Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Bruce's travels in Abyssinia
 Mungo Park's travels
 Denham, Clapperton, and Oudney
 Journey of the Landers to...
 Dr. Barth in Central Africa
 Burton and Speke in Central...
 Speke and Grant at the sources...
 Livingstone's first expedition...
 Livingstone's expedition to the...
 Samuel Baker, and equatorial...
 Livingstone's last journeys and...
 Stanley's expedition in search...
 Cameron's journey across Afric...
 Stanley's exploration of the...
 Stanley's rescue of Emin Pasha
 Stanley's rescue of Emin Pasha...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Altemus' young people's library
Title: The story of exploration and adventure in Africa
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084062/00001
 Material Information
Title: The story of exploration and adventure in Africa compiled from the most authoritative sources
Series Title: Altemus' young people's library
Alternate Title: Exploration and adventure in Africa
Physical Description: 264 p. : ill., port. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Holmes, Prescott
Altemus, Henry ( Publisher )
Publisher: Henry Altemus
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: 1896
Subject: Explorers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Discovery and exploration -- Juvenile literature -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1896   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1896
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
Statement of Responsibility: with eighty illustrations.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements precede text.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084062
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002238000
notis - ALH8495
oclc - 220687430

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Bruce's travels in Abyssinia
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Mungo Park's travels
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Denham, Clapperton, and Oudney
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Journey of the Landers to the Niger
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Dr. Barth in Central Africa
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Burton and Speke in Central Africa
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Speke and Grant at the sources of the Nile
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Livingstone's first expedition to Africa
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Livingstone's expedition to the Zambesi
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Samuel Baker, and equatorial Africa
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    Livingstone's last journeys and death
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Stanley's expedition in search of Livingstone
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Cameron's journey across Africa
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    Stanley's exploration of the Congo
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    Stanley's rescue of Emin Pasha
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
    Stanley's rescue of Emin Pasha (continued)
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
    Back Cover
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
Full Text


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Copyright 896 by Henry Altemus



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8 AFR A N W A.r




THE name The Dark Continent," appropriately given
to Africa, will soon cease to be applicable to that inter-
esting continent-the third in point of size of the great
divisions of the globe. Our knowledge of that great
continent until within the past forty years was very
limited; but the host of travelers, who, following the
example of Bruce and Mungo Park, have penetrated into
the innermost recesses of Africa, leave little fresh ground
to be explored. Very soon our future Livingstones
and Stanleys will sigh in vain, like Alexander, for fresh
worlds to conquer, and Africa, the last of the continents
to yield its secrets to the prying eyes of Western civili-
zation, will cease to be a terra incognita.


Half a century ago the sources of the Nile were unex-
plored, the great lake system of Equatorial and South-
eastern Africa was unknown, the Mountains of the
Moon, which find a place in Ptolemy's map as the
source of the Nile, were regarded as mythical, though
Stanley's discoveries would seem to have identified them
with Mount Gordon Bennett (discovered in 1876), and
Ruwenzori (the Snowy Mountain, near or on the
Equator), which he discovered on his last journey.
Then the Niger and Congo have been traced through a
great portion of their courses, and Livingstone taught
us most of what we know of the chief river of Southern
Africa, the Zambesi.
The first geographical system of Africa which deserves
the name, is that of Herodotus, the Father of History,"
who gave a full description of these regions, and the
accuracy of his reports have received singular confirma-
tion by more recent discoveries. The Nile figured as
the great feature in the system of Herodotus, and he
described, with tolerable correctness, the northwest
of Africa as far as the Straits.
Herodotus tells us that the Egyptian King, Necho,
sent out an expedition with the design of circumnavigat-
ing Africa. Nothing is known as to whether or not
they accomplished their purpose. The Phoenicians are
known to have formed colonies on the northern coast
more than 3000 years ago.
The next geographical system was that of Ptolemy,
who flourished in the second century. To Ptolemy is
due the theory that the Nile has its sources in the
Mountains of the Moon, under or beyond the Equator,
and he depicts in his map the lakes through which the
river flows, thus in a remarkable manner shadowing


forth the discoveries of Speke, and Baker, and Stanley.
He also represents the junction of the Blue Nile of
Abyssinia with the White Nile at Meroe, which he makes
into an island. Westward he describes the vast Libyan
desert as watered by the Gir and Niger, spoken of as
" rivers of the greatest magnitude," the former of which
might have been the Gambia or Senegal River.
Ptolemy, therefore, is entitled to the credit of being-
the first of the ancients to show that the Nile and Niger
were distinct rivers, one having its sources far to the
southward, and the Niger, he says, forms the lake of
Nigritia, which lies in latitute 150, longitude 180, thus
clearly denoting its source from Lake Tchad.
Respecting Northern Africa, our first authentic in-
formation comes from the Arabs, who, by means of the
camel (the ship of the desert), crossed the great
desert to the centre of the continent, and pro-
ceeded along the two coasts as far as the Sene-
gal and the Gambia on the west, and to Sofala on the
east. The Arabs planted colonies here and elsewhere.
In the fifteenth century there was a new era in mari-
time discovery. The Portuguese were the first to give
an accurate outline of the two coasts, and to complete
the circumnavigation of the continent. The discovery
of America and the West India Islands gave rise to the
traffic in African negroes. Nefarious as is this traffic,
it was the means of obtaining an accurate knowledge of
the coast as it lies between the Rivers Senegal and the
Cameroons. Systematic surveys of the coast and the
interior followed the French and English settlements in
A few learned and scientific gentlemen in England
formed a society in 1788, under the name of "The

