Title: Tomato production guide.
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 Material Information
Title: Tomato production guide.
Series Title: Tomato production guide.
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084259
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 226966413

Full Text


Circular 98


December 1950


TOMATO PRODUCTION

GUIDE

(Prepared in cooperation with workers of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations)


Production practices are subject to rapid change by
new problems arising and the application of research
results to meet these needs. No attempt is made here
to foresee all the complications possible, but instead
the effort has been to present the current pertinent
facts on tomato production. Experienced growers may
have several modifications of these practices for their
specific conditions.

For further details on local application of these
facts, contact your County Agricultural Agent.

HARVESTED ACREAGE OF TOMATOES, 1949-50;
FLORIDA TOTAL 42,500 ACRES.


Fall: 9,000
Collier 600
Hendry 400
Hillsborough 1,000
Indian River 1,500
Manatee 1,000
Okeechobee 400
St. Lucie 2,300
10 + Others 1,800


Winter 14,000
Broward 850
Collier 400
Dade 11,200
Hendry 300
Hillsborough 400
Manatee 600
4 + Others 250


Spring 19,500
Dade 1,000
Hardee 2,200
Hillsborough 1,950
Indian River 1,700
Manatee 2,000
Marion 1,300
Okeechobee 1,300
St. Lucie 2,600
Sumter 1,500
12 + Others 3,950


YIELD, COSTS AND RETURNS PER
BUSHEL BY AREA, 1948-49:


Bushels per acre
Production costs
Harvesting costs
Sales F. 0. B.
Net return


Manatee-Ruskin
Ft. Un- MeIn-
Dade Pierce Staked staked tosh Sumter
213 209 209 171 75 145
$1.41 $1.59 $2.17 $1.69 $1.48 $2.29
1.04 .88 1.80 .65 1.10 .47
4.37 3.36 4.13 3.25 4.39 3.58
+1.92 +.89 +.16 +.91 +1.81 +.82


Wau-
chula
170
$1.71
.57
2.31
+.03


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA





PLANTING DATES FOR TRANSPLANTS:
North Florida: Feb.-March; August
Central Florida: Jan.-Feb.; September
South Florida: August-Sept.; Nov.-Dec.

SEED TO TRANSPLANT: DAYS TO MATURITY:
42 to 56 days 70-90 from plants

VARIETIES RECOMMENDED: New varieties are
recommended on a trial basis only.
Rutgers, Grothen Globe, Stokesdale: Standard va-
rieties.
Manahill: Resistant to fusarium wilt, early blight
and leaf spot.
Jefferson: Resistant to fusarium wilt.
Pan America: Resistant to fusarium wilt. For home
garden use.
Southland: Developed for resistance to fusarium
wilt, alternaria, and blossom-end rot. For home
garden use.

PLANTING PLANTING SEED
DISTANCES: DEPTH: REQUIRED:
Between rows: 40" to 60" % inch Seed direct in field-
1 lb. per acre
Between plants
Unstaked: 36" to 40" Produce 1,000 plants-
% ounce
Staked: 15" to 18" Seedbed, plant acre-
1/4 pound
Planted on muck: 6'x6', 8'x8'

FERTILIZATION: (Best results are obtained by ap-
plying fertilizers, before or at time of planting, in
two bands each located 2 to 3 inches below and 3 to 4
inches to the side of the planting row.)
Pounds Pounds per 100'
Type per Acre With 40" Rows
Marl soil 4-8-6, 4-8-8 3,000 22%
Muck* 0-8-24 600 4%
Light sandy 4-8-8, 4-7-5 2,000 15%
Dark sandy 4-8-8,4-7-5 1,500 111
*It is questionable if tomatoes should be planted on mucks.
Manganese is commonly deficient on soils with a pH above
6.0 and may be added as 2% MnO per ton of fertilizer or through
spray applications of 11 to 2 pounds of manganese sulfate per
100 gallons of water. Copper deficiency on muck soils is
counteracted by 1% CuO per ton of fertilizer applied prior to
planting. Copper deficiencies have also been reported on some
of the light sands but are generally held in check by the use of
copper fungicides along with organic chemicals in the disease
control program, or 0.3% CuO per ton of fertilizer.







