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 Table 1: Herbicides for vegetable...
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Title: Chemical weed control for Florida vegetable crops
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 Material Information
Title: Chemical weed control for Florida vegetable crops
Series Title: Chemical weed control for Florida vegetable crops
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Kostewicz, S. R.
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Table 1: Herbicides for vegetable crops
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Appendix
        Page 20
    Back Cover
        Page 21
Full Text




CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville







CONTENTS


Page

In tro d u ctio n .......... .......................... .... ........ ...................... .... ............................. ...... ......... ............ ....... 1
D definition of T erm s ....................... ..................... ........ ....... ........ ..................... ...... ..... 1
P precautionary M measures ...................................................................................................... ..... . 2
G en eral R u les ................................... .................. .... 3
Equipment for Application .................................................... ............. ........... 3
F orm ulation of H erbicides ......................... .............................................. ....................... 4
C alib ration of S p ray er ......................................................................... ................ ..................... ........... 5
C leaning the Sprayer ........... ......................................... ........................... ............. 6
Common and Typical Trade Names of Herbicides ......................... ..... ............. 7
Instructions for Use of Herbicide Table ............................................................................ ....... 8
Table 1. Herbicides for Vegetable Crops-Timing and Rates
on Florida Soils ............................................. .............. ............ 9-19
A p p e n d ix .......................................................................................................................................................................... 2 0


April, 1974


Prepared by S. R. Kostewicz and James Montelaro in cooperation with
personnel of the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences. Special assistance was provided by Mr. D. S. Burgis, Dr. W. L.
Currey, Dr. C. H. Doty, Dr. G. W. Elmstrom, Dr. S. J. Locascio, Dr. J. R.
Orsenigo, Dr. W. T. Scudder and Dr. J. R. Shumaker in the preparation of
this manuscript.





CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL
FOR FLORIDA VEGETABLE CROPS



INTRODUCTION
Weed control in vegetable crops has always been a critical part of
the production program. The advent and use of herbicide materials
to control competing weeds have lessened the need for cultivation
and hand labor to do that job.
Losses in yield due to the competitive effects of weeds are known
and can be easily demonstrated. The use of herbicides in vegetable
production has rapidly increased since first discovered a number of
years ago. Herbicides are now routinely used as part of the production
program in vegetables. They not only insure potential yield by re-
moving competitive weeds, but reduce the inputs of labor and energy
previously required for weed control.
It is the purpose of this guide to assemble the herbicide recom-
mendations for Florida vegetable crops. These recommendations have
been developed by the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences re-
search personnel from test results and experience with these materials
in various portions of the state.
Literature describing each chemical is available from the manu-
facturer. For additional details on use of herbicides, consult your
County Extension Agent.
The effectiveness of herbicides may vary under different soil and
climatic conditions. For that reason, when introducing a new herbi-
cide to a weed control program, the grower is urged to keep its use to
a limited acreage until he has gained experience with it and has ob-
served its effectiveness under his conditions.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Band application-an application to a continuous restricted area, such
as in or along a crop row rather than over the entire field area.
Crop-a plant growing where it is desired.
Directed application (directionally)-an application to restricted area,
such as to the soil at the base of the crop plants.
Herbicide-a chemical used for killing or inhibiting the growth of
plants or germination of seed.






Lay-by-at time of last cultivation.
Preemergence-prior to emergence of specified weed or crop.
Preplanting-any time before the crop is planted.
Pretransplanting-any time before the crop is transplanted.
Postemergence-after emergence of specified weed or crop.
Posttransplanting-after the crop is transplanted.
Rate-the amount of active ingredient or acid equivalent of an herbi-
cide applied to a unit area (generally stated in pounds per acre on a
broadcast basis).
Selective herbicide-a chemical that is more toxic to some plant species
than to others.
Surfactant-materials used in pesticide formulations to impart emul-
sifiability, spreading, wetting, dispersibility, or other surface-modify-
ing properties.
Spray drift-the undesirable movement of airborne spray particles
from the intended target area.
Weed-a plant growing where it is not desired.
Weed Control-the process of limiting weed population or density so
that crops can be grown profitably or other production operations can
be conducted efficiently.

PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES
Herbicides, like any pesticide, should be handled with care. They
should be treated as poisons and considered potentially dangerous to
man and animals. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with the skin,
and be sure to wash thoroughly after using. Store herbicides behind
locked doors in original containers with labels intact. Store separate
from seed, fertilizers and other pesticides to prevent contamination
which could lead to undesirable results. Destroy empty containers so
that any hazard through misuse will not result.


