Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Explanation of technical terms
 The Arctic lands
 Voyages of discovery from the Cabots...
 Voyages from Baffin to McClint...
 Sir John Franklin and the North-west...
 Elisha Kent Kane and Isaac...
 Hall's voyages: The Polaris...
 Nares's voyage with the "Alert"...
 The German and Austrian expedi...
 Nordenskiold, and the North-east...
 The voyage of the Jeannette: De...
 The Lady Franklin Bay expedition...
 Peary's journey across Greenla...
 Nansen's voyages
 To the Pole by balloon
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: Altemus' young people's library
Title: The story of exploration and adventure in the frozen seas
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084063/00001
 Material Information
Title: The story of exploration and adventure in the frozen seas
Series Title: Altemus' young people's library
Alternate Title: Exploration and adventure in the frozen seas
Frozen seas
Physical Description: 256, 4 p. : ill. (some col.), maps, ports. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Holmes, Prescott
Altemus, Henry ( Publisher )
Publisher: Henry Altemus
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: c1896
Subject: Explorers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Ice -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Discovery and exploration -- Juvenile literature -- Arctic regions   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1896   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1896
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
Statement of Responsibility: by Prescott Holmes ; with eighty illustrations.
General Note: Frontispiece printed in colors.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue precedes and follows text.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084063
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002231615
notis - ALH1995
oclc - 232332213

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Explanation of technical terms
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The Arctic lands
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Voyages of discovery from the Cabots to Baffin
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Voyages from Baffin to McClintock
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Sir John Franklin and the North-west Passage
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Elisha Kent Kane and Isaac I. Hayes
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Hall's voyages: The Polaris expedition
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Nares's voyage with the "Alert" and "Discovery"
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    The German and Austrian expeditions
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Nordenskiold, and the North-east Passage
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
    The voyage of the Jeannette: De Long
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
    The Lady Franklin Bay expedition to Grinnell Land, and the attainment of the farthest north
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
    Peary's journey across Greenland
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
    Nansen's voyages
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
    To the Pole by balloon
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
    Back Matter
        Page 261
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

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Bay or Young Ice.-Ice newly formed upon the surface.
Blink.-A peculiar brightness in the atmosphere, which is
almost always perceptible in approaching ice or land
covered with snow. Land-blink is usually more yellow
than that of ice.
Bore.-The operation of "boring" through loose ice
consists in entering it under a press of sail, and forcing
the ship through by separating the masses.
Dock.-An artificial dock is formed by cutting out with
saws a square space in a thick floe in which a ship is placed
in order to secure her from the pressure of other masses
which are seen to be approaching, and which otherwise
endanger her being "nipped." A "dock" is simply a
small bight accidentally found under similar circumstances.
Field.-A sheet of ice, generally of great thickness, and of
such extent that its limits cannot be seen from a ship's
Floe.-The same as a field, except that its extent can be dis-
tinguished from a ship's mast-head. A bay floe" is a
flow of ice newly formed upon the surface.


A Hole or Pool of Water.-A small space of clear water
surrounded by ice on every side
Nzpped.-To be forcibly pressed between two or more
masses of ice.
A Pack.-A large body of loose ice whose extent cannot be
A Patch of Ice.-The same as a pack, but of small dimensions.
Sailing Ice.-Ice of which the masses are so much separated
as to allow a ship to sail among them without great
A Tongue.-A mass of ice projecting under water in a
horizontal direction from an iceberg or floe. A ship
sometimes grazes or is set fast on a tongue of ice, which
may, however, generally be avoided, being easily seen in
smooth water.
A Water Sky.-A certain dark appearance of the sky which
indicates clear water in that direction, and which, when
contrasted with the blink over ice or land, is very


A GLANCE at a map of the Arctic regions shows us
that many of the rivers belonging to the three conti-
nents-Europe, Asia, America-discharge their waters
into the Polar Ocean or its tributary bays. The terri-
tories drained by these streams, some of which (such
as the Mackenzie, the Yukon, the Lena, the Yenisei,
and the Obi) rank among the giant rivers of the earth,
form, along with the islands within or near the Arctic
Circle, the vast region over which the frost-king reigns
It is difficult to determine with precision the limits of
the Arctic lands, since many countries situated as low


as latitude 60, or even 50, such as South Greenland,
Labrador, Alaska, Kamtchatka, or the country about
Lake Baikal, have in their climate and productions a
decidedly Arctic character, while others of a far more
northern position, such as the coast of Norway, enjoy
even in winter a remarkably mild temperature. But
they are naturally divided into two principal and well-
marked zones-that of the forests, and that of the tree-
less wastes.
The latter, comprising the islands within the Arctic
Circle, form a belt, more or less broad, bounded by the
continental shores of the North Polar seas, and grad-
ually merging toward the south into the forest-region,
which encircles them with a garland of evergreen conif-
ere. This treeless zone bears the name of the barren
grounds," or the barrenss," in North America, and of
"tundri" in Siberia and European Russia. Its want
of trees is caused not so much by its high northern lati-
tude as by the cold sea-winds which sweep unchecked
over the islands or the flat coast-lands of the Polar
Ocean, and for miles and miles compel even the hardiest
plant to crouch before the blast and creep along the
In winter, when animal life has mostly retreated to
the south, or sought a refuge in burrows or in caves, an
awful silence, interrupted only by the hooting of a snow-
owl or the yelping of a fox, reigns over their vast ex-
panse; but in spring, when the brown earth reappears
from under the melted snow and the swamps begin to
thaw, enormous flights of wild birds appear upon the
scene and enliven it for a few months. An admirable
instinct leads their winged legions from distant climes
to the Arctic wildernesses, where in the morasses or lakes,


on the banks of the rivers, on the flat strands, or along the
fish-teeming coasts, they find an abundance of food,
and where at the same time they can with greater secu-
rity build their nests and rear their young. Some

------ ------
., I.'- ,I;', "- "

,. ....... -_ _'-: .


remain on the skirts of the forest-region; others, flying
farther northward, lay their eggs upon the naked tundra.
Eagles and hawks follow the traces of the natatorial
and strand birds; troops of ptarmigans roam among


the stunted bushes; and when the sun shines, the finch
or the snow-bunting warbles his merry note.
But as soon as the first frosts of September announce
the approach of winter, all animals, with but few excep-
tions, hasten to leave a region where the sources of life
must soon fail. The geese, ducks, and swans return
in dense flocks to the south; the strand-birds seek in
some lower latitude a softer soil which allows their
sharp beak to seize a burrowing prey; the water-fowl
forsake the bays and channels that will soon be blocked
up with ice; the reindeer once more return to the forest,
and in a short time nothing is left that can induce man
to prolong his stay in the treeless plain. Soon a thick
mantle of snow covers the hardened earth, the frozen
lake, the ice-bound river, and conceals them all-seven,
eight, nine months long-under its monotonous pall,
except where the furious north-east wind sweeps it away
and lays bare the naked rock.
This snow, which after it has once fallen persists until
the long summer's day has effectually thawed it, protects
in admirable manner the vegetation of the higher lati-
tudes against the cold of the long winter season. For
snow is so bad a conductor of heat, that in mid-winter,
in the high latitude of 780 50' (Rensselaer Bay), while
the surface temperature was as low as 300, Kane
found at two feet deep a temperature of--80, at four
feet + 20, and at eight feet + 260, or no more than six
degrees below the freezing-point of water. Thus cov.
ered by a warm crystal snow-mantle, the northern
plants pass the long winter in a comparatively mild
temperature, high enough to maintain their life, while,
without, icy blasts-capable of converting mercury into
a solid body-howl over the naked wilderness; and as


the first snow-falls are more cellular and less condensed
than the nearly impalpable powder of winter, Kane
justly observes that no "eider-down in the cradle of an
infant is tucked in more kindly than the sleeping-dress
of winter about the feeble plant-life of the Arctic zone."
Thanks to this protection, and to the influence of a
sun which for months circles above the horizon, and
in favorable
calls forth the

vegetation in
an incredibly
short time,. -
even Wash- '
ington, Grin-
nell Land,
and Spitzber- .. .
gen are able
to boast of .
flowers. Mor- o
ton plucked
a crucifer at
Cape Consti-
tution (800 ARCTIC FOX.
45' N. lat.),
and, on the banks of Mary Minturn River (780 52')
Kane came across a flower-growth which, though
drearily Arctic in its type, was rich in variety and
coloring. Amid festuca and other tufted grasses
twinkled the purple lychnis and the white star of the
chickweed; and, not without its pleasing associations,
he recognized a solitary hesperis-the Arctic repre-
sentative of the wall-flowers of home.


The line of perpetual snow may naturally be expected
to descend lower and lower on advancing to the pole,
and hence many mountainous regions or elevated pla-
teaux, such as the interior of Spitzbergen, of Greenland,
of Nova Zembla, etc., which in a more temperate clime
would be verdant with woods or meadows, are
here covered with vast fields of ice, from which fre-
quently glaciers descend down to the verge of the sea.
But even in the highest northern latitudes, no land has
yet been found covered as far as the water's edge with
eternal snow, or where winter has entirely subdued the
powers of vegetation.
The influence of tie winds is of considerable impor.
tance in determining the greater or lesser severity of an
Arctic climate. Thus the northerly winds which pre-
vail in Baffin's Bay and Davis's Straits during the sum-
mer months, and fill the straits of the American
north-eastern archipelago with ice, are probably
the main cause of the abnormal depression of
temperature in" that quarter; while, on the contrary, the
southerly winds that prevail during summer in the
valley of the Mackenzie tend greatly to extend the forest
of that favored region nearly down to the shores of the
Arctic Sea. Even in the depth of a Siberian winter, a
sudden change of wind is able to raise the thermometer
from a mercury-congealing cold to a temperature above
the freezing-point of water, and a warm wind has been
known to cause rain to fall in Spitzbergen in the month
of January.
The voyages of Kane and Belcher have made us ac-
quainted with the lowest temperatures ever felt by man.
On February 5, 1854, while the former was wintering
in Smith's Sound (780 37' N. lat.), the mean of his best



---- ,--.-~
-----, i----

---- -------

i- -



i-e`'h rb

--- -1


spirit-thermometer showed the unexampled temperature
of- 680 or Ioo0 below the freezing-point of water. The
exhalations from the skin invested the exposed or par-
tially clad parts with a wreath of vapor. The air had a
perceptible pungency upon inspiration, and every one,
as it were involuntarily, breathed guardedly with com-
pressed lips. About the same time (February 9 and Io,
1854), Edward Belcher experienced a cold of- 550 in
Wellington Channel (750 31' N.), and the still lower
temperature of-620 on January 13, 1853, in North-
umberland Sound (760 52' N.). Whymper, on Decem-
ber 6, 1866, experienced -580 at Nulatto, Alaska (640
42' N.).
Whether the temperature of the air descends still
lower on advancing toward the pole, or whether these
extreme degrees of cold are not sometimes surpassed in
those mountainous regions of the north which, though
seen, have never yet been explored, is of course an un-
decided question: so much is certain, that the observa-
tions hitherto made during the winter of the Arctic re-
gions have been limited to too short a time, and are too
few in number, to enable us to determine with any de-
gree of certainty those points where the greatest cold
prevails. All we know is, that beyond the Arctic Circle,
and eight or ten degrees farther to the south in the in-
terior of the continents of Asia and America, the aver-
age temperature of the winter generally ranges from
- 200 to 30 0, or even lower, and for a'great part of
the year is able to convert mercury into a solid body.
It may be asked how man is able to bear the exces-
sively low temperature of an Arctic winter, which must
appear truly appalling to an inhabitant of the temper-
ate zone. A thick fur clothing; a hut small and low,