African Association," their design being the exploration
of Inner Africa. Owing to the efforts of this Associa-
tion, important additions were made to the geography
of Africa, by Houghton, Mungo Park, Hornemana, and
Burckhardt. Repeated failures discouraged the so-
ciety, and it was merged into the Royal Geographical
Society in 1831. Much more has been done in the last
65 years to make us acquainted with Africa than was
accomplished in the preceding 18 centuries. With
Mungo Park begins the era of increasing endeavors to
explore the interior. A resume of the travels from
Park down to the present time will be detailed in the
present volume.
In 1892 the area of Africa was given as 1,6oo,ooo
square miles; and its population was estimated at
Africa is a land of deserts. The Nile is the oldest of
historical rivers, and afforded the only means of sub-
sistence to the earliest civilized people on earth, and yet
the origin of this river remained an enigma almost to
the present day. It is one of the largest rivers of the
globe, having a course of about 4000 miles, and drain-
ing over a million of miles in Africa. The other great
rivers are the Congo, the Niger, and the Zambesi.
Lake Tchad is the largest of the lakes. It is situated
nearly in the centre of the continent: it is about 220
miles long, and at its widest point is 140 miles broad.
At some seasons it is nearly dry.
The climate of Africa, particularly in the rainy zone,
is entirely uniform, and by reason of its position (four-
fifths in the tropics), of the large extent of Sahara within
the hot zone, and of the small water-supply and the
limited area of the forests, it is extremely dry and hot.

--~-~T=--i''~----=-l..i- --I -~---- -i



The interior of Africa is in all probability the hottest
region on the globe, but exhibits great contrasts of
temperature. The days often reach a temperature of 1250
Fahrenheit, yet the nights sometimes have only 550.
In the extreme northern and southern parts, the four
seasons of the temperate zone are found. The supply
of rain is very scanty. The deserts of Sahara and
Kalahari are almost rainless.
The animal life is distinguished by large and clumsy
forms. Here are found the elephant and rhinoceros and
the hippopotamus. The average weight of a full grown
hippopotamus is about 3500 pounds. They abound in
all the large rivers. The African lion is the noblest animal
of the race. Leopards are numerous and very fierce.
Hyenas, ichneumons, and civets are met with. Ante-
lopes are found everywhere, sometimes in herds of
Ioo,ooo. The camel, the Barbary horse, and the ass
are the beasts of burden mostly used, Numerous genera
of apes and monkeys are found. The zebra, quagga,
and the giraffe, the tallest existing mammal in Central
and Southern Africa, are peculiar to the continent.
Among birds, the ostrich, described as the feathered
camel, or the giraffe among birds, is the most remark-
able. Parrots and bright-colored, noisy birds enliven
the forests. Among reptiles, the crocodile is found in
all the large rivers and lakes. Various species of ser-
pents and lizards are met with; but they are fewer than
in other tropical countries, owing to the dryness of the
climate. Among insects, the termites, or white ants, with
their cone-like habitations, are most destructive. They
attack and demolish everything, but metals and stones,
that comes in their way. Locusts are still more de-
structive. An army of them passing over a country


I -



leaves it as bare as if it had been swept with a broom.
They are used as food by many of the native tribes.
Fish in great variety are to be found in most of the
rivers and on the coast. On the coast sharks are nu-
merous; as are also black and spermaceti whales.
Mohammedanism and Fetichism are the prevailing re-
ligions of Africa, except in Abyssinia, where a corrupt
form of Christianity exists. Human sacrifices are offered
in some of the negro nations, but rarely except on great
occasions. The Mohammedans number from 60 to Ioo
millions. Jews are numerous in Morocco, Algeria, and
Abyssinia; their aggregate in all Africa being about
oo00,ooo. The Roman Catholics claim from one to
four millions of the population.

Never has the future of Africa been brighter than at
the present time. There is no hope for a return of
those glories which ages upon ages past adorned Egypt;
the might of Carthage has long since gone for ever--
the whole of North Africa has been divided, and the
signs of improvement are very limited. In other parts
of the continent, however, new life is springing, channels
for the introduction of civilization are constantly ap-
The scramble for Africa goes on apace. Italy has
secured a firm foothold upon the eastern borders of
Abyssinia and has schemes of further conquest by war
or negotiation; the influence of France is being felt
throughout Algeria. The first months of the year 1891
found the French pushing trade routes beyond Ghadmes
and on through the oases of the Sahara Desert to the
broad central Soudan; in Senegambia and the West
Coast countries, commerce flourishes; the Congo basin


teems with trading vessels, as the river will surely do
in the near future; almost the whole of South Africa
has fallen under British protection. Mashonoland, a
vast tract of country owned by the Matabele, north of
the Kuruman River, and not very far from the western
bends of the Zambesi, has since 1891 come under the
sway of the English through the enterprise of the British
South Africa Company; in Nyassaland the claims of
England are firmly established. In Central Africa, in-
deed, an expanse-six hundred thousand square miles-
of rich territory came within recognized British control
in 1890. Germany then received a large slice of country
as her share of the bargain.
All this cannot fail to exert a powerful influence for
good upon Africa. With still greater strides will Chris-
tianity and civilization advance, until the whole conti-
nent shall be flooded with their light.



To discover the country of Prester John, the mysteri-
ous Christian monarch of the East-first supposed to be
in Tartary, and then in Abyssinia-and to effect the
passage to India, were the chief motives of the voyage
in 1486, of Bartholomew Diaz, the first navigator to
round the Cape of Good Hope (which he very correctly
named Cape Stormy), and of Vasco de Gama, who,
twelve years after, voyaged up the east coast of Africa,
and passing Mozambique, Mombassa, and Melinda,
crossed the Indian Ocean in 23 days, and cast anchor in
Calicut, on the Malabar coast.
The first European to penetrate into Abyssinia, of
whom we have any record, was the Portuguese Covil-
ham, who was sent on a mission by land to Prester
John from the King of Portugal, with the object of in-
quiring whether it was possible to sail to India from the
Cape of Good Hope, which Diaz had recently discovered.
Covilham quitted Lisbon in May, 1487, and first visiting
India, proceeded to Abyssinia, where he was detained
by the King, and held high office in the state. In the
year 1525, when Rodriguez de Lima went as Portuguese
ambassador to Abyssinia, Covilham was still alive.