Read the Label
Follow safety precautions given by the manufacturer. The crop,
rate and time schedule are listed on the label. Do not use herbicides
contrary to the label recommendation.






Use "New" Herbicides on a Limited Scale
Herbicides being used for the first time should be applied to a
small area by the grower. Experience in application and results will
be gained on this limited scale without jeopardizing a large part of
the crop.
Avoid Application to Non-Target Areas
Accidental or negligent misapplications of herbicides by drift or
other means to adjoining non-target areas must be prevented. Drift
hazards can be minimized by applying only during low wind velocities,
using anti-drift spray materials, lower pump pressures, larger orifice
nozzles, and other means available to the grower. Do not allow spray
drift, runoff from sprayer cleaning or other undesirable sources to
pollute water supplies of any nature.


GENERAL RULES
Know Your Weed Problem
Each herbicide has a spectrum of weeds which it will characteris-
tically control. In order to correctly select the herbicide to be used,
the weeds expected to be a problem must be known.

Know Your Herbicide
In addition to the weed spectrum of the material, one should be
familiar with:
The potential hazard of the material to man and animals.
Degree of susceptibility of each crop.
Restrictions on rates, timing and crops for which approved.
Peculiarities specific to each herbicide; for example, do not use
on soils with less than 1% organic matter, or do not replant
with other crops.
After an herbicide is applied, the treated soil should not be dis-
turbed unless otherwise specified for the herbicide. Care must be
exercised in cultivation to prevent untreated soil from being moved
to a treated area.

EQUIPMENT FOR APPLICATION
Application equipment must be suited for herbicide materials.
Many types of sprayers or granular applicators are available for use






and no discussion as to their relative merits will be given here. Certain
generalities, however, can be given regarding features of a good unit.
Sprayers must have adequate agitation to insure proper suspen-
sion at all times when using wettable powders. Adequate pump capaci-
ty to supply the delivery volume as well as a good pressure regulation
system to insure correct rate of application is necessary. The boom
and nozzle arrangement should be designed for easy adjustment and
calibration.
Granular applicators are usually less complicated and, as a result,
easier to maintain. However, periodic service, adjustment and cali-
bration are necessary to insure proper rate of application of the
materials.

FORMULATIONS OF HERBICIDES

Herbicides are available in one of several forms depending upon
the nature of the chemical and use. Herbicides are manufactured as
wettable powders (WP), emulsifiable concentrates (EC), and granules
(G). In each case, the label will state the concentration of the materi-
al. The active ingredient of wettable powders and granular materials
is given as a percent of total weight. Liquid materials are expressed
as pounds of active ingredient per gallon. Common formulations are
50%, 75% and 80% wettable powders and 2, 4 and 6 pounds per gallon
emulsifiable concentrates. Recommendations in this circular are given
as pounds per acre of active ingredient (lb/A a.i.).
If 2 lb/A is recommended and the herbicide is a 50% wettable
powder, how much of the trade name material would you add to
enough water to spray an acre?

Rate (lb/A active ingredient) amount of trade name
Percent active ingredient material to use
(decimal equivalent)

Thus, for the example:

2 lb
.5 (% W) = 4 lb. of trade name WP material
.5 (50% WP)

A formula similar to one used for dry materials can be used to cal-
culate the quantity of a liquid material.

Rate (lb/A active ingredient)
Pounds a e pr gon = gallons of trade name material
Pounds active per gallon






Example: If a 2 lb/A a.i. rate is desired and the trade name material
is 4 Ib/gallon:
2 lb
4 lb/gallon 12 gallon of trade name material
4 Ib/gallon
CALIBRATION OF SPRAYER
Calibration of the sprayer is an important factor in successful
weed control. Unless the correct amount of herbicide is applied in the
proper way, the operation may be a total failure and crop injury may
result.
Before each use and periodically during its operation, adjust the
nozzle pattern, clean the screens and calibrate the sprayer in the field.
For overall soil coverage, adjust the boom so that fan-type nozzle cov-
erage overlaps according to specifications at ground level for preemer-
gence spraying, or at the tops of growing weeds for postemergence
spraying.
For band application, use an even-spray, fan-type spray nozzle
(Type E or ES). Adjust height of boom for the width of band desired.
Usually, 8 to 12-inch bands are used. Calibrate for the actual area
sprayed, not for the total acres in the field. For example, only one-
fourth of the surface area is sprayed if a 12-inch band application is
used on a 48-inch row. Assuming a suggested rate of 6 pounds of a
certain chemical per crop acre for overall application, the above would
require only 1.5 pounds of actual materials for one acre of the crop.
As one method of determining the rate of application, fill the tank
with water, then run the sprayer for 660 feet (preferably in the field)
at the speed and pressure to be used in actual operation; then, refill
the tank to determine the number of gallons of water used. Measure
the width of the actual area sprayed. (For band application, this is
equal to the sum of the width of all the bands.) Then, calculate as
follows:
Gallons used (per 660') x 66
= gallons per acre
Width of sprayed area in feet
If 12 gallons are used with 24 feet width of sprayed area on 660
feet, gallons per acre =
12 gals. x 66
2= 33 gallons per acre*
24 ft.

