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Title: Chemical weed control for Florida vegetable crops
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 Material Information
Title: Chemical weed control for Florida vegetable crops
Series Title: Chemical weed control for Florida vegetable crops
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Montelaro, James,
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
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    Table of Contents
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        Page 4 (MULTIPLE)
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Full Text

















































Agricultural Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville









Contents


Page


INTRODUCTION


DEFINITION OF TERMS ...--------


PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES --


GENERAL RULES -....----


EQUIPMENT FOR SPRAYING -


CALIBRATION OF SPRAYER --


CLEANING THE SPRAYER


COMMON TRADE NAMES OF HERBICIDES


The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclu-
sion of others of suitable composition.



Prepared by James Montelaro and M. E. Marvel in cooperation with
personnel of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations. Special thanks
go to Mr. D. S. Burgis, Dr. J. R. Orsenigo, Dr. W. T. Scudder and Dr.
M. 0. Thomas for their invaluable assistance in the preparation of this
manuscript.



June, 1966


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida, and United States
Department of Agriculture, Cooperating, M. O. Watkins, Director







CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL FOR
FLORIDA VEGETABLE CROPS
Introduction
Weed control by use of chemicals in vegetable production is
a relatively new agricultural practice. It offers great promise
as a means of reducing the costs of growing vegetables by less-
ening the need for cultivation and hand labor.
The effectiveness of herbicides may vary under different soil
and climatic conditions. For that reason, the grower is warned
to proceed with caution in introducing new chemical weed con-
trol practices on any vegetable crops.
It is the purpose of this guide to assemble the information
that is available on chemical weed control for vegetable crops.
Literature describing each chemical is available from the manu-
facturer. For additional details on use of herbicides, consult
your County Agent.
Definition of Terms
Band application.-an application to a continuous restricted
area, such as in or along a crop row rather than over the
entire field area.
Crop.-a plant growing where it is desired.
Directed application (directionally).-an application to re-
stricted area, such as a row or bed at the base of plants.
Herbicide.-a phytotoxic chemical used for killing or inhib-
iting the growth of plants or germination of seed.
Lay-by.-at time of last cultivation.
Preemergence.-proir to emergence of specified weed or crop.
Preplanting.-any time before the crop is planted.
Pretransplanting.-any time before the crop is transplanted.
Postemergence.-after emergence of specified weed or crop.
Post-transplanting.-after the crop is transplanted.
Rate.-the amount of active ingredient or acid equivalent
of an herbicide applied to a unit area (generally stated in
pounds per acre on a broadcast basis).
Selective herbicide.-a chemical that is more toxic to some
plant species than to others.
Spray drift.-the movement of airborne spray particles
from the intended area of application.
Weed.-a plant growing where it is not desired.
Weed control.-the process of limiting weed infestations so
that crops can be grown profitably or other operations can
be conducted efficiently.







Precautionary Measures
Read the Label
* Many weed control chemicals are poisonous and are potentially
dangerous to man and animal. Follow safety precautions given
by the manufacturer.
* Be sure the chemical is approved for use on the crop to be
treated. Follow rate and time schedule on the label as ap-
proved by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Do not use
chemicals that do not have such approval.
Test New Chemical on a Limited Scale
* Before attempting wide-scale use of any new weed control
chemical, it should be tested on a small scale for one or more
seasons.
General Rules
Rule 1 Know Your Weeds
The various species of grasses and broadleaf weeds differ
considerably in susceptibility to a specific herbicide. Weeds are
killed most readily during the period of germination or during
the early stages of growth.
Rule 2 Know Your Chemicals
Familiarize yourself with the following before using a new
herbicide:
Potential hazards to handlers and farm animals.
Degree of susceptibility of each crop.
Resistance of each weed.
Restrictions on rates, timing and crops for which approv-
ed.
Any peculiarities specific to each herbicide.
For preemergence weed control it is especially important
that the seedbed be prepared properly before treatment
with herbicides. The seedbed should be firm, smooth and
free of crop residues.
Good soil moisture is necessary for most preemergence
herbicides to be effective.
After a herbicide is applied, the treated soil should not be
disturbed unless otherwise specified for the herbicide. Care
must be exercised in cultivation to prevent untreated soil from
being moved to a treated area.
Equipment For Spraying
Application equipment must be suited for spraying. Many
types of sprayers can be used, provided they have good agitation
in the tank and have pump capacity to deliver the necessary







