t970 4 V ular 145D
R AUCTION GUIDE
ve soil tested and apply necessary lime and
:n land so that all crop residues and weeds
;e high-quality seed of a good variety and
e proper spacing for the variety.
ip crop free of weeds, by approved meth-
ily gypsum soon after the plants begin
At or spray to control leafspot disease and
at proper time.
west and cure nuts by methods that will
limize seed damage.
rRIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
UTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
From the standpoint of acreage, peanu
Florida's fourth most important field cror
though the acreage grown for all purpose
decreased gradually from 480,000 acres in
to only 79,000 acres in 1967. Decreased 1
peanuts for "hogging-off" has been respc
for this decline.
During the nineteen-year period 1949 to
the acreage of peanuts harvested annually
from a high of 65,281 acres in 1950 to a
43,621 acres in 1960 and averaged 50,546
Approximately 50,000 acres of peanuts wei
vested in 1969.
ASCS records show that the average y
harvested nuts in 1949 was only 754 poun
acre. Average yields for the last three si
periods, 1950-55, 1956-61 and 1962-67 we
spectively, 894, 1,079 and 1,498 pounds pe
The average yield in 1968 was 1,690 poun
Many Florida farmers are harvesting
than 11/2 tons of high quality nuts per acre
every year. One Florida farmer has an a
production of more than 11/ tons per acre
of the last ten years. In 1968, a Levy
farmer produced more than 5,300 pounds p
on part of his allotted acreage.
Further improvement in the average y
peanuts in Florida can be achieved through]
use of good production practices.
SOILS AND ROTATIONS
Grow peanuts on well-drained soils in
or 4-year rotation with other crops that ha,
Other crops in rotation should be resis
nematodes and southern blight. Crops
mended for rotation with peanuts include
small grains and other grasses. Most 1
and many vegetable crops build up the ne
population and should be avoided in the
rotation, especially as immediately pr<
LIMING AND FERTILIZATION
Improve soil fertility of fields to be plain
peanuts by liming and fertilizing for ma
economic production of other crops in the re
Liming-Recommendations as to the kind and
amount of limestone that should be applied are
based on consideration of pH preferences and
calcium and magnesium requirements of the crops
in the rotation and of the pH value and calcium
and magnesium contents of soil samples analyzed
in the laboratory.
Limestone is of two kinds-calcic and dolomite.
In addition to reducing soil acidity, calcic lime-
stone supplies the plant nutrient calcium and
dolomitic limestone supplies calcium and magne-
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FERTILIZATION
A. ON BASIS OF SOIL-TEST RESULTS
Soil-Tst Results Ratio lbs/a
P,05 K,O N P20 KO N P205 KO2
Low Low 0 1 1 0- 96 -96
1- 3 3 or 32 96 -96
Low High 0- 3 2 0 96 64
1-3 2 or 32- 96 -64
High Low 0- 2 3 0- 64 -96
1-2 or 32- 64 -96
High High 0- 1 1 0- 64 -64
1- 2 2 or 32 64 -64
B. WITHOUT BENEFIT OF SOIL-TEST RESULTS
Texture of Surface Soil Ratio lbs/a
N P2Os K20 N PaO KaO
Sand 0- 2 3 0- 64 -96
1- 2 3 or 32 64 -96
Loamy Sand 0 1 1 0 96 96
Sandy Loam 1 3 3 or 32 96 96 /
Peanuts, when inoculated with the proper strain of nitrogen-fixing
bacteria, do not respond to applications of fertilizer nitrogen. How-
ever, many farmers like to include nitrogen as well as phosphorus and
potash in fertilizers for peanuts. For this reason, a complete, as well
as an incomplete, mixed fertilizer is recommended for each set of
The indicated fertilizer of your choice, containing minor elements
if they are needed, should be broadcast just before the land is turned.
If need for boron or other minor elements is indicated, by past
experience, have a complete minor element frit added to the fertilizer,
at a rate that will result in application of 20 pounds of the frit per
acre. If need for boron only is indicated, soluble boron may be applied
at the rate of 1% pounds of B20, (1/ B) per acre, in the fertilizer at
planting time, in the gypsum applied at blooming time, or in the first
application of leafspot dust or spray.
