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Title: Central and South Florida nursery industry characteristics
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Title: Central and South Florida nursery industry characteristics
Series Title: Central and South Florida nursery industry characteristics
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Creator: Ingram, Dewayne L.
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Introduction
        Page ii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Appendix. University of Florida survey of nurserymen and growers
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text
Circular 593


Central and South Florida
Nursery Industry Characteristics

Dewayne L Ingram and J. Robert Strain


IZ








- iJi~O


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
University of Florida, Gainesville


Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension

















CENTRAL AND SOUTH FLORIDA
NURSERY INDUSTRY CHARACTERISTICS




Dewayne L. Ingram
Associate Professor and Extension Specialist
Rural Development in Ornamental Horticulture


J. Robert Strain
Professor and Extension Specialist
Food and Resource Economics






Introduction

The ornamental plant industry is a substantial proportion of
Florida agriculture. Estimated values of woody and foliage plants
produced in Florida in 1982 were $120 million and $200 million,
respectively.' The Census of Agriculture provides general informa-
tion about the nursery industry but detailed information about its
characteristics is lacking.
The purpose of this survey was to characterize the nursery in-
dustry in central and south Florida. Detailed information on the
north Florida industry was published in 1981 as Extension Circular
504, Characteristics of the North Florida Nursery Industry.
Information was compiled regarding general nursery
characteristics, production, marketing, manager characteristics,
sources of information, and perceived educational and training
needs. The major goal was to provide information about the nursery
industry that would permit more effective Extension educational
programs directed to nursery managers and employees. However,
this information is expected also to be useful to nursery operators,
lenders, suppliers, brokers, retailers, educators, governmental agen-
cies, and others.
'Ornamental Horticulture Committee Reports, Florida Agriculture in the 80's. In-
stitute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. March 1983.


Central and South Florida
Survey Area






Sampling Method


Data for this study were obtained from nursery managers in the
35 counties south of Marion County (Ocala). Questionnaires (See
Appendix) were mailed to 450 foliage and 447 woody nurseries in-
spected in 1980 by the Division of Plant Industry of the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. These nurseries
were designated as wholesale or wholesale/retail businesses. Woody
nurseries with annual sales greater than $1000 and foliage pro-
ducers with greater than $5000 annual sales were ranked by size and
every fourth nursery in each group was selected for the survey. Two
hundred eighty-three of the 302 returned questionnaires were usable
(Table 1). Twenty of the respondents were determined to be hob-
bists, 25 had gone out of business, and 144 and 94 were commercial
foliage and woody nurseries, respectively.
Data in this publication were tabulated from only those commer-
cial nurseries responding to the mail survey, hence no statistical in-
ferences can be made. However, information collected and analyzed
was sufficient to describe general relationships.


General Characteristics of the
Nursery Industry


Time in Business
Fifty-one percent of all respondents had been in business for 5
years or less and 77 percent had been in business for 10 years or less.
The majority of both woody and foliage nurseries with annual sales
of $25,000 or less had been in business less than 5 years (Figure 1).
A greater percentage of foliage nurseries with annual sales between
$50,000 and $250,000 had been in business 1 to 5 years than woody
nurseries with the same level of sales. Forty percent of foliage
nurseries with sales greater than $250,000 had been in business 5
years or less while no woody nurseries responding with this volume
of sales had been in business less than 6 years. Forty percent of
woody and foliage nurseries with more than $250,000 annual sales
had been in business more than 10 years.