number of gallons per acre. When using wettable powders, good
agitation is especially important.
The boom and nozzles should be designed for easy adjust-
ment. Nozzle tips delivering a fan-type spray pattern are gener-
ally used for application of herbicides. Nozzle tips (and strainers)
should deliver the desired fan pattern and also be suited to pump
capacity and tractor speed. Check with your equipment dealer
to avoid guess-work in selecting proper nozzles.

Calibration of Sprayer
Calibration of the sprayer is an important factor in successful
weed control. Unless the correct amount of herbicide is applied
in the proper way, the operation may be a total failure.
Before each specific job, adjust the nozzles, clean the screens
and calibrate the sprayer in the field on the tractor that will be
used with it. For overall soil coverage, adjust the boom so that
fan-type spray nozzle coverage overlaps one third at ground
level for preemergence spraying, or at the tops of growing weeds
for postemergence spraying.
For band application, use a fan-type spray nozzle. Adjust
height of boom for the width of band desired. Usually, 8- to 12-
inch bands are used. Calibrate for the actual area sprayed, not
for the total acres in the field. For example, only one-fourth of
the surface area is sprayed if a 12-inch band application is used
on a 48-inch row. Assuming a suggested rate of 6 pounds of a
certain chemical per crop-acre for overall application, the above
would require only 1.5 pounds of actual material for one acre
of the crop.
As one method of checking the rate of application, fill the
tank with water, then run the sprayer for 660 feet at the speed
and pressure to be used in actual operation; then, re-fill tank
with a measured amount of water to determine the number of
gallons of solution used. Measure width of actual area sprayed.
(For band application, this is equal to the sum of the widths
of all the bands). Then calculate as follows:
Gallons used x 66
__= gallons per acre
Width of sprayed area in ft.
12 gal. x 66
= 33 gallons per acre*
24 ft.
This amount of spray will cover one acre overall. In the case of spray-
ing 12" bands over rows 48" apart (one fourth of the actual area), 33
gallons should cover four crop acres. When preparing the spray, add the
amount of chemical recommended for one acre to the tank and bring the
volume up to 33 gallons with water.







Any change in tractor speed, pressure setting, nozzle size or
band width changes the rate of application and recalibration
will be necessary.
For more detailed information on calibration of sprayer, see
Florida Agricultural Extension Circular 275.

Cleaning The Sprayer
It is almost impossible to clean equipment that has been used
for spraying herbicides. Hormone-type weed killers cannot be
removed completely from wooden tanks or corroded metal parts.
Never use this equipment for other purposes such as applica-
tion of insecticides, fungicides and liquid fertilizers. Never
allow the spray solution to remain in the tank for long periods.
If it is absolutely necessary to use herbicide equipment for
other spraying, try the following cleaning procedures:
1. Use soap or detergent for removing non-hormone type weed
killers.
2. Hormone-type weed killers, such as 2, 4-D, require chemical
cleaning.

A. To remove water-soluble salt formulations, use one of
the following in 100 gallons of water:
(1) 1 gallon of household ammonia.
(2) 5 lbs. sodium carbonate (sal soda).
(3) 2 lbs. sodium hydroxide (lye).

B. To remove oil-soluble emulsion formulations, use either
one of the following in 95 gallons of water:
(1) 2 lbs. sodium hydroxide (lye).
(2) 5 lbs. sodium carbonate (sal soda), plus 5 gallons
of kerosene and 1 lb. of detergent.