Symptoms of minor element deficiencies that have been noted in
peanuts in Florida are:
Copper-Young leaves are light green to chlorotic, small and
Manganese-Plants are stunted; young leaves are yellow with green
Boron-Young leaves are mottled, small and distorted; internodbs
are short; stems are sometimes cracked and nuts are hollow hearted.
For development of well-filled nuts, an adequate
supply of calcium must be available in the fruit-
ing zone, as well as in the rooting zone, of the
peanut plant. Therefore, to be most effective as
a source of calcium, and to not interfere with
proper preparation of a good seedbed for peanuts,
the recommended kind and amount of limestone
should be broadcast evenly over the surface and
thoroughly mixed with the soil in the plow layer
before the preceding spring crop is planted.
Fertilization-Peanuts often respond as well or
better to residual soil fertility than to direct fer-
tilization. For this reason, emphasis is placed on
proper fertilization of the preceding crop.
If phosphorus and/or potash levels are low or
if maintenance of high fertility is desired, use
recommendations in Table 1 as guides for fertili-
zation of the peanut crop.
In early fall, have soil tested; shred crop resi-
dues; if lime is needed, apply the recommended
kind and amount of limestone; and disk land to
incorporate limestone and crop residues into the
top three to four inches of soil. The partially in-
corporated residues will tend to protect the soil
against erosion by wind and water during winter
and early spring.
If additional soil protection is desired or if
winter grazing is needed, apply the proper kind
and amount of fertilizer just ahead of the disk-
ing operation and plant rye, or another small
grain of your choice. Just before time to turn
land for peanut crop, graze plants to ground level,
or reduce plant height by use of rotary mower
set close to the ground, and break up root sod by
disking land thoroughly to depth of three to four
Three to four weeks before planting time,
broadcast the recommended kind and amount of
fertilizer and turn land with a moldboard plow,
equipped with coulters, so that all litter will be
covered with at least four inches of soil.
If for any reason it becomes necessary to apply
fertilizer at planting time, rather than before the
land is turned, it should be placed in bands three
to four inches to each side of the seed row and
three to four inches below the level of the seed.
Choose a variety, of each type desired, that
produces high yields of good quality nuts. Vari-
eties recommended for Florida, by commercial
types, with average number of days from plant-
ing to maturity in parentheses, are:
Spanish-Starr, (120); and Argentine, (120).
These two varieties have replaced other Spanish
varieties in the Southeast; in 1968, Starr was
planted on approximately two-thirds of the Span-
ish acreage and Argentine on one-third. Average
yields of Spanish varieties in the Regional Va-
riety Tests, at Gainesville and Marianna during
the four-year period 1966-69, in pounds of un-
shelled nuts per acre, were: Starr, 2,130 and
Runner-Early Runner, (135); and Florunner,
(135). Both of these varieties produce higher
yields than other runner varieties and both have
more resistance to seed damage than common
Florida Runner. Average yields of three runner
varieties in the Regional Variety Tests at Gaines-
ville and Marianna during the four-year period
1966-69, in pounds of unshelled nuts per acre,
were: Florunner, 3,446; Early Runner, 2,762;
and Va. Bunch 67, 2,781. The acreage of Early
Runner has been increasing each year; whereas
acreage of Dixie Runner has been decreasing.
Seed of Florunner, a new variety developed at
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, was
distributed to producers of certified seed in 1969.
Certified seed of this variety should be readily
available in 1970.
Virginia-Florigiant (135). In yield and re-
sistance to seed damage, Florigiant is superior
to all other released varieties of Virginia-type
peanuts that have been tested in Florida. Av-
erage yields of two Virginia varieties in the
Regional Variety Tests at Gainesville and Mari-
anna during the four-year period 1966-69, in
pounds of unshelled nuts per acre, were: Flori-
giant, 3,414 and N.C. 5, 3,094.