Lima's secretary, Alvarez, wrote a narrative of his six
years' residence in the country, which is of great interest.
In this work Alvarez speaks of the King of Abyssinia
as Prete Janni, or Prester John.
The Portuguese attained much influence in the coun-
try through Payz and other priests of the Roman
Catholic Church. Payz has the distinction of discover-
ing the sources of the Blue Nile, known as the Bahr-el-
Azrek, to distinguish it from the Bahr-el-Abiad, which
D'Anville was the first to point out was the true, or
" White Nile." The following passage from Payz's
Journal, is of interest, as giving the first description of
the so-called fountains of the Nile, which Bruce visited
at a later period :-
The source of the Nile is situated on the elevated
point of a valley, which resembles a large plain, sur-
rounded on every side with ridges of hills. While I re-
sided in this kingdom, I ascended this place on April
21, 1618, and took a diligent survey of every part of it.
I saw two round fountains, but about five palms in di-
ameter. Great was my pleasure in beholding what
Cyrus, King of the Persians, Cambyses, Alexander the
Great, and the renowned Julius Caesar sought eagerly,
but in vain, to find. The water is very clear, light and
agreeable to the taste; yet these two fountains have no
outlet in the higher part of the mountain plain, but only
at the foot. The inhabitants say the whole mountain is
full of water, which they prove by this : that all the
plain about the fountain is tremulous and bubbling-a
sure proof of water underneath; and that, for the same
cause, the water does not run over the sources, but
throws itself out with greater force lower down. The
inhabitants affirmed, that, though the ground had


trembled little this year on account of the great dryness,
yet that in common seasons it shook and bubbled to such
a degree as scarcely to be approached without danger.
Payz relates the course of the Nile, the tributaries
which it receives, its crossing lake Dembea, with a visi-
ble separation of waters, the tremendous cataract of
Alata, and then the semicircular course round Begun-
der, Shooa, Amhara, and Damot, till it approaches within
a day's journey of its sources. The regions which it
chiefly watered were barbarous, and almost unknown;
so, by an Abyssinian prince, who had marched an army
into them, they were called the New World." Pass-
ing then," he says, through innumerable regions and
over stupendous precipices, it enters Egypt."
A long period elapsed before a European again visited
Abyssinia, and the first to do so was James Bruce, then
English Consul at Algiers. He explored Tripoli, Tunis,
Syria, and Egypt; his object being to penetrate to the
sources of the Nile, and in seeking to do this, he ex-
plored a great portion of the country, and displayed
great resolution and perseverance in surmounting end-
less difficulties and dangers. Bruce left Massowah for
the interior on November Io, 1769, and passing through
Adowa, in Tigre, visited the monastery of Fremma, the
chief establishment of the Jesuits. He describes it as
about a mile in circumference, surrounded by walls
flanked with towers, presenting the appearance of a
castle rather than a convent.
He arrived at Gondar, the capital of Abyssinia, in
February, 1770, where was the palace of the King.
Here he ingratiated himself with the sovereign, and
other influential persons, by professing to be a physician,
courtier, and soldier.


He obtained permission to visit the sources of the
Nile (Bahr-el-Azrek) which Payz claimed to have dis-
covered. He visited first the great cataract of Alata,
down which the Nile falls after passing through the
Lake of Dembea. He describes it as the most magnifi-
cent sight he ever beheld. The whole river fell down
in one sheet from the height of about 40 feet, with a
force and noise which made our traveler dizzy. A
thick haze covered the fall, and spread over the course
of the stream both above and below.
Bruce had an interview at Bamba with Fasil, the Galla
chief, who, with other confederates, had captured Gondar
and set up a king of their own. At length he reached
the district, a green and fertile region, in which those
long-sought-for fountains were to be found. His emo-
tions were first raised to the highest pitch by arriving
at a portion of the infant stream so narrow that it could
be stepped over, which he did in triumph, fifty or sixty
times. He was led by his guide to the principal foun-
tain. He now burst into raptures similar to those of
Payz, at having arrived at an object which the most
powerful sovereigns of ancient or modern times had
sought in vain to explore.
Bruce quitted Gondar on December 26, 1771, and re-
turned homewards by the route of Senaar, and arrived
at the point of junction of the White and Blue Niles,
near the spot where the city of Khartoum is now situ-
ated. He made the mistake of considering the Abyssin-
ian Nile, the sources of which he had visited, as the true
Nile, though he observes that the Bahr-el-Abiad rolls
three times the volume of water and is constantly full,
while the other is a great stream only in the rainy
season. This theory has been disproved by the ge-




ographer D'Anville, who showed conclusively, that the
main stream of the Nile is the mighty river that flows
through Equatorial Africa, having its rise in the great
lake system discovered by Speke and Baker.
From here Bruce journeyed to Shendy, and pushing
on to Berber, soon quitted the course of the river, which
takes a great bend to the west. He and his companions
traversed the great Nubian desert, where, for 500 miles,
they met no human habitation. Only a few watering-
places interrupted the expanse of naked rock and burn-
ing sands. The travelers had nearly sunk under this
journey, especially as, towards the close of it, the camels
were unable to proceed. He made, however, a last
effort, by which they at length came in sight of the Nile,
near Syene, where their sufferings terminated.
Bruce arrived at Alexandria early in March, 1773,
whence he sailed for Marseilles, and proceeded to Paris,
and thence to England, where he arrived in June, 1774,
having been absent twelve years. He published, in
1790, a record of his travels. It met with a kind re-
ception from the public, though there were critics who
took exception to some of his statements, and insisted
that he was unworthy of credence. Though there may
have been exaggerations, the general truth of his facts
have long since been established.
That Bruce considered he had discovered the sources
of the great Nile instead of the lesser stream, was
scarcely a subject of wonder considering the ignorance
that existed in his day. After escaping great and man-
ifold dangers in his wanderings through barbarous
countries, this enterprising traveler lost his life in conse-
quence of an accidental fall downstairs in his own house
on April 26, 1794.



