-', I VEIN,
S The Baldwmn Library
-L. Ll I- I ''
YOUNG FOLK'S LIBRARY OF AMERICAN HISTORY,
ANNA TEMPLE LOWERING, M. D.
EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY
NEW YORK CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO
BY EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY,
The Coming of the Half-Moon 7
Trading for Furs .12
Legend of the Iroquois 17
New Netherland, and its Dutch Governors .23
Good Times in the Dutch Colony 37
How the Dutch Surprised the English 47
Jacob Leisler 52
Burning of Schenectady 57
A Rover of the Seas 61
Freedom of the Press 69
The Negro Plot 73
In the Valley of the Mohawk 76
Colonial New Yrk 82
A Scene on the Banks of the Hudson 91
Sons of Liberty 95
Ticonderoga and Crown Point .101
The Green Mountain Boys 105
The Last English Governor 107
The American Flag 111
Battle of Long Island 112
Brave General Herkimer 118
Bemis's Heights and Saratoga 125
Surrender of Burgoyne 130
Massacre at Cherry Valley 134
" Mad Anthony" 138
A Traitor to His Country 143
Evacuation Day 152
:, i.,i, -t,.. of Washington 156
First Years of Peace 161
Alexander Hamilton 165
Fulton's Folly 171
The Erie Canal 175
The War of 1812 180
Legend of the Catskill Falls 190
New York City in the Civil War 193
SoarE OF NEW YORK'S GREAT Ml
Irving and Cooper 197
John Jacob Astor 205
Horace Greeley 211
James Gorden Bennett 214
Henry Ward Beccher 217
JlUD8ON'S CREW I'LAYTNG NINEPINS
Lj.JC~ I : Z~~:
THE COMING OF THE HALF MOON.
"The great white bird "
The great white bird !"
That is what the Indians along the shores of the
Hudson River cried, one to another, when the square-
rigged, stubborn little Dutch Half Moon appeared
upon the blue waters of the river which, until that
clear morning, had seen only the rude little canoes
of the natives.
But the Indians were hardly less surprised than
were Henry Hudson and his crew; for little had they
expected to find themselves upon the waters of a great
and unknown river- they who had set forth to find
a northwest passage to Cathay.
For this was in the stirring days of old, when, the
new continent having been discovered, hardy seamen
from all nations were eagerly setting forth to try their
fortune and, perchance, to earn their fame by great
discoveries -that of a northern passage first of all;
for in this, every nation in Europe had profoundest
It was for this purpose, then, that Henry Hudson
had come with his queer little craft; but, finding him-
self at the mouth of a river, he determined to explore
it for its own sake. Then -who could tell? -it
might lead out into some open sea farther north- the
very one, perchance, for which they sought !
The Half Moon was well loaded with knives,
colored beads, and the thousand other brilliant but
useless trinkets which delighted the eye of these early
Indians, and by which the white men had learned to
trade with these simple, color-loving savages.
For three weeks the Half Moon cruised up and
down the river; for, as the log-book recorded, "the
shores were very pleasant with grasses and flowers,
and very sweet were the smells that came from
Then, too, the natives welcomed them, and heaped
the vessel with corn, tobacco, and, best of all, with furs
of great value, which they were content to exchange for
the bits of red and yellow glass the ship had brought.
HOW SANDY HOOK APPEARED TO HUDSON WHEN HE CAME TO NEW YORK.
It was at Castleton that Hudson made his first visit
to the Indians upon their own ground; for it was here
the chief dwelt, and it was from him that Hudson
hoped to learn of the source of the river and of what
The natives had their own ideas of etiquette; and
it was on the very next day that the visit was returned.
Arrayed in his very finest feathers, the chief, with a
chosen few, paddled out to the ship, where they were
received with great courtesy and loaded with showy
For these the chief was proud and grateful; but
when Hudson, having followed the course of the river
as far as it was navigable, turned back, he was attacked
by Indians at different points, who, jealous and cov-
etous, longed in their savage hearts for more of the
colored glass with which the vessel was loaded.
These attacks were, however, of little moment,
since with the flash of the first gun the natives fled,
terror stricken before a power they did not understand.
So, with slight adventures, they sailed along the
banks of the beautiful river, ever more to be known as
the Hudson, past the frowning walls of rock, now
called the Palisades, and past the shadowy forest, shelter-
ing game of every description, in which no foot had
ever trod save the moccasined feet of the red men.
Although not the first discoverer of this section,
now known as New York, since Champlain had already
penetrated the northern part of the state two months
earlier, Hudson's report forwarded to Holland excited
great interest among the eager merchants, who looked
forward to large and quick returns, if only a trade in
fur could once be established.
As for Henry Hudson, you will want to know if he
ever came back again to the River of the Mountains.
No, he never did; unless, indeed, the legend of the
Catskills, as Irving has told it, is true, and once in every
twenty years the captain of the Half Moon and his
crew do return to the country they discovered, and
celebrate that happy event by a social game of nine-
pins, into which they enter with such hearty interest,
that the sound of their balls is like distant peals of
thunder. One thing, however, is certain; the old Dutch
inhabitants to this day, when they hear a thunder-storm
of a summer's afternoon, say, It's Heinrich Hudson
and his crew at their game of ninepins "
-_ 'i.. L." ,
FIRST SETTLEMENT ON THE IILrDSON
TRADING FOR FURS.
When Henry Hudson returned to Holland, you
may be sure he was received as a hero. Champlain was
forgotten and ignored, and Hudson alone enjoyed the
glory of having penetrated an unknown country and
of having sailed an unknown water. Sometimes he
became a little vain- so some records say--but the
Holland people laid nothing up against him, for he had
indeed done great service to the government, which now
claimed the river and its shores as their own through
the right of discovery. A charter was granted by the
States General of Holland to a company of Amsterdam
merchants; a colony was founded, and ships were sent
out at once to engage the Indians along the Hudson to
trade for furs.
Among the gallant captains they employed was one
Adrien Block, a Dutch navigator, not easily discouraged
in any uI.L:i- ki.'l he might engage in, as you will
shortly see. On his first iv..v.i: in 1613, he had
secured from the Indians a cargo of fine bear skins, and
was all ready to sail for Anm-bt.l'l.in. when his vessel,
the T';,. caught fire, and was entirely .l-- 4,.--d.
This, of course, was a very serious disaster; but Captain
Block and his men were too plucky to waste any time
in useless complaining, and the nights were so cold
that the bark wig-warns of the Indians, which were
freely offered to the unsheltered white men, were but
poor protection. AR.I. iliiily Captain Block and his
crew went busily to work erecting log cabins which,
rude as they were, kept out Jack Frost's pltying
fingers, and the North Wind's icy breath. So friendly
were the Indians that they brought food and necessaries
of all kinds for the -,.,v.x". rs. and all through the long
winter months supplied them with the best of their own
stores. The cabins finished, these plucky seamen cut
down the stately oaks which grew on every side, and
fashioned them into planks for another vessel--forty-
four feet long and eleven feet wide-which they
called the Restless. So industrious were they that
in a few months only, they gathered together a new
supply of furs, and, putting them on board, sailed
for Holland in the spring of 1614.
This was the first ship built within the limits of the
State, and the little cluster of log cabins was the
beginning of the present "stately city of New York.
In the same year Charles Christiansen, who had
made ten voyages to Manhattan Island, sailed up the
Hudson as far as Albany, and on a small island near
by built and fortified a trading house, which he called
Fort Nassau. Here the red men brought furs of every
kind and description, and bartered them for knives and
beads and trinkets brought over from Holland, and for
queer Indian money made out of clam shell and strung
on threads of sinew, or fastened on deer skin belts.
This wampum was for many years commonly used in
making purchases, and the smooth white shell and the
bluish black one, had each a distinct value of its own.
The Dutch who built Fort Nassau, and, a little later
on, a new fort two miles below Albany, joined with the
settlers on Manhattan Island in making a treaty of
peace with the Indians. The wise Dutchmen and their
red brothers smoked the pipe of peace, and while the
latter agreed to bury the tomahawk, the former agreed
to build a church upon the spot. This was a most
sensible plan, for then the tomahawk could not be
dug up; and it was much easier for the Dutch to dwell
comfortably in their trading houses and buy furs,
than to go out into the forests to do their own hunting,
thereby endangering their scalps.