*This amount of spray will cover one acre of actual sprayed area. In the case of
spraying 12" bands over rows 48" apart (one-fourth of the actual area), 33
gallons should cover four crop acres. When preparing the spray, add the amount
of chemical recommended for one acre per 33 gallons of water.







Any change in tractor speed, pressure setting, nozzle size or band
width changes the rate of application and recalibration will be neces-
sary.
For detailed information on calibration of sprayer and granular
application equipment, see Florida Agricultural Extension Circular
275B.

CLEANING THE SPRAYER
It is almost impossible to clean equipment that has been used for
spraying herbicides. Hormone-type weed killers such as 2,4-D cannot
be removed completely from wooden tanks or.corroded metal parts.
Never use this equipment for other purposes-such as application of
other herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and liquid fertilizers.
If it is absolutely necessary to use herbicide sprayers for other
types of spraying, try these cleaning procedures:

1. Use soap or detergent solutions for removing non-hormone
type weed killers. As an additional precaution, spray equip-
ment may be cleaned further by recirculating wash water con-
taining activated charcoal.
2. Hormone-type weed killers, such as 2,4-D, require chemical
cleaning.

A. To remove water-soluble salt formations, use one of the
following in 100 gallons of water:
(1) 1 gallon of household ammonia
(2) 5 lbs. sodium carbonate (sal soda)
(3) 2 lbs. sodium hydroxide (lye)
B. To remove oil-soluble emulsion formulations, use either one
of the following in 95 gallons of water:
(1) 2 lbs. sodium hydroxide (lye)
(2) 5 lbs. sodium carbonate (sal soda), plus 5 gallons
of kerosene and 1 lb. of detergent

Fill the tank and system with the cleaning solution and except
for lye solution, allow to stand in the sprayer for at least two hours.
Pump the solution out through the boom and nozzles and rinse thor-
oughly with water. Refill the tank with water, then drain and flush
immediately before using again.
If sprayer has been used for copper spraying, do not use for dino-
seb until after it has been cleaned with 1 gallon of vinegar in 100






gallons of water. Allow the cleaning solution to stand in the tank,
pump, hose and boom for two hours; then drain and rinse thoroughly
with water.