IN 1618, the African Company sent a vessel with the
object of exploring the Gambia, commanded by Richard
Thompson, with a cargo of goods to trade with the
natives. Thompson proceeded as high up the river as
Kassan; but the Portuguese, animated by jealousy,
massacred most of the crew. It was subsequently
learned that Thompson was murdered by his men.
The company did nothing in the way of discovery
until 1723, ihen they sent another expedition to the
Gambia; but it only proceeded 59 miles above Barra-
conda. While the English sought to ascend the Gambia,
deeming it the Niger, the French navigated the Senegal,
hoping to reach the city of Timbuctoo and the region
of gold. At the mouth of this river they founded the
settlement of Louis about the year 1625, and their
director, General Brue, ascended the Senegal in the years
1697-98, reaching as high as Felu. He founded a fort
called St. Joseph, which long continued the principal seat
of French commerce on the Upper Senegal. Subsequent
governors visited Bambouk; but the glories of African
discovery in the regions of the Niger, as in those of
Zambesi and the Equatorial lake region, were reaped
by their English rivals.


Much of the success achieved was due to the African
Association. Although the Company only offered their
expenses to travelers who engaged to explore the
interior of Africa, there were many eager aspirants for
the honor. The first was Ledyard, who had circum-
navigated the globe with Captain Cook, and lived for
many years with the North American Indians. Ledyard,
however, got no farther than Cairo, where he died in
1788. The next traveler engaged was Lucas, who had
been three years a galley slave among the Moors, but
he penetrated only a short distance from Tripoli. The
third expedition was made by Major Houghton from a
different quarter. He undertook to reach the Niger by
the route of the Gambia, and not by boats, but by land.
He set out early in 1791, and quitting the Gambia at
Medina, arrived at Ferbanna on the Faleme. He pushed
on, reached Timbuctoo, but was robbed and stripped, to
wander about in the desert until he perished miserably,
Mungo Park, who long ranked as the chief of African
travelers, was born on September 16, 1771, in Scotland.
He received a good seminary education, and afterwards
studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh. Hav-
ing spent two years in London gaining the necessary
qualifications, he set sail in May, and on June 21, 1795,
arrived at Jillifree, near the mouth of the Gambia.
His instructions were to make his way to the Niger
by Bambouk, or any other route, to ascertain the course
of that river, and to visit the principal towns in its
neighborhood, particularly Timbuctoo, and afterwards
to return by way of the Gambia, or any other route he
might deem advisable. Park at once proceeded up the
Gambia to Pisania, where he set to work to learn the
Madingo tongue, and to collect information from black


traders. During his stay at Pisania, he was ill for two
months with a severe fever, from which he recovered.


A caravan was about to start for the interior of Africa,
and Park arranged to accompany it. He reached the
town of Wassiboo, where he met eight fugitive Kaartan


negroes, who had escaped from the Moors, and who
were on their road to offer their allegiance to the King
of Bambarra. Park agreed to accompany them. The
near approach to Sego was indicated by the crowds
hastening to its markets, and on July 21, 1796, one of
his companions called out, See the water and, look-
ing forward, he says:-
I saw with infinite pleasure the great object of my
mission, the long-sought-for, majestic Niger, glittering
in the morning sun, and flowing slowly to the east. I
hastened to the brink, and having drunk of the water,
lifted up my fervent thanks in prayer to the Great Ruler
of all things for having thus far crowned my efforts with
success." Sego, the capital of Bambarra, consists of
four distinct towns ; two on the north, and two on the
south bank of the Niger, on which floated numerous
canoes. The place is surrounded by high mud walls.
The houses are built of clay, of a square form, with flat
roofs, some of them of two stories, and most of them
whitewashed. Moorish mosques are seen in every
quarter, and the streets, though narrow, are broad
enough for every useful purpose in a country where
street carriages are unknown. Sego contains about
30,000 inhabitants.
He heard that Timbuctoo, the great object of his search,
was entirely in possession of a savage and merciless
band of Moors, who allowed no Christian to live there.
He had advanced too far to think of returning, and de-
termined to proceed.
Being provided with a guide, Park left the village on
the morning of July 24, traveling through a cultivated
country, the scenery resembling England more than he
expected to find in the middle of Africa. In the even-



ing he reached the large town of Sansanding, the resort
of numerous Moorish caravans from the shores of the
On September 16, he reached the town of Kamalia,
where he met a negro, Kafa Taura, who was collecting
a caravan of slaves to convey to the European settle-
ments on the Gambia, as soon as the rains should be
over. Here Park was laid up by a fever, and passed
five weeks in gloomy isolation. The fever left him in a
very debilitated condition.
The caravan departed on April 19, 1797; and the
irons being removed from the slaves, every one had his
load assigned to him. Kafa had 27 slaves for sale, but
eight others afterwards joined them. Altogether the
caravan numbered 73 persons.
The worst part of the journey was through the
Jallouka wilderness. The country was beautiful, and
abounded with birds and deer, but so anxious were they
to push on that they made 30 miles that day. Being
advised that 200 Jalloukas were lying in wait to plunder
them, they changed their course, and entered the town
of Koba. On June. 10, 1797, Pisania was reached, and
Park was welcomed as one risen from the dead by his
friends who had heard that the Moors had murdered
Park waited at Pisania some time, and finding no ves-
sel likely to sail direct to England, he took his passage
on board a slave vessel, bound for South Carolina.
She, however, through stress of weather, put into Anti-
gua, and from thence he sailed in an English packet,
and arrived at Falmouth on December 22, 1797, having
been absent from England about two years and seven