Thus the treaty was made; and, to the credit of
both parties be it said, it was kept for many long
years. The merchants of Amsterdam, and, later on, the
Dutch West India Company, built numerous trading
posts along the Hudson; they made more and more
frequent trips across the ocean; and year after year
the trade increased, the colonies prospered, and most
friendly were the relations between the Dutch and
the simple natives.
DTH FORT AND ENGLISH CHURCH, ALBANY.
p3rTCH TOBT AND ENGLISH CHURCH, ALBANT.
HELL GATE, FROM AN OLD DUTCH PRINT.
LEGEND OF THE IROQUOIS.
While Henry Hudsdn was sailing up the banks
of the River of the Mountains, he little thought that
beyond the hills and shadowy forests there dwelt a
people whose government had all the simplicity and
power of a great republic.
Hiawatha, Holder of the Heavens, took the
Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas
under his especial protection, for he had found them
imprisoned under a mountain at the falls of the Oswego
river; and having set them free, loved them with a love
which the great of heart feel for those whom their own
goodness has blessed. And in return the five tribes
held Hiawatha in great esteem and affection, and
followed his advice in all things.
After their release they lived in the valleys and
among the hills which lie between the Mohawk river
and Lake Erie. But a fierce and powerful tribe came
down from the country beyond the lakes and made war
TIlE FIRST MAP OF THE CITY.
upon the Onondagas, killing their women and children
and filling their hearts with fear and sadness. In this
great trouble they hastened to Hiawatha for counsel;
and in accordance with his advice all the tribes came
together to make plans for the general warfare.
Then Hiawatha, after many prayers to the Great
Spirit for guidance, said: Friends and Brothers, you
are members of many tribes and nations; you have
come here, many of you, a great distance from your
homes; you have met for one common purpose to
provide for your mutual safety. To oppose these foes
from the north by tribes singly and alone would prove
certain destruction. You can make no progress in that
way; but if yoa will unite into one common band of
brothers, you may drive the invaders back. Do this
and you will be safe.
"You, the Mohawks, sitting under the shadow of
the Great Tree,' whose roots sink deep into the earth
and whose branches spread over a vast country, shall be
the first nation, because you are warlike and mighty.
And you, Oneidas, a people who recline your
bodies, against the Everlasting Stone' that. cannot be
moved, shall be the second nation, because you give wise
And you, Onondagas, who have your habitation
at the 'Great Mountain' and are overshadowed by its
crags, shall be the third nation, because you are gifted
in speech and mighty in war.
And you, Cayugas, whose habitation is in the
'Dark Forest' and whose home is everywhere, shall be
the fourth nation, because of your superior cunning
And you, Senecas, a people who live in the Open
Country' and possess much wisdom, shall be the fifth
nation, because you understand better than any other
tribe the art of raising corn and making cabins.
"You, as five great and powerful nations, must unite.
Have but one common interest, and no foe shall be able
to disturb or subdue you. If you unite, the Great
Spirit will smile upon you. Brothers, these are the last
words of Hiawatha; let them sink deep into your hearts."
Then the Five Nations made bright their council
fire, and the great chiefs gravely considered the advice
of the Holder of the Heavens; and when the twilight
warned them that the night was near, all were convinced
that in union only would they prove unconquerable.
Then said Hiawatha: "Preserve this nation as you
have formed it. Admit no other tribes to your councils;
so shall you be free, numerous and happy. Remember
these words; they are the last you will hear from
Hiawatha. The Great Spirit calls me, and I am ready
to go. Farewell!"
At this moment the air was filled with music, and a
soft mist descended over the fragrant meadows, dimming
the vision of the red men. Then, Hiawatha, seated in
the white canoe in which he had so often glided over
the blue waters of the lake, passed from beyond their
sight, and sailed far out into the land of the
setting sun. The south wind, softly sighing through
the tree-tops, mingled with the last faint whispers of
the distant melody, and the council, their hearts
softened one towards the other, sat down to smoke
the pipe of peace, by which they pledged themselves, one
to the other, to eternal brotherhood. Then the sun
went down, and the spirit of Hiawatha appeared to his
people, sitting high among the stars. And he smiled
upon his people, who should hereafter be as one people,
in peace and in war.
FORT GEORGE IN 1783.
)SENNE~ -':. 0 -~ ~
<'.7',~ I,,,, HII
-C P P
EARLY MAP OF NEW YORK.
I.. ; *" : I I I _
SITE OF TIHE CITY OP NEW YORK
NEW NETHERLANDS AND ITS DUTCH GOVERNORS.
The merchants of Amsterdam did not long enjoy
the sole right of trading with the Indians and shipping
furs to Holland. A gi e.it and powerful corporation, the
Dutch West India Company, was chartered, and for
forty years New Netherlands was governed by it in the
interests of its own share-holders.
Never before had so important a company been
privileged to make war or peace, to employ '._.lldi r1.
establish courts of justice, appoint and dismiss governors
whenever they saw fit.
Now, governors would be of no use unless there
were something or somebody to govern. You will
remember the cabins and trading-houses already built
on Manhattan; and at this time there was also quite
an imposing fort on the Island, and another one, called
Fort Orange, had been established near the present site
Although the West India Company took but little
interest in their possessions, caring only for the ship-
loads of furs, they were now required by their charter
to further the settlement of the country, and take an
active part in forming a colony. It was, therefore, in
1624, that thirty families of Walloons, a French people
living in the southern part of Holland, were sent to
New Netherlands in one of the company's ships.
These for the most part made their homes near Albany.
Other vessels quickly followed, bringing sometimes
rambling adventurers, sometimes sober-minded, home-
loving people, all anxious to better themselves in this
wonderful, untried country. Bakers and tailors, farmers
and fishermen, masons and shoemakers, wheelwrights
and coopers, old and young, landed at New Amsterdam
in the next few years, and built for themselves little
villages and towns round about this first settlement.
Then it was that the company sent over the first
director or governor, Peter Minuit, who is said to have
been a kindly man, of firm temper and much energy,"
and one who, for the most part, made a wise use of the
power he held. Minuit's first act was to purchase
Manhattan Island from the Indians for the astonishingly
small sum of twenty-five dollars. How much land do
you think you could buy now with that money? In
some parts of New York you could not purchase a
square inch. Besides buying the island, Governor
Minuit made friends with the Indians, visiting them in
their wigwams and giving them beads, axes and knives,
and gayly colored cloths. In return, the red men
brought him bales of furs, and kept him always gener-
ously supplied with venison, turkeys, wild fowl, and
other game from field and forest.
In New Amsterdam a rude but strong warehouse
had been built, in which to store the company's goods.
It was a queer building, with its rough stone walls, roof
thatched with reeds, and quaint old gables, like those
we see to-day in Holland. Besides this, some thirty
small cabins were put up along the shore of the East
River; and in one of the large warehouses a store was
FIRST SAW MILL ON THE HUDSON.
opened, and a mill worked by horse-power was built to
grind grain for the country people round about.
Indeed, much happened, during the six years that Peter
Minuit governed New Amsterdam, to favor the growth
and prosperity of the little colony.
At the close of these years, Governor Wouter
Van Twiller stepped into the official shoes of Governor
OLD DUTC WIND- ILL.
OLD DnTOH WINDMILL.
Minuit, and according to all accounts the exchange was
not by any means for the better. Perhaps Irving's
description of the worthy Dutchman is not strictly true,
but it is the one that has come to be accepted: He
was exactly five feet six inches in height, and six feet
five in circumference. His head was a perfect sphere,
and of such stupendous dimensions that Dame Nature,
with all her ingenuity, would have been puzzled to
construct a neck capable of supporting it; wherefore
she wisely declined the attempt and settled it firmly on
the top of his backbone just between the shoulders.
His body was oblong and particularly capacious at its
base. His legs were short but sturdy in proportion to
the weight they had to sustain; so that when erect he
had not a little the appearance of a beer barrel on skids."