where the warmth of a fire, or simply of a train-oil
lamp, is husbanded in a narrow space, and, above all,
the wonderful power of the human constitution to ac-
commodate itself to every change of climate, go far to
counteract the rigor of the cold.
After a very few days the body develops an increas-
ing warmth as the thermometer descends; for the air
being condensed by the cold, the lungs inhale at every
breath a greater quantity of oxygen, which of course
accelerates the internal process of combustion, while at
the same time an increasing appetite, gratified with a
copious supply of animal food, of flesh and fat, enriches
the blood and enables it to circulate more vigorously.
Thus not only the hardy native of the north, but even
the healthy traveler, soon gets accustomed to bear with-
out injury the rigors of an Arctic winter.
"The mysterious compensations," says Kane, "by
which we adapt ourselves to climate are more striking
here than in the tropics. In the Polar zone the assault
is immediate and sudden, and, unlike the insidious fatal-
ity of hot countries, produces its results rapidly. It re-
quires hardly a single winter to tell who are to be the
heat-making and acclimatized men. Petersen, for in-
stance, who has resided for two years at Upernavik,
seldom enters a room with a fire. Another of our party,
George Riley, with a vigorous constitution, established
habits of free exposure, and active cheerful tempera-
ment, has so inured himself to the cold, that he sleeps
on our sledge journeys without a blanket or any other
covering than his walking suit, while the outside tem-
perature is 30."
There are many proofs that a milder climate once
reigned in the northern regions of the globe. Fossil


pieces of wood, petrified acorns and fir-cones have been
found in the interior of Banks's Land by McClure's
sledging par-
ties. At Ana-
kerdluk, in
North Green-
land (700 N.), a
large forest lies
buried on a

rounded by gla-
-" -- ~ ciers, io80 feet
-i above the level
-iza of the sea. Not
,only the trunks
and branches,
but even the
leaves, fr uit-
I cones, and
Y_ seeds have been
S- preserved in the
S- soil, and enable
-- the botanist to
,, determine the
species of the
:n- plants to which
I they belong.
-: They show that,
besides firs and
FEMALE COSTUME. sequoias, oaks,
plantains, elms,
magnolias, and even laurels, indicating a climate like
Switzerland, flourished during the miocene period in a


country where now even
creep along the ground.
the earth's his-
tory Spitzbergen
was likewise cov-
ered with stately
forests. The '
same poplars and
the same swamp- :

cypress which
then flourished in
North Greenland
have been found
in a fossilized
state at Bell
Sound (760 N.)
by the Swedish
naturalists, who
also discovered a
plantain and a lin-
den as high as
780 and 790 in
King's Bay-a
proof that in
those times the
climate of Spitz-


the willow is compelled to
During the same epoch of

bergen can not :
have been colder -
than that which -
now reigns i n MALE COSTUME.
Southern S we -
den and Norway, 18 degrees nearer to the line.
In the miocene times the Arctic Zone evidently pre-


sented a very different aspect from that which it wears
at present. Now, during the greater part of the year,
an immense glacial desert, which through its floating
bergs and drift-ice depresses the temperature of countries
situated far to the south, it then consisted of verdant
lands covered with luxuriant forests and bathed by an
open sea.
What may have been the cause of these amazing
changes of climate ? The readiest answer seems to be
-a different distribution of sea and land.
We now know that our sun, with his attendant planets
and satellites, performs a vast circle, embracing perhaps
hundreds of thousands of years, round another star, and
that we are constantly entering new regions of space
untraveled by our earth before. In the course of ages
the sun conducted his herd of planets into more solitary
and colder regions, which caused the warm miocene
times to be followed by the glacial period, during which
the Swiss flat lands bore an Arctic character, and finally
the sun emerged into a space of an intermediate char-
acter, which determines the present condition of the
climates of our globe.
Though nature generally wears a more stern and for-
bidding aspect on advancing toward the Pole, yet the
high latitudes have many beauties of their own.
Nothing can exceed the magnificence of an Arctic sun-
set, clothing the snow-clad mountains and the skies with
all the glories of color, or be more serenely beautiful
than the clear star-light night, illumined by the brilliant
moon, which for days continually circles around the
horizon, never setting until she has run her long course
of brightness. The uniform whiteness of the landscape
and the general transparency of the atmosphere add to

1.,.~'~ F


~.~-II- -L1---- ---~-~
"~--" -=~

'15 -1 ~ -;


the luster of her beams, which serve the natives to
guide their nomadic life, and to lead them to their
But of all the magnificent spectacles that relieve the
monotonous gloom of the Arctic winter, there is none
to equal the magical beauty of the Aurora. This bow
sometimes remains for several hours, heaving or waiv-
ing to and fro, before it sends forth streams of light as-
cending to the zenith. Sometimes these flashes pro-
ceed from the bow of light alone; at others they simul-
taneously shoot forth from many opposite parts of the
horizon, and form a vast sea of fire whose brilliant
waves are continually changing their position. Finally
they all unite in a magnificent crown or copula of light,
with the appearance of which the phenomenon attains
its highest degree of splendor. The brilliancy of the
streams, which are commonly red at their base, green in
the middle, and light yellow toward the zenith, increases,
while at the same time they dart with greater vivacity
through the skies. The colors are wonderfully trans-
parent, and the imposing silence of the night heightens
the charms of the magnificent spectacle.
But gradually the crown fades, the bow of light dis-
solves, the streams become shorter, less frequent, and
less vivid; and finally the gloom of winter once more
descends upon the northern desert.
The North Polar region is the largest, as it is the
most important field of discovery that remains for this
generation to work out. As Frobisher declared nearly
300 years ago, it is the only great thing left undone in
the world."
A large portion of the area yet included by the Arctic
Ocean is still unexplored, but almost every year dimin-


ishes the extent of the unknown. Notwithstanding so
many illustrious navigators have vainly endeavored to
reach the Pole, sanguine projectors are still as eager as
ever to attain the goal; nor is it probable that man will
ever rest in his efforts until every attainable region
of the Arctic Ocean shall have been fully explored.
But it may be asked, for what purpose are these
northern voyages undertaken? The acquisition of
knowledge is the groundwork of all the instructions
under which they are set forth. The commanding
officer is directed to cause constant observations to be
made for the advancement of every branch of science-
astronomy, navigation, hydrography, meteorology, in-
cluding electricity and magnetism, and to make collec-
tions of subjects of natural history-in short, to lose no
opportunity of acquiring new and important informa-
tion and discovery; and when it is considered that these
voyages give employment to officers and men in time
of peace, and produce officers and men not to be sur-
passed, perhaps not equaled, in any other branch of the
service; the question, What is the good ? is readily an-
swered in Bacon's aphorism, "Knowledge is power."
At a meeting of the Royal Geographical Society
Captain Sherard Osborne said:
"In the year 1818 Baffin's discoveries upon the one
hand, and those of Behring upon the other, with dots
for the mouths of the Mackenzie and Hearne Rivers,
were all we knew of the strange labyrinth of lands and
waters now accurately delineated upon our charts of the
Arctic Zone. Sailors and travelers, in 36 years, have
accomplished all this; not always, be it remembered, in
well-stored ships, sailing rapidly from point to point, but
for the most part by patiently toiling on foot, or coast-

ing in open boats round every bay and fiord. Leopold
McClintock estimates the foot explorations accom-
plished in the search for Franklin alone at about 40,000
miles. Yet during those 36 years of glorious enterprise
by ship, by boat, and by sledge, England only fairly
lost one expedition and 128 souls out of 42 successive
expeditions, and has never lost a sledge party out of
about Ioo that have toiled within the Arctic Circle.
Show me upon the globe's surface an equal amount of
geographical discovery, or in history as arduous an
achievement, with a smaller amount of human sacrifice,
and then I will concede that Arctic exploration has en-
tailed more than its due proportion of suffering.
Those who assert that our labors and researches have
merely added so many miles of unprofitable coast-line
to our charts, had better compare our knowledge of
Arctic phenomena to-day with the theories enunciated
by men of learning and repute a century ago. They
should confront our knowledge of to-day with that of
18oo upon the natural history, meteorology, climate,
and winds of the Arctic regions. They must remem-
ber that it was there we obtained the clue, still unraveled,
of the laws of those mysterious currents which flow
through the wastes of the ocean like two mighty rivers
-the Gulf Stream and the Ice Stream; must remember
that it was there-in Boothia-that the two Rosses first
reached the Magnetic Pole, that mysterious point round
which revolves the mariner's compass over one-half of
the Northern hemisphere; and let the world say whether
the mass of observations collected by our explorers on
all sides of that Magnetic Pole have added nothing to
the knowledge of the laws of magnetic declination and
dip. They should remember how a few years ago it


was gravely debated whether man could exist through
the rigors and darkness of a Polar winter, and how we
have only recently discovered that Providence has peo-
pled that region to the extreme latitude yet reached,
and that the animals upon which they subsist are there
likewise, in winter as well as in summer. All this, and
much more, should be borne in mind by those cynics
who would have you believe we have toiled in vain;
and I hold, with the late Admiral Beechey, 'that every
voyage to the North has tended to remove that veil of
obscurity which previously hung over the geography
and all the phenomena of the Arctic regions. Before
those voyages all was darkness and terror, all beyond
the North Cape a blank; but, since then, each succes-
sive voyage has swept away some gloomy superstition,
has brought to light some new phenomenon, and tended
to the advancement of human knowledge.' "
Henry Grinnell of New York replied to a similar
question by stating some of the results in the extension
of commerce and trade which have flowed from Arctic
I. HUMPHREY GILBERT'S discovery of the cod-fish-
eries of Newfoundland.
2. From DAVIS'S discoveries, the great whale-fisheries
of West Greenland.
3. From the discoveries of HUDSON (who also dis-
covered and sailed into our North River, which now
bears his name, while on an Arctic voyage), Hudson's
Bay, and the operations of the great fur companies.
4. JOHN Ross: the whale-fishery of the North, and
north-west of Baffin's Bay.
5. Captain PARRY: whale-fishery of Lancaster Sound,
Barrow's Strait, and Prince Regent's Inlet,


6. Admiral BEECHEY: whale-fishery of Behring's
Straits, in which in the space of two years the whalers
of Nantucket and New Bedford obtained cargoes from
which they have realized eight millions of dollars.
The object of the present volume is to recall the
stories of the early voyagers, and to narrate the recent
efforts of gallant adventurers of various nationalities to
cross the unknown and inaccessible" threshold; and
to show how much can be accomplished by indomitable
pluck and steady perseverance. In the limits at our
disposal we have not space to relate the adventures of
all the individual voyagers; we have therefore selected
and traced those which appear to embody the greatest

LONG before Columbus sailed from the port of Palos
(1492) on that ever-memorable voyage which changed
the geography of the world, the Scandinavians had
already found the way to North America. From Green-
land, which was known to them as early as the ninth
century, and which they began to colonize in the year
985, they sailed farther to the west, and gradually ex-
tended their discoveries from the coasts of Labrador,
Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland to those of the present
State of Rhode Island, which, from the wild-vines they
there found growing in abundance, they called the!
" good Vinland."
But a long series of disasters destroyed their Green-
land Colonies about the end of the fourteenth century,


and as Scandinavia itself had at that time but very little
intercourse with the more civilized nations of Southern
Europe, it is not to be wondered at, despite the discov-


series of Giinnbjorn and Eric the Red, the great western
continent remained unknown to the world in general.
One of the first consequences of the achievements
of Columbus was the rediscovery of the northern part


of America, for the English merchants longed to havt
a share of the commerce of India; and as the Pope
had assigned the eastern route to the Portuguese and
the western one to the Spaniards, they resolved to as-
certain whether a third and shorter way to the Spice
Islands, or to the fabulous golden regions of the East
might not be found by steering to the north-west. In
pursuance of these views, John and Sebastian Cabot
sailed in 1497 from Bristol, at that time the chief com-
mercial port of England, and discovered the whole
American coast from Labrador to Virginia. They failed,
indeed, in the object of their mission, but they laid the
first foundations of the future colonial greatness of
Cabot appears to have returned to England immedi-
ately after his discovery, as we find in the account of the
privy purse expenses of Henry VII, the following entry:
l0th august, 1497--o0 iim that fount tle
New 3sle, 10.
Here we have proof positive that part of the North
American continent was visited by an English ship four-
teen months before Columbus ascertained for certain
the existence of that of a southern.
A second voyage, in 1498, by Sebastian Cabot alone,
had no important results, but in a third voyage which
he undertook in search of a north-west passage, at the
expense of Henry VIII, in 1516 or 1517, it is tolerably
certain that that great navigator discovered the two
straits which now bear the names of Davis and Hudson.
The failure of this voyage was attributed to a mutiny
of the crew; and the pusillanimity of the commander,
Sir Thomas Pert, compelled Cabot to return home.


