe Soil Limitations Soils or locations that have properties unfavor-
able for the planned use. Limitations are
difficult and costly to modify or overcome for
the use desired.

Very Severe Limitations The soil or location has features so unfavorable
for a particular use that overcoming the
limitation is very difficult and expensive.
For the most part this kind of soil should
not be used for the purpose being rated.

FACTORS AFFECTING SUITABILITY


TEXTURE. This refers to the texture of the surface soil. Surface texture
is not a factor for septic systems because such systems are dug
below the surface.

SANDY: Generally moderate limitations may require stabilization with
organic material and/or loamy topsoil to improve moisture and
nutrient holding and supplying capacity for desired plant growth.
Washing and blowing may be a problem during construction.
Shrink-swell potential is very low.

LOAMY: None to slight limitations Care should be exercised during
construction to be sure the surface soil is not covered by less
desirable material. Shrink-swell potential is low.










CLAYEY: Severe limitations Soil is sticky when wet, hard when dry,
difficult to work when used for lawns, shrubs, and gardens.
The soils crack when dry, swell when wet. Clayey soils have
a high shrink-swell potential. Special planning and design
are required for foundations. May be drought requiring
frequent and low rate of watering for vegetable growth.

PERMEABILITY. This normally refers to the rate of water or air movement
through the most restrictive layer in the soil. This may be considered
as internal drainage. Laterals for septic systems may be located below
such layers in some soils. For that reason this should serve as a warn-
ing and final design should be based on the standard post hole method of
determining infiltration where soils are slow or very slowly permeable.
It is an important factor in deciding between a septic tank system or a
community sewage system. Soil percolation tests would be required
before making further plans. Special note: For septic systems, consider
the permeability below 30 inches.

RAPID PERMEABILITY: Soils generally are not finer than loams to sandy
loams throughout. Slight limitations in use for septic system disposal
field, or foundations and basement construction. Moderate limitations
for lawns and shurbs.

MODERATE PERMEABILITY: Slight limitations for all uses. Soils are
generally light silty clay loam, light clay loams and light sandy clay
loams and have no severe restrictive layers, with prismatic to granular
or soft blocky structure.

SLOW PERMEABILITY: Severe limitations for septic tank systems. Soils
generally would be on the fine side of the loamy group such as silty
clay loams to heavy clay loams with a structure of subangular blocky
to slightly crumbly. The cost of modification or size of filter field
necessary would generally be prohibitive. Limitations would be moderate
for foundations; lawns, shrubs and gardens.

SOIL DEPTH. This refers to the vertical depth of a soil to bedrock such
as limestone or consolidated clays that restrict or prohibit excavations.
Severity of limitations, because of depth, vary greatly for different use;
therefore, Table I is to be used as a guide for evaluation of soil depth
for alternate uses.

TABLE 1. EFFECT OF SOIL DEPTH ON LAND USE ADAPTATION

Adjective Depth Foundations Lawns, Shrubs Septic
Rating Inches and Gardens Systems

Shallow 0 20 Severe V. Severe V. Severe
Mod. Deep 20 40 Moderate None to sl. Severe
Deep 40 72 None to S1. None to S1. Moderate

SLOPE. This refers to the steepness of the surface or the vertical rise or
fall per 100 feet of distance expressed in percent. Table 2 will aid in
interpretation of the slope.









TABLE 2. EFFECT OF SLOPE ON LAND USE ADAPTATION


Adjective Slope Foundations Lawns, Shrubs Septic
Rating % and Gardens Systems

Nearly Level 0 2 None to slight None to Sl. None to Sl.
Gently Sloping 2 5 None to S1 None to Sl. None to S1.
Moderately Sloping 5 8 Moderate Moderate Moderate
Strongly Sloping 8 12 Severe Severe Moderate
Steep 12 17 V. Severe V. Severe Severe
V. Steep 17 + V. Severe V. Severe V. Severe


EROSION. Erosion of the soil can increase the expense of landscaping.
Severe gullies will impose additional limitations on septic disposal
fields.

NONE TO SLIGHT AND MODERATE EROSION: None to slight limitations
for any use.

SEVERE EROSION: Moderate limitation for any use. Modification of
surface or bringing in top soil for lawns, shrubs, and gardens.

VERY SEVERE EROSION: Severe limitations; usually severely gullied
requiring much filling or leveling, extra cost on septic disposal
systems, extensive modification for lawns, shrubs, and gardens.
Time of development should be selected for the least erosive time of
year.

SHRINK-SWELL. This factor is implied in the permeability and texture of
a soil. Because it is important in foundation design it should have
special consideration. The most clayey layer in the profile is generally
considered in relation to shrink-swell. Shrink-swell potential is not
generally a factor for lawns, shrubs and gardens.

LOW SHRINK-SWELL: Coarse, moderately coarse, and medium textured
soils. None to slight limitations for any use.

MODERATE SHRINK-SWELL: Moderately fine textured soils. Moderate
limitations for foundations and septic systems.

HIGH SHRINK-SWELL: Fine textured soils. Severe limitations for
foundations and septic systems.

DRAINAGE. See discussion and definitions on pages 5&6

POOR: Limitations would be severe for foundations, lawns, shrubs
and gardens and very severe for septic systems.

SOMEWHAT POOR: Limitations would be none to slight for foundations;
moderate for lawns, shrubs and gardens; and severe for septic
systems.