What a very comical figure he must have made, as
he landed that spring morning in April, 1633 With
him came Domine Bogar, the colony's first clergyman,
and Adam Roelandsen, the first school-master. During
the four years that Governor Van Twiller held sway,
windmills were built, houses of brick and frame, a
brewery, and a plain wooden church.
But trouble had sprung up with the Indians, and
blood had been shed on both sides. It was a pity that
peace could not have been kept, when for so many years
all had gone so smoothly with the red men and the
white men. But one day, most unfortunately, an
Indian hurt the dignity of a certain particularly sensi-
tive Dutchman. On the top of a post there had been
fastened a piece of tin bearing the arms of Holland.
Not long after, a sharp-eyed chief noticed the tin,
innocently enough took it away with him, thinking to
make from it a fine tobacco box. Unfortunately the
Dutch did not see the theft quite in the same light, and
friendly Indians hearing of their displeasure, killed the
chief of that tribe to which the thief belonged;- the
worst thing they could have done, for naturally the tribe
resented the murder, and watching their chance,
attacked one day a party of the colonists, and killed
thirty-two of them.
From this time on the old security from the .iiag-s
was gone. Although Van Twiller may have been in
no way responsible for the affair-indeed he declared
he was not -still there were many who felt that he
might have prevented it; and for this, together with
certain other failures to carry out the plans of the
people, the land-holders petitioned the Government to
have him recalled to Holland; and in 1l3._ another
governor, William Kief, was sent to take his place.
Of the four Dutch governors, William Kief,
although more industrious and temperate in his habits
than any of the others, was the least successful. I
am afraid his temper was none of the best; certain
great cruelty; and, by his lack of kindness and fore-
.-. ___ .<- -
THE STADUT HUI"S, 1642.
it is that he many times treated the Indians with
great cruelty; and, by his lack of ]kindness and fore-
bearance, to say nothing of his lack of wisdom, pre-
cipitated a war between the races, which sadly crippled
the still struggling colony. Then, too, unwilling for
the people to have any part in the government, he
attempted to tax them without their consent; and, in
fact, he so mismanaged affairs that the liberty-loving
colonists again sent numerous petitions to Holland
asking for his removal. These were finally granted;
and one and all gladly watched the good ship Princess,
as it winged its way down the bay, carrying on board
their one-time master.
And now gallant old Peter Stuyvesant took his
place; grim and battle-scared, whimsical and obstinate,
but every inch a hero. Great was the joy of the
people at his coming. What if he did strut like a
peacock, and stump pompously around on his wooden
leg, with an air of overwhelming importance! Had
he not gained fame and honor on many a foreign
battle-field, and in many a naval combat? And so,
had he not a right to strut ?
Very fortunate it was that Governor Stuyvesant
found the colonists so well disposed; for, although a
just and upright man, he was somewhat of a tyrant, and,
although kindly in his rule, a little overbearing in his
manner. But, for all that, there is no doubt of the
genuine interest he took in the welfare of all the
colonies, and more especially in the growth of New
Amsterdam, which, in 1653, was incorporated as a city.
If, indeed, his ghost does haunt .the place he so helped
to build up, and if at night, as the story goes, his
shadowy wooden leg taps faintly down the aisle of
St. Mark's church, near where his bones lie buried,
what a pleasure it must be to him to mark the
wonderful growth of the old Dutch town, now the
metropolis of America.
But alas, for the good Dutch government! So
prosperous had the colony become that James Stuart,
Duke of York, and brother of King Charles the Second,
looked with covetous eyes upon the fair possessions
across the sea, and already dreamed of them as his
own. Obtaining, therefore, a grant from the king, he
prepared to send several war ships of the Royal navy,
with four hundred and fifty soldiers on board, against
the unsuspecting Dutchmen.
There was peace at this time between the two
nations, and it was, indeed, the greatest treachery for
the English, under cover of their friendly relations,
to attempt to steal New Netherlands. The ships were
manned, however, and in due time they anchored
at the entrance. of the harbor of New Amsterdam,
STUYVESANT TEARING UP THE LIETTRIC
.! i ..
where, on Saturday, the thirtieth of September, 1664,
Colonel Richard NIicholls sent to Governor Stuyvesant
a summons to surrender the fort and city, promising
security of life and property to all the inhabitants
should they make no resistance. The Governor,
indignant, stoutly refused to yield, though none knew
better than he the weakness of the defense, and the
uncertain temper of the people; for many of them
looked with friendly eyes upon the coming of the
Finally a letter was brought to him in which he
was urged to surrender. The council and the burgo-
masters also favored this plan; and so urgently did
they insist upon it, that the quick-tempered Peter
Stuyvesant, in great wrath, tore the letter in pieces
and threw it on the floor, refusing to have anything
to do with so cowardly a proceeding. But the people,
fearing the troops and willing to accept the favorable
terms offered, compelled the governor to send some
answer to Colonel Nicholls. Messengers were de-
spatched with a letter, in which Stuyvesant said,
"Though I will stand the storm, I am willing to
compromise on any fair conditions."
Very sharp was the answer brought back.
"Tomorrow," said Nicholls curtly, "I will speak with
you at Manhattan."
Stuyvesant as curtly replied: Friends will be
welcome if they come in a friendly manner."
"I shall come with ships and soldiers," said
Nicholls; "raise the white flag of peace at the fort,
and then something may be considered."
Brave Stuyvesant resented this sharp order. "I
would rather be carried out dead," he thundered.
But what could one man do among so many? Very
little indeed; and on the next morning the red cross
of St. George waved over the fort. Colonel Nicholls,
with two hundred men, marched into the city, and
was proclaimed by the burgomasters, deputy-governor
of the province, which, together with the city of New
Amsterdam, was named New York, after the treacherous
duke who had sent out the expedition. So, without
even bloodshed, New Netherland passed into the hands
of the English.
- j .
LITTLE DUTCH GTRL
OLD DUTCH COTTAGE, N. Y., 1679.
GOOD TIMES IN THE DUTCH COLONY.
But before we begin to think of this jolly little
Dutch colony as an English one, let us take one look
into the odd little homes where Hans and Katrina and
Gretchen and so many other round-faced little children
lived, so happy and free. For the children of this
colony, it has always seemed, had a much happier,
jollier, more child-like life than had the children of
certain other colonies we might mention.
By the time New Amsterdam became a city, the
industrious burghers had gathered about them many of
the comforts and even the luxuries they had enjoyed
in Holland. Of course things were not just the same,
but as nearly like the ways of fatherland as might be.
First, the houses, with their quaint gables and
diamond-paned windows, chimneys of Manhattan blue
stone, from which the smoke of hospitable fires curled
upward in wreaths but little larger than those from
the Dutchmen's pipes. The fronts of the houses were
of wood and stone, the ends were finished in checker-
work of black and yellow Dutch bricks, while the tiled
roofs were surmounted with accommodating roosters,
which flew gaily round to all points of the compass.
Then the gardens,- why they were as much a part
of the dwelling as the big brass knockers on the
doors. Early and late flowers nodded greetings to each
other; and in generous orchards near by, apple, peach,
pear and quince trees made fragrant the springtime,.
with their sweet, pink blossoms, and in the autumn
kept little Hans, Katrina and Gretchen busy heaping
up the ripened fruit.
Within these comfortable homes everything was
wonderfully clean and neat, for the good wives were
always scrubbing and scouring, sprinkling the floor with
clean white sand brushed into fanciful designs, and
brightening the pewter platters and porringers till the
happy round faces of the children could see themselves
In families in easy circumstances, there were
massive silver tankards, waiters and bowls, but very
little glass or china. As for lamps, they had none;
but ran candles in little tin moulds, or dipped them
in the good old-fashioned way, and carried them about
in brass or copper candlesticks brought from Holland.
The furnishings harmonized with all else ; in many
a hall stood a great Dutch clock with the family arms
upon its case, and portraits of ancestral grandees look-
ing stolidly down upon it. Sometimes in the front
room would be a square, figured rug, but rarely a car-
pet covering the whole floor, while straight-backed
chairs and mahogany tables stood stiffly around for
use perhaps but hardly for comfort.