PARTIAL LIST OF COMMON AND TYPICAL TRADE NAMES
OF HERBICIDES

(See Appendix for list of common names and chemical names)
Common Names Trade Names
Alachlor .--.............-.......-....-- .....-....--- ..-........-----.. --..--.....---.. Lasso
Allyl Alcohol .-----..........................-------...------- A-A Weed Seed Killer
Atrazine ...--------................. -----.....---....----------------.. AAtrex
Benefin .........................---- ...-..---- ......... ---...-.--.-- ....----- ............-- Balan
Bensulide ...-..-....-- .....--......... ..------ ......-------------...........--...... ... Prefar
CDAA ..............-................--....-- ..-- .-- --- ..--.--......... .....-. Randox
CDEC .-...-.........-.. ---...........-.....--............--.... ........-- ..-- ....--. .-- .... Vegadex
Chloramben .........................-.........-----------....--..--....-- Amiben
Chloramben methyl ester .....- .---...--....-----.......-.....--..-..--- Vegiben 2E
Chloropicrin ---............................-- ..--.......--.--- Picfume, Chlor-O-Pic
Chloroxuron .--.........-....--.......------ ......---------------- Tenoran, Norex
Chlorpropham --..--....--....--.. ------......--..-..-................. Chloro-IPC
Dalapon ................................----------.................. Dowpon, Basfapon
DCPA ..-....-...--.....................----- .........-..---.........-- .----.......---..- Dacthal
Dinoseb ---..........................---.............------------ Premerge, Sinox PE
Diphenamid ...---...-......---..-. ..---- ......-.----..--...--- Dymid, Enide
EPTC .---....--.---..........-.....------....--.......----..---.... .-- .---.....---.. Eptam
Isopropalin ..................-..-..- .... .....................--- .------ .----- Paarlan
Linuron --....--......---..........-...........--.-------... -----........... Lorox
Metham -..-....--...-.............---......... .-------------..---- VPM, Vapam
Methyl bromide -...........-....-----. (usually formulated with chloropicrin)
Brom-O-Gas, Dowfume MC-2 (2% chloropicrin)
Dowfume MC-33, Terr-O-Gas 67 (33% chloropicrin)
Mineral Spirits ....-.............- ............-----------.--- Several Brands
Naptalam --..-...-----..-....-.......--..-...--. ..........-----..-.------ Alanap, NPA
Nitralin -.....-...--...-..-.......- .--- ..................---------- .....-----.-- Planavin
Nitrofen ....-.......--...-..-.......-.......--... .........---..-- ...-....-- ..--- .......-........--. TOK
Pebulate ...-..-......-- .---.---..--..--....----------..............-..- ..-...--.----- Tillam
Prometryne ..--.......-------.......... ........... ........-------- Caparol
Pronamide .-...........---------...---........-----........-..--.--. .......--.--- Kerb
Simazine .-..--....---..-- --- ----...--.---.......................-......--....... Princep
Trifluralin -....-...........-.......................-..........................- -............ Treflan
2,4-D (amine salts) -......---.. --.. .....-.............................-. Several Brands






INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF HERBICIDE TABLE
The table that follows lists weed control treatments that have
shown good results in Florida. Always check container label for recent
changes regarding crops and rates approved by the Environmental
Protection Agency. Chemicals and rates listed without parentheses
under each soil type have been tested quite thoroughly and are, there-
fore, recommended for use. Those in parentheses have not been thor-
oughly tested, or have been less dependable and, therefore, are only
suggested for trial purposes.
Chemical rates of all herbicides, except for soil fumigants, are
given in terms of their active ingredients per acre. Except for mineral
spirits and chemicals formulated as granules, all of these should be
mixed with water before being applied as sprays. The rates of the soil
fumigants allyl alcohol, metham, chloropicrin and methyl bromide
are stated in terms of their commercial formulations. These materials
are applied alone or as water drenches, not as sprays.









The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named and does not signify that they are approved to the ex-
clusion of others of suitable composition.




Single copies free to residents of Florida. Bulk rates available upon request.
Please submit details on request to Chairman, Editorial Department,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, Florida 32611.




This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$420.26, or 21 cents per copy to inform commercial growers on
chemical weed control.





TABLE 1. HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS -TIMING AND RATES ON FLORIDA SOILS
Time of Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients) '
Application
Crops Herbicides to Crop Sandy Soils Muck Soils Remarks
Beans, Bush EPTC Preplanting 3 Incorporate immediately after application.
and Pole Nitralin Preplanting 1 May be incorporated by irrigation and rain
or mechanically incorporate 1 to 11/ inches
deep within 2 days following application.
Trifluralin Preplanting 12 to % May be applied up to 3 weeks before plant-
ing. Incorporate immediately after applica-
tion. The lower rate may be used on rock-
land and marl soils.
CDAA Preemergence 4 See footnote (3) at end of table.
CDAA +CDEC Preemergence 4 to 6 (total) 4 to 6 (total) See footnote (5) at end of table.
Note: Adjust proportion of each
according to weed species prob-
lem. Do not exceed 3 lb. CDAA
in mixture.
CDEC Preemergence 4 to 6 4 to 6 See footnote (4) at end of table.
Chloramben Preemergence (2 to 3)
ester
DCPA Preemergence 101/2 -
Dinoseb Preemergence 3 6 CAUTION: Injury may result if heavy rains
follow treatment on sandy soil.
EPTC Postemergence 3 to 4 At lay-by, apply directionally to base of
plants and incorporate lightly into soil.
Beans, Lima Nitralin Preplanting 1 May be incorporated by irrigation and rain


or mechanically incorporate 1 to 11/2 inches
deep within 2 days following application.


Trifluralin Preplanting /2 to % May be applied up to 3 weeks before plant-
ing. Incorporate immediately after applica-
tion.









