Title: Strawberry production guide
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084278/00001
 Material Information
Title: Strawberry production guide
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service,
Copyright Date: 1955
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084278
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 216724580

Full Text
Amt. per 100
ype of Bed Material ft. row Amt. per acre
igle Row
36") ..... DD % to % pt. 8 to 10 gals.
EDB (40%) % to % pt. 7 gals.
uble Row
r48") .... DD to % pt. 12 to 15 gals.
EDB (40%) :' to % pt. 10 to 11 gals.

Fumigants should be applied to soils having
moisture at a level considered good for seeding or
ansplanting. In cold, damp soils the gases will
,t escape rapidly enough and may result in in-
ry to seedlings and transplants.
The fumigating materials should be applied 6
ches deep. After 10 to 14 days the rows should
i opened up and allowed to aerate for at least
day before transplanting. Do not fumigate un-
3s the presence of nematodes has been estab-
ihed in numbers large enough to seriously dam-
,e the plant's root system.

MULCHING
Mulching is used in the North Florida area to
.ep the berries from coming in contact with the
il. Wiregrass or other straw materials are gen-
'ally placed around the plants when the plants
,gin to bloom. Berries grown over mulching
e usually not washed.

HARVESTING AND HANDLING
Strawberries for shipping are harvested
rery 2 or 3 days. Grading and packing is done
i the farm under small field sheds. The un-
;emmed berries are packed in pint-size wooden
rmtainers and shipped in crates holding 36 pints.
[ost of the berries are sold at daily auctions.
art of the strawberry crop is sold directly to
processors. Berries harvested for processing are
;emmed and sold by the pound.
Loss from fruit rots in transit and storage can
a significantly reduced if proper care is taken in
arvesting and hauling. Berries should be picked
during the early morning hours and on a regular
:hedule to avoid harvesting past the prime con-
tion of the fruit. Berries must be handled care-
illy in picking, grading, packing and shipping.
immediately after crating berries should be pre-
poled to about 400 F. and refrigerated (400 F. or
lightly lower) until consumed.


PROPAGATING RUNNER PLANTS
In March or April select large, vigorous mother
plants or runners from the producing fields and
transplant to propagating beds. The grower
should periodically obtain virus-free plants for
propagating runners for the production field. Set
plants 18 to 24 inches apart in single-row beds
(4-5 ft. wide).
Fertilization and control of insects and dis-
eases same as for producing fields.

SUMMARY
Production practices may change rapidly as re-
search develops new solutions for old problems.
Presented here is some current pertinent infor-
mation on strawberry production. Experienced
growers may find it desirable to modify certain
of the suggested practices for their particular
farms.
Additional information is available in Univer-
versity of Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Bulletin 160 and USDA Farmers Bulletins 1026,
1043 and 1891. For available publications and
further details on local problems, contact your
County Agricultural Agent of the University of
Florida Agricultural Extension Service.


Circular 142 December 1955


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director





STRAWBERRY

PRODUCTION GUIDE

(Prepared by Vegetable Crop Specialists
in cooperation with workers of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations)
STRAWBERRY ACREAGE AND VALUE
Strawberries valued at $2,754,000 were pro-
duced on 3,800 acres planted in Florida in the
1954-55 season. The crop is grown in many coun-
ties for home use and sale to local markets. Com-
mercial production of strawberries is centered in
Hillsborough County (3,000 acres planted in 1954-
55) with smaller acreages grown in Polk (250),
Bradford (150), Hardee (150), Sumter (100),
Dade (75) and other counties (75). The berry
crop is harvested and marketed over an extended
period of time and thus growers in any particular
area tend to receive the season's average price
for their crop. Yield per acre is therefore im-
portant in determining how much growers will
receive for their crops.

VARIETIES RECOMMENDED
Florida Ninety.-Large, vigorous-g ro w i n g
plant. Heavy yielder of berries that are large,
red, firm, sweet and of good shipping qualities.
Missionary.-Produces fruit of good quality and
size over a long fruiting season. Tolerant to leaf-
spot disease.



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




TRANSPLANTING AND HARVESTING DATES


North
Florida
Central
Florida




South
Florida


Transplanting
Time Dates
........ August 20-
September 30
........ September 15-
October 15
(Missionary-
3rd week in Sept.)
(Florida Ninety-
2nd week in Oct.)
September 15-
October 15

PLANTING DISTANCES


Between
Beds
(inches)


Between Plants
(inches)


Harvesting
Dates
Mar.-April

January-
April




December-
April



Plants per
acre


Single- 36 to 40 10 to 14 12 to 15,000
row bed
Double- 48 to 60 10 to 14 15 to 25,000
row bed
Plants should be placed in the soil so that the
crown of the plant is even with the soil surface.

