Title: Cotton production guide.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084277/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cotton production guide.
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service,
Copyright Date: 1956
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084277
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 216824138

Full Text

-DDT, %; (2) aldrin, 1/4 to 1/2-DDT, %/s; (3)
Idrin, 1/6 to 1/4-DDT, 1/2; (4) heptachlor, 1/
14-DDT, 1/2; (5) toxaphene, 2 to 3; (6) endrin,
to /.
ll dusts should be applied when the air is calm,
tally in the early morning or late afternoon.
rays may be applied when air currents are fairly
ong. Foliage of cotton should be dry when
'ays are applied. If either dust or spray is
shed off within 24 hours, the application should
repeated. It is essential that the insecticides
kept on the plants until the insects are brought
der control or until top bolls are two-thirds
)wn.
rhe insecticides recommended above will con-
i1 most cotton insects but none are effective
ainst spider mites and only BHC is highly ef-
:tive against aphids. Parathion, malathion, or
meton will control both spider mites and aphids.
hen control of these pests becomes necessary,
tke 2 to 3 applications of dust or spray at 3-day
;ervals. If dust is used, it should contain 1%
rathion or 4 to 5% malathion and should be
plied at the rate of 15 to 20 pounds per acre,
r application. If a spray is used it should be
emulated so that, when used at the chosen rate,
to 1/4 pound of parathion or 1/2 pound of mala-
ion or /8 to 1/4 pound of demeton per acre will
applied at each application.
Parathion is highly toxic and all the other in-
:ticides are dangerous poisons. Safety precau-
ins should be observed when handling these ma-
rials.

DEFOLIATION
Defoliate all cotton to be picked with mechanical
:kers and rank cotton to be picked by hand
ien the top bolls are 25 to 30 days old or when
percent of the bottom bolls are open, by apply-
r 30 pounds of calcium cyanamid dust per acre
early morning while dew is on the foliage.
Several new materials used as sprays have given
od results. If any of these are used, follow
manufacturers' instructions.

HARVESTING
If possible, pick cotton only when dry. If cotton
not dry when picked, it should be dried


thoroughly before it is stored or ginned. Do not
walk on thin layers of seed cotton spread on a
hard surface.
SELLING
Sell on basis of grade and staple length.

STALK DESTRUCTION
Destroy stalks as soon as harvesting is com-
pleted.


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UPLAND COTTON ACREAGE IN FLORIDA, 1954
Acres Acre!
>unty* Planted County* Plant
achua ................. 151 Lafayette ........ 2!
alhoun .............. 649 Leon ........................ 9
lumbia ............... 256 Madison ................. 3,0!
Icambia ............... 1,720 Okaloosa .....-....-.. 1,7(
adsden ................... 183 Santa Rosa ............. 6,5'
milton ........... 1,294 Suwannee................ 6
olmes ................... 5,590 Walton ...................... 2,7i
ckson .................. 7,597 Washington .......... 9
fferson .................. 1,495 11 Others .................. 1


s
ed
27
71
97
37
72
12
L2
39
37
24


Total ................35981


*Counties with less than 100 acres omitted.
From 1954 ASC Annual Summary for Florida.


EXTRA LONG STAPLE COTTON ACREAGE IN
FLORIDA, 1954
Acres Acres
County Planted County Planted
Alachua ........................ 25 Seminole ........................ 24
Lake ................................ 53 Sumter .......................... 79
Madison ..................... 33 Union ............................ 19
Marion .......................... 84
Total ......................317
From 1954 ASC Annual Summary for Florida.


Circular 143 January 1956

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University and
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director






COTTON

PRODUCTION GUIDE

(Prepared by Extension Agronomists and Entomologist,
based on research results by
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations and Other
Southeastern Experiment Stations)



POINTS TO SUCCESS
1. Select good soil.
2. Prepare a good seedbed.
3. Apply fertilizer properly.
4. Plant treated seed of a good variety.
5. Thin plants to proper stand.
6. Keep crop free of weeds.
7. Apply sidedressing according to need.
8. Dust or spray to control insects.
9. Harvest early and preserve quality.
10. Sell on basis of grade and staple length.


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


,.




COTTON PRODUCTION
Both upland cotton and extra long staple cotton
are grown in Florida.
The harvested acreage of upland decreased
gradually from a high of 319,000 acres in 1911
to a low of 22,000 acres in 1946. An upswing
in acreage started in 1947 and continued through
1949, when 50,000 acres were harvested. Market-
ing quotas were in effect in 1950 and only 31,000
acres were grown that year. Quotas were not in
effect in 1951, 1952 and 1953, in which years Flor-
ida farmers harvested 62,000, 57,000 and 71,000
acres, respectively. Marketing quotas were again
in effect in 1954 and 1955 and the harvested acre-
age decreased to 36,000 acres in 1954 and to 32,000
acres in 1955. Under the control program, up-
land cotton is grown in 28 Florida counties but
most of the crop is produced in the area west of
the Suwannee River.
Sealand 542, an extra long staple variety, has
been grown in central and northeastern Florida
for the last several years. Marketing quotas on
extra long staple cotton were in effect in 1954 and
1955, in which years Florida farmers planted 317
and 386 acres, respectively.
The average yield of lint cotton per harvested
acre in Florida during the last 50-year period
ranged from 42 to 345 pounds per acre. The aver-
age yields were: 147 for the 50-year period, 1906
to 1955; 229 for the 10-year period, 1946-1955; 330
in 1954; and 345 in 1955. These figures indicate
that yields are improving. Further improvement
can be accomplished through wider use of good
production practices.