All of the Spanish varieties are upright in
growth habit, whereas all of the runner varieties
and Florigiant have spreading habit of growth.
Harvested nuts of all of the recommended va-
rieties are acceptable to the edible nut trade, but
local preferences may vary. Consult your sheller
or buyer before making your final choice of va-
If the crop is to be hogged-off, choose a variety
of the runner-type. Seed of these varieties, if
left in the ground after they reach maturity,
usually will remain dormant for several months.
Plant sound, well-matured, disease-free seed of
known pedigree, purity and performance. Florida
certified peanut seed, which are grown and pro-
cessed under strict regulations and close super-
vision, are true to variety and of high quality.
Florunner seed is about 10 percent larger than
Early Runner, therefore, planting rates should
be adjusted accordingly.
Treat all seed, especially those shelled by ma-
chine, to reduce seed decay and seedling damage.
Standard seed treatment chemicals and rates
of application, in ounces per one hundred pounds
of shelled seed, are: thiram, 75% (Arasan 75),
2; thiram 50% (Arasan 50), 3; chloranil, 96%
All Florida certified seed are treated before
they are put on the market, and most shelling
plants are equipped to treat seed.
If seed are not certified, and seed-treatment
service is not available, treat them on the farm
by filling a barrel or other large container not
more than half full of weighed seed, adding the
proper quantity of one of the recommended chem-
icals, sealing the container tightly and rolling or
rotating it slowly until all seed are uniformly
coated with dust.
DO NOT USE TREATED SEED FOR FOOD,
FEED OR OIL.
If field has not been in peanuts, or other legume
of the cross-inoculation group to which peanuts
belong, during the last five years, inoculate seed
with the proper strain of nitrogen-fixing bacteria
just before they are placed in the planter.1
Space seed of Spanish varieties two to three
inches apart in 24- to 30-inch rows, and those of
runner and Virginia varieties three to four inches
apart in 30- to 36-inch rows. For runner and Vir-
ginia varieties, a modified two-row pattern, in
which the middle beneath the tractor is one rear
tire width narrower than the wheel middle, per-
mits more satisfactory operation of spraying or
dusting equipment, especially in the latter part
of the growing season. For Spanish varieties, a
four-close-row pattern, in which paired rows 10
inches apart straddle the position normally occu-
pied by single rows in the modified two-row sys-
tem, may aid in weed control and may result in
Cover the seed two to three inches in light-
textured soils and 11/2 to 2 inches in heavier-
textured soils. After they are covered, the top
of the seed row should be level with, or slightly
above, the middles.
Level or ridge planting, which is required for
non-dirting of peanut plants and for proper ap-
plication of weed control chemicals, can be ac-
complished through use of sweeps, set flat and
shallow, followed by planters equipped with cov-
ering knives and wide press-wheels.
To reduce or eliminate the need for cultivation
and hoeing, apply a herbicide or combination of
herbicides that will control the weeds expected.
Recommendations for control of weeds in pea-
nuts are presented in Table 2.
Preplant treatments, of necessity, should be
applied broadcast. "Cracking time" treatments
may be applied broadcast or to a 12- to 14-inch
'Peanuts, cowpeas, velvetbeans, lespedeza, hairy in-
digo, crotalaria, beggarweed and partridge pea all belong
to the same cross-inoculation group.
Table 2. SUGGESTIONS FOR CHEMICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS AND PEANUTS
Treatment* Time of Application Weeds Controlled Remarks
Benefin From 3 weeks to Is effective on hard-to-control grasses such Incorporate into the soil to a depth of 2 to
(1.12) immediately before as sandspur, Texas millet and signalgrass. 3 inches immediately after application. If
planting. Gives effective control of Florida pusley and possible, combine application and incorpo-
pigweed; poor control of coffeeweed, cockle- ration into a single operation by mounting
bur, and Florida beggarweed; and no control spray nozzles just in front of incorporation
of nutgrass. equipment. See label for information on
incorporation equipment and techniques.**
Vernolate From 2 weeks to Supresses nutgrass and controls most Incorporate into the soil to a depth of 3 to
(2.0-2.5) immediately before annual grasses and several broad-leaved 31/2 inches immediately after application.