Park published the narrative of his journey, early in
1799, and the interest attaching to his adventures made
it very popular. After his return to England, Park
married the daughter of Mr. Anderson, with whom he
had served his apprenticeship as a surgeon, and resided
a couple of years on the farm in Scotland.
After this he practised his profession for some time;
but this sort of life not satisfying his ardent temperament,
in October, 180o, he accepted an invitation made by the
Government, to undertake an expedition, on a large
scale, into the interior of Africa. Owing to the war
with France, it was not until 1804, that he was author-
ized to make arrangements for the journey.
The expedition consisted of Park himself, his brother-
in-law (Mr. Anderson), and George Scott, draughtsman,
together with four artificers, who, on his arrival at Sego,
were to build two boats, in which he purposed to sail
down the Niger to the estuary of the Congo. Park
sailed from Portsmouth on January 30, 1805, and after
touching at the Cape Verde Islands, reached Goree on
March 28. Here he selected 35 soldiers, under the
command of Lieutenant Martyn, as well as two sailors
from the Squirrel, a frigate.
On arriving at the Gambia, the party, full of hope and
in high spirits, pushed on to Pisania. On May 4, the
caravan set forth from Pisania, whence nearly ten years
before Park had commenced his adventurous journey
into the interior.
The arrangements for the march were well devised, but
no human foresight could guard against the deadly in-
fluence of the African climate. Ohe by one, in rapid
succession, Park's companions were attacked by the fever.
Some of them died; some were left behind on the road,


and were no doubt robbed and murdered by the prowling
thieves. Park himself, Scott, Martyn and Anderson were
forced to give up, and stopped at some of the villages
till they recovered sufficiently to resume their journey.


On August 19, the sad remnant of the expedition as-
cended the mountainous ridge which separates the Niger
from the remote branches of the Senegal. Park hastened
on ahead, and, coming to the brow of the hill, once


more saw the mighty river. Descending from thence
towards Bambakoo, the travelers pitched their tents
under a tree near that town.
Of the 34 soldiers and four carpenters who left the
Gambia, only six soldiers and one carpenter reached
the Niger. All were suffering from sickness, and some
nearly at the last extremity.
The sad news now reached him of Scott's death, and
soon after his brother-in-law, Anderson, breathed his last.
" No event," Park remarks, which took place during
the journey ever threw the smallest gloom over my
mind, till I laid Mr. Anderson in the grave. I then felt
myself left a second time lonely and friendless amidst
the wilds of Africa."
Some days before this, the guide returned with a
large canoe, much decayed and patched. Park and one
of the surviving soldiers, took out all the rotten pieces,
and, by adding on portions of another canoe, with 18
days' hard labor, they changed the Bambarra canoe
into His Majesty's schooner Yoliba. Her length was 40
feet, breadth six feet; and, being flat-bottomed, she
drew only one foot of water when loaded. In this craft
he and his surviving companions embarked on Novem-
ber 17, on which day his journal closes. He intended
to begin his adventurous voyage down the Joliba.
Besides Park and Lieutenant Martyn, two Europeans
only survived. They purchased three slaves to assist in
the navigation of the vessel.
Descending the stream, they passed Silla and Jenne
without molestation ; but lower down, in the neighbor-
hood of Timbuctoo, they were followed by armed ca-
noes, which they beat off, killing several of the natives.
They had to fight their way down past a number of


places, once striking on the rocks, and being nearly
capsized by a hippopotamus which rose near them.
Having a large stock of provisions, they were able to
proceed without going on shore. At Yaour, the people
threw lances and stones at him. He defended himself
for a long time, till two of his slaves in the stern of the
boat were killed.
Finding no hope of escape, Park took hold of one of
the white men and jumped into the water, and Martyn
did the same, hoping to reach the shore, but all were
drowned in the attempt. The only slave remaining in
the boat, seeing the natives persist in throwing their
weapons, entreated them to stop. On this they took
possession of the canoe and the man, and carried them
to the King. From the interpreter was learned the
manner in which Park and his companions had perished.
Park could not have been aware of the numerous
rapids and other difficulties he would have to encounter
in descending the upper courses of the Niger. In all
probability his frail and ill-constructed vessel would
have been wrecked before he had gone many miles be-
low the spot where he lost his life. Had he succeeded
in passing that dangerous part, he might have navigated
the mighty stream to its mouth.
Although at first the account of Park's death was not
believed in England, subsequent inquiries left no doubt
that all the statements were substantially correct. Thus
perished, in the prime of life, that heroic traveler, at the
very time when he had good reason to believe that he
was about to solve the problem of the Niger's course,
and to dispel the belief that it was identical with the
Congo. He died about the end of the year 1805.



THE dreadful termination to the wanderings and suf-
ferings of Mungo Park in no way damped the ardor of
British merchants for the extension of trade upon the
Gambia, the Senegal, and the Niger; nor were geogra-
phers any the less inclined to push on inquiries east-
wards from Senegambia and the Kong Mountains.
Park's life was not the first that had been sacrificed
in those regions; his endeavors were not the only ones
that had been partially futile. Richard Thompson went
out in 1618, and died east of Kasson. Upon news
of Park's decease being received, expeditions were
launched, under Captain Tuckay and Major Peddie, the
latter ascending the Congo to find its bearing, if any, up-
on the Niger, a doubt existing in many minds that the
waters of the two rivers joined somewhere. As in
Park's second enterprise, dysentery, fever, and death
wrought fearful havoc and defeat, and subsequent ex-
ploration parties, headed by capable officers, did not
accomplish very much more than confirming the dis-
coveries of Houghton and Park, until a series of daring en-
terprises conducted by Captain Clapperton and Richard
Lander added greatly to the knowledge concerning the


