Group Title: Field corn production guide .
Title: Field corn production guide
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084276/00001
 Material Information
Title: Field corn production guide
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: January, 1956
Copyright Date: 1956
 Notes
General Note: Florida Cooperative Extension Service circular 144
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084276
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 216828182

Full Text

January 1956


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricunlralxtension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University and
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director


*


FIELD CORN

PRODUCTION GUIDE
(Prepared by Extension Agronomists and Entomologist,
based on research results by
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations and Other
Southeastern Experiment Stations)

POINTS TO SUCCESS
1. Prepare a good seedbed.
2. Use good seed of hybrids that produce high
yields and are well suited to the area and for
the use to be made of the crop.
3. Plant during the planting season for the area,
at times when temperature and soil moisture
conditions are favorable for germination and
growth.
4. Base spacing of plants on the inherent ability
of the soil to retain and supply moisture dur-
ing the growing season.
5. Fertilize on basis of plant population and soil
fertility.
6. Practice shallow cultivation and lay by when
plants are 21 feet high.
7. Store harvested grain in clean rat-proof bins
and fumigate for control of weevils.


*


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Circular 144





FIELD CORN PRODUCTION
Corn is the most important field crop grown in
Florida. Somewhat more than a half million acres
are planted each year. Most of the crop is grown
in the area north and west of Ocala, but some
field corn is grown in almost every agricultural
county. About 60 percent of the crop is harvested
for grain and about 40 percent is hogged-off. A
small acreage is cut for silage.
Most of the field corn acreage is planted on
mineral soils but a fairly large acreage is grown
on organic soils, mainly in Palm Beach County.
The mineral soils used for production of corn vary
considerably in texture, organic matter content
and drainage and, consequently, in their abilities
to retain and supply soil moisture to the growing
crop. In many cases, low fertility is a limiting
factor in corn production.
Results of research show that corn yields in
Florida can be improved economically through use
of leguminous cover crops, planting good seed of
adapted hybrids, application of adequate quanti-
ties of needed plant nutrients, and spacing plants
in accordance with the fertility of the soil and its
ability to supply moisture during the growing
season.
Wider use of improved corn production prac-
tices by Florida farmers during recent years has
resulted in substantial increases in average yield
per acre. For instance, the average yield for
the 7-year period 1949-1955 was 43 percent above
that for the preceding 7-year period, 1942-1948,
and the average yield in 1955 was 90 percent
above that for 1948.
Much of the gain resulting from the use of im-
proved production practices is nullified by failure
to control rats and weevils, which every year de-
stroy a high percentage of the grain stored on
Florida farms. Rat-proof storage facilities and
proper use of fumigants for the control of weevils
will protect the money and labor invested in the
crop and permit marketing to better advantage.

VARIETIES
Choose hybrids that produce high yields and
are well suited to the area and for the use to be
made of the crop.





Recommended hybrids for the different sections
of the state and for various uses are:

1. Central, northeastern and northwestern Florida:*
a. Long-season hybrids:
(1) For cribbing or hogging-off:
(a) Yellow: Dixie 18; Funk G-740.
(b) White: Coker 811.
(2) For hogging-off early:
(a) Yellow: Dixie 82; NC 27.
(b) White: NC 29; Ga. 103; Ga. 101; Dixie 33;
Dixie 17.
(3) For silage:
(a) Yellow: Any listed under (1) and (2),
above.
(b) White: Any listed under (1) and (2), above.
b. Short-season hybrids:
(1) For hogging-off:
(a) Yellow: U. S. 13; Wood's V-30; Funk G-50.
(b) White: None.

2. Southern Florida:*
a. Long-season hybrids:
(1) For cribbing or hogging-off:
(a) Yellow: Corneli 54; Funk G-740; Funk
G-737A; Funk G-737.
(b) White: None.
(2) For silage:
(a) Yellow: Any listed under (1), above.
(b) White: None.