As for the dress of those days, men and women
both were very fond of wearing a great many clothes.
The every-day ones were generally home made and of
linsey woolsey, while for church going and festivals
richer stuffs were used. After wigs went out of
fashion, the men wore their hair braided in long
queues, and covered their heads with soft felt hats
with wide brims often looped up on one side. Add
to this the long coats with capacious pockets, orna-
mented with brass or silver buttons, and breeche-
reaching only to their knees, and you have a picture
of the happy, easy-going Dutchman in the time of
And the children, well, the children were in dress
perfect pictures of their elders; but for all that, they
had just as good times as if they had had fashions of
their own, and had not dressed as clumsily as the
older people. And speaking of good times, this makes
us think of the parties and the merry-makings, for the
Dutch were a very social people.
Many were the dancing parties, where the only
refreshments served were pots of chocolate and soft
waffles; and the tea-drinkings, where the loaf sugar
to be used was broken into large lumps and the pieces
laid by each cup to be nibbled at as needed. It is
said that one economical old lady used to hang a big
lump of sugar over the center of the tea-table, so that
it might be swung back and forth from one guest to
the other. But the best of the good times came in
the winter; and the following is a very good account
First, as the weather turns cold, is the skating
on the neighboring ponds. Then comes the snow,
THE GOVERNOR'S HOUSE AND CHURCII, STUYVESANT'S TIME.
and the young men arrange for a sleighing frolic by
moonlight. Four horses they get and Jan Derickson's
sleigh that holdeth ten couples, packed close, as it
suiteth young men and maidens to ride, and away
they go over the Kissing bridge and under pine boughs,
oftimes, methinks, as far as to Harlem, where at Mynheer
Borsom's tavern they have a dance and a supper, which
by our custom may consist of naught but bread and'
a pot of chocolate.
Again, though the Dutch be a sober folk, yet
do they keep many festivals Christmas, New Year's,
Easter, Whitsuntide and St. Nicholas' Day. Christmas
comes first, and we also observe it as the anniversary
of landing day. After the stockings are explored for
whatever Santa Claus may have left, the young people
spend the morning skating on the fresh-water pond
or turkey shooting in the forest; at one o'clock the
great oven yieldeth up the Christmas feast, which all
meet to enjoy.
"New Year's is the greatest day in New Amster-
dam. On that day no one does aught but call and
receive calls. For days before, the housewives have
been brewing, baking and mixing; and when the day
cometh and thou goest to meet thy friend, thou findest
the great logs crackling in the twelve-foot fire place,
and in the center of the table spread in the middle
of the room, a mighty punch bowl well reinforced by
haunches of cold venison and turkeys roasted whole,
and ornamented with cakes, comfits and confectionery;
silver tankards and beakers filled with rare Madeira
and foaming ale. The good frau and her daughters
clad in their best, are there to receive one and to
dispense whole-hearted hospitality, smiles and good
On Easter day a favorite game is played for
eggs. Thy sweetheart holds an egg in her hand
and challenges thee to break it by striking it with thy
egg, the broken one belonging to that which remain-
eth whole. On that day, too, the shops are gay with
boiled eggs, tied with red and blue ribbons, or colored
by mixing potent pigments in the water which hath
boiled them. On Easter day, no true son of St.
Nicholas tastes other food than eggs."
What better picture can we have of the social
spirit of those days, or of the way in which the festi-
vals of the Fatherland were cherished in the new
homes beyond the sea?
These good Dutch people were a story-loving
people, too; and many were the legends they would
tell as they gathered the children around the big fire-
place on the cold winter evenings. Gruesome these
stories sometimes were of ghosts and goblins; but
the Dutch children were. healthy little creatures-- not
at all nervous, and so enjoyed them all as heartily as
THE LITTLE DUTCII GOBLIN OF DUNDERB IERG MOUNTAIN
did their mothers and fathers; nor were they, as far
as we know, ever one whit harmed by them.
Then there was a story that Washington Irving
tells. It is a story of a boisterous little Dutch goblin,
with his sugar-loaf hat, who dwells on the top of
Dunderberg Mountain, whose steep sides look down
upon the Hudson.
One day when the wind was piping fresh, a ven-
turesome little sloop, in passing by the Dunderberg, was
overtaken by a thunder gust that came scouring round
the mountain, and seemed to burst just over the vessel.
Though tight and well ballasted, she labored dreadfully,
and the water came over the gunwale. All the crew
were amazed when it was discovered that there was
a little white sugar-loaf hat on the mast-head, known at
once to be the hat of the Head of the Dunderberg.
Nobody, however, dared to climb to the mast-head
and get rid of this terrible hat. The sloop continued
laboring and rocking, as if she would have rolled her
mast overboard, and she seemed in. continual danger
either of upsetting or of running on shore.
In this way she drove quite through the Highlands,
until she had passed the Island where the power of the
little Dutch goblin is said to cease. No sooner had she
reached this point than the little hat sprang up into the
air like a top, whirled up all the clouds together and
hurried them back to the summit of the Dunderberg,
while the sloop righted herself, and sailed on as quietly
as if in a mill-pond.
Nothing saved her from utter wreck but the fortu-
nate circumstance of having a horse-shoe nailed against
the mast, a wise precaution against evil spirits, since
adopted by all the Dutch captains that navigate this
Then there is the story of Ichabod Crane, told by
this same delightful writer, in which the hero is pursued
by a headless horseman, who these Dutch people believed
dwelt in a certain valley, ready to pounce out upon
belated travellers of whom this Ichabod was one.
Then there is the story of Rip Van Winkle,
which never would have been written but for the Dutch
legend of Heinrich Hudson and his men at play with
ninepins up in the Catskill Mountains. And many
more there are, which we leave you to find for your-
self in the Sketch Book or in the Knickerbocker
History, or in some other book as charming and
S --k ". .
-----i -- ----~__=. = -- -- -_ _
-,;--"~--, J ,~ .
THE PALISADES ALONG WALL STREET NEW YORK CITY.
HOW THE DUTCH SURPRISED THE ENGLISH.
But to return to the politically important affairs
of this New Amsterdam. Governor Nicholls was thor-
oughly attached to the interests of the Duke of York.
At the same time he was a wise. and fair-minded man,
and treated the Dutch in so kindly a manner that most
of them took without hesitation the oath of allegiance
to the British monarch, King Charles. English customs
were introduced, and also an English form of govern-
ment, which really gave the people more rights than they
had possessed under the West India Company. But
after four years of governing a foreign people and
keeping peace with the Indians, Nicholls resigned his
commission and returned to England.
During the rule of Governor Lovelace, who suc-
ceeded him, something happened which quite upset the
general order of things and gladdened the heart of the
redoubtable Peter Stuyvesant. In the summer of 1673,
Lovelace left New York to pay a visit to Governor
Winthrop of Connecticut. By this time England and
Holland were again at war with each other, and the
sturdy Dutchmen were a good deal more than half
resolved to retake New York, which they had always
regarded as their own particular property.
So, one sunny morning in July, a Dutch squadron
of twenty-three ships, including numerous prizes
captured on the open sea, and bearing six hundred
troops for service on land, arrived off Sandy Hook.
What excitement there was among the people! How
the little Dutch people bustled and rustled I think
they must have rather enjoyed it; for they flew around
like bees in a hive and gathered in little groups here and
there in the streets to talk it over.
Captain John Manning, who commanded the fort,
sent a messenger after Governor Lovelace and issued
a call for volunteers. Few came, however, and thinking
to gain a little time, he sent to the Dutch commander
to inquire why he had "in such a hostile manner
disturbed his Majesty's subjects."
"We have come," he replied, "to take what is our
own, and our own we will have."
This was certainly a very decided answer, and
Captain Manning had good reason to think so, too ; for
before long the war-ships had floated up with the tide
until they lay broad side to the fort. Then their guns
thundered out, and a few of the soldiers in the fort
were killed. The rest returned the fire riddling the flag
ship through and through. But the Dutch commander
landed six hundred men and prepared to storm the fort.
This was the critical moment, and Captain Manning,
realizing his inability to make a successful defence,
reluctantly ordered a white flag to be raised over the
little garrison. In marched the Dutch, and out marched
the English with drums beating and colors flying,
grounding their arms outside the fort.