rivers finding a limit upon the north-west coast of Africa,
and in the discovery of Lake Tchad or Chad, 300 miles


in circumference, and in the regions of Bornou and
Kassem-districts, like Songhay, Timbuctoo, and Sock-


atoo, centuries old, and whose history is very dimly
recorded, notwithstanding the once mighty, well-organ-
ized rule of men.
Hugh Clapperton was a born explorer, of magnificent
physique, and fearless in spirit; he sailed the Indian seas
when a lad, was pressed into the navy, saw active ser-
vice in Canada, and was affected by a desire to go out
and fill in the gap left open by Mungo Park. Dr.
Oudney, a personal friend of his, placed his services at
the disposal of the Government for African exploration;
and was appointed Consul to Bornou, with full permis-
sion to traverse the regions of North, Central, and North-
west Africa, and to take with him Captain Clapperton
and Major Dixon Denham.
The course selected by Dr. Oudney was across the
great Sahara. The desert was full of dangers, but the
route was preferable for North Central African explora-
ation to any course from the west or from the Nile and
the east.
The port of Tripoli was left behind in February, 1822,
a caravan was constituted inland, and the town of Mour-
zak was reached with trifling loss.
A number of merchants swelled the caravan, and
everything pointed to a successful march across the
desert, which was duly completed, Kouka, upon the
shores of Lake Tchad, and in the Bornou country, being
reached February 7, 1823. Not, however, before every
member of the united caravan had suffered greatly.
Oudney and Clapperton were unwell at starting, and the
terrible heat of the desert did not tend to improve their
condition. Broad salt fields, glistening in the sun, had
to be crossed; and we are told in Clapperton and Den-
ham's account of their journeyings, how that, at irregular

-.- ----~-~~;--



intervals in the desert, skeletons of men, horses, and
camels were to be seen. Human beings and animals
had been overtaken by terrific sand-storms, or had sur-
vived them only to die of hunger and thirst. At one
spot alone, nearly Ioo skeletons were counted. They
were but skeletons of blacks, carelessly exclaimed the
Arabs, who laughed at the sympathy exhibited by the
Englishmen. Large numbers were those of Soudanese
captured for the slave market, and left to perish on the
road to Fezzan, owing to the scarcity of provisions.
From Kouka expeditions were made, and much that
was valuable geographically exposed. Denham went
among the Mandara horsemen, and was robbed and
stripped naked, as Park had been. Denham returned to
Kouka, then went eastward, saw no more of Lake Tchad,
and was back at Kouka, to welcome Clapperton from a
journey into the Soudan region. Denham had started
for the Soudan in company with Dr. Oudney in the
middle of December, 1823. Joining a caravan, they
passed among the Shooa Arabs, entered the city of
Katagum, where they were received in state, and offered
slaves as presents, and coming to Murmur, Oudney,
who had healed many in these far-off towns and villages,
and in the desert, was obliged himself to yield to the
merciless inroads of consumption. He was buried in a
deep grave by Clapperton, who was impelled to proceed
to the walled trading city of Kano. He narrowly es-
caped death, fever attacking him. Three weeks later
Clapperton was at Sockatoo, where he was received by
the Sultan, from whose officers he learned something
concerning poor Mungo Park's last days, and was
told that the Niger flowed on to the sea at a place
to the west, known as Jagra. Clapperton thereupon



J .-- -

A .C A C S T4
A.;-i CA A A CROSING' HF : I)S .4

resolved to follow the Niger, whose waters rolled on
past Sockatoo.
At Bilma they laid in a stock of dates for the next
14 days, during which man and beast nearly subsisted
upon them, the slaves for 20 days together mostly get-
ting no other food.
Then came the stony desert, which the camels, already
worn out by the heavy sand-hills, had to cross for nine
On the day they made El Wahr, and the two follow-
ing, camels in great numbers dropped down and died,
or were quickly killed and the meat brought in by the
hungry slaves.
On January 21, 1825, they reached Tripoli, and soon
after embarked for Leghorn, where they were long de-
tained by quarantine, so that the three survivors of the
expedition did not reach England till June I, 1825,
having been absent three years.
From the favorable report which Clapperton on his
return home brought of the Sultan Bello of Sockatoo,
and his wish to open up a commercial intercourse with
the English, the Government determined to send out
another expedition, in the hope that that object might
be carried out, and that means might be found for
putting a check on the slave trade in that part of Africa.
Clapperton, now raised to the rank of commander, was
placed at the head of the expedition. Captain Pearce
and a Mr. Morrison, a naval surgeon, were appointed to
serve under him. He also engaged the services of Mr.
Dickson, another surgeon, and of a very intelligent
young man, Richard Lander, who was to act as his
After a stay of only four months, Clapperton sailed

r -





from Portsmouth, and, touching at Sierra Leone, arrived
at Benin on November 26, 1825.
Dickson, wishing to make his way alone to Sockatoo,
was landed at Whidah, and set off for Dahomey. Here
he was well received and set forward to a place called
Shar, 17 days' journey from Dahomey. From thence
he was known to have set forward with another escort,
but from that time nothing whatever was heard of him.
At Benin, Clapperton met an English merchant who
advised him not to ascend the river, but to take a route
from Badagarry across the country to Katumga, the
capital of Youriba. That the journey was an ill one
was quickly shown, for fever and dysentery broke out,
Pearce and Morrison being the first victims. Their
death was a great blow to Clapperton; but like all ex-
plorers he was resolved, and he proceeded to the capital
of Youriba, arriving there in the middle of January, 1826.
The Clapperton expedition struck the Niger at
Boussa, the place of Park's death. Instead, however,
of tracing its waters southwards, the direction in which
it runs, the route was continued to Sockatoo. Report
has it that a deadly aversion to sailing down the river
or traversing its banks seized upon Clapperton, that a
strong conviction took root in his mind, after viewing
the scene of Park's tragic decease, that no white man
would live to tell the story of the Niger outlet. Having
stayed a short time at Sockatoo, Clapperton was prepar-
ing to leave when he was attacked by dysentery, and died
April 13, 1827, yet one more victim to the Niger outlet
Richard Lander tells the story of Clapperton's last
days. The hero was aware that his end approached.
Every day he would be carried into the open air and


