Title: Banking young citrus
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 Material Information
Title: Banking young citrus
Series Title: Banking young citrus
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Lawrence, Fred P.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
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Bibliographic ID: UF00084311
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 228439225

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CIRCULAR NO. 283
MAY, 1965






BANKING
YOUNG CITRUS


.,




S... ,. ..,



Fred P. Lawrence .:
Fred' P, awrence


Agricultural Extension Service
University of Florida
Gainesville











WHY
BANK










THERE
ARE
HAZARDS










WHEN TO
BANK







AVOIDING
HAZARDS


* Banking young citrus trees to
protect the trunk, bud-union and
scaffold limbs from freeze dam-
age is a well-established practice
in Florida. Certainly the need for
banking was clearly demonstrat-
ed during the winters of 1957 and
1962. In normal years it is justi-
fied for its insurance value alone.
If the season proves to be a really
cold one, the savings in valuable
trees far more than justifies the
cost.

o Banking is a costly, time-con-
suming operation. Too frequently
the light sandy grove soil used in
banks is blown away on windy
days, or washed away in rain
storms, leaving trunks partially or
entirely exposed. Many growers
fail to make banks large enough
in the beginning. As additional
hazards, termites and bark rotting
diseases can kill banked trees;
and, a reckless tractor driver using
a mechanical tree banker can cause
serious damage.

* The day before a freeze is the
best time to bank, but this requires
more fortune-telling ability than
the average grower has. It is wise
to start early enough to have all
trees banked by November 15.
Actually, the first week in Novem-
ber should be the target date. This
way you won't get caught with
your banks down!

o Start in time to do the job. Al-
low for unavoidable interruptions.
If you use a mechanical banker,
supervise and train the operator
carefully-until he is proficient.
Then check his work often to see


Banking Young Citrus
by Fred Lawrence
Extension Citriculturist


that he is doing a good job. This
is cheaper than straightening
leanerss", pruning broken limbs
and repairing skinned tree trunks.
Trees with damaged bark at bank-
ing time are a liability. They are
easy targets for disease. All
wounds should be covered with a
good water repelling tree paint.
A number of bark rotting fungi
may attack citrus trees during the
long time they are banked. This
problem is difficult to study under
field conditions, and little data has
been published.
We have no recommendations-
based on valid research-but, bas-
ed on field observations, coating
tree trunks with a fungicide at
banking time seems to have some
value as a preventive measure.
The old practice of painting the
tree trunks with a bordeaux paste
also seems helpful. But, many
growers have stopped this prac-
tice because of the higher labor
cost of hand painting trees. More-
over, bordeaux whitewash tends to
flake off.
We believe spraying tree trunks
(the area to be banked) with a
good fungicide plus a spreader-
sticker, just before banking is
beneficial and well worth the small
additional cost.
Growers report good results us-
ing neutral copper at one pound
(metallic content) per 100 gallons
of water. Adding one quart of
72% liquid chlordane will help pro-
tect the trees against ants and
termites. One hundred gallons of
this spray mixture should treat
from 400 to 600 trees.
Remove dead and broken
branches and thoroughly coat old
cold cankers and other wounds
with a water repelling tree paint
before banking. If left untreated
these areas are an open invitation
to termites and fungi.







HOW

TO

BANK













STABI-

LIZING

THE

BANK







REMOVING

BANKS


* Use only soil that is free of
trash, cover crop, bags, woods, and
so on. Build the banks high. Re-
cent freezes taught us the higher
the bank, the better-within rea-
son. The bud union is the "Achil-
les heel" of a young citrus tree
and the more soil around and above
it, the better chance the tree has
to survive. Where possible, bank
young trees well above the scaffold
limbs. Certainly a quicker and
better top can be re-grown with
shoots from a framework of un-
damaged branches. Never cover
the entire tree with soil if it is
to stay banked more than 3 or 4
days.
* It is difficult to keep the bank
from washing or blowing away.
Many techniques and materials
have been used. A water-soluble,
plastic-type material has given
reasonably good results when
sprayed on newly constructed
banks. Banks built using a cylin-
der formed of heavy gauge roofing,
paper last longer but cost slightly
more. Some growers report it is
helpful to mix colloidal phosphate'
or fullers earth with banking soil.
* Young trees should be unbanked
in the spring just as soon as the
danger of cold weather has passed.
Usually this is in late February.
One of the most common mis-
takes made in unbanking young
trees is failure to remove all bank-
ing soil. Growers and production
managers should supervise this
operation closely. There is an in-
creasing tendency to leave too
much soil around the young tree.
This not only may cause disease
trouble, but also inhibits normal
tree growth.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND
HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director




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