For several years there was no further attempt at a
northern voyage out of England. But Portugal, at this
period England's most formidable rival on the sea, was
not so unwise as to allow so promising a field of honor
and emolument to remain unexplored. A passage by

A1 .'.
A _t i 1


water had been found around the continent of Africa
by one of her sons (De Gama), and this strengthened
the belief that one would be found also around the
continent of Europe, or through some portion of the
northern part of America. Accordingly, Gaspar Cor-
toreal fitted out two ships at his own expense, and sailed

from Lisbon in 1500, with the intention of following up
Sebastian Cabot's discoveries. He touched at the
Azores, and then pursued a course which led him to
Labrador, and he proceeded to explore it for upward
of 600 miles. In a letter written October 19, 1501,
only eleven days after the return of Cortoreal from his
northern voyage, it was stated, On October 8, one of
the caravels under the command of Cortoreal arrived
here, and reports the finding of a country distant hence
west and north-west 2000 miles, heretofore quite un-
known. They proceeded over 600 miles without reach-
ing its termination, from which circumstance they con-
clude it to be of the mainland connected with another
region which last year was discovered in the north, but
which the caravel could not reach on account of the ice
and the vast quantity of snow; and they are confirmed
in this belief by the multitude of great rivers they found,
which certainly could not proceed from an island.
They say the country is very populous, and the dwellings
of the inhabitants are constructed with timber of great
length and covered with the skins of fishes. They
have brought thither 57 of the inhabitants, men, women,
and children."
Their color, figure, stature, and aspect are described.
They were said to be well made in the arms, legs, and
shoulders; admirably calculated for labor; and are the
best slaves I have ever seen."
It was very gratifying to the nation that their first
attempt in the frozen North should have been crowned
with so much success:-but it was a more substantial,
though a basely mercenary motive which induced them
again to take the field. Twenty years earlier the south-
ern Africans were pointed out as an article of commerce.


Here alone, then, there was a rich mine of wealth for
the nation, and the king eagerly entered into the proj-
ect, which can thus be traced back to this barbarous
The next year Cortoreal departed with two ships on
a second voyage. He is described as entering a strait
(probably Hudson's), but here a tempest arose, and he
was separated from
his companions, and
never heard ofmore.
When the news of
this disaster reached
Portugalhis brother

him;--he never re-
turned, and the deep
still holds the secret
of the fate of both.

French, for the first
time, entered the
field of Arctic dis-
covery. In that
year, by direction
of Francis I, four
ships were fitted out, VERAZZANO.
and the command
given to Verazzano, a Florentine, who coasted North
America from the latitude 340 to 50o, a distance of
2Ioo miles, embracing the whole of the present United
States, and a large portion of British America. Veraz-
zano had frequent meetings with the natives, and speaks
of them in the highest terms. It is thought probable


that he first landed near Savannah, Ga. In his progress
northward he records meeting a people as fierce and
sullen as the others had been mild and gentle. Along
the coast he mentions a cluster of thirty islands, sepa-
rated by narrow channels, a description which precisely
marks the present Bay of Penobscot (Maine). He pur-
sued his course to latitude 500, when, his provisions
failing, he sailed for France, which he reached in safety,
July 8, 1524.
In the same year that France made her first attempt
in the north, an expedition under Gomez left Spain,
with a view of finding a northern and shorter passage
to the Moluccas. He appears to have reached the lati-
tude 40', and, without making any material discovery,
returned after a voyage of ten months.
After an interval of ten years, the French again set
forth on the career of northern discovery. Jacques
Cartier, with two ships, sailed April 20, 1534. He
appears to have circumnavigated Newfoundland, and to
have proceeded for some time in his course up the Bay
of St. Lawrence, being the first European that visited
it; but the season being far advanced, he thought it
better to reserve, for another voyage, the further exam-
ination of what promised to be a glorious field for ex-
ploration. He returned, therefore, by the Straits of
Belle Isle to St. Malo, where he arrived Sept. 5, 1534.
On May I9, 1535, he again sailed, with three ships,
which, soon after their departure, became separated in a
storm, and did not meet with each other till July 26,
when they proceeded to examine the large gulf which he
had formerly entered. It was," to use Cartier's words,
" a very fair gulf, full of islands, passages and entrances,
to what wind soever you pleased to bend, having a great


Island, like a cape of land, stretching somewhat farther
forth than the others."


This isle they named Assumption. To the channel
between it and the coast of Labrador, Cartier gave the
name of St. Lawrence, which has since been extended to
3 B


the whole gulf. The French ascended the river as far
as the Indian city of Hochelaga, and were friendly re-
ceived by the Aboriginees. Hochelaga was called
Mont Royale, since corrupted into Montreal. This
discovery was of much importance, but the prejudice
then prevailed that no countries were valuable except
such as produced gold and silver, and for four years the
French monarch would listen to no proposals for the
establishment of a colony.
We have seen that for some years the French omitted
to follow up the successful issue of Cartier's second
voyage; their next attempt was the result of a private
adventure. Jean de Roque, the Sieur de Roberval, was
given permission to found a settlement in the country,
and was made Viceroy in Canada, Hochelga, Sag-
uenay, Newfoundland, Bellisle, Labrador, the Great
Bay, etc.; which, if merited by any one, ought to have
been conferred upon Cartier. He was given a subor-
dinate command only, and was ordered to set off with
five vessels. Cartier received a different reception this
time. The Indians resisted, by every means in their
power, any attempt at a settlement, and the French
were obliged, for their defence, to build a fort near the
present site of Quebec.
We have, in the voyage of the Cortoreals, had a sad
example of the fatal results of attempts to break as-
sunder all ties of relationship and humanity by forcing
the Red Indian to become the slave of his white fellow-
creature; it was only by acts of the most signal
vengeance that the Western hemisphere was saved from
that disagreeable traffic which is the foulest blot in the
annals of the Eastern.
It is impossible not to be struck with the determined



__~_ ~~_ _;_._ __~_~~_ ._ ___ ~____ _____ __ _~___



resistance which has ever been made by the aboriginees
of North America to these kidnapping adventures, and
likewise the fact, that the indiscretion of one traveler
was visited, at some future period, on the perhaps

;,I- --

" -; -- i .

the same path. Through jealousy Cartier deserted
Roberval, and this gave a death-blow to the enterprise.
In 1549 Roberval, and his brother, made another
In 1549 Roberval, and his brother, made another



attempt at a settlement. They were never heard of
In 1549 Sebastian Cabot was created Grand Pilot of
England, and started in his old age another idea, which
has become almost equally momentous in the history
of Arctic discovery-the search for a north-eastern route
to China. Accordingly, in the year 1553, a squadron
of three small vessels were fitted with everything
which experience had proven to be necessary, and
as a further precaution, the keels were covered with
"thinne sheets of leade," which is the first instance on
record in England of the practice of sheathing, a
method, however, long before adopted in Spain.
The command was entrusted to Sir Hugh Wil-
loughby, "a most valiant gentleman," but probably no
sailor, Richard Chancellor, and Stephen Burrough, and
sailed with the vain hope of reaching India by sailing
round North Asia, the formation and vast extent of
which were at that time totally unknown.
Off Senjan, an island on the Norwegian coast in lat.
69 the ships parted company in a stormy night, never
to meet again. Willoughby reached the coast of Nova
Zembla, and ultimately sought a harbor in Lapland on
the west side of the entrance into the White Sea, where
the officers and crew were miserably frozen to death, as
some Russian fishermen ascertained in the following
spring. How long they sustained the severity of the
weather is not known, but the journal found on board
the Admiral proved that Willoughby and most of the
ships's company were alive in January, 1554. Seventy
souls" perished,-either through famine or the intense
cold. The two ships were recovered, and with the
dead bodies in them were sent to England, but on the

-- iw --. _ _
..- o-- -_ __-

.-- - .-; Z T- _



passage they sank with their dead, and them also that
brought them."
They died the victims of inexperience; for had they
"been skilled in hunting and clothing themselves, and
taken the precaution of laying in at the beginning
of the winter a stock of mossy turf such as the country
produces for fuel, and above all had they secured a few
of the very many seals which abounded in the sea
around them, they might have preserved their lives and
passed an endurable winter."
Chancellor was either more fortunate or more skillful,
for after having long been buffeted about by stormy
weather, he eventually reached St. Nicholas, in the
White Sea. From thence he proceeded overland to
Moscow and delivered his credentials to the Czar, from
whom he obtained many privileges for the company
who had fitted out the expedition. In 1554 he returned
to England, and shortly afterwards was sent back
Sto Russia by Queen Mary to negotiate a treaty of com-
merce between the two nations. Accomplishing his
mission, he once more set sail from the White Sea, ac-
companied by a Muscovite ambassador. The return
voyage was extremely unfortunate, for Chancellor, after
losing two of his vessels off the coast of Norway, was
carried by a violent tempest into the Bay of Pitsligo, in
Scotland, where his ship was wrecked. He endeavored
to save the ambassador and himself in a boat, but
the small pinnance was upset; and although the Rus-
sian safely reached the strand, the Englishman, after
having escaped so many dangers in the Arctic Ocean,
was drowned within sight of his native shores.
In 1556 the Muscovy Company fitted out the Serch-
4hrift pinnance, under the command of Stephen Bur-

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rough, the master of Chancellor's ship in his first voy-
age, for discovery toward the River Obi and further
search for a north-east passage. This small vessel
reached the strait between Nova Zembla and Vaigats,
called by the Russians the Kara Gate, but the enormous
masses of ice that came floating through the channel
compelled it to return.
In spite of these disappointments, the desire to discover
a northern route to India was too great to allow enter-
prising European nations- to abandon the scheme as
In the days of Queen Elizabeth the question of the
North-west Passage was again revived, and Martin
Frobisher, who had solicited merchants and nobles
during fifteen years for means to undertake the only
great thing left undone in the world," sailed in the year
1576 with three small vessels of 35, 30, and io tons,
on no less an errand than the circumnavigation of
Northern America. The reader may smile at the ig-
norance which encouraged such efforts,.but he cannot
fail to admire the iron-hearted man who ventured in
such wretched nutshells to face the Arctic seas. Ex-
perience has since proved that such vessels were better
adapted for Arctic exploration than ships of a larger
measurement; but this fact was not then known. The
expedition safely reached'the coasts of Greenland and
Labrador, and brought home some glittering stones,
the lustre of which was erroneously attributed to gold.
This belief so inflamed the zeal for new expeditions to
"Meta Incognita," as Frobisher had named the coasts
he had discovered, that he found no difficulty in equip-
ping three ships of a much larger size, that they might
be able to hold more of the anticipated treasure. At


the entrance of the straits which still bear his name,
he was prevented by the gales and drift-ice from forcing


a passage to the sea beyond, but having secured about
200 tons of the supposed golden ore, the expedition was


considered eminently successful. Special commis-
sioners-gentlemen of great judgment, art, and skill-
were appointed by Her Majesty to look thoroughly
into all matters pertaining to this ore." It was nothing
but micaceous sand; but the commissioners made a
favorable report, both on the ore, and the prospects of a
passage to India; though upon what evidence it was
based is not known-the whole proceedings of these
functionaries being wrapped up in mystery. A large
squadron of fifteen vessels was consequently fitted out
in 1578 for a third voyage, and commissioned not only
to bring back an untold amount of treasure, but also to
take out materials and men to establish a colony on
those desolate shores. But this grand expedition, which
sailed with such extravagant hopes, was to end in dis-
appointment. One of the largest vessels was crushed
by an iceberg at the entrance of the strait, and the
others were so beaten about by storms and obstructed
by fogs that they were at length glad to return to Eng-
land without having done anything for the advance-
ment of geographical knowledge. The utter worthless-
ness of the glittering stones having meanwhile been
discovered, Frobisher relinquished all further attempts
to push his fortunes in the northern regions, and
sought new laurels in a sunnier clime. He accom-
panied Drake to the West Indies, where he commanded
one of the largest vessels opposed to the Spanish
Armada, and ended his heroic life while attacking a
small French fort in behalf of Henry IV., during the
war with the League.
The discovery of the North-western Passage was,
however, still the great enterprise of the day, and thus,
seven years after Frobisher's disastrous voyage, sundry