have read to him a portion of Scripture, particularly
Psalm xcv. One day he called Lander into his wretched
dwelling and said' with calmness, Richard, I shall soon
be no more; I feel myself dying." Not long after that
sad interview in the lonely hut, Clapperton breathed his
Having seen his master decently interred, and col-
lected his papers and clothing, Richard Lander very
pluckily led those remaining of the force to the coast by
much the same route as that taken to Sockatoo. He
would have trusted himself, young as he was, to the
Niger, and discovered its outlet, had not the natives ab-
solutely barred his progress.
Lander returned to Badagarry by the route which had
been traversed by Clapperton, and reached London
April 30, 1826.
Denham returned to Sierre Leone in 1826, as super-
intendent of the liberated Africans, and in 1828 he was
appointed governor of the colony. On June 9, 1828,
he died of a fever, after a few days' illness.
Denham and Clapperton made important contributions
to the geography of Africa, though they failed in the
chief object of their expedition to discover the course
and. connections of the Niger.



THE achievement by Richard Lander was postponed.
On his return home the probability of the Niger los-
ing itself in the Atlantic was admitted, and to him was
entrusted a mission to revisit, on behalf of the British
Government, the town of Boussa. He was not to leave
the Niger until its outlet should be determined, whether
its disappearance was to the sea in the south-west, or
eastwards to Lake Tchad; but to follow its course, if
possible, to its termination, wherever that might be.
That voyage from Portsmouth to Cape Coast Castle,
in the month of January, 1830, was surely the most re-
markable, as regards the circumstances surrounding it,
ever known.
Richard Lander was 26 years old. He had not the
advantage of education upon his side. He was at sea,
off to the West Indies, when a boy of twelve; and was in
South Africa more than once while a lad, so that of
scholarly attainments he could have none. His prede-
cessors in North African exploration were versed in
Arabic; Lander knew it not, nor anything worth the
name of dialect. Of astronomy and navigation he could
have a smattering, not more ; while of medicine he was
positively ignorant, and of trade he was as innocent.


-.- .-- -- .'.-"-'- t- .. ,-

.. _.--- -- -- __-


Evidently he was imbued with courage-who else would
have faced the dangers and fevers of the north-west
coast territory, when so many able-bodied travelers had
fallen a prey to their temerity ?
Richard Lander possessed the qualities of a success-
ful explorer. The courage, perseverance, and judg-
ment exhibited by him in making his way from Sockatoo
to the coast after the death of Clapperton, and the bold
attempt to follow the course of the Niger to the sea,
pointed him out to the Government as a fit person to
lead another expedition with that object in view.
They went to Badagarry, and, on March 31, 1830,
began their journey into the interior, proceeding up the
river as far as it was navigable. Up country they pro-
cured horses, on which they continued their journey.
Both the brothers suffered from sickness; but, un-
daunted, they pursued their course till they reached
Katunga, the capital of Youriba.
Lander informed the King that his purpose was
to go to Bornou by way of Youri, and requested a
safe conduct through his territories. This permission
was granted, and, sending their horses by land, they
proceeded up the river in a canoe, which was furnished
them, towards Youri.
After proceeding a short distance, the stream grad-
ually widened to two miles, in some places the water
being very shallow, but in others of considerable depth.
Steering directly northward they voyaged on for four
days, having passed, they were told, all the dangerous
rocks and sand-banks which are to be found above
Youri or below Boussa.
Landing at a little village on the bank, where their


horses met them, they rode a distance of eight miles to
the walls of Youri.
Their visit to the Sultan of Youri was not without
interest, as it enabled them to obtain the only relics of
the last journey of Mungo Park that have ever come to
light. These were a richly embroidered robe, a gun,
an old nautical almanac, a book of the Psalms of David,
and his journal,* describing his journey from the Gambia
to the Niger.
The King expressed his readiness to assist them, but
declared that he could not forward them on their way
to the eastward, as he would be unable to guarantee
their safety, and that the best thing he could do was to
send them back to Boussa.
On August 2, they set off on their road to Boussa,
but here they were kept some weeks.
It was September 30 before they obtained the canoes,
and were able to embark. The current rapidly bore
them down the stream. Their voyaye began prosper-
ously; but they were detained at several places by the
chiefs, who wished to get as much as they could out of
At Leechee the Niger was found to be three miles in
width. The boatmen they engaged here paddled on
With this journal was the following letter from the heroic traveler,
addressed to Lord Camden, dated, On board H. M. schooner Joliba,
at anchor off Sansandig, November 17, 1805.-I have turned a large
canoe into a tolerably good schooner, on board of which I this day
hoisted the British flag, and set sail with the fixed resolution to discover
the termination of the Niger, or perish in the attempt .... My
dear friend Mr. Anderson, and likewise Mr. Scott, are both dead: but,
though all the Europeans who are with me should die, and though I were
myself half dead, I would still proceed, and if I could not succeed in
the object of my journey, I would at least die on the Niger." This
heroic resolve the great traveler sealed a few days later with his life.