Use lower rate on planting. Preferably weeds. It gives poor control of Texas mil- See "Remarks" for benefin, above. If a
sands and loamy not more than 2 days let, coffeeweed, and cocklebur and is in- separate spray rig is used, it should be fol-
sands, higher rate before planting. effective for control of Florida beggarweed. lowed immediately by the incorporation
on sandy loams, equipment. See label for information on in-
corporation equipment and techniques.
Numbers in parentheses indicate pounds of active ingredient or acid equivalent per acre, on a broadcast basis. When using any of these
herbicides, read the manufacturer's label carefully, follow directions and observe precautions.
** In recent studies at the Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station, vernolate incorporated by conventional methods controlled less nut-
sedge and injured peanuts more than vernolate injected in lines under the soil or subsurface applied through sweep applicators.
See "Weeds Controlled" for benefin alone
and vernolate alone, above.
From 2 weeks to
"CRACKING TIME" TREATMENTS
When peanuts are
usually 5 to 7 days
after planting. In the
event weeds become
visible before peanuts
begin to crack ground
make spray appli-
Application of spray
after the oldest
peanuts have more
than 2 leaves is
Weeds controlled best are crabgrass and
Florida pusley. Other weeds usually con-
trolled are citron, pigweed and ragweed.
Gives some control of coffeeweed, cockle-
bur, Florida beggarweed, sandspur and
goosegrass. Nutgrass and established John-
son and Bermuda grasses are not controlled.
Mixtures of DNBP with other herbicides are
usually more effective than DNPB alone.
DNBP kills young emerged weeds primarily
by contact. The other herbicides have resi-
dual activity that controls weeds effectively
in the presence of good soil moisture. These
treatments may be used as supplements to
preplant treatments for control of broad-
leaf weeds that are resistant to vernolate
and benefin. As a follow up of vernolate,
DNBP plus NPA is safer (and cheaper)
than the other combinations.
Incorporate into the soil to a depth of 3
inches immediately after application. See
"Remarks" for benefin alone and vernolate
DNBP (3.0) Within 10 days Young emerged weeds. Grasses beyond 2- This treatment is useful for controlling
after emergence leaf stage are resistant. young weeds that escape or are resistant
of peanuts, when to "Preplant" treatments. Peanut foliage
weeds first be- will be injured, especially in hot weather.
DNBP (1.5) Within 30 days Young emerged weeds. Grasses beyond 2- This treatment is useful for controlling
after emergence leaf stage are resistant, young weeds that escape "Cracking Time"
of peanuts, when treatments. Use shields to protect peanuts
weeds first be- against damage by spray.
band centered over the seed row.
For application of herbicides, use a tractor-
mounted sprayer that is equipped with a corrosion
resistant tank, power take-off-operated nylon rol-
ler pump, pressure regulator with gauge and suf-
ficient nozzles of the proper type and size. The
sprayer should be clean, in good working order,
and properly calibrated.
Do not allow spray to drift to cotton, tobacco
or other sensitive crops nor use spray unit for
spraying sensitive crops unless the tank has been
replaced and the other equipment thoroughly
cleaned. Read labels carefully, follow instructions
and observe precautions.
If "Cracking time" treatments are applied in
bands over the row, confine cultivation to the
middles as long as weeds do not become a prob-
lem in the treated band, exercising care to pre-
vent the movement of untreated soil onto the
If chemical weed control is not used, cultivate
early and often, practice flat, shallow cultivation
at all times.
For early cultivation, use weeders or rotary
hoes. Remove weeder teeth directly over the rows
and operate weeders and rotary hoes so as to keep
a minimum mechanical injury to plants.
For later cultivation, use sweeps set shallow
and flat and operated so that movement of soil
onto or toward the row is kept to a minimum. Do
not disturb pegs of young pods, but keep middles
free of weeds until vines have almost covered the
APPLICATION OF GYPSUM
If the calcium level in the soil was found by
test to be inadequate and lime was not applied or
was applied but not thoroughly mixed with the
top soil, or if the variety is of the Virginia type,
apply agricultural gypsum (landplaster) over the
entire potential pegging zone after the plants be-
gin to bloom freely.