London merchants again "cast in their adventure," and
sent out John Davis, in 1585, with his two ships,
Sunshine and MVfoonshine, carrying, besides their more
necessary equipment, a band of music to cheer and
recreate the spirits of the native." Davis arrived in
sight of the south-western coast of Greenland, where he
saw a high mountain (Sukkertoppen) towering like a
cone of silver over the fog which veiled the dismal
shore. The voyagers were glad to turn from the
gloomy scene, and to steer through the open water to
the north-west, where, on August 6, they discovered
land in latitude 66' 40' altogether free from "the
pesters of ice, and ankered in a very fair rode." A'
friendly understanding was established with the Esqui-
maux, and a lively traffic opened, the natives eagerly
giving their skins and furs for beads and knives until a
brisk wind separated the strange visitants from their
simple-minded friends. The remainder of the season
was spent in exploring Cumberland Sound and the
entrance to Frobisher's and Hudson's Straits.
The discovery by Davis of a free open passage to the
westward, inspired sanguine hopes of the ultimate
success of the search. In the year following a second
voyage was undertaken by Davis, for which the Sun-
s/ine and Moonshine were again engaged, with two
other vessels. On June 29, 1586, he landed on the
coast of Greenland, in latitude 640, and steered to the
west. The enormous ice-floes which come drifting
from Baffin's Bay until the season is far advanced, op-
posed his progress. For some days he coasted these
floating islands, when a fog came on, during which
ropes, sails, and cordage were alike fast frozen, and the
seamen, hopeless of accomplishing the passage, warned


their commander that "by his overboldness he might
cause their widows and fatherless children to give him
bitter curses." Touched by this appeal, Davis ordered
two of his ships to return home.
On August I, he discovered land, latitude 660 33'
N., and longitude 700 W. Here he was abandoned
by his remaining vessels, and proceeded by himself on
his voyage. On September 4, in latitude 540 N., Davis
states he had "perfect hope of the passage, finding a
mightie great sea passing between the two lands west."
After this, in consequence of severe weather, he thought
it prudent to return home.
On June 16, 1587, we once more find him on the coast
of Greenland, in his old tried bark the Sunshine, in com-
pany with the Elizabeth and a pinnace. The supplies
for this third voyage were furnished under the express
condition that the expenses should be lightened as
much as possible by fishing at all suitable times; the
two larger ships were stationed for the purpose near
the part of the coast which they had formerly visited,
while Davis steered forward in the small and ill-con-
ditioned vessel which alone remained at his disposal.
He sailed along the Greenland coast as far as 720 latitude,
where, having fairly entered Baffin's Bay, he named the
point at which he touched Sanderson's Hope, in honor
of his chief patron, and then steered to the west, until
he once more fell in with the ice-barrier which had
prevented his progress the year before. Time and
perseverance, however, overcame all obstacles, and by
July 19 he had crossed to the opposite side of the
strait which bears his name. He then sailed for two
days up Cumberland Strait-which, it will be remem-
bered, he discovered on his first expedition-but be-

r^^-s^==--=.^- -=z== ~-~ -.. ~--; '=---=-



living this passage to be an inclosed gulf, he returned,
and again passing the entrance to Hudson's Bay, with-
out an effort to investigate it, repaired to the rendezvous
appointed for the two whaling vessels to meet him on
their way to England. Judge of his astonishment and
consternation when he found his companions had sailed
away, leaving him to find his way home in his miserable
pinnace, which, however, landed him safely on his
native shores. This was the last of the Arctic voyages
of that great navigator, for the spirit of the nation was
chilled by his three successive disappointments; and all
the zeal with which he pleaded for a fourth expedition
proved fruitless. The projected invasion by the Span-
ish Armada put a stop to everything just then.
He susequently made five voyages to the East Indies,
and was killed on December 27, 1605, on the coast of
Malacca, in a fight with the Malays.
Seven years after Davis's last voyage, the Dutch
made their first appearance on the scene of Northern
discovery. They had just succeeded in casting off the
Spanish yoke, and were now striving to gain, by the
development of maritime trade, a position among the
neighboring States, which the smallness of their terri-
tory seemed to deny them. All the known avenues to
the treasures of the south were at that time too well
guarded by the fleets of Portugal and Spain to admit of
any rivalry; but if fortune favored them in finding the
yet unexplored northern passage to India, they might
still hope to share in that most lucrative of trades.
Animated by this enterprise, some merchants of Am-
sterdam fitted out in 1594 an expedition in quest of the
North-eastern Passage, which they intrusted to the com-
mand of Cornelius Corneliszoon, Brant Ysbrantzoon,


and William Barentz, one of the most experienced sea-
men of the day. The three vessels sailed from the
Texel on June 6, and reaching the coast of Lapland,
separated into two divisions; Barentz chose the bolder
course of coasting the west side of Nova Zembla as far
as the islands of Orange, the most northerly points of


the archipelago; while his less adventurous comrades
sailed along the Russian coast until they reached a
strait, to which they gave the very appropriate name of
----- -- -__

Vaigats, or Wind-hole." Forcing their way through
the ice, which almost constantly blocks up the entrance
to the Kara Sea, they saw, on rounding a promontory
----:-- -7.-.---_ ~

to the Kara Sea, they saw, on rounding a promontory


at the other end of the strait, a clear expanse of blue
open sea, stretching onward as far as the eye could
reach, while the continent trended away rapidly toward
the south-east. They believed they had sailed round
the famous Cape Tabin-a fabulous headland, which,
according to Pliny (an indisputable authority in those
times of geographical ignorance), formed the northern
extremity of Asia, from whence the voyage was sup-
posed to be easy to its eastern and southern shores.
Little did Brant and Cornelius dream that within the
Arctic Circle the Asiatic coast still stretched 120o to
the east; and fully trusting their erroneous impressions,
they started in full sail for Holland, eager to bring to
their countrymen the news of their imaginary success.
Off Russian Lapland they fell in with Barentz, who,
having arrived at the northern extremity of Nova
Zembla-a higher latitude than any navigator is re-
corded to have reached before-had turned back before
str.:.ng opposing winds and floating ice, and the three
vessels returned together to the Texel.
The hopes raised by the discovery of the imaginary
Cape Tabin induced the fitting out of a fleet of six
ships, laden with all sorts of merchandise fit for the
Indian market. A little yacht was added, which was
to accompany the fleet as far as that promontory, and
thence to return with the good news that the squadron
had been left st.-. in, with a favorable wind right off to
India. As may be supposed, these sanguine hopes
were doomed to a woful disappointment, for the
"Wind-hole Strait," doing full justice to its name, did
not allow the vessels to pass; and after fruitless efforts
to force their way through the ice-blocks, they returned


crestfallen to the port whence they had sailed a few
months before with such brilliant expectations.
Although great disappointment was felt at this fail-
ure, the scheme of sailing round Cape Tabin to India
was, however, not abandoned by the persevering Am-
sterdamers; and on May 16, 1596, a fourth expedition
started for the north-east, with Barentz and two others
commanding. Bear Island and Spitzbergen were dis-
covered, whereupon the ships separated, two returning
to Holland, while Barentz, slowly making his way
through the fog and ice, advanced to the most northern
point of Nova Zembla, the crew being encouraged by
the tidings that from the high cliffs of Orange Island
clear open water had been seen to the south-east. The
effort to reach this inviting channel was frustrated by
the ice, which gathered about the ship as it lay near
shore, and gradually collecting under and around it,
raised it far above the level of the sea. All hope of re-
turn before the next summer now vanished, and here,
at the end of August, in latitude 760 N., were seventeen
unfortunate creatures doomed to endure all the horrors
of the dreary Arctic winter, doubly fearful because
They started to build a hut, which after great labor
was finished on October 2. Each day the cold became
more intense. Did they hang up their clothes to dry,
the side away from the fire was frozen hard. It
seemed as if the fire had lost all power of conveying
heat; their stockings were burned before their feet felt
any warmth, and this burning was announced by smell
rather than by feeling."
On November 4 the sun disappeared, and with it
also a very disagreeable visitor, who put them in great


alarm-the huge white bear. They had, however, the
pale light of the moon, and the little Arctic fox, whose
flesh they found very palatable. On January 24, 1596,
after a darkness of 81 days, the edge of the sun ap-
peared above the horizon, and the sight was a joyful
one indeed. The furious snow-storm ceased, and
though the severity of the cold continued till April,
they were better able to brave the outer air and to re-
cruit their strength by exercise. With the return of
daylight the bears came again and some being shot,, af-
forded a supply of grease, so that they were able to
burn lamps and pass the time in reading.
When summer returned it was found impossible to
disengage the ice-bound vessel, and the only hope of
escape rested on two small boats, in which they finally
quitted the scene of so much suffering on June 14,
1596. On the fourth day out their barks became sur-
rounded by enormous masses of floating ice, which so
crushed and injured them that the crews gave up all
hope and took a solemn leave of each other. In this des-
perate crisis they owed their preservation to the presence
of mind and agility of a sailor, who, with a well-secured
rope, leaped from one ice-block to another till he
reached a larger floe, on which first the sick, then the
stores, the crews, and finally the boats themselves were
fairly landed. Here they were obliged to remain while
the boats underwent the necessary repairs, and during
this detention upon a floating ice-raft the gallant Ba-
rentz closed the eventful voyage of his life. He died as
he had lived, calmly and bravely, thinking less of him-
self than of the welfare of his fellow-sufferers, for his
last words were directions as to the course in which
they were to steer. His death was bitterly mourned


by the rough men under his command, and even the
prospect of a return to their homes could not console
them for the loss of their beloved leader. After a


tedious passage'(for by July 28 they had only reached
the southern extremity of Nova Zembla) they at length,
at the end of August, arrived at Kola, in Russian Lap-


land, where, to their glad surprise, they found three
Dutch ships. Of the 17 men stranded on Nova Zem-
bla, 12 returned to Amsterdam. The natural condition
of the high northern regions during winter was made
known to us by these voyages.
England tried it once more in 1602, when Weymouth
was repulsed by a violent storm, in his attempt to sail
up the promising inlet now so well known as the
entrance to Hudson's Bay; and, in 1606, a melancholy
issue awaited the next expedition, which sailed under
the command of John Knight.
In 1607, Hendrick Hudson made the first attempt to sail
across the North Pole, a plan started in 1527 by Robert
Thorne, but not yet acted upon by any one during the
80 years that had since passed. He reached the east
coast of Greenland in 730 of latitude, and then sailed
to the northern extremity of Spitzbergen, but all his
efforts to launch forth into the unknown ocean beyond
were baffled by the ice-fields that opposed his progress.
In his next voyage (1608) he vainly tried for the
North-east Passage; but his third voyage (1609), which
he performed in the service of the Dutch, led to the dis-
covery of the magnificent river which still bears his
name, and at whose mouth the Empire City of this
great Republic has arisen.
In April, I6Io, he sailed on the last and most cele-
brated of his voyages. In all but its commander, this
expedition was miserably inadequate to the object of its
mission, for it consisted only of one vessel of 55 tons,
provisioned for six months, and manned by a crew who
speedily proved unworthy of their leader. On entering
Hudson's Straits, the large masses of ice which encum-
bered the surface of the water and the thickness of the


constant fogs made them lose all courage, and they
earnestly begged their commander to return at once to
England. But Hudson pressed on until at last his little
bark emerged into a vast open water, rippling and
sparkling in the morning sunshine. Hudson's Bay ex-
panded before him, and the enraptured discoverer was
fully convinced
that the north-
western route
open, and that
he had succeed-
ed in accom-
plishing that
which had baf-
fled so many -
before him. d''
It was th.-- be-
ginning of Au- .
gust, and the
dastardly crew
considering the
urged an imme-
diate return n; HENDRICK HUDSON.
but Hudson
was determined on completing the adventure, and
wintering, if possible, on the sunny shores of India.
For three months he continued tracking the south
coasts of that vast northern Mediterranean, but all
his hopes of finding a new channel opening to the
south proved vain, until at length the ship was
frozen in on November Io in the south-east corner of