Manager Time Input
Sixty-seven percent of foliage and woody nurseries with sales of
$10,000 to $25,000 had a full-time manager (Figure 2). Almost all









Table 1. Nurseries surveyed and number of respondents categorized by nursery type and county, central and south Florida,
1981

Number of usable respondents
Commercial
Number Out of Total
County surveyed Woody Foliage Hobby business respondents
Brevard 42 13 6 0 0 19
Broward 87 9 7 1 2 19
Charlotte 3 0 1 0 0 1
Citrus 7 2 1 1 0 4
Collier 14 3 0 0 0 3
Dade 109 4 20 4 0 28
DeSoto 5 2 0 0 0 2
Flagler 1 0 0 0 0 0
Hardee 5 1 2 0 1 4
Hendry 1 0 1 0 0 1
Hernando 7 1 0 0 0 1
Highlands 7 0 1 0 0 1
Hillsborough 94 9 11 4 2 26
Indian River 7 0 0 0 1 1
Lake 40 4 10 0 2 16
Lee 21 2 4 0 0 6
Manatee 21 1 3 0 1 5
Martin 13 3 2 0 2 7
Monroe 11 1 2 0 0 3








Table 1. Continued

Number of usable respondents
Commercial
Number Out of Total
County surveyed Woody Foliage Hobby business respondents
Okeechobee 2 1 0 0 0 1
Orange 111 13 40 2 4 59
Osceola 9 1 3 0 0 4
Palm Beach 80 10 12 2 3 27
Pasco 26 4 0 0 0 4
Pinellas 34 1 10 1 3 15
Polk 45 3 4 3 1 11
Sarasota 14 1 0 0 0 1
Seminole 16 0 0 0 0 0
St. Lucie 11 1 0 0 2 3
Sumter 5 1 1 1 0 3
Volusia 49 3 3 1 1 8
Totals 897 94 144 20 25 283










Figure 1. Number of year in business for central and south Florida woody and foliage
nurseries, 1981.


01-5

WOODY 06-10
*>io


FOLIAGE


Less 10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 More All
than to to to to than Nurseries
10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 250,000

Total Annual Sales


10f 94 and 144 woody and foliage responses, respectively, 83 and 123 are represented.







Figure 2. Percent of woody arnd foliage nurseries with a full-time manager, central and
south Florida, 1981.


O Woody nurseries
N Foliage nurseries


Less 10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 More All
than to to to to than Sizes
10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 250,000
Total Annual Sales

Of 94 and 144 woody and foliage responses, respectively, 94 and 140 are represented.

nurseries with annual sales of more than $25,000 had a full-time
manager. More than 40 percent of nurseries with annual sales less
than $10,000 had a full-time manager.

Employees

Sixty-six percent of responding woody nurseries had no full-time
employees and 58 percent had no part-time employees. The majority
of woody nurseries with sales less than $50,000 had no full-time
employees but at least 40 percent had part-time employees (Figure
3). The manager probably supplied a substantial portion of the labor
utilized in these smaller woody nurseries and hired other labor dur-
ing peak periods. Fifty percent of woody nurseries with sales be-
tween $100,000 and $250,000 had one to five full-time employees
and 30 percent had one to five part-time employees. Of nurseries
responding with annual sales greater than $250,000, 71 percent had
6 to 10 full-time employees and 14 percent had more than 25.









Figure 3. Number of full-time and part-time employees in woody nurseries responding
from central and south Florida, 1981.


Full-time


C15
06-10
l 11-25
0>25


I


Part-time


Less 10,000 25,000 50,000
than to to to
10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000
Total Annual Sales

This information represents all woody respondents.


100,000
to
250,000


More All
than Woody
250,000 Nurseries


`-"







Eighty-six percent of these woody nurseries had one to five part-
time employees.
Foliage nurseries responding indicated they employed more full-
time and part-time employees than woody nurseries with com-
parable annual sales. Faster growing crops, more structures to
manage, and more rapid turnover in foliage nurseries than in woody
nurseries could explain the need for more labor in foliage nurseries.
Few foliage nurseries with more than $50,000 annual sales had no
full-time employees (Figure 4). Forty-two percent of foliage
nurseries with annual sales of $100,000 to $250,000 had more than
five full-time employees and 32 percent had one to five part-time
employees. Forty percent of foliage nurseries with more than
$250,000 annual sales had more than 25 full-time employees and 70
percent had more than 10 full-time employees.