MODERATELY WELL AND WELL: Limitations are none to slight for
foundations, lawns, shrubs and gardens, and moderate for septic
systems.

EXCESSIVE: Limitations are none to slight for foundations
and septic systems but moderate for lawns, shrubs and gardens.

FLOODING. The occurrence of flooding is a factor frequently overlooked.
Flooding may not occur on an area for many years, then a serious flood
can occur. Urban development on the watershed of a small stream can
increase runoff up to 75% thus greatly increasing flood hazards. Soils
can give an indication of flooding but records must be studied to determine
the true condition. Position in the landscape and proximity to nearby
streams are good indicators of frequency of flooding. In contests this
is normally given information.

NO FLOODING: Limitations none to slight for any use.

OCCASIONAL FLOODING: Less frequent than one year in five. Severe
limitations for development.

FREQUENT FLOODING: Flooding more frequent than one year in five.
Very severe limitations for development.









SUMMARY TABLE


Characteristic Planned Use and Interpretation

Foundations Lawns, Shrubs, Septic
Gardens Systems

Texture: Sandy Moderate Moderate
Loamy Slight Slight
Clayey Severe Severe


Permeability: Rapid Slight Moderate Slight
Moderate Slight Slight Slight
Slow Moderate Moderate Severe


Depth: Shallow Severe V. Severe V. Severe
Moderately deep Moderate Slight Severe
Deep Slight Slight Moderate


Slope: Nearly level Slight Slight Slight
Gently sloping Slight Slight Slight
Moderately sloping Moderate Moderate Slight
Strongly sloping Severe Severe Moderate
Steep V. Severe V. Severe Severe
Very steep V. Severe V. Severe V. Severe


Erosion: None to slight Slight Slight Slight
Moderate Slight Slight Slight
Severe Moderate Moderate Moderate
V. Severe Severe Severe Severe


Shrink-Swell: Low Slight Slight
Moderate Moderate Moderate
High Severe Severe


Drainage: Poor Severe Severe V. Severe
Somewhat poor Slight Moderate Severe
Moderately well
and well Slight Slight Moderate
Excessive Slight Moderate Slight


Flooding: None Slight Slight Slight
Occasional Severe Severe Severe
Frequent V. Severe V. Severe V. Severe












HOW TO USE THE HOMESITE EVALUATION SCORE CARD


1. The total perfect score on one field is 84 points.

2. The total perfect score on Part I is 24 points and 60 points for
Part II (20 points for each use).

3. Part I of the score card has to do with those factors the contestant
must determine about the site. With the exception of shrink-swell
and flooding, the factors are similar to those for land judging.

4. After Part I is completed, determine the severity of limitations that
the existing soil conditions impose on the planned use as listed on
Part II of the score card.

5. The final evaluation of the site is determined by the worst degree of
limitation found for the particular planned use.

6. The contestants should be given 15 to 20 minutes to fill in the answers
on their score cards on each site.

7. In order to insure that the contests are not lengthened too much by
the addition of homesite evaluation, and that grading does not become
too burdensome, several alternatives are possible.
Example:
1. Three land and one or two homesites to judge.
2. Other.
The only concern is to make sure that there are enough interpretative
uses required to test the contestants' skills in homesite evaluation.







Name


Part One


Characteristic


HOMESITE EVALUATION SCORE CARD
Site No.
Indicate your answer by an X in the [1


Part Two


Planned Use and Interpretation


Foundations


>>
M a LO
- o 0 0
) o aE )>
c/i s ii


Lawns, Shrubs
Gardens
o
01 a) 0) U)
-o >
- 00)
Cl) EUO>


Surface Texture: Sandy 3 Eli -
Loamy i3 El
Clayey -l E-

Permeability: Rapid CD l L
Moderate CI)l [
Slow I0 [3 E

Depth: Shallow I EO El]
Moderately deep D -- I
Deep I El- D

Slope: Nearly level CI 0
Gently sloping c I
Moderately sloping I IC O
Strongly sloping C O
Steep i r
Very steep I r- 5

Erosion: None to slight I I [ I
Moderate CI1 -
Severe CI I
Very Severe DI El El

Shrink-Swell: Low D I- O-
Moderate L 0 0I
High I D1 0

Drainage: PoorI I I I
Somewhat poor 0 0
Moderately well I I
and well E1 L
.Excessive I EI r

Flooding: None ID E
Occasional 1-I -l
Frequent D D

Final Evaluation: Slight 0
Moderate D
Severe Q 5
Very Severe

Score Part One Score Part Two Total
Possible 24 Possible 20 for each use


Septic Systems


--















ACKNOWLEDGMENT


Some of the ideas and material in this booklet have
been obtained from several state and federal publications.
Suggestions were made by many individuals in the Uni-
versity of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences; USDA, Soil Conservation Service; and the Florida
Department of Education, Agribusiness and Natural Resources
Education.

Special appreciation is due Dr. V. W. Carlisle,
Professor Soil Science, IFAS Agricultural Experiment
Station, Department of Soil Science and Mr. Robert W.
Johnson, State Soil Scientist, USDA Conservation Service.

This wealth of assistance is gratefully acknowledged.


This publication was promulgated at a cost of $978.00, or 32.6 cents per copy, to help the public in land
judging and homesite evaluation. 6-3M-82

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertiller, director, In cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this infor- t
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress;and is authorized to provide research, educa- IFA
tional Information and other services only to individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from
C. M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Galnesvllle, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.




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