Table 1. (Continued)
Time of Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients) '
Application
Crops Herbicides to Crop Sandy Soils Muck Soils Remarks


Beans, Lima


Broccoli,
Cabbage,
o Cauliflower


CDAA Preemergence (4) (4) See footnote (3) at end of table.
CDAA+CDEC Preemergence 4 to 6 (total) 4 to 6 (total) See footnote (5) at end of table.
Note: Adjust proportion of each
according to weed species prob-
lem. Do not exceed 3 lb. CDAA
in mixture.
CDEC Preemergence 4 to 6 4 to 6 See footnote (4) at end of table.
DCPA Preemergence 10/2 -


Nitralin


Pretransplanting


- May be incorporated by irrigation and rain-
fall or mechanically incorporate 1 to 11/
inches deep within 2 days following applica-
tion.


Trifluralin Preplanting % to 1 May be applied up to 3 weeks before plant-
ing or transplanting. Incorporate immedi-
ately after application.
CDAA Preemergence 4 4 See footnote (3) at end of table.
(cabbage)
CDAA+CDEC Preemergence 4 to 6 (total) 4 to 6 (total) See footnote (5) at end of table.
(cabbage) Note: Adjust proportion of each
according to weed species prob-
lem. Do not exceed 3 lb. CDAA
in mixture.
CDEC Preemergence 4 to 6 4 to 6 See footnote (4) at end of table.
DCPA Preemergence 10/ -
Nitrofen Preemergence 4 to 6 Good soil moisture is important. If dry,
overhead irrigate after treating.






Table 1. (Continued)
Time of Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients)
Application
Crops Herbicides to Crop Sandy Soils Muck Soils Remarks
Broccoli CDAA Posttransplanting 4 4 See footnote (3) at end of table. Use pre-
Cabbage, (cabbage) emergence to weeds. Apply as a directed
Cauliflower spray to base of plants.
CDAA+CDEC Posttransplanting 4 to 6 (total) 4 to 6 (total) See footnote (5) at end of table. Use pre-
(cabbage) Note: Adjust proportion of each emergence to weeds. Apply as a directed
according to weed species prob- spray.
lem. Do not exceed 3 lb. CDAA
in mixture.
CDEC Posttransplanting 4 to 6 4 to 5 See footnote (4) at end of table. Apply as a
directed spray.
DCPA Posttransplanting 101/ -Apply immediately after transplanting.
Nitrofen Postemergence 2 to 4 2 to 4 (WETTABLE POWDER ONLY.) Wait'7 to
or 10 days after transplanting before applying
Posttransplanting nitrofen. See remarks under preemergence
treatment of these crops. Some cabbage
hybrids are less tolerant than other hybrids.
Collards, CDEC Preemergence 4 to 6 4 to 6 COLLARDS ONLY. See footnote (4) at end
Mustard, of table.
Turnips DCPA Preemergence 10/2 -
Cantaloupes, Bensulide Preplanting 5 Incorporate 1 to 11/2 inches deep in moist
Cucumbers soil. Plant immediately.


Chloramben Preemergence (2 to 3) -
ester
Naptalam Preemergence 3 to 4 Surface soil must be moist at time of treat-
ment to insure good results.









Table 1. (Continued)


Herbicides


Time of
Application
to Crop '


DCPA Postemergence
Naptalam Postemergence
Chloroxuron Postemergence


Linuron Postemergence


Sandy Soils
10'/2
3 to 4
(2 to 3)


/4 to 1


Mineral Spirits Postemergence (40 to 60
gals.)
Nitrofen Postemergence (2 to 6)
Celery Allyl Alcohol Preseeding in (25 gals.)
seedbeds


Muck Soils Remarks


Apply 4 to 6 weeks after seeding.
CANTALOUPES ONLY.
(3 to 4) Apply overtop after 2 to 4 true leaves form.
Do not apply within 60 days of harvest.
Not approved on parsley.
i/ to 1 Apply overtop after 4 true leaves form. Not
approved for use on parsley. Dot not use a
surfactant.
(40 to 60 Apply at 3-leaf stage.


gals.)
(2 to 6)
(40 gals.)


Apply overtop after 2 to 4 true leaves form.
Apply in water drench 2 days before seed-
iner. Controls weeds only.