Fill the tank and system with the cleaning solution and,
except for lye solution, allow to stand in the sprayer for at least
two hours. Drain the solution out through the boom and nozzles
and rinse thoroughly with water. Re-fill the tank with water,
then drain and flush before using again.
If sprayer has been used for copper spraying, do not use for
DNBP until after it has been cleaned with 1 gallon of vinegar
in 100 gallons of water. Allow the cleaning solution to stand in
the tank, pump, hose and boom for two hours; then drain and
rinse thoroughly with water.







Common and Trade Names of Herbicides
Common Name --------------___...._.. ... ..___ ...__ Trade Name
Allyl Alcohol ------ _- A-A Weed Seed Killer
A m iben -_--..... .. .._ ~. ..- .. -- -- ---.......---- .V eg.... . V egiban
Atrazine ---------__-__ Atrazine
Benefin --.- ------ -- -- --.. ... .-.. ... ..... ........ .. Balan
CDAA ...-.. .... .. . ........ -------... . Randox
CDEC -... ..... Vegadex
Chloropicrin --------------....- .. .- -- ........... Larvacide
CIPC .. .. ... ..- - -- --... .. ............... Chloro-IPC
DCPA ---- ----__ -_-.. ................................ .... Dacthal
Diphenamid --.--.-- --. -- --...... _.... ....- Dymid, Enide
DNBP (alkanolamine salts) ---- Premerge, Sinox PE
EPTC --.... ........ ........... ........_. ...... ....- Eptam
Linuron -- ------------.-.. ..-....... ........... ... Lorox
Methyl Bromide ...- ------- -.-.... .. MC-2, Pestmaster
Mineral Spirits .---- ------........... several brands
NPA (sodium salt) -.... ... ....... ... . . Alanap-3
Pebulate ----.---- --- - - -_- --.......... ... ... Tillam
Sim azine ... .... .......... .....---------------_..._ _ Sim azine
SMDC -..--......-.............. VPM Soil Fumigant, Vapam
Solan -----..... .. ...--- ---...... .. ..... .... ... Solan
TCA (Sodium salt) -- Sodium TCA (several brands)
Trifluralin ___-__ .. Treflan
2,4-D (amine salts) -- 2,4-D amine (several brands)

Instructions For Use Of Herbicide Table
The tables that follow list weed control treatments that have
shown good results in Florida experiments and are offered for
grower trial. Always check the container label for recent changes
regarding crops and rates approved by the U. S. Department
of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration. Chemicals
and rates listed without parentheses under each soil type have
been tested quite thoroughly and are, therefore, recommended
for use. Those in parentheses have not been thoroughly tested,
or have been less dependable and therefore can only be sug-
gested for trial purposes.
Chemical rates of all herbicides, except for soil fumigants,
are given in terms of their active ingredients per acre. Except
for mineral spirits and chemicals formulated as granules, all
of these should be mixed with water before being applied as
sprays. The rates of the soil fumigants allyl alcohol, methyl
bromide, and SMDC are stated in terms of their commercial
formulations. These materials are applied alone or as water
drenches; not as sprays.




TABLE 1.-HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS-TIMING AND RATES ON FLORIDA SOILS
Time of Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients)
Crops Herbicides Application Remarks
to Crop(1) Sandy Soils Muck Soils


Beans, Bush
and Pole


Apply and immediately in-
EPTC Preplanting 3 - corporate into soil and then
plant seed.
Trifluralin Preplanting (% to 1) Apply and immediately in-
corporate into soil from 2 to
3 weeks before planting up
to planting (pre-planting).
Use lower rate on light sands
and higher rate on dark
sands. The lower rates may
be used on rockland and marl
soils.

CDAA Preemergence (4) 4 to 6 See footnote (2) at end of
table.
CDEC Preemergence 4 to 6 4 to 6 See footnote (3) at end of
table.
CDAA + CDEC Preemergence 4 to 6 4 to 6 See footnote (4) at end of
table.
DNBP Preemergence 3 6 CAUTION: Injury may re-
sult if heavy rains follow
treatment on sandy soils.
DCPA Preemergence 10.5 -
DNBP Postemergence (3) Up to crook stage.