The banner of the Dutch Republic floated from
the flag-staff; the English soldiers, as prisoners of war
were confined in the church within the fort; and again
New York became New Netherlands. The city was
called New Orange, and Dutch names everywhere
replaced the English.
Lovelace went back to England, where he was
treated very unkindly, the ling blaming him severely
for the loss of the province. Perhaps he was to blame,
but very likely he could not have prevented the sur-
render, even had he been on hand when the Dutch
But Holland was not to retain any permanent hold
upon the country it had first settled; for in less than
a year peace was declared between England and
Holland, and by the terms of
the treaty New Netherlands
S was again given up to the
Captain Anthony Colve,
S whom the Dutch had chosen
to be the head of affairs,
.' most regretfully presented
Bhis fine coach and three to
the new English governor,
GOVERNOR ANIROS. Edmund Andros; but he did
NEW YORK. 51
it with wonderfully good grace, and then sailed away
for Holland. But not even three fine horses and a
coach of state could make Governor Andros popular.
If half the stories told of him are true, during the
nine years in which he ruled New York, he proved
himself a tyrant, and the only wonder is that people
tolerated him as long as they did.
When early in February, 1685, King Charles II.
died, the Duke of York succeeded him, becoming the
second King James upon the throne of England.
While still duke he had promised the people of New
York a "Charter of Liberties," but when he became
king he positively refused to keep his word, saying that
such a charter would give them more freedom than was
good for a dependent colony. This was only one of
the many unwise acts which finally cost this king his
crown; and when, as we read in the history of the
times, William of Orange landed in England, many of
the best men in this country deserted King James and
joined in sympathy with his successor.
The majority of the people of New York were
overjoyed to hear the news from England which
announced the downfall of King James, but there were
some who still upheld the fallen monarch, and who
determined either to support the governor he had
appointed in the continuance of his power, or, if that
could not be done, to take the control of affairs into
their own hands.
Two parties were formed the Aristocrats, who
favored James II., and the Democrats, who were friendly
to William and Mary.
Francis Nicholson, then acting as deputy governor,
became alarmed at the feeling among the citizens, and
not being a man of much strength of character, quietly
took ship and sailed for England. In the meantime.
Jacob Leisler, merchant and patriot, had been urged by
many of the people to act as their leader until instruc-
tions should be sent by King William to the colonists,
It required a great deal of courage to take this position,
for not only was there much opposition to be encoun-
tered from the followers of King James, but the French
in Canada were making ready to attack the northern
The people were divided in their wishes; Albany
refused to accept Leisler as governor, saying that he was
a restless and ambitious spirit, acting without the least
show of authority." However, nearly all the counties
sent delegates to an assembly, and Leisler was granted
almost unlimited power in New York. For the most
part he exercised his privileges in the interests of the
people, and probably with a really more earnest pur-
pose to secure their welfare than had the majority of
governors appointed by England.
William and Mary, when they learned the action
of the colony, refused to confirm Leisler in his new
office, and appointed Colonel Henry Sloughter governor
of New York. At the same time that he sailed for
America, another ship left port, having on board Major
Richard Ingoldsby and two companies of soldiers. The
latter vessel arrived first, and exceeding his authority,
Major Ingoldsby haughtily demanded the surrender of
the fort. This demand Govornor Leisler very naturally
refused to comply with, at the same time offering the
Major suitable accommodations for himself and for his
soldiers in the city, and assuring him of his readiness
to welcome Governor Sloughter. Ingoldsby, however,
attempted to take the fort by force, but without success.
Two days later, Governor Sloughter arrived, and
to him Leisler loyally gave up the fort and province.
But the only reward he received for his faithful service
was imprisonment; and so busy were his enemies, that
before another month had passed he was tried for his
life on numerous charges, among them that of offering
resistance to Major Ingoldsby. You can easily guess
how the trial ended, for Leisler's opponents were many
and powerful, and not a few of them were among the
-- = ------ .-- -
STREET TN NEW YORK AT CLOSE OF 17TTT CENTrRT.
jury before whom he was tried. Sentence was passed,
and Leisler and his son-in-law, who had also taken an
active part in the government, were condemned to death.
And were executed in New York in May, 1691.
Perhaps you will think so sad a story should not
have been told; and yet there is much in it which it
would be well for us to remember. In Leisler, we see the
first governor of New York who was practically the
choice of the people a people, too, who previously had
hardly been allowed proper representation in their own
government. It was at Leisler's suggestion, also, that
the call for the first Colonial Congress in America was
made, the purpose of which was to unite the resources
of the colonies, that expeditions might be sent out
against Canada, to repel French invasion.
Although the movement was a failure, the grand
idea of the union of the colonies was foreshadowed 6y
the meeting of their representatives at the call of this
citizen governor. Whatever his errors of judgment
may have been, the service he rendered the people
entitled him to the name of patriot; and in that he lost
his life at the hands of the officers of the king whose
power he upheld, I think we might truly say that he
was a martyr as well.
Do thy duty, that is best,
Leave unto thy Lord the rest.
;f~ 1;1 'L
BURNING OF SCHENECTADY
BURNING OF SCHENECTADY.
Partly because of the war between England and
France, occasioned by the English revolution of 1688,
and partly because the French in Canada wished to
engage practically the interest and co-operation of the
Iroquois, they decided to march from Montreal to
Schenectady, N. Y.- a distance of two hundred miles,
and destroy not only this town but Albany also.
It was in midwinter, and the snow was so very deep
that the soldiers could travel only on snow-shoes.
Starting from Montreal on the seventeenth of January,
1690, the Frenchmen, aind an accompanying party of
hostile Indians, crossed the frozen lakes and rivers, and,
after many hardships on the way, arrived in sight of the
town on the eighth of February, at about eleven o'clock
at night. They had not intended to make the attack
just then, but it was so bitterly cold that they decided
to enter the town at once, and warm themselves by the
blaze they should make of the pretty little Dutch houses.
Now the village was surrounded by a stockade of
pine logs ten feet high, and at one corner there was a
fort garrisoned by nearly twenty-five men. Within the
palisades were nearly eighty dwellings and some four
hundred men, women, and children; so you see it
was quite a sizable little town. Unfortunately, on this
fatal night in February, the villagers had gone to
bed without closing the gate, or even setting guard.
Very careless this certainly was; but there were friendly
Indians who had been sent out as scouts to Lake
George, and upon them the people relied for news of
any enemy that might be approaching. As the French
drew near the devoted village, they were met by four
squaws, who told them of the best way of arriving
secretly at the place. They entered by the north gate
and then separated, a few soldiers being placed before
each house. At a given signal the attack was made, the
Indians raising their blood-curdling cry, the famous war
whoop. Taken entirely by surprise, the terrified inhabi-
tants could offer but little resistance. Within two hours
sixty of them had been killed, and the French had fired
the village. A few of those who escaped made their way
through the snowy forests to Albany; but some, alas,
unable to endure the intense cold, perished miserably
when almost within reach of help and safety.
But one man, at least, saved his life by not
running away. Andrew Vrooman's house was strongly
built, being a sort of fort, and best of all there was
plenty of ammunition within it. So he loaded all the
muskets, and with such accuracy and rapidity did he fire
at the enemy that they were glad indeed to promise to
spare his life and not set fire to his house, if only he
would stop shooting. This promise they kept, but they
carried off two of his sons into captivity.
The women and children who had not been killed
by the first fierce attack, were spared by the enemy, as
were thirty Mohawks found in the town, who were also
permitted to go unharmed.
The next day, which was Sunday, the French
departed, carrying with them a great deal of plunder,
and forty of the best horses they could find.
When the friendly Mohawks heard of this attack,
as they did two days later, they joined a party of young
men from Albany, and coming up with the enemy killed
twenty-five of them.
In a ballad of those days the story is told of how,
when the news reached Albany, Captain Willie set out
with a gallant company to avenge the burning of
The News come on the Sabbath morn
Just att the Break of Day
And with a company of Horse
I galloped away.
But soon We found the French were gone
With all their great Bootye;
And then their Trail We did persue,
As was our true Dutye.