INSECTS AND CONTROLS:


Aphids

Army-, Cut-,
Fruit-, Horn-
and Pinworms


Pumpkin and
Stink Bugs

Leaf Miners


Dusts
Parathion 1%;
Lindane 1%0
DDT 3%;
Chlordane 5%



Chlordane 5%;
Toxaphene 10%


Thrips


Sprays; Amount
Per 100 Gallons
DDT 25% 1 qt.; Parathion
15% 1 lb.; Lindane 25% 1 lb.
DDT 25% 1 qt.; DDT 50%
2 lb.; Chlordane 50% 2 lb.;
DDD 50% 2 lb.; Parathion
15% 1 lb.; Toxaphene.A40%
21/2 lb.
Chlordane 50% 2 lb.; Toxa-
phene 40% 21/2 lb.; Para-
thion 15% 1 lb.
Parathion 15% 1 lb.; Toxa-
phene 40% 21/ lb.; Lindane
25% 1 lb.; Chlordane 50%
2 lb.
DDT 25% 1 qt.


SEED TREATMENTS FOR PREVENTING SEED
DECAY AND IMPROVING PLANT STAND:
Ounces per 100 Teaspoo
Pounds Seed Poun


Zinc oxide (80%)
Spergon (48%)


infuls per
d Seed


1
1


SEEDBED DISEASES AND CONTROLS:
Late Blight
Nabam (27% active ingredient)-2 qts. plus 1 lb.
zinc sulfate per 100 gallons.
Zineb (65% active ingredient)-2 pounds per 100
gallons.
Phygon-1/2 to 3/4 lbs. per 100 gallons.
Forms of copper that have proved satisfactory-
diluted to give metallic copper content of 11/2 lbs. per
100 gallons.
When late blight is favored by weather conditions,
begin spraying the plants as soon as they have emerged
and repeat at 4- to 7-day intervals until transplanted.
An application just before transplanting is desirable.
Thorough coverage of all above-ground plant-surface
is imperative.
Nabam, zineb and phygon sprays tend to stunt young
plants when used frequently. To avoid this, alternate
the nabam and zineb with phygon and copper A. -
In the southern part of the state and on the West
Coast copper fungicides will not control late blight.
In this area an alternating nabam and phygon schedule
is recommended. In other parts of the state where
late blight is less severe the copper spray may be alter-
nated with nabam.






Do not use an insecticide with phygon, as the mix-
ture may cause injury. Nabam, zineb and forms of
copper that have proved satisfactory are compatible
with the recommended insecticides.
FIELD DISEASES AND CONTROLS:
Late Blight
Excluding phygon, materials and formulas are the
same for seedbed above.
Begin applications immediately after plants have be-
come established and repeat at 4- to 7-day intervals
until end of harvest. Thorough coverage of all above-
ground surface is imperative. Spray is more effective
than dust.
Nabam is recommended as first choice in the south-
ern part of the state. In the other parts of the state
where late blight is less severe, copper sprays usually
give satisfactory control. In areas and seasons which
are not favorable for late blight, intervals between
applications may be longer. In the southern part of
the state this is a risky venture because with blight
present its spread may become very rapid with the
return of favorable weather.
Early Blight
Materials and formulas same as for late blight above.
Where early blight and late blight occur together, use
the schedule recommended for late blight. In localities
and season where early blight occurs but late blight
is not an important factor, coppers usually give satis-
factory control of early blight.
Gray Leaf Spot
Materials and formulas same as for late blight above.
When late blight is not present applications at 7-day
intervals are usually adequate. Gray leaf spot is not
important in all tomato growing areas or in every year.
When it does occur it causes extensive damage unless
control measures are started on time. If late blight is
also present the schedule recommended for late blight
should be used.
Fusarium Wilt
Other than wilt-resistant varieties, no satisfactory
control is known.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE
AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University
And United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director




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