EPTC Postemergence 3 to 4 - At lay-by, apply directional-
ly to base of plants and in-
corporate lightly into soil.


Preemergence


See footnote (2) at end of
table.


table.


Beans, Lima


CDAA


CDEC Preemergence 4 to 6 4 to 6 See footnote (3) at end of
table.
CDAA + CDEC Preemergence (4 to 6) (4 to 6) See footnote (4) at end of




DCPA Preemergence (10.5) -
Trifluralin Preemergence (% to 1) Apply and immediately in-
corporate into soil from 2 to
3 weeks before planting up
to planting (pre-planting).
Use lower rate on light sands
and higher rate on dark
sands.

Beets CDEC Preemergence (4) (4) See footnote (3) at end of
table.

EPTC Preemergence (2) -
TCA Preemergence (9)

Broccoli, CDAA Preemergence 4 4 See footnote (2) at end of
Cabbage, table.
Cauliflower, Not approved for use on
Collards, broccoli, cauliflower, collards
Kale and kale.
(continued
on next CDEC Preemergence 4 to 6 4 to 6 See footnote (3) at end of
page table.
page) CDEC rate should not exceed
4 lbs. on collards and kale.

CDAA + CDEC Preemergence 4 to 6 4 to 6 See footnote (4) at end of
table.
Not approved for use on
broccoli, cauliflower, collards,
and kale.

TCA Preemergence 8.5

DCPA Preemergence 10.5 -
Trifluralin Pre-transplanting (% to 1) -- Apply and immediately in-
corporate into soil from 2 to
3 weeks before planting up
to transplanting (pre-trans-
planting). Use lower rate on
light sands and higher rate
on dark sands. Not approv-
ed for use on collards and
kale.

Rates given in ( ) are suggested for trial purposes only.





Table 1. (Continued)
Time of Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients)
Crops Herbicides Application Remarks
to Crop(1) Sandy Soils Muck Soils

Broccoli, CDAA Post-transplanting 4 4 See footnote (2) at end of
Cabbage, table. Use preemergence to
Cauliflower, weeds. Apply as a direct
Collards, spray to base of plants. Not
Kale approved for use on broc-
coli, cauliflower, collards and
kale.

CDEC Post-transplanting 4 to 6 4 to 5 See footnote (3) at end of
table. Apply as a directed
spray. Not approved for use
on collards and kale.

CDAA + CDEC Post-transplanting 4 to 6 4 to 5 See footnote (4) at end of
table. Not approved for use
on broccoli, cauliflower, col-
lards and kale.

DCPA Post-transplanting 10.5 - Apply immediately after
transplanting.

Mustard, DCPA Preemergence (10.5) - -
Turnips
Cantaloupes, NPA Preemergence 3 to 4 - Surface soil must be moist at
Cucumbers time of treatment to insure
good results.
NPA Postemergence 3 to 4 - Do not use on cucumbers.
DCPA Postemergence (10.5) - Apply 4 to 6 weeks after
seeding.
Carrots, Mineral Spirits Postemergence (40 to 60 gals.) (40 to 60 gals.) Apply at 3-leaf stage.
Parsley
Linuron Postemergence (1 to 2) (1 to 2) Not approved for use on
parsley.
Celery Allyl Alcohol Preseeding in (25 gals.) (40 gals.) Apply in water drench 2 days
seedbeds before seeding. Controls
,weeds only..





Preseeding in
seedbeds


(1.3 pts. / 100 sq. ft.)


Methyl Preseeding in 2 lbs. / 100 sq. ft. 2 lbs. / 100 sq. ft. Cover with plastic film.
Bromide seedbeds
SMDC Preseeding in 50 to 75 gals. 100 gals. Apply in water drench.
seedbeds
CDAA Post-transplanting (4) 4 See footnote (2) at end of
table. May be repeated up to
4 weeks after transplanting
crop.

CDEC Post-transplanting 4 to 6 4 to 6 See footnote (3) at end of
table. May be repeated up to
3 weeks after transplanting
crop.