Chloropicrin Preseeding in 1.3 pts./ 1.3 pts./ Gives good nematode and disease control,
seedbeds 100 sq. ft. 100 sq. ft. but poor control of weeds.
Methyl Bromide Preseeding in 2 lbs./100 2 lbs./100 Cover with plastic film.
seedbeds sq. ft. sq. ft.
Metham Preseeding in 50 to 75 100 gals. Apply in water drench.
seedbeds
Prometryne Postemergence 0.8 0.8 Apply broadcast to seedbeds after crop
in seedbeds reaches 2-5 true leaf stage and weeds are
less than 2 inches high. Only one applica-
tion per year.
CDAA Posttransplanting 4 4 See footnote (3) at end of table. May be
repeated up to 4 weeks after transplanting
crop.


Crops
Cantaloupes,
Cucumbers
Carrots
Parsley


Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients) '









Herbicides
CDAA+CDEC


Table 1. (Continued)

Time of Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients) '
Application
to Crop Sandy Soils Muck Soils
Posttransplanting 4 to 6 (total) 4 to 6 (total)
Note: Adjust proportion of each
according to weed species prob-
lem. Do not exceed 3 lb. CDAA
in mixture.


Remarks
S e footnote (5) at end of table. May be
repeated up to 3 weeks after transplanting
crop.


Posttransplanting


4 to 6


4 to 6 See footnote (4) at end of table. May be
repeated up to 3 weeks after transplanting


crop.
Linuron Posttransplanting to 1 Vz to 1 Do not apply when temperature exceeds 850
F. Do not use with a surfactant. Can be
usPd postemergence to weeds.
Mineral Posttransplanting 25 to 40 25 to 40 Use postemergence to weeds. Apply direc-
Spirits gals. gals. tionally to base of crop plants. Do not treat
later than one month after transplanting
crop.
Nitrofen Posttransplanting (1 to 3) (1 to 3) Apply 1 to 4 weeks after transplanting crop.


Prometryne Posttransplanting


(0.8 to 1.6)


Can be used postemergence to weeds.
0.8 to 1.6 Apply broadcast within 2 to 6 weeks after
transplanting. Limited to two applications
per crop. Can be used postemergence to
weeds.


Eggplant DCPA Posttransplanting 101 Anply directionally to base of plant.
Endive CDEC Preemergence 2 to 4 2 S e footnote (4) at end of table.
(Escarole and Pronamide Preemergence (1to 11) -
Chicory)
Lettuce Benefin Preplanting /4 May be applied up to 3 weeks before plant


ing up to planting. Incorporate immediately
after application.


Bensulide Preplanting 5 to 6 Incorporate 1 to 11 inches deep.


Crops
Celery


CDEC


-








Table 1. (Continued)
Time of Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients) '
Application
Crops Herbicides to Crop Sandy Soils Muck Soils Remarks
Lettuce CDEC Preemergence (2 to 4) (2 to 4) See footnote (4) at end of table. Some
varieties and strains of lettuce may be
injured.
Pronamide Preemergence (1 to 11) -
Okra Trifluralin Preplanting % to 1 May be applied up to 3 weeks before plant-
ing up to planting. Incorporate immediately
after application. This treatment can be
used on the marl and rockland soils.
Dinhenamid Preemergence 5 -
Onions CDAA Preemergence 4 to 6 See footnote (3) at end of table. May be
applied as a postemergence treatment to
onion plants but before emergence of weed
seedlings. Apply directionally to base of
crop plant at second true leaf stage or
later. Do not use on green onions.
CDAA+ Preemergence 6+6 See footnote (3) at end of table.
Chlorpropham
Chlorpropham Preemergence 3 to 4 6 to 8
DCPA Pr-emergence 10/2-
DCPA+ Preemergence 6+1
Chlorpropham
DCPA+ Posttransplanting (6+1) -
Chlorpropham
DCPA Posttransplanting 101/
Chloroxuron Postemergence (3 to 4) Apply when the crop has reached the 2 to
3 leaf stage.
Nitrofen Postemergence (3 to 4) Apply when crop is in the 2 to 3 leaf stage.







Table 1. (Continued)
Time of Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients) *
Application
Crops Herbicides to Crop Sandy Soils Muck Soils Remarks
Peas, CDAA Preemergence 4 4 See footnote (3) at end of table.
English Dinoseb Preemergence 3 6 to 9 CAUTION: Injury may result if heavy
rains follow treatment on sandy soils.
Peas, Nitralin Preplanting (1/2) May be incorporated by irrigation and rain-
Southern fall or mechanically incorporate 1 to 1/2
inches deep within 2 days following appli-
cation.
Trifluralin Preplanting 3/ to 1 May be applied up to 3 weeks before plant-
ing. Incorporate immediately after appli-
cation.
DCPA Preemergence 10/ CAUTION: May cause injury if rains occur
within 2 weeks after treatment.
Peppers


CONVENTIONAL CULTURE OR WHERE STRIP-MULCH IS USED
DCPA Posttransplanting 101%
or postthinning


Plants should be 4 inches tall. Apply di-
rectionally to base of plant.