SOILS AND SEEDBED PREPARATION
Select relatively level areas of fertile well
drained soils that are free of stumps and rocks.
Chop crop residues and weeds finely and turn
them under early to permit decomposition before
planting time and to reduce interference with
planting and cultivation.

FERTILIZATION
Apply 600 to 800 pounds of 5-10-10, 4-12-12, or
similar fertilizer, per acre at or before planting.
Place the fertilizer 3 inches to one or both sides
of the seed row and 2 inches below the level of


the seed. If side placement equipment is not avail-
able, mix the fertilizer with the soil in the row
and form a raised bed over it and plant seed about
10 days later.
VARIETIES
Use the variety that has been adopted by the
community. Coker 100 Wilt is the standard
variety for much of the upland cotton area of
Florida. Other high-yielding wilt-resistant varie-
ties include Stonewilt, Plains, Empire, Auburn 56
and Smith 78. Stoneville 2-B, Deltapine 15 and
Fox are suitable for use on soils not infested with
wilt. Sealand 542 is the standard extra long
staple variety.
If local seed are used, treat them at the proper
rate with one of the following chemicals: Ceresan
M, New Improved Ceresan, 2% Ceresan, Dow 9-B,
Chloranil or Captan. Seeds handled by dealers
and associations usually are treated before they
are sold.
SEEDING RATES AND DATES
Plant on a firm seedbed after danger of cold
weather is past. Preferred planting dates are
March 1 to April 15 in central Florida and March
15 to April 30 in northeastern and northwestern
Florida. Seed at rate of 32 to 48 pounds per acre
in rows 36 to 42 inches apart.
CHOPPING
Chop when plants have 3 to 5 true leaves, leav-
ing from 2 to 3 plants per hill in hills 8 to 12
inches apart in the row.
CULTIVATION
Control weeds by use of any suitable combina-
tion of the following: (1) Hoeing, (2) frequent
shallow cultivation, (3) pre-emergence or post-
emergence application of chemicals and (4) flam-
ing.
Deep plowing at any time, but especially during
the heavy bolling stage, is very harmful.
SIDEDRESSING
Apply sidedressing, at chopping time, according
to need.
Under most conditions, 30 to 40 pounds of
nitrogen per acre, in addition to that contained
in the 600 to 800 pounds of 5-10-10 or 4-12-12 ap-


plied at planting time, should be applied as
sidedressing. Approximate amounts of varic
nitrogen fertilizers required to supply 40 pour
of nitrogen are: Nitrate of soda, 250; ammonia
nitrate, 125; ammonium nitrate-limestone, 2(
and sulfate of ammonia, 200 pounds.
If the soil is sandy or the rotation includes h;
vested peanuts, 100 pounds of muriate of pots
per acre should be applied along with the nitrog
sidedressing.
If the preceding crop was a winter legume, sii
dressing with nitrogen is not necessary.
INSECT CONTROL
Examine squares for boll weevil damage afl
the plants are fruiting freely and be on the lo(
out for damage by other insects. When 10
more squares out of each 100 examined are fou
to be punctured, or damage by other insects
noted, start dusting and dust at 5-day intervw
until 3 applications, of 10 to 20 pounds each, ha
been made. One week after the third applicati
re-examine the field and, if weevils are swarmi
or the number of squares punctured exceeds
out of each 100 examined or other insects E
causing damage, make 2 or 3 more dust appli4
tions at 5-day intervals. If insect damage
swarming of weevils occurs at a later date, c(
tinue dusting until insects are brought under c(
trol or until the top bolls are two-thirds grove
One of the following dust formulations shoi
be used in the program outlined above: (1) 3
BHC--5% DDT, (2) 2%/2 aldrin-5% DDT, (
11/2% dieldrin--5% DDT, (4) 21/2 heptachlor
5% DDT, (5) 20% toxaphene, (6) 2% Endrin.
All insecticides recommended for use as du:
can also be applied as sprays. The sprays m
be made up from emulsifiable concentrates
from wettable powders. Those made from em
sifiable concentrates may be applied with eitt
low-gallonage or high-gallonage equipment; the
made from wettable powders may be applied or
with high-gallonage equipment. The spra
should be formulated so that, when used at t
selected rate, proper quantities of the chosen
secticides will be applied. The amounts of acti
insecticides that should be applied at each api
cation, in pounds per acre, are: (1) BHC, VY




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