CDAA + CDEC Post-transplanting 4 to 6 4 to 6 See footnote (4) at end of
table. May be repeated up to
3 weeks after transplanting
crop.
Mineral Post-transplanting (25 to 40 gals.) (25 to 40 gals.) Use postemergence to weeds.
Spirits Apply directionally to base of
crop plants. Do not treat
later than one month after
transplanting crop.
CDEC in Post-transplanting (4 lbs. in 40 gals.) (4 lbs. in 40 gals.) See remarks on mineral spir-


Mineral
Spirits


its under "Celery."


Eggplant DCPA Post-transplanting (10.5) - -
Endive CDEC Preemergence 2 to 4 2 See footnote (3) at end of
(Escarole table.
and
Chicory)
Lettuce Benefin Preplanting (3/) Apply and immediately in-
(continued corporate into soil from 2 to
on next 3 weeks before planting up
page) to planting (pre-planting).
Rates given in ( ) are suggested for trial purposes only.


Chloropicrin


r -r ~I --


L


(1.3 pts. / 100 sq. ft.) Gives good nematode and dis-
ease control, but poor control
of weeds.






Table 1. (Continued)
Time of Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients)
Crops Herbicides Application Remarks
to Crop(1) Sandy Soils Muck Soils
Lettuce CDEC Preemergence (2 to 4) (2 to 4) See footnote (3) at end of
table. Some varieties and
strains of lettuce may be
injured.
Okra Trifluralin Preplanting (% to 1) --- Apply and immediately in-
corporate into soil from 2 to
3 weeks before planting up
to planting (pre-planting).
Use lower rate on light sands
and higher rate on dark
sands. This treatment can be
used on the marl and rock-
land soils.
Diphenamid Preemergence 5 -
Onions CDAA Preemergence (4 to 6) 6 See footnote (2) at end of
table. May be applied as a
postemergence treatment to
onion but before emergence
of weed seedlings. Apply di-
rectionally to base of crop
plant at second true leaf
stage or later. Do not use on
green onions.

CIPC Preemergence 4 to 6 (6 to 8)

CDAA + CIPC Preemergence (4 + 4) 6 + 6 See footnote (2) at end of
table.

DCPA Preemergence 10.5 -


DCPA Post-transplanting 10.5 -

Peas, English CDAA Preemergence (4) 4 See footnote (2) at end of
table.

DNBP Preemergence (3) 6 to 9 CAUTION: Injury may re-
,fci-l I+ f no wr -s iV *f*1. ir-





Peas, Trifluralin Preplanting (% to 1) -- Apply and immediately in-
Southern corporate into soil from 2 to
3 weeks before planting up to
planting (pre-planting). Use
lower rates on the light sands
and higher rates on dark
sands.
DCPA Preemergence (10.5) -- CAUTION: May cause in-
jury if rains occur within 2
weeks after treatment.
Peppers Diphenamid Preemergence 4 - -
Trifluralin Pre-transplanting (% to 1) - Apply and immediately in-
cornorate into soil from 2 to
3 weeks up to transplanting
(p r e transplanting). Use
lower rates on the light sands
and higher rates on dark
sands.
DCPA Post-transplanting (10.5) -- Will not control dog fennel.
or at thinning
Diphenamid Post-transplanting 4 - -
Amiben Post-transplanting (3) - Use granular formulations
only. Do not apply when
plants are wet.
Potatoes Dalapon Preplanting 7.4 - For control of perennial
(Continued grasses, apply to green,
on next grassy weed foliage and then
page) plow under 2 weeks later.
EPTC Preemergence 4 to 6 - Incorporate into soil and then
plant immediately or incor-
porate just before plants
emerge.
CDAA + CDEC Preemergence 3 + 3 3 + 3 See footnote (4) at end of
table. If not used preemer-
gence, this combination may
be used at lay-by. CDAA and
CDEC may be used separate-
ly pre- or post-emergence.
DCPA Preemergence (10.5) - -
Rates given in ( ) are suggested for trial purposes only.