Diphenamid Preemergence 4 to 5 May be used on marl and rockland soils,
Posttransplanting also. Limited to one application per crop.
Nitralin Pretransplanting 1 May be incorporated by irrigation and rain-
fall or mechanically incorporate 1 to 11/2
inches within 2 days following application.
Trifluralin Pretransplanting 1/ to 1 Incorporate within 8 hours after applica-
tion. This treatment may be used on marl
and rockland soils, also.
Chloramben Posttransplanting 3 Use granular formulation. Do not apply
when plants are wet.. This treatment may
be used on marl and rockland soils, also.








Table 1. (Continued)


Time of
Application
to Crnn '


Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients)

Sandy Soils Muck Soils


FULL-BED MULCH SYSTEM: IN-THE-ROW
Diphenamid Preemergence 4 to 5
Posttransplanting


Nitralin


Pretransplanting


Trifluralin Pretransplanting


Dalapon


12 to 1


Replanting


Remarks


- A directed band application over the holes
in the mulch can be used after the seed is
sown or transplants are set.
- Mechanically incorporate band treatment 1
to 11/2 inches within 2 days following ap-
plication or before installing cover. Then
transplant.


-- Incorporate immediately after application.
This treatment may be used on marl and
rockland soils, also.
- For control of perennial grasses. Apply to
weed foliage and then plow under 2 weeks
later.


DCPA Preemergence 10/ -
Dinoseb Preemergence 3 to 6 3 to 6 Apply at least one day before crop emerges.
Diphenamid Preemergence 4 to 6__
Dalapon Postemergence (3.7) Apply after last cultivation where peren-
nial grasses are a problem. Apply direction-
ally to base of crop plants. Do not apply
to red-skinned varieties.
EPTC Postemergence 3 Incorporate immediately after application.


Squash l3~nsulide Preplanting (Ai)


Apply after last cultivation or no later than
45 days before harvest. Suggested for marl
soils, also.
- Incorporate 1 to 11/ inches deep in moist
soil. Plant immediately.


Crops
Peppe


rs


TTprhirieldp


UC Potatoes


Herbicdes toCron


P-


Bensulide


Prerplanting (5)


Squash







Table 1. (Continued)
Time of Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients) '
Application
Crops Herbicides to Crop Sandy Soils Muck Soils Remarks
Squasl Chloramben Preemergence 3 -
DCPA Postemergence 10/ Apply at lay-by.
or
Posttransplanting
Strawberries DCPA Posttransplanting 9
Diphenamid Posttransplanting 4 Plants should be established before applica-
tion.
Sweet Corn Alachlor Preemergence (1% to 2) (4)
Alachlor + Preemergence (11/+1) (1-+1)
Atrazine
Atrazine Preemergence 1 to 2 (3 to 4) Adequate surface soil moisture is essential
for best results.
CDAA Preemergence 5 See footnote (3) at end of table.
CDAA+CDEC Preemergence 3+3 See footnote (5) at end of table.
CDEC Preemergence 6 4 to 6 See footnote (4) at end of table.
Atrazine Postemergence 1 3/ to 11 Will control weed seedlings up to 1 inch
tall.
Simazine Preemergence 1 to 2 See remark on "atrazine" immediately
above.
Atrazine + Postemergence (1+1 gal. (1+1 gal. Use a non-phytotoxic crop oil plus emulsi-
Oil in 40 gals. in 40 gals. fier formulated for use with atrazine. Weeds
water/A) water/A) should not be over 11/ inches in height.
2,4-D Postemergence % to 3/4 / to 3/ Apply directionally to base of crop plants.
Use amine formulation. Some varieties sus-
ceptible to injury. Do not use after start of
ear formation.








Table 1. (Continued)


Herbicides


Time of
Application
to Crop '


Diphenamid Posttransplanting


Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients)
Sandy Soils Muck Soils Remarks


- Apply immediately after transplanting.


CONVENTIONAL CULTURE OR WHERE STRIP-MULCH IS USED


Diphenamid Preemergence
Posttransplanting
or Postthinning


Nitralin


4 to 6


Pretransplanting


Pebulate Pretransplanting 4

Trifluralin Pretransplanting % to 1
or Postthinning



Chloramben Posttransplanting 3


- May be used on marl and rockland soils,
also. Limited to one application per crop.