The Mohaques joined our brave Partye,
And followed in the Chase
Till we came up with the Frenchmen
Att a most likely Place.
Our soldiers fell upon their Reare,
And killed twenty-five.
Our young men were so much enraged
They took scarce One alive,
A ROVER OF THE SEAS.
The very same conditions which favored the hostile
French and Indians in their attack upon the towns and
villages of the English, made life out upon the ocean
quite as dangerous as life upon the land.
For the clhii.anl. of rulers in England and the
unsettled state of the British possessions in America-had
covered the seas with pirates, and the Indian Ocean
especially swarmed with these daring robbers. The loss
of life and property was very great; so great that the
English government decided to send out an armed vessel
in pursuit of them, and incidentally to capture as many
prizes from the King's enemies as possible.
How many of you have heard of the famous
Captain Kidd ? Ah, I thought so; nearly all of you
know that in the old days he scoured the seas--the
black flag, with its skull and cross bones, floating from
the mast-head of his ship. But was he always a
pirate ? No, indeed; at the time the government
CAPTAIN KIDD CrAPTURINGC THEi "qltTSDII MERCHWANT'
thought of fitting out this vessel, Captain Kidd was in
London, the well known commander of a merchantman;
and more than that, at various times he had highly
distinguished himself by his courage and gallantry in
the wars between England and France. Just because he
was so well and favorably known, he was chosen as
captain of the Adventure Galley," and commissioned
under seal of royalty to cruise in all directions as a
privateer. So, instead of setting sail as a piil at-. he
started out to overhaul and capture the pirate vessels.
The Earl of Bellemont, then recently appointed
Governor-General of New York and New England, took
an active part in completing this arrangement, as did
also Robert Livingstone, a very influential man in the
colony, and owner of large grants of land near Albany.
The first port Kidd touched at was New York;
here he shipped many volunteers, with the understand-
ing that their pay should depend on the value and
number of prizes they should capture. Then he
sailed for the Indian Ocean. For a while the famous
Captain attended strictly to the business on which he
had been sent; but when days and weeks had passed
and no captures of any consequence had been made, the
men began to murmur; for where was the prize
money to come from if no valuable captures were
But one summer's day a fine ship, the "Quedah
Merchant," hove in sight. Urged by his men, and
perhaps if the truth were told, rather inclined himself
not to let such a chance slip through his fingers,
Captain Kidd bore down upon the vessel and, after a
short chase, came up with and captured her. His crew
and their belongings were transferred to the new vessel,
and away they went to capture other ships belonging to
the Great Mogul, and so enrich themselves with what-
ever gold and precious stones they might find upon
In "Ye Lamentable Ballad, and Ye True History
of Captain William Kidd," Captain Kidd is supposed to
tell his story as follows:-
" I steer'd from sound to sound, as I sail'd, as I sail'd;
I steer'd from sound to sound, as I sail'd;
I steer'd from sound to sound, and many ships I
And most of them I burned, as I sail'd.
I spy'd three ships from France, as I sail'd, as I sail'd;
I spy'd three ships from France, as I sail'd;
I spy'd three ships from France; to them I did
And took them all by chance, as I sail'd.
I spy'd three ships from Spain, as I sail'd, as I sail'd;
I spy'd three ships from Spain, as I sail'd;
I spy'd three ships from Spain; I fired on them amain,
Till most of them were slain, as I sail'd.
I'd ninety bars of gold, as I sail'd, as I sail'd;
I'd ninety bars of gold, as I sail'd;
I'd ninety bars of gold, and dollars manifold,
With riches uncontrolled, as I sail'd."
Then follows an account of his capture, which was
not true at all; for leaving the Quedah Merchant" to
follow after, Kidd returned to Boston in a small sloop,
and there asserted his innocence of the charges pre-
ferred against him. Evidently the Earl of Bellemont
did not put much faith in his statements, for in a few
days he had Kidd arrested, and finally sent him a
prisoner to England to be tried for piracy, and also for
the murder of one of his men. It was on this last
charge that Captain Kidd was condemned and sentenced
to be hanged, though he was also found guilty of
This is the story of the famous captain that you
may not have heard before, but I am sure you have
heard of the treasure Kidd was supposed to have hidden
somewhere along the New York coast. Some articles of
great value he really did conceal on Gardiner's Island,
east of Long Island; among them were three bags of
gold dust, two bags of gold in bars, and a bag of silver
pieces and jewels, and much else; all of which the Earl
of Bellemont recovered, and used as evidence against the
unfortunate Captain Kidd.
But the treasures in the Quedah Merchant," what
became of them ? Some say that the great vessel sailed
for New York and passing by the city in the night kept
on up the Hudson; and that, near the foot of the
Dunderberg mountain, the crew scuttled the ship and
fled with a portion of the treasure to the woods. Now
this is mere tradition; but certain it is that the party
sent out in search of the Quedah Merchant" never
found any trace of her, and it may be (for there is no
one to dispute it) that beneath the blue waters of the
Hudson the famous old ship lies safely hidden, even as
tradition says and that some day since all things
seem possible in this century it may be brought to
sight again. Who knows?
OLD DUTCH CIIURCH, TARIRYTOWN
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JA~nOH MATHE MAN
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NEW O RK AT THE BEGiNNING OF THE EIOHTEENTH CEBTURY. (FBOM MATHER'S MAGNOLIA )
N o I1
NE5a YORK: IN un04
FREEDOM OF THE PRESS.
How should we know from d \- to d:iy what is
going on in the world if we had no newspapers?
But what if the men who issued the newspapers were
obliged to publish .1n11l that which it suited the
government to have known ? What if no writers wore
allowed to criticise the acts of any one in power?
Do you think then we could boast of 1;viciir a free
It was just at the leg.r.; n "ig of the establishment
of newspapers in Nr.'.: York, that .iJhi, Zenger thought
it wise to issue a Weekly Journal." I aid there
was a i,..zett-" p IlIi.h ,-.i l in the interests of O ;--
ernor t'r:o--l''.:- which approved .slw;i v':: of all that he did.
But soon this new journal began to say some very
sharp things about the governor, charging him, among
other acts, with violating the rights of the people.
This paper shortly became altogether too bold to suit
His Excellency; and before a year's issue had been
sent out, Zenger was arrested and imprisoned, and
certain copies of his publications were ordered to be
burned in public by the common hangman.
But the mayor and council would not attend the
burning, as they were ordered to do, and the court of
sessions forbade the hangman to destroy the papers.
Zenger was kept in prison from November, 1734, till the
following August, when he was tried in City Hall,
New York. Very great was the excitement all through
the country, for the question involved was that of free-
dom of speech and of the press.
On a hot morning in August the trial took place..
An association, called the Sons of Liberty, had secured
Andrew Hamilton, speaker of the Assembly of Penn-
sylvania, a distinguished lawyer and a Quaker, to appear
in behalf of the printer. As the great man entered
the court room the people joyfully rose to give him
welcome, and in spite of the frowning looks of the
chief justice, waved their hands and shouted loud
Zenger pleaded not guilty, but admitted that he
had published the articles in question, and boldly
asserted his ability to prove the truth of the charges
contained in them.
Then Hamilton arose; and in a few eloquent
sentences defended the accused. He declared that the
jury were entirely competent to decide upon the
merits of the case, and he reminded them of their
duty to protect the rights, liberties and privileges of
their fellow citizens." In conclusion, he thus referred
to the underlying principles involved : -"It is not
the cause of a poor printer, nor of New York alone,
which the jury is now trying. No! It may in its
consequences affect every free man that lives under a
British government on the main of America.
"It is the best cause; it is the cause of liberty,
and I make no doubt that your upright conduct this
day will not only entitle you to the love and esteem
of your fellow citizens, but every man who prefers
freedom to slavery will bless and honor you as men
who have baffled the attempt of tyranny, and, by your
impartial and uncorrupt verdict, have laid a noble
foundation for securing to ourselves, our posterity and
our neighbors, that to which nature and the laws of
our country have given us a right, the liberty of
both exposing and opposing arbitrary power, in these
parts of the world at least, by speaking and writing
After such a grand appeal to their sense of right
and justice, nothing that the opposing party had to
offer could have much effect; and the jury brought
in a verdict of "not guilty." Then what shouts the
people gave and what cheers they raised for Hamilton!