At present, Dixie 18 is the standard long-season
hybrid for central, northeastern and northwest-
ern Florida. It produces high yields, stands up
well and has good weevil resistance. Funk G-740
and Coker 811 produce almost as well as Dixie 18
and have slightly better weevil resistance. Each
of the other long-season hybrids recommended
compares favorably with Dixie 18 in yield but has
poorer standability, lower weevil resistance, or
both.
U. S. 13, which matures about 2 weeks earlier
than Dixie 18, is the highest yielding short-season
hybrid tested to date. The other short-season
hybrids recommended are listed in order of rank
in variety tests. Under most conditions, none of
the short-season hybrids yield as well as the long-
season hybrids. Because of lower yields and

For the purpose of these recommendations the boundary be-
tween central and southern Florida is a line extending eastward from
the southwest corner of Hillsborough County to Vero Beach.





higher susceptibility to damage by insects and ear-
rot organisms, the acreage planted to short-
season hybrids should not be larger than that re-
quired to supply feed until the long-season hy-
brids are ready for use.

PLANTING DATES
Plant during the planting season recommended
for the area, at times when temperature and soil
moisture conditions are favorable for germina-
tion and growth. Recommended planting dates,
by areas, are:

Southern Florida ......................Feb. 1 to Mar. 20
Central Florida .........................Feb. 10 to April 1
Northeastern Florida .............Feb. 20 to April 10
Northwestern Florida ..............Mar. 1 to Apr. 20

To reduce the possibility of unfavorable weather
conditions during the crucial growth stage affect-
ing the entire crop on a farm, plantings should be
made on different dates within the planting sea-
son recommended for that area.

SPACING AND FERTILIZATION
Base spacing of plants on the inherent ability
of the soil to retain and supply moisture during
the growing season and base fertilization prac-
tices on the spacing of plants and the fertility
levels of the soil. Spacing and fertilization recom-
mendations for different kinds of soil and under
various related conditions are presented, in table
form, below.
Additional information, for use in interpreting
and applying the recommendations, follows:


Soils.-The mineral soils used for corn produc-
tion in Florida are grouped, on the basis of mois-
ture capacity, as follows:

1. Soils with very low moisture capacity:
a. Well drained deep sands with clay subsoils abseni
or at depths below 30 inches.
2. Soils with low moisture capacity:
a. Well drained loamy sands with clay subsoils al
depths more than 30 inches.
b. Well drained sands with clay subsoils within 3(
inches of the surface.
3. Soils with medium moisture capacity:
a. Well drained sandy loams on sloping relief with cla3
subsoils within 30 inches of the surface.
b. Well drained loamy sands with clay subsoils withir
30 inches of the surface.
4. Soils with high moisture capacity:
a. Well drained sandy loams on flat relief with cla3
subsoils within 12 inches of the surface.
b. Dark gray to black imperfectly to poorly drained
soils, with water control where needed.

Spacing of Plants.-The spacings recommended
are for long-season hybrids. If short-season hy.
brids are used, the spacings of the plants in th(
row should be approximately two-thirds of thost
recommended for long-season hybrids.
Fertilization at Planting Time.-The fertilize]
applied at planting time should be placed in con.
tinuous bands 2 to 3 inches to either one or bott
sides of the seed and 1 to 2 inches below the leve
of the seed. In the absence of side banding equip
ment the fertilizer should be mixed with the soi
below the level of the seed.
Recommended grades are: For mineral soils
5-10-10 or 4-12-12, containing 0.5 to 1.0% zin<


RECOMMENDED SPACINGS AND RATES OF FERTILIZATION
FOR FIELD CORN ON DIFFERENT KINDS OF SOIL*.
RATE OF FERTILIZATION


KIND OF SOIL
AND
RELATED CONDITIONS


PLANTS
PER
ACRE


Mineral Soil
Very Low Moisture Capacity 3,556- 4,976
Low Moisture Capacity.......... 4,976- 6,223
Medium Moisture Capacity.... 6,223- 8,297
High Moisture Capacity.......... 8,297- 9,957
Organic Soils
New Crop Land .................... 9,957-12,446
Old Crop Land ........................ 9,957-12,446
See explanation on pages 5 and 6.