Rate of application of the gypsum should be
600 to 1,000 pounds per acre for Virginia type
peanuts and 400 to 600 pounds per acre for other
Table 3. SUGGESTIONS FOR CHEMICAL CONTROL OF NEMATODES IN PEANUTS
Limitations and/or Directions
DBCP EC, Row: 9-12 lbs actual in 36" rows or Apply at time of planting injecting chemical 8" deep when soil
Concentrate 1 pt/chisel/2720 linear ft to 1% temperature is between 600 and 800 F. Seal immediately after ap-
(Nemagon, pt/chisel per 2720 linear feet plication. Do not feed, sell, or introduce hay or hulls taken from
Fumazone) treated soil into commerce. Forage crops grown on treated soil
should not be used as feed for dairy animals or animals being
finished for slaughter until 2 years after row treatment, or 3 years
after broadcast treatment.
Ethylene Dibromide Broadcast: 3 gal or 1 pt/chisel/ Soil in good seedbed condition with temperature between 60
(85%) 1820 linear ft and 80 F. Deep tillage prior to treatment often improves results.
(Dowfume W-85) Inject at 8" depth 15-20 days before planting. Allow additional
time before planting if temperatures are below 600 F and/or if
the soil is extremely wet. Vines and hulls taken from treated soil
should not be fed, sold or introduced into commerce. Forage crops
grown on treated soil should not be used as feed for dairy animals
or animals being finished for slaughter until 3 yrs after broadcast
treatment, or 2 yrs after row treatment.
(D-D, Vidden D)
Row: 10 gals in 36" rows or
1 pt/chisel/156 linear ft
Broadcast: 25 gal or
1 pt/chisel/218 linear ft
Soil in good seedbed condition with temperature between 60
and 80 F. Deep tillage prior to treatment often improves results.
Eight inch injection depth with chisels spaced 10-12" apart for
broadcast. After application seal soil and leave undisturbed for
at least 14 days .before planting. Allow additional time if tempera-
tures are below 60* F and/or if the soil is extremely wet.
The major nematode pests of peanuts in Florida
are root-knot and root-lesion nematodes. Root-
knot nematodes, which causes large galls or knots
on pegs, pods and roots, may cause considerable
loss in peanut yields. Damage incited to the pea-
nut plant by the root-lesion nematode is generally
limited to the scarring of the peanut hulls with-
out marked reduction in yields.
The following materials have proven effective
for the control of leafspot of peanuts in Florida
and other states.
Copper Sulfur.-Apply 325-mesh sulfur mixed
with metallic copper (3.4% copper from either
basic copper sulfate or cuprous oxide). Begin
application when disease first appears and repeat
at 10 to 14-day intervals until two weeks before
harvest time. Use at the rate of 15 to 20 pounds
per acre for early applications and 20 to 25 pounds
per acre for later applications. If rain occurs
within 12 hours following application, it should
be repeated as soon as possible.
Sulfur.-325-mesh sulfur used as a dust gives
good control of leafspot; however, copper-sulfur
while more expensive gives more effective control
particularly where leafspot is severe. Apply as
Copper salts of fatty and resin acids.-(TC-90).
Apply as a spray at intervals as listed above. The
rate of application is 1/ to % gallons liquid cop-
Zinc ion and Manganese ethylene bisdithiocar-
bamate.-(Dithane M-45 or Manzate 200). As a
spray apply 1 to 2 pounds of 80% formulation
per acre in sufficient water for thorough coverage.
Begin treatment when the disease is first noted,
and continue applications at 10 to 14-day inter-
vals throughout the season. If peanut vine hay
is to be used for livestock feed, do not use more
than 11/2 pounds per acre per application and do
not apply within 14 days of harvest.