General Production Characteristics

The majority of woody nurseries, regardless of size, produced
most of their plants in containers on outdoor beds or under saran
(Figure 5). Approximately 20 percent of the firms with sales less
than $25,000 had more area in field production than in greenhouses
or container production areas. Greenhouses comprised only a small
portion of the space for woody ornamental production.
Greenhouse production was much more prevalent in foliage
nurseries than woody nurseries, with 34 percent of foliage nursery
respondents indicating more greenhouse area than outdoor con-
tainer or field space. Only 18 percent of foliage nurseries responding
had more field production area than outdoor container or
greenhouse space.
Fifty percent of woody nurseries with annual sales less than
$100,000 grew fewer than 20 different plant species and cultivars
(Figure 6). Eighty percent of woody nurseries with sales between
$100,000 and $250,000 grew 11 to 50 different plants. Forty-four
percent of woody nurseries with annual sales greater than $250,000
grew more than 100 different plants while 28 percent grew 10 or
less. The majority of foliage nurseries responding with sales of less
than $25,000 grew no more than 20 different plants. Few foliage
nurseries vith annual sales less than $250,000 grew more than 50
different plant species and cultivars.

Marketing Characteristics
Ninety-four percent of woody nurseries and 68 percent of foliage
nurseries responding marketed at least one-half of their plants
within 50 miles of the nursery. The average woody nursery respond-









Figure 4. Number of full-time and part-time employees in foliage nurseries responding
from central and south Florida, 1981.


Bo
1-5
Full-time Q6-10
11-25
0>25


Part-time


10,000


100,000 More All
to than Foliage
250,000 250,000 Nurseries


Total Annual Sales


Of 144 foliage responses, 94 are represented.









Figure 5. Distribution of primary growing area among field, outdoor container (full sun
or shade), and greenhouse production, central and south Florida woody and
foliage nurseries, 1981.

SField
100 WOODY Outdoor container


Less 10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 More
than to to to to than
10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 250,000


All
Nurseries


Total Annual Sales

Of 94 and 144 woody and foliage responses, respectively, 88 and 135 are represented.









Figure 6. Number of different plant species and cultivars grown by woody and foliage
nurseries, central and south Florida, 1981.

1-10

100 11-20
o 21-50
90 WOODY 51100
@ 51-100

80 >100l

70

S 60




40


30

20




10
0



100


90 FOLIAGE

80


70

60


E 50

S40

30


Less 10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 More All
than to to to to than Nurseries
10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 250,000

Total Annual Sales

Of 94 and 144 woody and foliage responses, respectively, 92 and 141 are represented.







ing with annual sales less than $50,000 marketed at least 90 percent
of its plants within 50 miles of the nursery (Figure 7). Only 4 percent
of these woody nurseries marketed outside Florida. The average
woody nursery with sales more than $250,000 sold 64 percent of its
plants within 50 miles of the nursery. Foliage nurseries depended
less on local markets and more on area markets than woody
nurseries. A larger percentage of foliage plants were shipped out of
Florida than woody plants. Foreign markets appeared insignificant
for woody and foliage nurseries.
Twenty-six percent of woody nurseries responding sold at least 50
percent of their plants to landscaping firms and 31 percent sold
primarily to walk-on customers. The average percent of sales
through different marketing channels for 6 nursery size categories
are presented in Table 2 for woody and foliage nurseries. The
average woody nursery, with 1981 sales less than $10,000, sold 42
percent of its plants to other growers, landscapers, and retail
nurseries, while almost one-fourth of its plants were sold to walk-on
customers. Sales to landscapers, retail nurseries, and walk-ons com-
prised at least two-thirds of the market for woody firms with sales
greater than $50,000. Walk-on sales were important to woody
nurseries regardless of size but were less important to foliage
nurseries. Sales to other growers were not important for firms with
more than $50,000 annual sales. Retailers other than retail nurseries
were an insignificant portion of the woody and foliage market.