SPACING IN ROW MIXED FERTILIZER NITROGEN AS
3-feetrow 3% feet row AT PLANTING TIME SIDEDRESSING
(Inches) (Inches) (Pounds per Acre) (Pounds per Acre)


49-35
35-28
28-21
21-171
17%-14
17Y2-14


42-30
30-24
24-18
18-15
15-12
15-12


200-300
300-400
400-500
500-600
500-600
300-500


20-30
30-40
40-50
50-60





oxide (ZnO) if "whitebud" is known to occur;
for new cropland areas of organic soils, 0-8-24,
containing 3% copper oxide (CuO), 2% manga-
nese oxide (MnO), 1% zinc oxide (ZnO), and 0.8%
boric oxide (B208); for old cropland areas of or-
ganic soils, 0-10-20 or 0-12-12, containing 1% cop-
per oxide (CuO).
Fertilization at planting time is not necessary
if the immediately preceding crop was a heavily
fertilized vegetable.
Sidedressing.-The sidedressing material, ex-
cept in the case of anhydrous ammonia, should
be applied 5 to 7 weeks after planting, just prior
to or at the last cultivation. Anhydrous ammonia
should be applied just prior to or just after plant-
ing.
The nitrogen sidedressing may be reduced to
half the recommended amounts or omitted where
corn follows a good growth of a winter legume.
Where corn follows a heavily fertilized vege-
table crop and no fertilizer is applied at planting
time, 15-0-10, 20-0-10 or similar fertilizer should
be used as a source of the nitrogen applied as a
sidedressing.
The approximate amounts of various nitrogen
materials required to supply 20 pounds of nitro-
gen are: Nitrate of soda, 125; ammonium nitrate,
60; ammonium nitrate-limestone, 100; ammonium
nitrate solution, 100; sulfate of ammonia, 100;
and anhydrous ammonia, 25 pounds.

CULTIVATION
Practice shallow cultivation to control weeds
until corn is 21/ feet high. Then stop cultiva-
tion. Relatively thick stands will control weeds
by competition and shading after plants are 22
feet high. Late deep cultivation will severely
prune the root system and cause a reduction in
yield.
HARVESTING
Do not harvest for storage until after grain
has dried thoroughly in the field, unless drying
equipment is available. If crop is to be hogged-
off, be sure grain has reached the late dough stage
before turning hogs into the field. If the crop is
to be used for silage, cut in late dough stage or
when 90% of the kernels are dented.





CONTROL OF STORED GRAIN PESTS
Store properly dried grain in clean rat-proof
bins that are, or can easily be made, air-tight
to permit effective fumigation for control of
weevils.
To reduce insect population before storing
grain, clean bins thoroughly and spray walls and
floors with 21/2% DDT, methoxychlor or TDE
(DDD).
To kill insects present in the grain, fumigate
immediately after storage with a mixture of 3
parts of ethylene dichloride and 1 part carbon
tetrachloride or a mixture of 4 parts carbon
tetrachloride and 1 part carbon disulfide, using 5
gallons per 1,000 cubic feet of bin space. Inspect
stored grain at monthly intervals and fumigate
again if reinfestation occurs. The fumigants
should be applied according to the instructions
printed on the container and all safety precau-
tions should be observed.
Synergized pyrethrum (0.05% pyrethrins, 0.8%
piperonyl butoxide, 99.15% talc) applied to un-
shucked corn, at the rate of 1 pound for each 10
bushels, will suppress the spread of weevils from
ear to ear, but will not control weevils within the
unshucked ears.


CORN ACREAGE IN FLORIDA, 1954


County*


Acres Corn
For all
Purposes


Alachua ................ 35,535
Baker ................... 3,678
Bradford ............. 3,115
Calhoun ................ 11,559
Columbia .............. 21,249
Dixie ...................... 2,289
Escambia .............. 7,503
Gadsden ................ 33,181
Gilchrist ................ 18,500
Hamilton .............. 24,844
Hillsborough ....... 1,515
Holmes .................. 29,355
Jackson .................. 68,773
Jefferson .............. 26,577
Lafayette .............. 13,593
Leon ........................ 15,701
Levy ........................ 15,861


Acres Corn
For all
County* Purposes
Liberty .................... 2,067
Madison ................ 39,511
Marion .................. 13,450
Okaloosa ............. 10,601
Palm Beach ............ 2,910
Putnam ................ 1,036
Santa Rosa ............ 22,325
Sumter .................. 2,449
Suwannee .......... 51,611
Taylor .................... 3,006
Union .................... 6,830
Wakulla ................ 3,104
Walton .................. 17,019
Washington ............ 14,109
31 Others .............. 8,858

TOTAL (State)....531,714


* Counties with less than 1,000 acres omitted.
From 1955 U. S. Census of Agriculture.




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