James's Bay. A dreary winter awaited the ice-bound
seamen, with almost exhausted provisions, and unfortu-
nately without that heroic patience and concord which
had sustained the courage of Barentz and his companions
under trials far more severe. But spring came at last,
and revived the spirits of their leader. His ship was
once more afloat, once more his fancy indulged in visions
of the sunny East, when, as he stepped on deck on the
morning of June 21, his arms were suddenly pinioned,
and he found himself in the power of three of his men.
Inquiry, remonstrance, entreaty, command, all failed
to draw a word from the stubborn mutineers, and Hud-
son resigned himself bravely to his fate, and, with the
quiet dignity of a noble nature, looked on calmly at the
ominous preparations going forward. A small open
boat was in waiting, and into this Hudson-his hands
being previously tied behind his back-was lowered;
some powder and shot and the carpenter's box came
next, followed by the carpenter himself, John King,
whose name ought to be held in honorable remem-
brance, as he alone among the crew remained true to
his master. Six invalids were also forced into the boat,
which was then cut adrift, and the vessel sailed onward
on its homeward course. Nothing more was ever heard
of Hudson; but the ringleaders of that dark conspiracy
soon paid a terrible penalty. Some fell in a fight with
the Esquimaux, and others died on the homeward
voyage, during which they suffered from the extremest
Thus miserably perished a man, of whom it has been
truly said, that he was, in point of Skill, inferior to
few; in regard to Courage, surpassed by none, and in
point of Industry and Labor, hardly equalled by any."


The account of the great expanse of sea which had
been reached gave new vigor to the spirit of discovery,
and new expeditions sallied forth (Thomas Button, 1612,
Gibbons, 1614, Bylot, 1615), to seek along the western
shores of Hudson's Bay the passage which was to open
the way to India. All efforts in this direction were of
course doomed to disappointment, but Baffin, who sailed
in 1616, with directions to try his fortune beyond Davis's
Straits, enriched geography with a new and important
conquest by sailing round the enormous bay which will
bear his name as long as honest worth shall be recog-
nized in the world. During this voyage he discovered
the entrances to Smith's, Jones's, and Lancaster Sounds,
without attempting to investigate these broad highways
to fields of later exploration. He believed them to be
mere inclosed gulfs, and this belief became so firmly
grounded in the public mind that two full centuries
elapsed before any new attempt was made to seek for a
western passage in this direction, while Jens Munk, a
Dane, sent out in 1619 with two good vessels, under the
patronage of his king, Christian IV; Fox and James
(1631-1632), Knight and Barlow (1719), Middleton
(1741), Moor and Smith (1746), confined their efforts to
Hudson's Bay, and, by their repeated disappointments,
made all expeditions in quest of a north-western pas-
sage appear well-nigh as chimerical as those of the
knights-errant of romance.
Vitus Behring, a Dane by birth, but an officer in the
Russian navy, was sent by the Empress Catherine, from
St. Petersburg, on February 5, 1725, to explore the Sea of
Kamtchatka. During this voyage,which occupied several
years, he discovered Behring's Strait (1728),-and ascer-
tained that Asia was not joined to America. In a sub-

(Who first Circumnavigated the Globe.) 59


sequent voyage he was wrecked on Behring's Island,
where he died of scurvy, on September 8, 1741.
Behring Sea, or the Sea of Kamtchatka, is the most
northern part of the Pacific Ocean, extending between
the peninsulas of Alaska and Kamtchatka. It is con-
nected by Behring Strait with the Arctic Ocean. Its
width is about 45 miles at the narrowest part, between
East Cape (Asia) and Cape Prince of Wales (America).
Its depth in the middle is about 80o feet.

'THE failure of Captain Phipps in the Spitzbergen seas
(1773), and that of the illustrious Cook (1776), in his at-
tempt to circumnavigate the northern shores of America
or Asia, by way of the Straits of Behring, entirely damped
for the next 40 years the spirit of Arctic discovery;
but hope revived when it became known that Captain
Scoresby, on a whaling expedition in the Greenland
seas (1806), had attained 810 30' N. latitude, and thus
approached the Pole to within 540 'miles. No previous
navigator had ever reached so far to the north ; an open
sea lay temptingly before him and the absence of the
ice-blink proved that for miles beyond the visible hori-
zon no ice-field or snow-covered land opposed his on-
ward course; but as his object was strictly commercial,
and he himself answerable to the owners of the vessel,
he felt obliged to sacrifice his inclinations to his duty,
and to steer again to the south.
During the continental war, England had no leisure


for discoveries in the Arctic Ocean; but not long after
the conclusion of peace, four stout vessels (1818) were
sent out by the Government. Two of these, the Dorothea,
Captain Buchan, and the 7Tent, Commander John Frank-
lin, endeavored to cross the Polar Sea. After un-
numbered difficulties, the expedition was battling with
the ice to the north-west of Spitzbergen, when, on July
30, a sudden gale compelled the commander, as the
only chance of safety, to "take the ice "-that is, thrust
the ships into any opening among the moving masses
that could be perceived. In this very hazardous oper-
ation, the Doroztea was so injured that she was in
danger of sinking, and was therefore turned homewards
as soon as the storm subsided, and the Trent of ne-
cessity accompanied her.
The other two ships which sailed in the same year,
the Isabella, commanded by John Ross, and- the Alex-
ander, by William Edward Parry, had been ordered to
proceed up the middle of Davis's Strait to a high north-
ern latitude, and then to stretch across to the westward,
in the hope of reaching Behring's Strait by that route.
This expedition ended in disappointment; for though
Ross defined more clearly the' Greenland coast to the
north of the Danish possessions between Cape Melville
and Smith's Sound, he was satisfied with making a very
cursory examination of all the great channels leading
from Baffin's Bay into the Polar Sea. After sailing for
some little distance up Lancaster Sound, he was arrested
by the atmospheric deception of a range of mountains,
extending across the :.:-~'_I, and concluding it useless
to persevere, he abandoned a course which was to
render his successor illustrious. The manner in which
Ross had conducted this expedition failed to satisfy the


authorities at home; and, in the following year, the
Hecla, commanded by Parry, and the Griper, under
Matthew Liddon, were commissioned for the purpose
of exploring the sound, whose entrance only had been
seen by Baffin and Ross.
With this brilliant voyage, the epoch of modern dis-
coveries in the Arctic Ocean may properly be said to
begin. Sailing right through Lancaster Sound, over
the site of Ross's imaginary Croker Mountains, Parry
passed Barrow's Strait, and after exploring Prince Re-
gent's Inlet, whence the ice compelled him to return to
the main channel, he discovered Wellington Channel
(August 22, 1818), and soon after had the satisfaction
of announcing to his men that, having reached i Io W.
longitude, they were entitled to the bounty of 25,000ooo,
secured to such of His Majesty's subjects as might suc-
ceed in penetrating thus far to the west within the
Arctic Circle." After passing and naming Melville
Island, a little progress was still made westward; but
the ice was now rapidly gathering, the vessels were
soon beset, and, after getting free with great difficulty,
Parry was only too glad to turn back and settle down
in Winter Harbor. It was no easy task to attain this
dreary port, as a canal over two miles in length had
first to be cut through solid ice of seven inches average
thickness; yet such was the energy of the men that it
was executed in three days. The two vessels were im-
mediately unrigged, the decks housed over, a heating
apparatus arranged, and everything made as comforta-
ble as possible. To relieve the monotony of the long
winter's night, plays were acted, a school established,
and a newspaper set on foot-certainly the first period-
ical ever issued in so high a latitude. During the day

~__~i ~~~___=

_ ~--~-~-~;
=_. ~_,~f ~-~~
-- ----
=- --- ---
-~ ,~;,,,

~ :; _~~~~~;~;-;-~~~- ~ ---~~~;--m~~




the men were employed for exercise in banking up the
ships with snow or making excursions within a certain
distance; and when the weather forbade their leaving
shelter, they were obliged to run round the decks to the
tune of a barrel-organ.
The cold became more and more intense. It was 510
below zero in the open air on January 12, 1819, and on
the i4th the thermometer fell to 540
February 3, 1819, was a memorable day-the sun
being visible from the maintop of the Hecla, from
whence it was last seen on November II, 1818, eighty-
four days before. The weather grew milder in March;
on the 6th the thermometer rose to zero, for the first
time since December 17, and on April 30 it stood at
the freezing-point, which it had not reached since Sep-
tember 12 of the previous year.
May appeared, bringing the long summer's day of
the high northern latitudes; but as many a week must
still pass before the vessels could move out of their ice-
bound harbor, Parry started on June I, 1819, to explore
the interior of the island, which at this early period of
the season still wore a dreary aspect. Such was the
rapidity of vegetation, that by the end of the month the
land, now completely clear of snow, was covered with
the purple-colored saxifrage in blossom, with mosses,
and with sorrel, and the grass was from two to three
inches long. The pasturage appeared to be excellent
in the valleys, and to judge by the numerous tracks of
musk-oxen and reindeer, there were animals enough to
enjoy its abundance.
It was not before August I that the ships were re-
leased from their ten months' blockade in Winter Har-
bor, when Parry once more stood boldly for the west;


but no amount of skill or patience could penetrate the
obstinate masses of ice that blocked the passage, or in-
sure the safety of the vessels under the repeated shocks
sustained from them. Finding the barriers insuperable,
he gave way, and steering homeward, reached London
on November 3, 1820, and was enthusiastically received.
While Parry was engaged on this wonderful voyage,
John Franklin and Dr. Richardson, accompanied by
two midshipmen, George Back and Robert Hood, and
a sailor, John Hepburn, to whom were added during the
course of the journey a troop of Canadians and Indians,
were penetrating by land to the mouth of the Copper-
mine River for the purpose of examining the unex-
plored shores of the Polar Sea to the east. An idea of
their difficulties may be formed when it is mentioned
that the travelers started from Fort York, Hudson's Bay,
on August 30, 1819, and after a boat voyage of 700
miles up the Saskatchewan arrived before winter at
Fort Cumberland. The next winter found them 700
miles farther on their journey, established during the
extreme cold at Fort Enterprise, as they called a log-
house built by them on Winter Lake, where they spent
Io months, depending upon fishing and the success of
their Indian hunters. During the summer of 1821,
they accomplished the remaining 334 miles to the
mouth of the Coppermine, and on July 21 Franklin
and his party embarked in two birch-bark canoes on
their voyage of exploration. In these frail shallops
they skirted the desolate coast of the American con-
tinent 555 miles to the east of the Coppermine as far as
Point Turnagain, when the rapid decrease of their pro-
visions and the shattered state of the canoes compelled
their return (August 22). And now began a dreadful


land-journey of two months, accompanied by all the
horrors of cold, famine, and fatigue. An esculent
lichen (tripe de roche), with an occasional ptarmigan,
formed their scanty food, but on many days even this
poor supply could not be obtained, and their appetites
became ravenous. Sometimes they had the good
fortune to pick up pieces of skin, and a few bones of
deer which had been devoured by the wolves in the
previous -spring. The bones were rendered friable by
burning, and now and then their old shoes were added
to the repast. On reaching the Coppermine, a raft had
to be framed, a task accomplished with difficulty by
the exhausted party. One or two of the Canadians
had already fallen behind, and never rejoined their
comrades, and now Hood and three or four more of
the party broke down and could proceed no farther,
Richardson volunteering to remain with them, while
Back, with the most vigorous of the men, pushed on to
send succor from Fort Enterprise, and Franklin fol-
lowed more slowly with the others. On reaching the
log house they found it desolate, with no deposit of
provisions and no trace of the Indians whom they had
expected to meet there. "It would be impossible,"
says Franklin, "to describe our sensations after enter-
ing this miserable abode and discovering how we had
been neglected; the whole party shed tears, not so
much for our own fate as for that of our friends in the
rear, whose lives depended entirely on our sending
immediate relief from this place." Their only consola-
tion was a gleam of hope afforded them by a note from
Back, stating that he had reached the deserted hut two
days before, and was going in search of the Indians.
The fortunate discovery of some cast-off deer-skins and