- May be incorporated by irrigation and rain-
fall or mechanically incorporate 1 to 112
inches within 2 days following application.
- Incorporate immediately after application
and then transplant.
- May be applied up to 3 weeks before trans-
planting up to transplanting or after thin-
ning. Incorporate within 8 hours after ap-
plication. This treatment may be used on
marl and rockland soils, also.
- Use granular formulation. Do not apply
when plants are wet. This treatment may
be used on marl and rockland soils, also.

- If holes are cut or burned in the mulch
cover, diphenamid may be directed as a
band over the holes immediately after seed
is sown or transplants are set.


Crops


Tomatoes


FULL-BED MULCH SYSTEM: IN-THE-ROW
Diphenamid Prcemergence 4 to 6
Posttransplanting





Table 1. (Continued)
Time of Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients) '
Application
Crops Herbicides to Crop Sandy Soils Muck Soils Remarks
FULL-BED MULCH SYSTEM: IN-THE-ROW
Tomatoes


Nitralin Pretransplanting 1 Mechanically incorporate band treatment 1
to I1/% inches within 2 days following appli-
cation or before installing cover. Then trans-
plant.
Pebulate Pretransplanting 4 Incorporate immediately after application
in band on bed. Install cover and transplant.
Trifluralin Pretransplanting %A to 1 Incorporate in band under the cover within
8 hours after application. This treatment
may be used on marl and rockland soils,
also.
FULL-BED MULCH SYSTEM: ROW MIDDLES OR WHEEL ROWS
0 Pebulate Preemergence 4 Apply as a band spray over false shoulder
(bed-over) made by mulch layer where mulch is in-
stalled. Cover immediately with soil used
in making finished shoulder.
Diphenamid Preemergence 4 to 6 Moisture following application needed for
best weed control.
Watermelons Bensulide Preplanting 5 to 6 Incorporate 1 to 1% inches deep in moist
soil. Plant immediately.
Naptalam Preemergence 3 to 4 -
(1) All treatments are "preemergence" to weeds unless stated otherwise under "remarks."
(2) Rates given in ( ) are suggested for trial purposes only.
(3) CDAA is more effective against grasses than broadleaf weeds.
(4) CDEC is more effective against broadleaf weeds than grasses.
(5) Combine CDAA with CDEC for mixed grass and broadleaf weed populations. The amount of either chemical in the mixture
should not exceed the amount suggested for that chemical separately.













Common Name
alachlor
atrazine
benefin
bensulide
CDAA
CDEC
chloramben
chloramben methyl ester
chloropicrin
chloroxuron
chlorpropham
dalapon
DCPA
L dinoseb
a diphenamid
EPTC
isopropalin
linuron
metham
naptalam
nitralin
nitrofen
pebulate
prometryne
pronamide
simazine
trifluralin
2,4-D


APPENDIX
Common and Chemical Names of Herbicides
(See front section for list of common names and trade names)
Chemical Name
2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N- (methoxymethyl) acetanilide
2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine
N-butyl-N-ethyl-a,a,a-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-p-toluidine
0,0-diisopropyl phosphorodithioate S-ester with N-(2-mercaptoethyl) benzenesulfonamide
N,N-diallyl-2-chloroacetamide
2-chloroallyl diethyldithiocarbamate
3-amino-2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid (ammonium salt)
3-amino-2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid (methyl ester)
trichloromethane
3-[p-(p-chlorophenoxy)phenyl]-l,l-dimethylurea
isopropyl m-chlorocarbanilate
2,2-dichloropropionic acid
dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate
2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol
N,N-dimethyl-2,2-diphenylacetamide
S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate
2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropylcumidine
3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l-methoxy-l-methylurea
sodium methyldithiocarbamate
N-1-napththylphthalamic acid
4-(methylsulfonyl)-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropylaniline
2,4-dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether
S-propyl butylethylthiocarbamate
2,4-bis(isopropylamino)-6- (methylthio)-s-triazine
N-(1,1-dimethylpropynyl)-3,5-dichlorobenzamide
2-chloro-4,6-bis (ethylamino)-s-triazine
a,a,a-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine
(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid


















Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences



TEACHING I FAS
RESEARCH
EXTENSION

-B9311I


3-2M-76


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
Joe N. Busby, Dean




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