They carried him on their shoulders out of the court
room to a grand celebration which had been planned
in his honor; they feasted him right royally; and at
a great banquet they presented him with a valuable
gold box made for the occasion, in which was a copy
of resolutions, stamped with the New York seal; and
New York thus made early in her history one of
the first great steps in the establishment of true,
THE NEGRO PLOT.
While the people of New York showed their .".l,
sense, their love of liberty and their desire for honest
government, there was one direction in which they,
with many another colony, made a great mistake. And
that was in carrying on the slave triple, and in treat-
ing the negroes with cruel severity. I am sn' to
say that a slave-market, where the poor slaves were
sold or hired, was opened in the very streets if New
York, in 1709. The slave laws at that time were very
harsh. If a slave was caught out at ni.iht witli.ir, a
lantern and a lighted ,.i.,i1,-. he was put in j.il, and
the next day received thirty-nine lashes at the whip-
ping-post. Slaves could not receive ;nin instruction
either in the schools or the churches, nor could tl ,
possess any property of their own.
By 1741, there were so many negro slaves in N,-\
York, that the inhabitants i.a:,ii to feel hui.,-.c! llu-
ing the consequences should the slaves rebel. In March
of that year, Fort George, on the Battery, caught fire,
and a rumor spread through the town that the negroes
had set it. Two weeks later eight more fires occurred,
and a negro was seen running away from the last one
discovered. Immediately all was consternation and
dismay; many people were so alarmed that they moved
their goods from their houses, thinking to carry them
to some safer place.
A reward was offered to any white person who
should give information of the supposed plot, and full
pardon was promised the informer if he was engaged
.n it. Numerous arrests were made, and nearly two
hundred slaves were in jail on mere suspicion.
The prisoners were urged to confess, and finally
two of them, Mary Burton and Peggy Carey, told some
ridiculous stories of how two or three very common
white people and a few slaves had planned to burn
the whole city. But their stories did not agree at all;
and of all the other confessions that were made, no
two were alike. Nevertheless, the people were alarmed;
they used no judgment whatever; and all the lawyers
in the town were engaged to prosecute the accused,-
the prisoners, of course, being allowed no council.
NEW YORK. 75
Some of the negroes, thinking to save ti,,,,.iiv-
accused others, and again some made confessions which
they afterward denied the truth of. In f-,:-t. it was a
very dreadful affair from beginning to end, for f.i.u
white slaves were executed, eighteen n l r-i_, hanged
and eleven burned to death. Moreover, fittr slaves
were transported mostly to the West Indies and sold;
and not until all this had been 'lline. was the ... -,.- 11e
Negro Plot thought to be broken up. For six n th
New York was a scene of terror which more th i,
equalled, in its miserable rv-ultK the famous ir.hl i altt
delusion of the preceding century.
IN THE VALLEY OF THE MOHAWK.
Even as late as the middle of the eighteenth
century, the country west of Albany was but little
known, save to the trappers and traders who ventured
there for furs. Yet this portion of the state was of
wonderful beauty and fertility, watered by the winding
Mohawk, and reaching north to the borders of the
lakes. Here dwelt the tribes of the Iroquois Confed-
eracy, here burned their council fires, and here their
chiefs ruled with the untutored dignity of their race.
And thanks to the Iroquois and their long continued
friendship, first for the Dutch and afterwards for the
English, the colonists were protected by them from
many a French invasion from Canada.
In this section of the country lying nearest the
river which runs through it, lived the Mohawks, the
real head of the Iroquois, and the tribe living farthest
east. Among them, in.-the spring of 1738, came
William Johnson, a young lad barely twenty, sent out
from .the old country to take care of his uncle's
estate. Now, as his uncle was Sir Peter Warren,
commander of the British fleet in American waters,
he was able to make his nephew prominent from the
very first. Not that William needed much assistance,
for he was a very energetic young man, and possessed
not only push and pluck, but also good common
sense. So he went busily to work improving his
uncle's property, making firm friends of the Indians,
and building for himself what was considered in those
days a very fine mansion, to which he gave the name
of Johnson Hall.
One of the most sagacious of the Mohawk
warriors was a noted chief, who gloried in the English
name of King Hendrick. He became very friendly
with Johnson and visited him at the Hall. One morn-
ing when he had spent the night there, Hendrick said
to Johnson, Brother, me dreamed last night."
"Indeed," was the answer, "what did my red brother
dream ?" Me dreamed that coat be mine," referring
to a richly embroidered scarlet coat which hun-i near
them. It is yours," answered the shared, whit'- man.
Not long afterward Johnson visited Hendrick, and he,
too, said, Brother, me dreamed last night." What
did you dream ? asked Hendrick. I dreamed that
this tract of land was mine," describing a boundary
which included many hundred acres of land. Hend-
rick was astounded; but, determined not to be out-
done in generosity, he said, after thinking a few
moments, "Brother, the land is yours; but you must
not dream again."
Thus Johnson added to his already large estates.
Year by year the number of his tenants grew and his
importance in the colony increased; for Governor
Clinton made him a member of his council, and, real-
izing his ability in military affairs, placed him over
the heads of many older officers. And so gallantly
did he conduct himself in the battles of the French
and Indian War, that England's king dubbed him Sir
William Johnson, and appointed him Major General
of the colonial forces.
Very little has been said about the wars with
the French, and the expeditions against Canada. Nor
shall we make more than a passing reference to
them, for the early campaigns were for the most
part unsuccessful, and in later ones, where victory
was with the English, the stories of the battles
fought have not the same degree of interest that we
shall find in the great struggles that took place in
after years in the war for Independence.
Although Sir William joined in several expe-
ditions against the French, he served the colonists
still better, not as a military leader but as an able
statesman, making treaties with the Indians, winning
their friendship, redressing their grievances, further-
ing the settlement of the beautiful valley in which
they lived, introducing new methods of agriculture,
and aiding in the establishment of schools and
churches. Perhaps it was fortunate that he died
before the actual commencement of the Revolution,
where he would have had to choose between the
king, whom he had served so long, and the people,
whose interests he had from the first faithfully
advanced. This choice he was however spared, and
his memory is rightly preserved in the name of
the prosperous village of Johnstown, which grew up
on the colonial estates of Sir William in the valley
of the Mohawk.
~~4-~ '2~~ B ~ ~ fl 1'310
L' 0 N G .
: c -, Sc co-il-do'
NE YRKAOU TL IDL O TEEIHTENHCETUY
COLONIAL NEW YORK.
At the close of Dutch rule in New Netherlands,
the customs and habits of the people were those of
the nation they represented. Nor were the
years during which England sent her royal governors
to the province of New York sufficient to make Eng-
lish the ways of the colonists. They had English
forms of government to be sure, and of course had
adopted many English customs, but they were not
English at heart. Neither were they Dutch. In
fact they were rapidly reaching that point when they
were to become Americans.
In 1756, the population of the colony had
increased to almost a hundred thousand. New York
city was the chief town, though its census in that
year ranked it only the fourth in number of inhabi-
tants; for here the governor lived, and the general
assembly ordinarily met. From here, grain, flour
and furs were sent to England, Lisbon and the West
Indies; in return, sugar and spice, wine and other
luxuries, together with a large variety of manufac-
tured articles were received. All along the Hudson
and other rivers, boats passed up and down, trading
with the villagers, and really doing quite an extensive
The wealthy landed proprietors lived in New
York in the winter, attended by numerous servants,
both white and black, and maintaining a splendor of
living not often found in the other colonies. The
summer they passed upon their large estates on the
Hudson; and it was fortunate indeed, that, for the
most part, they had a genuine interest in the advance-
ment of the colony, and did not spend all their time
in enjoying their wealth.
The Dutch families still retained many of the
old customs. Within the quaintly built farmhouses
great rafters overhead looked down upon the generous
fire-places with their pictured tiles, and upon the
rows of great wooden and pewter dishes, and racks
of long tobacco pipes which adorned the mantel
shelf. In these houses the floors were still scoured
and sanded, and big fraus and little frauleins swept
and dusted, and carded and spun, and proudly
hoarded the fine linen they had made.