. f y .r '. '.-,, .-




of a heap of acrid bones, a provision worthy of the
place, sustained their flickering life-flame, and after 18
miserable days they were joined by Richardson and
Hepburn, the sole survivors of their party.
Upon entering the desolate dwelling," says Richard-
son, "we had the satisfaction of embracing Franklin,
but no words can convey an idea of the filth and
wretchedness that met our eyes on looking around.
Our own misery had stolen upon us by degrees, and
we were accustomed to the contemplation of each
other's emaciated figures; but the ghastly counte-
nances, dilated eyeballs, and sepulchral voices of Frank-
lin and those with him were more than we could at first
bear." At length, on November 7, when the few sur-
vivors of the ill-fated expedition (for most of the voy-
agers died from sheer exhaustion) were on the point of
sinking under their sufferings, three Indians, sent by
Back, brought them the succor they had so long been
waiting for. The eagerness with which they feasted on
dried meat and tongues brought on severe pains in the
stomach which soon warned them that after so long an
abstinence they must be careful in the quantity of food
taken. In a fortnight's time they had recruited their
strength and joined Back at Moose Deer Island, and in
the following year they returned to England.
Parry's second voyage of discovery (1821-1823) was
undertaken for the purpose of ascertaining whether a
communication might be found between Regent's Inlet
and Rowe's Welcome, or through Repulse Bay and
thence to the north-western shores of America. The
first summer (1821) was spent in the vain attempt of
forcing a way through Frozen Strait, Repulse Bay, the
large masses of ice in these waters holding the ships


helplessly in their grasp, and often carrying them back
in a few days to the very spot which they had left a
month before. Owing to these febuffs, the season
came' to an end while their enterprise was yet scarcely
begun, and the ships took up their quarters in an open
roadstead at Winter Island to the south of Melville
Peninsula. The monotony of the winter was pleasantly
broken during February by friendly visits from a party
of Esquimaux. Among these was a young woman
whose quickness of comprehension enabled her to be-
come an interpreter between her people and the Eng-
lish. The nature of a map having been explained to
her, she sketched with chalk upon the deck the out-
lines of the adjoining coast, and delineated the whole
eastern shore of Melville Peninsula, rounding its
northern extremity by a large island and a strait of suf-
ficient magnitude to afford a safe passage for the ships.
This information greatly encouraged the whole party,
which already fancied the worst part of their voyage
overcome, and its truth was eagerly tested on July 2,
as soon as the ships could once more be set afloat.
After running great dangers from the ice, they
reached the small island of Igloolik, near the entrance
of the channel, the situation of which had been
accurately laid down by the Esquimau woman. But
all their efforts to force a passage through the narrow
strait proved vain, for after struggling 65 days to get
forward, they had only in that time reached 40 miles to
the westward of Igloolik. The vessels were therefore
again placed in winter-quarters in a channel between
Igloolik and the land; but having ascertained by boat
excursions the termination of the strait, Parry thought
it so promising for the ensuing summer that he at once


named it the Hecla and Fury Strait." But his hopes
were once more doomed to disappointment by the ice-
obstructed channel, and he found it impossible to pass
through it with his ships. His return to England with
his crews in health, after two winters in the high lati-
tudes, was another triumph of judgment and discipline.
In the following year two new expeditions set out.
Captain Lyon was sent out in the Griper, with orders to
land at Wager River, off Repulse Bay, and thence to
cross Melville Peninsula, and proceed overland to Point
Turnagain, where Franklin's journey ended. But a suc-
cession of dreadful storms so crippled the Griper, that
it necessarily returned to England.
Such was the esteem Parry had acquired among the
companions of his two former voyages, that when he
took the command of a third expedition, to seek a
passage through Prince Regent's Inlet, they all volun-
teered to accompany him. From the middle of July
till nearly the middle of September (1824), the Hecla
and the Fury had to contend with the enormous ice-
masses of Baffin's Bay, which would certainly have
crushed vessels less stoutly ribbed; and thus it was
September 10 before they entered Lancaster Sound,
which they found clear of ice, except here and there a
solitary berg. But new ice now began to form, which,
increasing daily in thickness, beset the ship, and carried
them once more back again into Baffin's Bay. By per-
severance and the aid of a strong easterly breeze, Parry
regained the lost ground, and on the 27th reached the
entrance of Port Bowen, on the eastern shore of Prince
Regent's Inlet, where he passed the winter. By July
19, 1825, the vessels were again free; and Parry now
sailed across the inlet to examine the coast of North


Somerset; but the floating ice so injured the Fury that
it was found necessary to abandon her. Her crew and
valuables were therefore transferred to the Hecla; the
provisions, stores, and boats were landed, and safely
housed on Fury Point, off North Somerset, for the
relief of any wandering Esquimaux or future Arctic
explorers who might chance to visit the spot, and the
crippled ship was given up to the mercy of the ice,
while her companion made the best of her way to
In spite of the dreadful sufferings of Franklin, Rich-
ardson and Back during their first land- journey, we
find these heroes once more setting forth in 1825,'deter-
mined to resume the survey of the Arctic coasts. Ade-
quate preparation was made for the necessities of their
journey; and before they settled down for the winter at
" Fort Franklin," on the shores of Great Bear Lake, a
journey of investigation down the Mackenzie River to
the sea had been brought to a successful end. As soon
as the ice broke in the following summer, they set out
in four boats, and separated at the point where the river
divides into two main branches, Franklin and Back
proposing to survey the coast-line to the westward,
while Richardson set out in an easterly direction to the
mouth of the Coppermine River. Franklin arrived at
the mouth of the Mackenzie on July 7, 1826, where a
large tribe of Esquimaux pillaged his boats, and it was
only by great prudence and forbearance that the whole
party were not massacred. A full month was now spent
in the tedious survey of 374 miles of coast, as far as
Return Reef, more than 1oo0 miles distant from their
winter-quarters on Great Bear Lake. The return jour-
ney to Fort Franklin was safely accomplished, and they


arrived at their house on September 21, where they had
the pleasure of finding Richardson, who had reached
the Coppermine, thus connecting Franklin's former dis-
coveries to the eastward in Coronation Gulf with those
made by him on this occasion to the westward of the
Mackenzie. The cold during the second winter at Fort
Franklin was intense, the thermometer standing at one
time at 58 below zero; but the comfort they now en-
joyed formed a most pleasant contrast to the squalid
misery of Fort Enterprise.
When Franklin left England to proceed on this ex-
pedition, his first wife was then lying at the point of
death, and indeed expired the day after his departure.
But with heroic fortitude she urged him to set out on
the very day appointed, entreating him, as he valued
her peace and his own glory, not to delay a moment
on her account. His feelings may be imagined when
he raised on Garry Island a silk flag which she had
made and given him as a parting gift, with the instruc-
tion that he was only to hoist it on reaching the Polar
While Parry and Franklin were thus searching for a
western passage, a sea expedition under Captain
Beechey had been sent to Behring's Straits to co-operate
with them, so as to furnish provisions to the former and
a conveyance home to the latter-a task more easily
planned than executed; and thus we cannot wonder
that when the Blossom reached the appointed place of
rendezvous at Chamisso Island, in Kotzebue Sound
(July 25, 1826), she found neither Parry (who had long
since returned to England) nor Franklin.
In the year 1827 the indefatigable Parry undertook
one of the most extraordinary voyages ever performed


by man; being no less than an attempt to reach the
North Pole by boat and sledge-traveling over the ice.
His hopes of success were founded on Crosby's author-
ity, who reported having seen ice-fields so free from either


fissure or hummock, that had they not been covered
with snow, a coach might have been driven many
leagues over them in a direct line; but when Parry
reached the ice-fields to the north of Spitzbergen, he
found them of a very different nature, composed of


loose, rugged masses, intermixed with pools of water,
which rendered traveling over them extremely arduous
and slow. The strong, flat-bottomed boats, specially
prepared for an amphibious journey, with a runner at-
tached to each side of the keel, so as to adapt them for
sledging, had thus frequently to be laden and unladen,
in order to be raised over the hummocks, and repeated
journeys backward and forward over the same ground
were the necessary consequence. Frequently the crew
had to go on hands and knees to secure a footing.
Heavy showers of rain often rendered the surface of
the ice a mass of slush, and in some places the ice took
the form of sharp-pointed crystals, which cut the boots
like penknives. But in spite of all these obstacles, they
toiled cheerfully on, until at length, after 35 days of
incessant drudgery, the discovery was made that, while
they were apparently advancing toward the Pole, the
ice-field on which they were traveling was drifting to
the south, and thus rendering all their exertions fruitless.
Yet, though disappointed in his hope of planting his
country's standard on the northern axis of the globe,
Parry had the glory of reaching the highest authenti-
cated latitude ever yet attained (820 40' 30"). On their
return to the Hecla, which awaited them in Treurenberg
Bay, on the northern coast of Spitzbergen, the boats
encountered a dreadful storm on the open sea, which
obliged them to bear up for Walden Island-one of the
most northerly rocks of the archipelago-where, fortu-
nately, a reserve supply of provisions had been depos-
ited. "Everything belonging to us," says Parry, "was
now completely drenched by the spray and snow; we
had been 56 hours without rest, and 48 at work in the
boats, so that by the time they were unloaded we had


barely strength to haul them up on the rocks. How-
ever, by great exertion, we managed to get the boats
above the surf, after which a hot supper, a blazing fire
of drift-wood, and a few hours' quiet rest restored us."
He who laments over the degeneracy of the human
race, and supposes it to have been more vigorous or
endowed with greater powers of endurance in ancient
times, may perhaps come to a different opinion when
reading of Parry and his companions.
Thus ended the last of this great navigator's Arctic
voyages. In his 28th year he discovered Melville
Island, and his subsequent expedition confirmed the
excellent reputation he had acquired by his first brilliant
success. From the years 1829 to 1834 we find him in
New South Wales. In 1837 he was organizing the mail-
packet service, and was finally appointed Governor of
Greenwich Hospital. He died in the summer of 1855
at Ems.
Ten years had elapsed since John Ross's first unsuc-
cessful voyage, when the veteran seaman, anxious to ob-
literate the reproach of former failure by some worthy
achievement, was able to accomplish his wishes. A
small steamer, named the Victory, was purchased for .the
voyage, an unfortunate selection, for nothing can be
more unpractical than paddle-boxes among ice-blocks;
but to make amends for this error, Ross was fortunate
in being accompanied by his nephew, James Ross, who,
with every quality of the seaman, united the zeal of an
able naturalist. He it was who, by his well-executed
sledge journeys, made the chief discoveries of the ex-
pedition; but the voyage of the Victory is far less
remarkable for successes achieved than for its unexam-
pled protraction during a period of five years,