Table 1. (Continued)
Time of Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients)
Crops Herbicides Application Remarks
to Crop(l) Sandy Soils Muck Soils
Potatoes DNBP Preemergence 6.0 6.0 Apply at least one day before
crop emerges.
Diphenamid Preemergence 4 to 6 -- Apply at time of planting or
immediately after.
Dalapon Postemergence (3.7) - Apply after last cultivation
where perennial grasses are
a problem. Apply directional-
ly to base of crop plants. Do
not apply to red-skinned va-
rieties.
EPTC Postemergence 4 - Apply and immediately incor-
porate into soil after last cul-
tivation or no later than 45
days before harvest.
Squash (yel- Amiben Preemergence (3) - -
low crook-
or straight-
necks only) DCPA Post-transplanting (10.5) --- Apply 4 to 6 weeks after
seeding.
Strawberries DCPA Post-transplanting (9.0) - -
Sweet Corn CDAA Preemergence (5) 5 See footnote (2) at end of


table.


CDEC Preemergence 6 4 to 6 See footnote (3) at end of
table.
CDAA + CDEC Preemergence 6 4 to 6 See footnote (4) at end of
table.
Atrazine Preemergence 1 to 2 (3 to 4) Adequate surface soil mois-
ture is essential for best re-
suits.
Simazine Preemergence 1 to 2 See remark on "atrazine" un-
der "Sweet Corn."
2,4-D Preemergence -- (11% to 1%) Controls weeds for short du-
ration only. Some varieties
are susceptible to injury.


Apply when seedling i
,+;-1,+-11 -41 _~drtkiL~


DNBP


Postemergence (1.5) (1.5)




Atrazine Postemergence 1 ~ Use preem rgercet wr e.
Apply directionally to base
of plant. Will control weed
seedlings up to 1 inch tall.

2,4-D Postemergence /3 to % % to % Apply directionally to base of
crop plants. Use amine form-
ulation. Some varieties sus-
ceptible to injury.

Sweet Diphenamid Post-transplanting (4) Apply immediately after
Potatoes transplanting.

EPTC Post-transplanting (4 to 6) -- Apply over freshly planted
slips no later than one week
after transplanting. Do not
incorporate into soil.

Tomatoes Solan Preemergence 4 - Apply just prior to emer-
(continued gence of tomato seedlings.
on next Adequate surface soil mois-
page) ture necessary for best re-
sults.

Diphenamid Preemergence 4 to 6 - This treatment may be used
or post- on marl and rockland soils,
transplanting also.
or at thinning

Pebulate Pre-transplanting 4 Incorporate immediately af-
ter application and then set
plants.
Trifluralin Pre-transplanting (% to 1) - Apply and incorporate any
or at thinning time from 2 to 3 weeks be-
fore transplanting up to
transplanting or after thin-
ning. Use lower rate on light
sands and higher rate on
dark sands. This treatment
may be used on marl and
rockland soils also.

Rates given in ( ) are suggested for trial purposes only.






C ~u'i~-'
WI,.'..-


- Table 1. (Continued)
Time of Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients)
SCrops :1.bicides Application Remarks
o t to Crop(1) Sandy Soils Muck Soils
Tomatoes' i?'hben Post-transplanting 3 - Use granular formulation.


Lay-by


Do not apply when plants
are wet. This treatment may
be used on marl and rockland
soils also.


Apply directionally to base of
crop plants. Will control
weed seedlings.


Watermelons NPA Preemergence 3 to 4 -

DCPA Lay-by (10.5) Apply just before plants be-
gin to vine-out.
(1) All treatments are "preemergence" to weeds unless stated other- (3) CDEC is more effective against broadleaf weeds than grasses.


wise under "remarks."

(2) CDAA is more effective against grasses than broadleaf weeds.

Rates given in ( ) are suggested for trial purposes only.


(4) Combine CDAA with CDEC for mixed grass and broadleaf weed
populations. The amount of either chemical in the mixture should
not exceed the amount suggested for that chemical separately.


1' .


"-


Solan


;8.

1'
'I,
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