And the good people were as famous for their
hospitality and their merry-making as in years gone
by. The farmers had their corn-huskings, spinning-
bees, house-raisings and dancing-parties; and in town,
the amusements included horse-racing, tavern-parties,
balls and parties.
Many industries were by this time well under
way. Among the Germans, homespun and woolens
were made. On Coney Island were salt woiiks, and
near Kingstown, brick-kilns; while ship-building was
carried on at various points. There were also .l.i.s-
making in New York, hat-making in AllI1:n-y. and
iron-working along the Hudson. So, in spite of royal
governors and of French invasions, the people were
asserting themselves; were improving and adding to
their manufactures, extending their settlements and
cultivating more and more land.
Nor were these good Dutch people 'ftrg'tfiul of
It was as early as 1621 that the colony was
enjoined to find speedy means to maintain a clergy-
man and a school-master." And moreover each
house holder and inhabitant was enjoined to bear
such tax and public charge as should be considered
proper for their maintenance." Four years later, we
find in the colonial records the expense of the school-
master to be 360 florins- just one fourth of that of
In 1633, Adam Roelandson, a professional school-
master, was brought over from the Dutch mother
country, and for nine years he trained the little
Dutch Hans and Katrina to read and write.
In 1650, "New Amsterdam," with a population
of 800, now engaged two teachers for the children;
and so the cause of education grew alongside with
all other matters of the colony, political and other-
Not very long ago, the State superintendent of
schools of New York gave an address upon education
in the State. I know you will like to hear what he
said about these first beginnings of school in the
cheery Dutch colony.
"The excise moneys seem to have been set apart
to pay teachers, and they were in part, at least, paid
out of the public treasury. On one occasion the
governor of the colony parleyed with the Indian
chiefs and urged them to send their sons down to
New Amsterdam to school. After taking a week to
consider, they diplomatically answered that they were
powerless to accept the invitation, for the boys were
altogether under the control of their mothers."
The churches frequently maintained or super-
vised schools; not uncommonly the functions of the
minister and teacher were combined in the same person.
Indeed, it more than once happened that the
teacher had also to act as sexton, 1, i:.:->-, h. choir-
master or psalmsetter, and a "comforter of the -iil,."
as the person who supplied the minister's pl:l:u,. was
Along with this spirit of progression in educa-
tion, came naturally a spirit of rebellion j:ni
anything like tyranny from the Eii-;li- government,
under whose control the colony came in later ,-, -.
Very early they began to open their eyes to the fact
that the country iiiil1,t be .i.rI.1l far more to
their advantage than it ever had .. n. and that they
were entitled to a great deal more part in the
management of affairs than England seemed willing
for them to have. Thus the spirit of liberty was
stirring within their hearts, and unconsciously they
were making ready for the mighty struggle which by
and by should make them free.
One incident occurred about this time that
aroused much righteous indignation among the New
York colonists against the English government, and,
I am sure your sympathies will be with these brave
people who, though often hard pressed for the money
they needed in their own homes, had nevertheless
been prompt and generous in rendering such aid as
the mother country needed.
As one illustration of England's folly toward
this loyal province; when plans were made for
subduing the French, New York came bravely
forward and both publicly and privately subscribed
a great deal of money for this purpose. Does it
not seem as if England should have. been very
appreciative of this, especially as the defeat of the
French was, after all, more to the advantage of the
mother country than to the colonists?
However, England was greedy; and when she saw
how much money her subjects could raise, the
foolish old lady began to think she had found a
capital way in which to pay her own debts. Now,
New York was one of the richest of the colonies
and so came in for a goodly share of attention.
OLD DUTCH IIOUSI AT I(INGSTON
Duties were levied on all goods brought into the
provinces; but at the same time all articles sent
to foreign countries must be shipped in English
vessels so their English government declared.
Although there was plenty of iron, the colonies
were not allowed to make it into steel, or fashion
their own tools; as by so doing they would lessen
their trade with England.
Among other very unpopular measures was that
which gave revenue officers the right to enter any
man's house in search of smuggled goods. You all
know the old saying, "Every man's house is his
castle." The New York people thought so, too, and
deeply did they resent this interference with their
rights. They also objected to being obliged to pro-
vide quarters for the soldiers; for, under pretence of
fearing further trouble from France, England had left
practically an army in the colonies, and had appointed
New York as its headquarters.
When a man grows greedy, he cannot be expected
to show much wisdom; and, so, perhaps it was the
most natural thing in the world for England not to
realize her folly in trying the patience of the colonies
too far. They had been patient, very patient, but
underneath it all was a keen sense of justice and
right; and when, in March, 1765, the Stamp Act was
passed, they were united in their opposition to it.
Had William Pitt, prime minister to George the Second,
still been in power, this tax would never have been
imposed; for, years before, this great man had said.:-
" I will never burn my fingers with an American %I nip
Act." But when George the Third came to the throne,
he made the Earl of Bute, his chief adviser and
representative. A very poor exchange it was, and one
which hastened the separation of the colonies from the
How many of you know what the St.inp Act
was ? It was an act which required the people to pay
from three cents to thirty dollars for stamps, which
were to be placed on every piece of paper used for 1i-.,1
purposes. Papers showing that a man had liii._.f *.,,,d.
or had sold them, were not of any le,'il value unless
t-i,,.:,e,. and no clergyman could even give a certificate
of marriage without first placing a stamp upon it.
This stamp duty was to begin on the tir-lt ,j
November. In the meantime, a colonial convention
assembled in New York and prepared resolutions to be
sent to the l:iigr and parliament. These resolutions
were very respectfully wd,,Ii.l. but in them I- pm--,ipl-
said that no tax ,.I--i t to be imposed upon them
without their consent. Men who had been appointed
to distribute the stamps were forced to resign; and
when the stamps arrived in New York, the colonists
obliged the governor to place them in the hands of
the mayor. The citizens resolved not to buy any more
goods from England until the Stamp Act was repealed;
and business went on in defiance of the new law and
much to the discomfiture of the king's officers.
William Pitt now took up the cause of the colo-
nists; not because he cared very much about England's
subjects across the sea, but because he was wise enough
to realize the danger of losing them. So he urged
parliament to repeal the Stamp Act; and this was
finally done just one year after it had been passed.
In the city of New York, as well as elsewhere,
there was great rejoicing when the good news arrived.
Cannon thundered forth royal salutes, the bells in the
steeples rang out their merry bells, the ships in the
harbor displayed their flags, and at night there were
feasts and fire-works for the people.
So, for the time being, matters were smoothed
over; and even then, further trouble might have been
avoided had England been wise and less greedy, and
had she, in the future, levied taxes only with the consent
of her still loyal subjects.
A SCENE ON THE BANKS OF THE HUDSON.
Cool shades and dews are round my way,
And silence of the early day;
'Mid the dark rocks that watch his bed,
Glitters the mighty Hudson spread,
Unrippled, save by drops that fall
From shrubs that fringe his mountain wall;
And o'er the clear, still water swells
The music of the Sabbath bells.
All, save this little nook of land
Circled with trees, on which I stand;
All, save that line of hills which lie
Suspended in the mimic sky--
Seems a blue void, above, below,
Through which the white clouds come and go;
And from the green world's farthest steep
I gaze into the airy deep.
.... .j ..
lit. J~;.- ~ ;.
TIE I'ALISADES, HUDSON RIJVEYl
Loveliest of lovely things are they,
On earth, that soonest pass away.
The rose that lives its little hour,
Is prized beyond the sculptured flower.
Even love, long tried and cherished long,
Becomes more tender and more strong,
At thought of that insatiate grave
From which its yearnings cannot save.
River in this still hour thou hast
Too much of heaven on earth to last;
Nor long may thy still waters lie,
An image of the glorious sky.
Thy fate and mine are not repose,
And ere another evening close,
Thou to thy tides shall turn again,
And I to seek the crowd of men.
..'- o. *. '
MAP OF NEW YOK AND VICINITY, 1776.