As a dust, apply 25 to 35 pounds of 6% active
material per acre at intervals as listed above. If
peanut hay is to be used as livestock feed, the
dust formulation should be applied at a dosage of
20-25 pounds per acre and should not be applied
within 14 days of harvest.
Polyram.-(Polyran 5% dust) or (Polyram
80W). Apply the dust at the rate of 20-30 pounds
per acre at intervals listed above. Apply the
Polyram 80W at the rate of 1 to 2 pounds of 80%
formulation per acre in sufficient water for thor-
ough coverage. Do not feed treated forage to
dairy animals or animals being finished for
White Grubs and Twenty pounds of 10% parathion
Wireworms G or equivalent spray. Broadcast
on soil surface and mix into top
3-4 inches immediately. Apply two
weeks before planting.
Thrips Systemic insecticides can be ap-
plied in the row at planting. Six-
ten pounds of 10% Di-Syston or
10% Thimet G or equivalent liquid.
Apply granules in row with seed at
planting time. When using liquid,
apply one-two inches to the side of
the weed. Lower rates for light
Cutworms Ten-twenty pounds 20-10
to 1 gallon 4-2 toxaphene-
10-20 pounds 10% TDE D
15-20 pounds 5% Dylox Bait
White-Fringed DDT: Broadcast at rate of 10
Beetle pounds actual/acre or apply in row
at rate of 2-3 pounds actual/acre.
Broadcast when preparing soil for
planting and work immediately in-
to upper 3-4 inches, or apply alone
or mixed with fertilizer in row at
time of planting.
Lesser Cornstalk Chemical control often unsatisfac-
Borer tory. Limited tests in Georgia sug-
gest that about 30 days protection
can be obtained by using 20 pounds
of 10% parathion granules in a
16 to 18 inch band over the row.
Make close observation for infes-
tations from early July to harvest.
Thrips, Leafhoppers 10 pounds 10% DDT D
or Velvetbean V2 gallon DDT 2 EC
Caterpillars 20 lbs. 5% Sevin D
1 pounds 80% Sevin WP
10 pounds 20% toxaphene D
% gallon toxaphene 6 EC
Armyworms, Corn Apply at first sign of injury when
earworms, or worms are small.
mixed populations 10-20 pounds 20-10 toxaphene-
of caterpillars DDT D
,% 1 gallon 4-2 toxaphene-
15-20 pounds 10% Sevin D
2-2/2 pounds 80% Sevin WP
Spider Mites 20-30 pounds 3% ethion D
1-2 pints ethion 4 EC
Aphids 15-20 pounds 5% malathion D
1-1% pints malathion 5 EC
1 % pints parathion 4 'EC
Do not apply malathion within 30
days of harvest.
D = dust
EC = emulsifiable concentrate
WP = wettable powder
B = bait
G = granules
Restrictions-Do not feed peanut forage treat-
ed with DDT, TDE, toxaphene, or ethion to dairy
animals or animals being finished for slaughter.
Follow directions and precautions on the label.
Precautions-Insecticides are poisonous to man
and animals. Handle them with care. Always
read the insecticide label carefully and completely
before opening the containers and observe all pre-
cautions. Do not contaminate feed and water.
Store insecticides in the original labeled contain-
ers out of reach of children, pets, and livestock,
preferably in a locked cabinet or closet, and away
from food and feed. Dispose of empty containers
promptly and safely.
With average days to maturity for the variety
as a guide, inspect each field to determine the
stage of development of the nuts. Pull several
plants from different parts of the field, pick off
all pods, break pods open and determine the per-
centage of hull insides turning dark for Spanish
varieties and the percentage with a deep pink
seedcoat color for the runner varieties and Flori-
giant. Delay digging until 80 percent (4 out of
5) of the Spanish hulls are turning dark on the
inside and until two thirds (2 out of 3) of the
kernels of the runner varieties or Florigiant are
deep pink color. When using kernel color to de-
termine time to harvest runner peanuts, remem-
ber that kernels of the Florunner variety have a
lighter color than those of the Early Runner va-
riety. For Florigiant, check the condition of the
pods stems frequently as maturity approaches; if
examination shows a weakening of pod stems, dig
soon regardless of the percentages of kernels
showing pink color.