Training and Educational
Considerations


Manager Characteristics
Managers of 65 percent of the woody and foliage nurseries
responding had no formal horticultural training (Figure 8). Twenty
percent of the managers had a college degree in horticulture or a
related field and 7 percent had advanced college degrees. Ten of the
225 managers responding to this question had completed a voca-
tional horticulture training program. The majority of nurseries with
sales less than $250,000 had managers with no formal horticultural
training but only 46 percent of managers of firms with sales greater
than $250,000 had no formal training. Forty-six percent of mana-
gers of firms with sales greater than $250,000 had a college or ad-
vanced college degree in horticulture or a related field.









Figure 7. Market areas of woody and foliage nurseries, central and south Florida, 1981.1


10f 94 and 144 woody and foliage responses, respectively, 73 and 83 are represented.


Less 10,000 25,000 50.000 100,000 More All
than to to to to than Nurseries
10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 250,000

Total Annual Sales









Table 2. Marketing channels of woody and foliage nurseries in central and south Florida, 1981'

Total annual Other Land- Interior- Retail Farmers Other
sales ($) Brokers Distributors growers scapers scapers nurseries market Walk-ons retailers Other
.......... .........----------------------------------------................... % ----------------------------------------------


Woody nurseries
1 16
0 15
2 14
12 32
1 28
13 12


Less than 10,000
10,000-25,000
25,000-50,000
50,000-100,000
100,000-250,000
S More than 250,000

All Woody Nurseries


Less than 10,000
10,000-25,000
25,000-50,000
50,000-100,000
100,000-250,000
More than 250,000

All Foliage Nurseries


9 21 2 18 6 24 3 4


Foliage nurseries


14 10 2 14 5 11 1 6


'This information represents responses from 73 woody and 83 foliage commercial nurseries.







Figure 8. Formal horticultural training of woody and foliage nursery managers of central
and south Florida, 1981.


0 No formal training


SAdvanced college degree


Less 10,000 25,000 50.000 100,000 More All
than to to to to than Nurseries
10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 250,000
Total Annual Sales

1Of a combined total of 238 responses from woody and foliage nurseries, 225 are repre-
sented

Fifty percent of managers of nurseries with sales less than
$10,000 were at least 50 years of age and 32 percent were over 60
(Figure 9). This illustrates that small scale nursery production is a
suitable enterprise to supplement retirement income. Most
nurseries marketing more than $50,000 annually had managers 30
to 50 years of age.


Sources of Information

Woody Nursery Managers. Direct contact with county extension
agents was identified most often as a primary source of information
for woody nurseries with 1981 sales less than $10,000 (Table 3). Ex-
tension publications, books, other nursery operators, and Florida
nursery magazines were also primary sources of information for
woody nurseries with sales less than $50,000. Extension educa-
tional programs (activities or presentations) were not a major
source of information for woody firms with sales less than $100,000.







Figure 9. Age of managers of woody and foliage nurseries in central and south Florida,
1981.1
*<20
100 2029
030-39
90 40-49
5 50-59
80U ]>60

70

60

I- 50
,0
40

30



10


Less 10,000 25,000 50.000 100,000 More All
than to to to to than Nurseries
10,000 25,000 50.000 100,000 250,000 250.000
Total Annual Sales

10f a combined total of 238 responses from woody and foliage nurseries, 233 are repre-
sented.

Nursery organizations were identified as a primary source of infor-
mation by only a small percentage of woody firms with less than
$50,000 annual sales. Community colleges and vocational/technical
(VoTech) centers were insignificant sources of information for
woody producers who responded.