The first season ended well. On August io, 1829,
the Victory entered Prince Regent's Inlet, and reached
on the I3th the spot where Parry, on his third voyage,
had been obliged to abandon the Fury. The ship itself
had been swept away; but all her sails, stores, and pro-
visions on land were found untouched. The hermeti-
cally sealed tin cans in which the stores were packed had
preserved them from the attacks of the white bears, and
they were found as good after four years as they
had been on the day when they were abandoned. It
was to this discovery that the crew of the Victory
owed their subsequent preservation, for how else could
they have passed four winters in the Arctic wastes ?
On August 15 Cape Garry was attained, the most
southern point of the inlet which Parry had reached on
his third voyage. Fogs and drift-ice greatly retarded
the progress of the expedition, but Ross moved on,
though slowly, so that by September 15 he had gone
over some 500 miles of newly-discovered coast. But
now, at the beginning of winter, the Victory was obliged
to take refuge in Felix Harbor, where the useless
steam-engine was thrown overboard, and the usual
preparations made for spending the cold season as
pleasantly as possible.
The following spring (from May 17 to June 13, 1830,)
was employed by James Ross on a sledge journey,
which led to the discovery of King William's Sound
and King William's Land, and during which that cour-
ageous mariner penetrated so far to the west that he had
only ten days' provisions for a return voyage of 200
miles through an empty wilderness.
After twelve months' imprisonment the Victory was
released from the ice on September 17, and proceeded


once more on her discoveries. But the period of her
liberty was short, for, after advancing three miles in one
continual battle against the currents and the drift-ice,
she again froze fast on the 27th.
In the following spring James Ross extended the cir-
cle of his sledge excursions, and planted the British
flag on the site of the Northern Magnetic Pole-which,
however, is not invariably fixed to one spot, as was then
believed, but moves from place to place within the
glacial zone.
On August 28, 1831, the Victory-after a second im-
prisonment of eleven months-was warped into open
water; but after spending a month to advance four
miles, she was encompassed by the ice September 27,
and once more fettered in the dreary wilderness.
As there seemed no prospect of extricating her next
summer, they resolved to abandon her and travel over
the ice to Fury Beach, there to avail themselves of the
boats, provisions, and stores, which would assist them
in reaching Davis's Straits. Accordingly, on May 29,
1832, the colors of the Victory were hoisted and nailed
to the mast, and after drinking a parting glass to
the ship with the crew, and having seen every man out
in the evening, the captain took his own leave of her.
" It was the first vessel," says Ross, "that I had ever
been obliged to abandon, after having served in thirty-
six during a period of 42 years. It was like the last
parting with an old friend, and I did not pass the point
where she ceased to be visible without stopping to take
a sketch of this melancholy desert, rendered more mel-
ancholy by the solitary, abandoned, helpless home
of our past years, fixed in immovable ice, till time
should perform on her his usual work."


After having, with incredible difficulty, reached Fury
Beach, where, thanks to Parry's-forethought, they fortu-
nately found a sufficient number of boats left for their
purpose, and all the provisions in good condition, they
set out on August I--a considerable extent of open
'sea being visible-and after much buffeting among the
ice, reached the north of the inlet by the end of the
month. But here they were doomed to disappointment,
for, after several fruitless attempts to run along Bar-
row's Strait, the-ice obliged them to haul their boats on
shore and pitch their tents. Day after day they lingered
till the third week in September, but the strait continu-
ing one impenetrable mass of ice, it was unanimously
agreed that there only resource was to fall back again
on the stores at Fury Beach, and there spend a fourth
long winter within the Arctic Circle. They were only
able to get half the distance in the boats, which were
hauled on shore in Batty Bay on September 24, and
performed the rest of their journey on foot, the provi-
sions being dragged in sledges. On October 7, they
once more reached the canvas hut, dignified with the
name of" Somerset House," which they had erected in
July on the scene of the Fury's wreck, and which they
had vainly hoped never to see again.
They now set about building a snow-wall four feet
thick round their dwelling, and strengthening the roof
with spars, for the purpose of covering it with snow,
and by means of this shelter, and an additional stove,
made themselves tolerably comfortable, until the in-
creasing severity of the cold and the furious gales con-
fined them within-doors, and sorely tried their patience.
Scurvy now began to appear, and several of the men
fell victims to the scourge. At the same time, cares for

ROSS. 79

the future darkened the gloom of their situation; for,
should they be disappointed in their hopes of escaping
in the ensuing summer, their failing strength and di-
minishing stores gave them but little hope of surviving
another year.
It may be imagined how anxiously the movements
of the ice were watched when the next season opened,
and with what beating hearts they embarked at Batty
Bay on August 15. Making their way slowly among
the masses of ice with which the inlet was encumbered,
they to their great joy found, on the 17th, the wide ex-
panse of Barrow's Strait open to navigation.
Pushing on with renewed spirits, Cape York soon lay
behind them, and, alternately rowing and sailing, on the
night of the 25th they rested in a good harbor on the
eastern shore of Navy Board Inlet. Early next morn-
ing they were roused from their slumber by the joyful
intelligence of a ship being in sight, and never did men
more hurriedly and energetically set out; but the ele-
ments were against them, and the ship disappeared
in the distant haze.
After a few hours' suspense, the sight of another ves-
sel lying to in a calm relieved their dispair. This time
their exertions were successful, and, strange to say, the
ship which took them on board was the same Isabella-
now reduced to the rank of a private whaler-in which
Ross had made his first voyage to the Arctic Sea.
The seamen of the Isabella told him of his own death-
of which all England was persuaded-and could hardly
believe that it was really he and his party who now stoou
before them. But when all doubts were cleared away,
the rigging was instantly manned to do them honor, and


thundering cheers welcomed Ross and his gallant band
on board.
The Isabella remained some time longer in Baffin's
Bay to prosecute the fishery, and thus our Arctic voy-
agers did not return to England before October 15,
1833, when they were received as men risen from the
grave. Wherever Ross appeared, he was escorted by
a crowd of sympathizers; orders, medals, and diplomas
from foreign States and learned societies rained down
upon him. London and Liverpool presented him with
the freedom of their cities; he received the honor of
knighthood; and Parliament granted him $25,ooo as a
remuneration for his pecuniary outlay and privations.
It may be imagined that his long absence had not
been allowed to pass without awakening a strong desire
to bring him aid and assistance. Thus, when Captain
Back volunteered to lead a land expedition in quest of
Ross to the northern shore of America, $20,000 were
immediately raised by public subscription to defray ex-
penses. While deep in the American wilds, Back was
gratified to learn that Ross had safely arrived in Eng-
land; but, instead of returning home, he resolved to
trace the unknown course of the Great Fish River,
down to the distant outlet where it pours its waters into
the Polar seas.
It would take a volume to relate his adventures in
this expedition., the numberless falls, cascades, and
rapids that obstructed his progress; the storms and
snow-drifts, the horrors of the deserts through which he
forced his way, until he finally (June 28, 1833) reached
the mouth of the river, or, rather, the broad estuary
through which it disembogues itself into the Polar Sea.



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A- 2

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The Fish River has since been named Back's River,
in honor of its discoverer; and surely no geographical
distinction has ever been more justly merited.
The land expedition sent out by the Hudson's Bay
Company (1837-1839), under the direction of Peter
Dease, one of their chief factors, and Thomas Simpson,
proved more successful. Descending the Mackenzie to
the sea, they surveyed, in July, 1837, that part of the
northern coast of America which had been left un-
examined by Franklin in 1825, from Return Reef to
Cape Barrow.
Although it was the height of summer, the ground
was found frozen several inches below the surface, and
the spray froze on the oars and rigging of their boats,
which the drift-ice along the shore' ultimately obliged
them to leave behind.
As they went onward on foot, heavily laden, the fre-
quent necessity of wading up to the middle in the ice-
cold water of the inlets, together with the constant fogs
and the sharp north wind, tried their powers of endur-
ance to the utmost; but Simpson, the hero of the ex-
pedition, was not to be deterred by anything short of
absolute impossibility; nor did he stop till he had
reached Point Barrow. Indeed, no man could be more
fit than he to lead an expedition like this, for he had
once before traveled 2000 miles on foot in the middle
of winter from York Factory to Athabasca, walking
sometimes not less than 50 miles in one day, and with-
out any protection against the cold but an ordinary
cloth mantle.
After wintering at Fort Confidence, on Great Bear
Lake, the next season was profitably employed in de-
scending the Coppermine River, and tracing nearly 140


miles of new coast beyond Cape Turnagain, the limit of
Franklin's survey in 1821. The third season (1839)
was still more favored by fortune, for Simpson suc-
ceeded in discovering the whole coast beyond Cape
Turnagain as far as Castor and Pollux River (August
20, 1839), on the eastern side of the vast arm of the
sea which receives the waters of the Great Fish River
On his return voyage, he traced 60 miles of the south
coast of King William's Island, and a great part of the
high, bold shores of Victoria Land, and reached Fort
Confidence on September 24, after one of the longest
and most successful boat voyages ever performed in the
Polar waters, having traversed more than 1600 miles of
Unfortunately he was not destined to reap the re-
wards of his labor, for in the following year, while
traveling from the Red River to the Mississippi, where
he intended to embark for England, he was assassinated
by his Indian guides; and thus died, aged 36, one of
the best men that have ever served the cause of science
in the frozen North.

ON May 26, 1845, Sir John Franklin, now in the
sixtieth year of his age, and Captain Crozier, sailed
from England to make a new attempt at the North-
west Passage. Never did stouter vessels than the Ere-
bus and Terror, well-tried in the Antarctic Seas, carry a
finer or more ably-commanded crew; never before had
human foresight so strained all her resources to insure


success; and thus, when the commander's last des.
patches from the Whalefish Islands, Baffin's Bay (July
12), previous to his sailing to Lancaster Sound, arrived
in England, no one doubted but that he was about to
.--, r --m add a new
'.y. ,/.'.N. I and brilliant
/ chapter to
A -. R el pthe history

1 was confi-
t.ri of dently ex-
pected t o-
1ward the end
S of 1847 but
when the
winter pass-
", ed and still
e Hno tridi ngs
came, the
Ianxiety at
.i1 .i ..... his prolong-
_- '. ~ ed absence
Became gen-
S eral, and the
A RUDDER CRUSHED BY ICE. early part of
1848 wit-
nessed the beginning of a series of searching expeditions
fitted out at the public cost or by private munificence, on
a scale exceeding all former examples. The Plover and
the Herald (1848) were sent to Behring's Straits to meet
Franklin with supplies, should he succeed in getting


thither. In the spring John Richardson hurried to the
shores of the Polar Sea, anxious to find the traces of
his lost friend. He was accompanied by Dr. Rae, who
had just returned from the memorable land expedition
(1846-47), during which, after crossing the isthmus
which joins Melville Peninsula to the mainland, he traced
the shores of Committee Bay and the east coastofBoothia
as far as the Lord Mayor's Bay of John Ross, thus prov-
ing that desolate land to be likewise a vast peninsula.
But in vain did Rae and Richardson explore all the
coasts between the Mackenzie and the Coppermine.
The desert remained mute; and James Ross (Enter-
prise) and Captain Bird (Investigator), who set sail in
June, 1848, three months after Richardson's departure,
and minutely examined all the shores near Barrow's
Strait, proved equally unsuccessful.
Three years had now passed since Franklin had been
expected home, and even the most sanguine began to
despair; but to remove all doubts, it was resolved to
explore once more all the gulfs and channels of the
Polar Sea. Thus in the year 1850 no less than twelve
ships sailed forth, some to Behring's Straits, some to the
sounds leading from Baffin's Bay.* Other expeditions
* 1850-1854. Investigator, Captain McClure, Behring's Straits.
1850-1855. Enterprise, Captain Collinson, J "
1850, 1851. Resolute, Captain Austin, Lancaster Strait and
1850, 1851. Assistance, Captain Ommaney, J Cornwallis Island.
1850, 1851. Lady Franklin,Master Penny, accompanied by the Sophia,
Master A. Stewart, under Admiralty Orders, to Lan-
caster Strait and Wellington Channel.
1850, Prince Albert, Captain Forsyth, belonging to Lady Frank-
lin, to Regent's Inlet and Beechey Island.
1850, 1851. Advance, Lieutenant De Haven, U. S. Navy.
1850, 1851. Rescue, S. P. Griffin,
Fitted at the expense of Henry Grinnell, of New York,
to ancaster Strait and Wellington Channel.