Vine Clipping-Use a rotary or flail type cutter
with sharp blades to clip foliage, preferably 3 to
4 days before digging. Do not clip excessively,
but only the top 1/3 of Spanish and top 1/2 of other
Digging-Sharp, rigid blades with a very slight
pitch provide optimum cutting action when set
to cut taproot just below the pods. Travel at suf-
ficient speed to produce a "flow" of soil and vines
over digger blades and through shaker. Exces-
sive speeds may strip pods from stems, whereas,
too slow speeds may not allow soil to flow prop-
Shaking-An aggressive shaking action is de-
sirable for separating soil from pods and roots.
Carefully regulate forward speed of shaker and
rattler bar speed to lift peanuts gently from the
soil. Rattler bar teeth should "comb" the soil
penetrating only as required to lift the vines.
Windrowing rods should be adjusted to form a
uniform, fluffy, well aerated window with no
vines remaining in wheel middles.
Windrows formed with an inverting shaker
may produce a more compact window with im-
proved drying potential. Re-shaking the inverted
window may be advisable where excessive soil
clings to vines and stems but the percentage of
pods in contact with soil will be increased. Pro-
longed exposure during hot, dry periods may re-
sult in over-drying of pods in contact with hot,
dry soil in full sunlight.
Use a low shaker with very gentle action and
exercise extreme care in re-shaking large-seed
Combining-Combine efficiency depends upon
several variables including window conditions,
cylinder speed, forward travel speed, interval ad-
justments, and special modifications required for
handling large-seeded peanuts. Impact and me-
chanical injury during harvest is largely asso-
ciated with the separation process.
Machine adjustments such as cylinder speeds
should be set within manufacturers recommen-
dations as given in the instruction manual. Ad-
justments must be made as window moisture and
picking conditions change within a field. Operate
at the lowest cylinder speed that gives good pod
separations. A better measure of combining ef-
ficiency is evidenced by quality of the peanuts
coming into the bin rather than the amounts har-
vested in a given time. Excessive speed can be
the enemy of peanut quality. Fast moving com-
bine parts may damage a high percentage of hulls
and kernels. Both visible and non-visible damage
opens the door to insect and mold infestations.
Peanuts must be properly cured if desirable
flavor, texture, germination and over-all quality
are to be maintained.
Moisture reduction is the major consideration
in peanut curing and may be accomplished by
natural window drying or by artificial drying in
a mechanically controlled environment.
Drying methods-Natural window drying may
be done without adversely affecting peanut
quality provided natural climatic conditions are
favorable. Mild temperatures, relatively dry,
free-moving air without rain for five to ten days
constitute favorable natural drying conditions.
Too often these conditions do not occur in com-
bination or for sufficient time to allow adequate
natural drying without weather damage.
Mechanical drying offers definite advantages in
providing a controlled environment for the pea-
nuts during the drying period. This drying
method is based on removing free water and much
of the original hull moisture by limited window
curing. Peanuts are allowed to remain in the
window one to three days after digging or un-
til kernels will "rattle" within the hull. Moisture
content of the kernels will range from 18% -
24%. Under these moisture conditions, peanuts
will withstand more handling with less impact
damage than when very green or very dry. "Semi-
dry" peanuts should be cleaned before drying
when foreign material is excessive. Drying should
be started immediately after combining by pro-
viding adequate forced air to provide approxi-
mately 50 cubic feet per minute per square foot
of drying floor area. Limit the depth of peanuts
to four feet or less in the drying bin. Uniform
depth and distribution of peanuts within the dry-
ing bin are important for even flow of drying air
and uniform drying.
Control rate and amount of moisture removal
by choice of temperature rise needed under the
prevailing natural air conditions. High tempera-
ture and low relative humidity will dry too rapidly
and may result in over drying. Natural air at
relatively low temperatures (600 80 F.) and
low relative humidity (55% 65%) may allow
proper drying without supplemental heat.