Foliage Nursery Managers. The most important source of infor-
mation for responding foliage nurseries with less than $250,000 an-
nual sales was direct contact with their county extension agent
(Table 3). Extension programs were generally not as important to
these respondents as extension publications, books, Florida nursery
magazines, and other nursery operators. VoTech schools and com-
munity colleges were minor sources of information for foliage
nurseries who responded. Nursery organizations were minor sources
of information for foliage nurseries and small woody firms.
Primary information sources were also tabulated by the training
levels of the manager (Figure 10). There was little difference in
preference of information sources between managers with different








Table 3. Primary information sources for central and south Florida woody and foliage nursery managers, 19811

State County Florida Nursery Other
Total annual extension extension Extension Extension nursery organi- VoTech Comm. nursery
sales ($) specialist agent publications programs Books magazines zations school college operators Other
----------------------------------------.................................................. % ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Less than 10,000
10,000-25,000
25,000-50,000
50,000-100,000
100,000-250,000
More than
250,000

All Woody
Nurseries


Less than 10,000
10,000-25,000
25,000-50,000
50,000-100,000
100,000-250,000
More than
250,000
All Foliage
Nurseries


Woody nurseries
55 48
88 75
64 64
38 75
80 60


71 71

39 63


71 71 86 57 0 0 71 0

33 60 57 27 6 3 54 4

Foliage nurseries
15 43 38 20 2 11 43 2
41 53 53 24 6 0 59 6
41 59 65 24 0 12 59 6
44 44 39 22 11 6 28 0
38 67 61 33 0 0 50 0

40 50 75 35 5 10 70 5

32 51 52 25 4 7 50 3


35 40

32 54


'This information represents responses from 91 woody and 218 foliage commercial nurseries.
NOTE: Percentages total more than 100 as some nurseries reported more than one primary information source.







Figure 10. Importance of information sources as perceived by central and south Florida nursery managers with varying formal horticultural training
levels, 1981.1,2
SNo formal training

100 Q High School

Vocational/technical
90
C College degree

80 5 Advanced college degree

70




a 50

S 40


30








State County Extension Extension Books Florida Nursery Vocational/ Community Other Other
Extension Extension Publications Programs Nursery Organizations Technical Colleges Nursery
Specialist Agent Magazines School Operators

Information Source

Of a combined total of 238 responses from woody and foliage nurseries, 223 are represented.


2Percentages total more than 100 as some nurseries reported more than one primary information source.






training. County extension agents, extension publications, books,
nursery magazines and the other nursery operators were the
primary information sources regardless of manager training level.
Forty percent of managers with VoTech training listed VoTech
schools as a primary source of information, while less than 10 per-
cent of other managers indicated this information source was impor-
tant. Twenty percent of VoTech graduates listed community col-
leges as a primary information source, but less than 3 percent of
other managers listed them.
Ninety percent or more of respondents indicated basic and ad-
vanced training for managers was important or very important
(Figure 11). Basic employee education was rated important or very
important by 86 percent of respondents. Advanced training for
employees was important to 43 percent and very important to 22
percent of respondents. Based on these data, employee and manager
training in central and south Florida should continue, but first
priority should be placed on manager training.


Figure 11. Perceived importance of education for central and
employees and managers, 1981.


south Florida nursery


m Not needed
O Important
SVery important


Basic Advanced Basic Advanced
Manager Manager Employee Employee
Educational Needs


1Of a combined total of 238 responses from woody and foliage nurseries, 233 are repre-
sented.






Perceived Educational and Training Needs
Managers. Training topics deemed most important for manager
training included pesticide use and safety, insects and diseases, fer-
tilization, propagation, and labor management (Table 4). Respon-
dents saw little need for manager training in landscape design and
maintenance or alternative plant materials.

Employees. Pesticide use and safety was perceived to be the
most important topic for employee training followed by insects and
disease, fertilization, propagation, and mechanization (Table 4).
Marketing, labor management, bookkeeping and records, and
business management training were rated as not needed by at least
60 percent of respondents. Surprisingly, water management train-
ing for employees was listed as not needed by 48 percent of the
respondents. Topics of moderate importance for employee training
were media and weed control.

Season and Time of Day for Meetings. Nurseries responding in-
dicated the best times to schedule educational activities would be
during evening hours throughout the year or during the day in
winter months (Figure 12). Combined afternoon and evening pro-
grams were the least desirable, especially during the spring, sum-
mer, and fall months.