FERTILIZATION
The darker colored grades of flatwood soils
which are underlaid with clay, marl or compact
sand appear to be best adapted to strawberry pro-
duction. Other types of soils will produce good
yields with proper treatment. Irrigation facili-
ties should be available for strawberry produc-
tion on all soil types and especially for crops on
the lighter, well-drained sandy soils.
Production of runner plants and berries for
harvest is a year-round operation. Fertilizer ap-
plications for the production field on sandy soils
should be divided so that about 400 pounds of
4-7-5 or 6-8-6 fertilizer per acre are applied at
transplanting time, with additional sidedressings
of 400 pounds of 4-8-8 at approximately three- to
four-week intervals thereafter. Best results are
obtained by applying fertilizer in 2 bands, each
located 2 to 3 inches below and 3 to 4 inches to
the side of the planting row. The same schedule
of fertilization may be used for the production
of runner plants in the nursery. Berries grown
on marl soils can be fertilized with 500 to 600
pounds of 6-8-6 or 800 to 900 pounds of 4-8-8,
one-half being applied at transplanting and the
balance 6 to 8 weeks afterwards.


The pH of acid soils should be adjusted to
approximately 5.8 by the addition of lime. Plants
growing on soils with a pH above 6.0 may de-
velop manganese deficiency. To correct this con-
dition, spray plants 2 or 3 times at 5-day intervals
with 2 pounds of manganese sulfate per 100 gal-
lons of water per acre.

INSECTS AND CONTROLS

Sprays: (Amt. per
Insects Dusts 100 gaL water) Baits
Pameras ..........DDT 5% DDT, wettable,
2 lbs. 50%
Parathion Parathion wettable,
1% 1 lb. 15%
Malathion Malathion wettable,
5% 4 lbs. 25%
Flower thrips*Nicotine Nicotine sulfate
3% emulsion, 1 pt.
40%
Parathion Parathion wettable,
1% 1 lb. 15%
Cutworms** ..Chlordane Chlordane wettable, 2% chlor-
5% 2 lbs. 50% dane-
DDT 5% DDT wettable, wheat
2 Ibs. 50% bran
Lesser corn- Chlordane Chlordane wettable,
stalk borer.. 5% 2 Ibs. 50%
DDT 5% DDT wettable,
2 lbs. 50%
Flea beetles, DDT 5% DDT wettable,
Leaf rollers 2 lbs. 50%
and Field
crickets ......
Red Spiders ..Sulfur(325 Sulfur wettable,
mesh) 10 lbs.
Parathion Parathion wettable,
1% 1 lb. 15%
Malathion Malathion wettable,
5% 4 lbs. 25%
Mole Chlordane Chlordane wettable, 2% chlor-
Crickets** 5% 2 lbs. 50% dane-
and Grass- wheat
hoppers ...... bran
Wireworms: Apply 5 pounds chlordane technical per acre
10 to 14 days before transplanting. Distrib-
ute material evenly over soil surface and
disk 6 inches deep.
Nicotine should be applied during warm weather (above 60 F)
and when the air is calm.
"* For the control of cutworms and mole crickets distribute the
dust or spray even over the soil surface. Baits should be moistened
and applied in late afternoon.

Precautions.-Many insecticides and their resi-
dues are poisonous to man and animals. Carefully
read and follow precautions on labels of packages.


To prevent injury to leaves, apply insecticid
when plants are dry.
Chlordane, DDT, and parathion applied short
before or during the harvesting season may lea
poisonous residues on the berries. Apply pai
thion or malathion 5 to 7 days before first harvel
Additional treatment may not be needed for t
first half of the season. When needed, apr
parathion or malathion immediately after hE
vesting, wait at least 3 days before harvestil
again, and wash the berries before packing. Pai
thion gives better control than malathion, but
not recommended during the harvesting seas
in the Plant City area because of possible haza
to pickers. Do not apply chlordane to plan
later than 30 days before harvest and DDT lat
than 14 days before harvest.

DISEASES AND CONTROLS
Anthracnose.-
Fixed Copper (tribasic or 1.5 Ibs. actual copper I
copper A) 100 gallons of water.
Leaf Spots.-
Zineb .................................... 4 to 6%% Dust
Zineb (65%) ...................... 2 lbs. per 100 gallons
water
Nabam (27%) ...................... 2 qts. plus 1 lb. zinc sulfa
(36%) per 100 gallons
water.
Rhizoctonia Bud Rot.-No chemical control. Frequc
shallow cultivations around the plants to keep 1
soil surface dry will aid materially in reducing
cidence of the disease.
Fruit Rot.-See "Harvesting and Handling".

NEMATODES AND CONTROLS
The soil fumigants recommended for nemato
control can be applied by the solid or broadca
method in which the material is placed in bands
foot apart resulting in the treatment of all t
soil. A second method is known as "in-the-roN
application. With this method the material
applied in a band in the row where the crop is
be grown. The amounts recommended for i
the-row application for chemicals given belc
are calculated for 36-inch beds with a single re
of plants on each and 48-inch beds with 2 roi
of plants on each. Applications for wider
narrower beds can be adjusted accordingly.




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