With dryers using one way continuous-flow
heated air, maximum air temperature (950 1000
F.) and depth of peanuts (four feet or less) are
critical factors. Reversible air flow at the above
temperature has given excellent drying resulting
in a more uniform final kernel moisture.
Managing the drying system-Quality control
is dependent upon frequent moisture checks as
peanut kernels approach the 12% level. Under
average climatic conditions, heat may be cut off
when peanuts reach 91/2% to 10% moisture. Dry-
ing will continue as a coasting effect and will
lower the moisture 1% to 11/2% below cutoff
point. This effect is due to unequal moisture levels
between the hulls and kernels. Do not allow aver-
age moisture content to go below 8.5% for any
lot with no portion of the lot containing less than
7% moisture nor more than 10% moisture. Do
not allow unheated air having less than 55 % rela-
tive humidity to pass through peanuts at night.
Storage facilities for peanuts should be weath-
erproof and free from insect and disease bearing
litter. Bins should have provisions to control air
circulation and prevent condensation. Provide
adequate air space between surface of stored pea-
nuts and roof or ceiling of the building. Avoid
storage of seed peanuts in buildings where tem-
peratures may become too high. Buildings having
exposed sheet iron roof or side walls may reach
excessive temperatures during fall months where
no aeration is provided.
Check and follow carefully latest recommenda-
tions as to amount and kind of insecticides to use
on stored nuts. This is extremely important.
Machinery and handling methods must be care-
fully planned to maintain quality peanuts. Use
belt type conveyors and elevators whenever pos-
sible. The auger and chain-cleat types may crush
pods and divide kernels which invite insect infes-
tation and lower both grade and germination.
If pneumatic conveyors are used, they should be
constructed to prevent cracking of pods and
kernels by impact. Sharp turns in conveyor ducts
must be avoided and air speed must be carefully
Table 4. ACREAGE, YIELD AND PRODUCTION OF
PEANUTS HARVESTED FOR NUTS IN FLORIDA,
BY COUNTIES, 1968*
Acreage** Per Acre Production
County (Acres) (Pounds) (Pounds)
Alachua 1,782.3 1,696 3,023,047
Calhoun 1,926.8 2,147 4,137,726
Columbia 658.4 1,921 1,264,991
Dixie 28.3 1,986 56,194
Escambia 35.3 2,471 87,218
Gadsden 813.1 1,453 1,181,805
Gilchrist 246.6 1,341 330,731
Hamilton 100.1 1,283 128,440
Holmes 3,261.0 1,458 4,755,647
Jackson 25,353.0 1,486 37,681,138
Jefferson 902.8 1,557 1,405,376
Lafayette 73.0 2,164 157,989
Leon 269.1 2,059 554,091
Levy 2,252.0 2,066 4,651,555
Madison 158.0 1,613 254,792
Marion 1,860.7 1,690 3,144,435
Okaloosa 554.9 2,289 1,270,286
Santa Rosa 5,499.9 2,333 12,831,034
Suwannee 1,452.2 1,804 2,619,884
Wakulla 433.1 1,368 592,433
Walton 1,134.8 1,775 2,013,715
Washington 875.5 2,086 1,826,214
STATE 49,670.9 1,690 83,968,741
From 1968 ASCS Statistical Report
** Does not include acreages harvested green for boiling.
When necessary to walk over the surface of
stored peanuts, provide boards as walkways.
Boards prevent crushing and cracking damage to
nuts which also invites insect infestation. Re-
move peanuts from bins by gravity flow when
possible; otherwise, exercise care not to damage
nuts in handling.
Use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing specific information. It is not a
guarantee or warranty of products named and does not
signify approval to the exclusion of others of suitable
This guide was prepared by J. R. Henderson, Agron-
omist, in cooperation with T. C. Skinner, Agricultural
Engineer; J. R. Strayer, Assistant Entomologist; D. W.
Dickson, Assistant Plant Pathologist; C. W. Laughlin,
Assistant Nematologist; E. B. Whitty, Assistant Agron-
omist; T. A. Kucharek, Assistant Plant Pathologist.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
S Joe N. Busby, Dean