Summary


The central and south Florida nursery industry appears to be a
young industry with over three-fourths of firms responding to the
survey having been in business less than 10 years. Many of the
registered nurseries were small and many of the firms with annual
sales less than $25,000 had part-time managers. The majority of
managers responding had no formal horticultural training and were
at least 30 years of age.
Only a small percentage of woody ornamentals produced in cen-
tral and south Florida were marketed outside Florida, but the larger
foliage producers marketed a substantial proportion of their plants
outside Florida. Walk-on customers, retail nurseries, and land-
scapers buy most of the woody plants, while retail nurseries,
brokers, and distributors were most important to foliage producers.
Based on responding managers' perception of primary informa-
tion sources, small nurseries are best reached through personal con-








Table 4. Importance of manager and employee training topics as assessed by central and south Florida commercial nursery
managers, 19811

Manager Employee
Not Very Not Very
Topics needed Important important needed Important important

----------------------------------------................................................................................ % ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Fertilization 3 19 78 12 47 35
Media 5 32 54 31 34 17
Weed control 9 30 54 24 46 20
Insects & diseases 2 14 84 6 45 42
Propagation 4 20 69 10 50 27
m Mechanization 9 38 40 24 50 26
0 Water management 5 34 54 48 28 7
Pesticide use &
safety 1 10 86 5 29 58
Marketing 7 26 56 63 11 5
Labor management 6 20 69 60 13 5
Bookkeeping &
records 7 36 49 60 16 3
Record analysis 13 35 42 63 12 1
Business
management 9 26 56 63 10 1
Landscape design 32 24 30 57 12 5
Landscape
maintenance 36 28 18 46 22 8
Plant materials 16 34 24 45 21 3
'This information represents 153 respondents.







Figure 12. Preference of central and soutp Florida nursery managers for training session
season and time of day, 1981.


100
E Daytime only
90 1 Afternoon and evening
( Evening
80 No preference

: 70

c 60
I-
o 50

40

30

20

10

0
Winter Spring Summer Fall
Season

1This information represents all woody and foliage respondents.


tact with extension agents, extension publications, books, industry
magazines, and demonstration plots at larger nurseries. Formal ex-
tension activities reached only a small proportion of the small scale
producers responding. Larger firms can be reached effectively
through formal extension programs, nursery organizations, and
state commodity extension specialists as well as those previously
listed for small firms.
Managers perceived pesticide use and general cultural practices
to be areas where training was needed most. Evenings appear to be
the best time to extend educational programs to nursery personnel
responding to this survey.








Appendix




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA SURVEY OF NURSERYMEN AND GROWERS check
which
1. When was your nursery established? 2. Did you establish it?| 1
3. How much growing area did it have at the end of the first year of production?
(enter acres or square feet, whichever is more convenient)
4. Roughly how much of the following types of growing areas did you have in 1979
and how much do you have now (1981)? (enter either acres or square feet)
TYPE OF AREA 1979 191
E OF A ACRES or S FT ACRES 9or SQ FT

FIELD (planted in the ground) ...
CONTAINER (no shade) .........
CONTAINER (under shade) ........
GREENHOUSE ..........._

5. How many different plant species or varieties do you produce?
6. What were your total nursery sales in 1980? $
7. What percentages of your plants were sold in each of the following market
areas?
MARKET AREA % OF TOTAL
IN FLORIDA, within 50 miles of your nursery .........
IN FLORIDA, more than 50 miles away ........ . . .
OTHER U.S. STATES . . . . . . . . . . .
OTHER COUNTRIES (including Canada). ............ . .

8. What percentages of your plants were sold to each of the following?
MARKET OUTLET % OF TOTAL


9.