followed in 1852 and 1853, and though none of them
succeeded in the object of their search, yet they en-
riched the geography of the Arctic World with many
interesting discoveries.
Overcoming the ice of Baffin's Bay by the aid of their
powerful steam-tugs, Austin, Ommaney, and Penny
reached the entrance of Lancaster Sound. Here they
separated, and while the Resolute remained behind to
examine the neighborhood of Pond's Bay, Ommaney
found at Cape Riley (North Devon) the first traces of
the lost expedition. He was soon joined by Ross,
Austin, Penny, and the American explorers, and a
minute investigation soon proved that Cape Spencer and
Beechey Island, at the entrance of Wellington Channel,
had been the site of Franklin's first winter-quarters, dis-
tinctly marked by the remains of a large storehouse,
staves of casks, and empty pemmican-tins. Meanwhile
winter approached,-and little more could be done that
season, so all the vessels which had entered Barrow's
Strait now took up their winter-quarters at the southern
extremity of Cornwallis Land; with the exception of
the Prince Albert, which set sail for England before
winter set in, and of the Americans, who, perceiving the
impolicy of so many ships pressing to the westward on
one parallel, turned back, but were soon shut up in the
pack-ice,which for eight long months kept them prisoners.
The Rescue and Advance were drifted backward and
forward in Wellington Channel until in December a
terrific storm drove them into Barrow's Strait, and still
farther on into Lancaster Sound. Several times during
this dreadful passage they were in danger from the ice
opening round them and closing suddenly again, and
only escaped being nipped by their small size and



strong build, which enabled them to rise above the op-
posing edges instead of being crushed between them.
Even on their arrival in Baffin's Bay the ice did not re-
lease them from its hold, and it was not till June 9,
1851, that they reached the Danish settlement at Disco.
After recruiting his exhausted crew, the gallant De
Haven determined to return and prosecute the search
during the remainder of the season; but the discourag-
ing reports of the whalers induced him to change his
purpose, and the ships and crews reached New York at
the beginning of October, having passed through perils
such as few have endured and lived to recount.
Meanwhile the English searching expeditions had not
remained inactive; As soon as spring came, well-or-
ganized sledge expeditions were despatched in all di-
rections, but they all returned with the same tale of dis-
As soon as Wellington Channel opened, Penny boldly
entered the ice-lanes with a boat, and, after a series of
adventures and difficulties, penetrated up Queen's
Channel as far as Baring Island and Cape Beecher,
where he was compelled to turn back.
A fine open sea stretched invitingly away to the
north, but his fragile boat was ill-equipped for a voyage
of discovery. Fully persuaded that Franklin must have
followed this route, he failed, however, in convincing
Captain Austin of the truth of his theory, and as, with-
out that officer's co-operation, nothing could be effected,
he was compelled to follow the course pointed out by
the Admiralty squadron, which, after two ineffectual at-
tempts to enter Smith's and Jones's Sounds, returned to
The Prince Albert having brought home in 185o the


intelligence of the discoveries at Beechey Island, it was
resolved to prosecute the search during the next season,
and no time was lost to refit the little vessel and send
her once more on her noble errand, under the command
of William Kennedy (1851-52). Finding Prince Re-
gent's Inlet obstructed by a barrier of ice, Kennedy was
obliged to take a temporary refuge in Port Bowen, on
the eastern shore of the inlet. As it was very undesira-
ble, however, to winter on the opposite coast to that
along which lay their line of search, Kennedy, with four
of his men, crossed to Port Leopold, amid masses of ice,
to ascertain whether any documents had been left at
this point by previous searching parties. None having
been found, they prepared to return; but to their dis-
may they now found the inlet so blocked with ice as
to render it absolutely impossible to reach the vessel
either by boat or on foot. Darkness was fast closing
round them, the ice-floe on which they stood threatened
every instant to be shivered in fragments by the con-
tending ice-blocks which crashed furiously against it:
unless they instantly returned to shore, any moment
might prove their last. A bitter cold night (September
1o, 1851), with no shelter but their boat, under which
each man in turn took an hour's rest-the others, fa-
tigued as they were, seeking safety in brisk exercise-
was spent on this inhospitable shore, and on the follow-
ing morning they discovered that the ship had disap-
peared. The drift-ice had carried her away, leaving
Kennedy and his companions to brave the winter as
well as they could, and to endeavor in the spring to re-
join their vessel, which must have drifted down the in-
let, and was most likely by this time imprisoned by the
ice. Fortunately a depot of provisions, left by James


Ross at Whaler Point, was tolerably near, and finding
all in good preservation, they began to fit up a launch,
which had been left at the same place as the stores, for
a temporary abode. Here they sat, on October 17,
round a cheerful fire, manufacturing winter garments
and completely resigned to their lot, when suddenly
they heard the sound of well-known voices, and Lieu-
tenant Bellot, the second in command of the Prince
Albert, appeared with a party of seven men. Twice be-
fore had this gallant French volunteer made unavailing
attempts to reach the deserted party, who soon forgot
their past misery as they accompanied their friends
back to the ship. In the following spring Kennedy and
Bellot explored North Somerset and Prince of Wales
Land, traversing with their sledge I 1oo miles of desert,
but without discovering the least traces of Franklin or
his comrades. Yet in spite of these frequent disap-
pointments the searching expeditions were not given
over, and as Wellington Channel and the sounds to the
north of Baffin's Bay appeared to offer the best chances,
the spring of 1852 witnessed the departure of Edward
Belcher and Captain Inglefield for those still unknown
The voyage of the latter proved one of the most suc-
cessful in the annals of Arctic navigation. Boldly
pushing up Smith's Sound, which had hitherto baffled
* 1852. Isabel, Captain E. Inglefield. Lady Franklin's vessel.
1852-1854. Assistance, Edward Belcher, to Lancaster Sound, Wel-
lington Channel.
1852-1854. Resolute, Captain Kellett, Lancaster Strait, Melville
and Banks's Islands.
1852-1854. Pioneer, Lieutenant Sherard Osborne.
1852-1854. Intrepid, Captain McClintock.
1852-1854. North Star, Captain Pullen.



`~P~c drl~ i
:;- i


d ..s



every research, Inglefield examined this noble channel
as far as 780 30' N. lat., when stormy weather drove
him back. He next attempted Jones's Sound, and
entered it sufficiently to see it expand into a wide chan-
nel to the northward.
The squadron which sailed under the command of
Belcher was charged with the double mission of prose-
cuting the discoveries in Wellington Channel, and of
affording assistance to Collinson and McClure, who, it
will be remembered, had sailed in 1850 to Behring's
At Beechey Island, where the North Star was stationed
as depot-ship, the squadron separated, Belcher proceed-
ing with the Assistance and the Pioneer up Wellington
Channel, while Kellett, with the Resolute and Intrepid,
steered to the west. Scarcely had the latter reached
his winter-quarters (September 7, 1852) at Dealy Island,
on the south coast of Melville Island, when parties were
sent out to deposit provisions at various points of the
coast, for the sledge parties in the ensuing spring.
The difficulties of transport over the broken surface
of the desert when denuded of snow may be estimated
from the fact, that though the distance from the north
to the-south coast of Melville Island is no more than 36
miles in a direct line, McClintock required no less than
19 days to reach the Hecla and Griper Gulf. Similar
difficulties awaited Mechan on his way to Liddon Gulf,
but he was amply rewarded by finding at Winter Har-
bor despatches from McClure, showing that, in April,
1851, the Investigator was lying in Mercy Bay, on the
opposite side of Banks's Strait, and that consequently
the North-west Passage, the object of so many heroic
efforts, was at last discovered.


On March 9, 1853, the Resolute opened her spring
campaign with Lieutenant Pym's sledge journey to
Mercy Bay, to bring assistance to McClure, or to follow
his traces in case he should no longer be there.
A month later three other sledge expeditions left the
ship. The one under McClintock proceeded from the
Hecla and Griper Gulf to the west, and returned after
io6 days, having explored 1200 miles of coast-a sledge
journey without a parallel in the history of Arctic re-
search, though nearly equaled by the second party
under Mechan, which likewise started to the west from
Liddon Gulf, and traveled over Iooo miles in 93 days.
The third party, under Hamilton, which proceeded to
the north-east towards the rendezvous appointed by
Belcher the preceding summer, was the first that returned
to the ship, but before its arrival another party had
found its way to the Resolute-pale, worn, emaciated
figures, slowly creeping along over the uneven ice. A
stranger might have been surprised at the thundering
hurrahs which hailed the ragged troop from a distance,
or at the warm and cordial greetings which welcomed
them on deck, but no wonder that McClure and his
heroic crew were thus received by their fellow-seamen
after a three years' imprisonment in the ice of the
Polar Sea.
Neither the sledge parties of the Resolute, nor those
which Belcher had sent out in all directions from his first
winter-quarters in Northumberland Sound (760 52'N. lat.)
on the west side of Grinnell Peninsula, had been able
to discover the least traces of Franklin. The winter
(1853-54) passed, and in April Mechan found docu-
ments from Collinson giving intelligence of his pro-
ceedings since his separation from the Investigator.

On returning to the Resolute, Mechan found all
hands busy preparing to leave the ship, Belcher having
given orders to abandon her, as well as the Assistance,
Pioneer, and Intrepid, which had now been blocked up
above a year in the ice, and had no chance of escaping.
Thus the summer of 1854 witnessed the return to
England of the North Star, with all those brave crews
which had spent so .many unavailing efforts, and in
numerous boat and sledge excursions had explored so
many known and unknown coasts in search of Frank-
lin; and thus also McClure and his comrades, abandon-
ing the Investigator in Mercy Bay, returned home
through Davis's Straits, after having entered the Polar
Ocean at the Strait of Behring. He had, however, been
preceded by Lieutenant Cresswell and Mr. Wynniat,
who, on an excursion to Beechey Island in the summer
of 1858, had there met with and joined the Pkcenix,
Captain Inglefield, who, accompanied by his friend
Bellot, had conveyed provisions to Belcher's squadron,
and was about to return to England. During this ex-
pedition Bellot, whose many excellent qualities had
made him a universal favorite, was unfortunately
drowned by a fall into an ice-crevice during a sledge
Years had thus passed without bringing any tidings
of the Erebus and Terror since the discovery of their first
ivinter-quarters, until at last, in the spring of 1854, Dr.
Rae, of the Hudson's Bay Company, while engaged in
the survey of the Boothian Isthmus, fell in with a party
of Esquimaux, who informed him that in the spring of
1850 some of their countrymen on King William's
Island had seen a party of white men making their way
to the mainland. None of them could speak the Esqui-



maux language intelligibly, but by signs they gave
them to understand that their ships had been crushed
by ice, and that they were now going to where they
expected to find deer to shoot. At a later date of the
same season, but before the breaking up of the ice, the


bodies of some thirty men were discovered on the con-
tinent a day's journey from Back's Great Fish River,
and five on an island near it. Some of the bodies had
been buried (probably those of the first victims of



famine), some were in a tent, others under the boat
which had been turned over to form a shelter, and
several lay scattered about in different directions. Of
those found on the island, one was supposed to have
been an officer, as he had a telescope strapped over his
shoulder, and his double-barreled gun lay underneath
him. The mutilated condition of several of the corpses
and the contents of the kettles left no doubt that the
men had been driven to the last resource of canni-
balism, as a means of prolonging existence. Some
silver spoons and forks, a round silver plate, engraved
Sir John Franklin, K. C. B., a star or order, with the
motto, Nec aspera terrent, which Rea purchased of the
Esquimaux, corroborated the truth of their narrative.
Thus it was now known how part of the unfortunate
mariners had perished, but the fate of the expedition
was still enveloped in mystery. What-had become of
the ships and of the greater part of their crews ? And
was Franklin one of the party seen by the Esquimaux,
or had an earlier death shortened his sufferings ?
To solve at least this mournful secret-for every
hope that he might still be alive had long since van-
ished-his widow resolved to spend all her available
means-since the English Government would no longer
prosecute the search-and with the assistance of her
friends, but mostly at her own expense, fitted out a
small screw steamer, the Fox, which the gallant McClin-
tock volunteered to command. Another Arctic officer,
Lieutenant Hobson, likewise came forward to serve
without pay.
At first it seemed as if all the elements had con-
spired against the success of this work of piety, for in
the summer of 1857 the floating ice off Melville Bay,

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