BROKERS (marketing agent, usually doesn't take title to plants)
DISTRIBUTORS (takes title to and possession of plants) ...._
OTHER WHOLESALE GROWERS ................... . .
LANDSCAPE FIRMS (architects, designers, contractors, builders)
INTERIORSCAPE FIRMS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RETAIL NURSERIES (including garden centers, florists) ....
MASS MARKET OUTLETS (supermarkets, discount & variety stores)
WALK-ON RETAIL CUSTOMERS AT THE NURSERY ........... . .
OTHER RETAIL OUTLETS (farmers' markets, roadside stands, etc)
OTHER (list). .
TOTAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . o100

check which
Are you a full time operator (40 hours or more a week). .. .
or a part time operator? .. ................


10. What is your age? years


Y







11. What type of horticultural training have you had?
TYPE OF TRAINING MAJOR FIELD OF STUDY
O NO FORMAL TRAINING
O HIGH SCHOOL COURSES .............._
[OVO-TECH COURSES ................
O COLLEGE COURSES ................_
E ADVANCED COLLEGE DEGREE ............ .____

12. Check which of the following provide you production and/or marketing
information?
STATE EXTENSION SPECIALIST . . . . . . ... .
COUNTY HORTICULTURAL AGENT . . . . . . . ..
EXTENSION PUBLICATIONS . . . . . . . . .
EXTENSION PROGRAMS, WORKSHOPS OR SEMINARS . . . . .
BOOKS ................... ........... .
FLORIDA NURSERY MAGAZINES . . . . . . . . .
REGIONAL OR NATIONAL NURSERY MAGAZINES . . . . . .
NURSERY ORGANIZATIONS (other than through magazines) . .
VO-TECH SCHOOLS . . .. . . . . . . .. . .
COMMUNITY COLLEGES . . . ... . . . . . ... .
EXPERIENCED NURSERY OPERATORS . . . . . . . .
OTHER (list) . E


13. How many employees in 1980? . . . .


S. FULL-TIME
PART-TIME


14. On the average, what is the approximate age of your employees?
15. How do you rate training needs? (check very important, important, etc)
A. For EMPLOYEES
1) BASIC TRAINING . VERY IMPORTANT] IMPORTANT E NOT NEEDED
2) ADVANCED TRAINING. E VERY IMPORTANT ] IMPORTANT r NOT NEEDED

B. For MANAGER OR OPERATOR
1) BASIC TRAINING . VERY IMPORTANT E IMPORTANT r NOT NEEDED
2) ADVANCED TRAINING. [ VERY IMPORTANT E IMPORTANT E NOT NEEDED

16. Please rank both seasons and time of day for the best time to conduct
training sessions (best 1, next best 2, and so on)
ASN RANK TIME OF DAY RANK FOR TRAINING SESSIONS
DAYTIME ONLY AFTERNOON-EVENINGIEVENING ONLY NO PREFERENCE
WINTER . .
SPRING .
SUMMER. . .
FALL . .
NO PREFERENCE







17. What subjects do you feel are needed in training programs for managers and
,employees? (check very important, important or not needed for each item)
FOR EMPLOYEES FOR MANAGERS
VERY NOT SUBJECT
VERY IMPORTANT NOT SUBJECT VR- IMPORTANT NUI
IMPORTANT NEEDED IMPORTANT NEEDED
. FERTILIZATION . .
. CONTAINER MEDIA .
. . WEEDS . . .
. INSECTS g DISEASES .
. . PROPAGATION ....
.NURSERY MECHANIZATION. .
WATER SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT .
PESTICIDE USE & SAFETY
. MARKETING PRINCIPLES.
. LABOR MANAGEMENT .
.BOOKKEEPING & RECORDS.
. RECORD ANALYSIS .
. BUSINESS MANAGEMENT .
. .LANDSCAPE DESIGNS.. .
.LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE. .
ALTERNATIVE PLANT MATERIALS
OTHER (list)


This public document was promulgated at a cost of $1982.28, or 63.9
cents per copy, to provide information on characteristics of the cen-
tral and south Florida nursery industry. 07-3.1M-84



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this address to determine availability.




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