for forty minutes, refused to go farther, and they had to
wait till they could obtain a fresh crew. Indeed, at
the different places at which they stopped, they were
vexatiously delayed on various pretexts by the natives.
A palaver with King Obie of Brass Town had an un-
pleasant sequel. Near as the Landers were to the sea,
they were to be disposed of as slaves, they were informed
secretly. Provisions could scarcely be procured, there
were renewed threats of detention; and more attacks of
fever made the situation most depressing. The brothers
were prisoners without any prospect of freedom.
Richard Lander had nothing to offer; he and John
were reduced to poverty and wretchedness. Only one
condition they could propose-that, given their liberty,
any tax or ransom fixed upon by the sable chief, would
be forthcoming the moment they arrived within the
sphere of British influence. That promise the brothers
faithfully discharged.
Richard Lander, leaving his brother as hostage and
his men at the town, set off in a canoe that was to con-
vey him to the sea. After traveling 60 miles down the
river, his feelings of delight may be imagined when he
had ocular evidence that he had at length succeeded in
tracing the mysterious Niger down to the ocean, by see-
ing before him two vessels, one the Spanish slaver, the
other an English brig.
The chief was induced to go back to bring John
Lander and the rest of the men on Richard's reiterated
promise that he would obtain the goods they had
promised him. He took passage on the English brig
for Rio Janeiro, which they reached on March 16, and
from there obtained a passage to England, which they
reached safely on June 10, 1831.


Thus with very humble means, by the energy and
courage of two unpretending men, was the long-disputed
problem of the course of the Niger to the sea completely
solved-a discovery for long years denied to older and
more experienced men.
The Royal Geographical Society awarded to Richard
Lander their gold medal and a money prize of fifty
The discoveries disclosed by the Landers quickened
the desire for further extension of trade upon the north-
west coast of Africa and to towns far inland, and Rich-
ard Lander embarked July 25, 1832, to act from the
mouth of the river whose possibilities were now partially
understood. It was a difficult enterprise; more serious
than the merchants who commissioned Lander imagined.
He got many miles inland, to the banks of the Tchadda,
a tributary to the Niger, it will be remembered; was
beaten back by superior numbers, tried again, was forced
to escape coastwards, and he ascended the Niger from
the ocean a third time. It was his last effort. He was
attacked, wounded by a poisoned arrow, and from its
effects he expired, February 6, 1834.



THE British Government had, in 1849, appointed
James Richardson, an experienced traveler in Africa, to
the command of an expedition which was to start from
Tripoli, and thence endeavor to penetrate to the central
part of the continent. Dr. Barth, who had spent three
years traveling through Barbary and the desert tracts
to the westward bordering the shores of the Mediter-
ranean, was allowed, accompanied by another German,
Dr. Overweg, to join the expedition. A light boat,
which was divided into two portions and could be
carried on the backs of camels, was provided, and a
sailor to navigate her either on Lake Tchad or down
the Niger.
One of the principal objects of the expedition was the
abolition of the slave trade, which it was known was
carried on to a fearful extent in those regions. The
principal employment of the Moorish tribes on the
borders of the territories inhabited by blacks was still,
as in the days of Mungo Park and Clapperton, slave-
hunting. Villages were attacked for the purpose, when
the prisoners captured were carried northward across
the desert and sold in Morocco and the other Barbary


Another object was the opening up a lawful commer-
cial intercourse with the people who might be visited,
and the exploration of the country for scientific purposes,
as well as to discover the course of the great river which
the Landers had seen flowing into the Niger in their
adventurous voyage down that stream.
Dr. Barth was the man to succeed. That success
stamps him as a true hero; no individual save
one with all the qualities of heroism could or would
have passed through the perils he experienced. He
started with Richardson and Dr. Overweg in 1849 to
explore the forbidding Sahara and parts of Central
Africa. Richardson, the leader of the expedition,
arrived safely at Mousak, Tripoli, branched due west
to a point near Ghat, and wandered hither and thither,
north and south. On March 4, 1851, Richardson fell a
victim to fatigue, and 18 months afterwards Dr. Over-
weg expired in the region between Sockatoo and Lake
Tchad. Practically alone, and his ardor for explora-
tion unabated, Barth left no place of importance west
of Lake Tchad and east of Sockatoo, and on the southern
banks of the lake untouched, striking the Niger at a
point south of the latter place, and some miles north of
Boussa. To him is owing the discovery of the Binue,
the largest affluent of the Niger. News came to
England of the deaths of Richardson and Overweg, and
the worst was feared regarding Barth. In the early
part of 1853, a relief force was despatched, which reached
the banks of the Tchad. Not to meet Barth, however,
who returned across the Sahara without coming in con-
tact with his would-be rescuer, after a course of travel
quite unique.
The route of Richardson, Barth, and Overweg was


through the Fezzan country from Tripoli. They had
more than the average amount of luggage, which gave
them great trouble. A steel boat carried in two sections,
for use upon Lake Tchad, proved cumbersome in the
extreme, until divided into four parts distributed more
evenly among the camels of the caravan. South of
Mouzak, Barth was literally lost in the desert. Anxious
to ascend a mountain he left the caravan without a
guide, hoping to follow in its track, and come up with
it. But his excitement took him on too far. Having
satisfied his curiosity he gazed around, hungry, thirsty,
footsore and overheated; but there was nothing to in-
dicate the course he ought now to pursue. He was
harried in every direction, sinking sometimes in soft
dry sand, firing his rifle the while in the hope that his
friends would learn of his whereabouts and await his
coming. To no purpose. Darkness fell upon the des-
ert with Barth a solitary wanderer in it, and so ex-
hausted, mentally and physically was he, that the sight
of a number of large fires in the distance served but to
bring laments instead of serving to cheer him. He
could not move a step farther. Fever came upon him,
and he could not sleep, he fired again, but to no pur-
pose, morning broke, and the sun rising higher and
higher in the heavens, his situation was pitiful in the ex-
treme. Just as he was resigning himself to what he be-
lieved would be his last sleep, he was aroused by a
mounted Arab who had tracked him, and stretching out
his hands for help, had the pleasure of being relieved by
water from the skin carried by the camelman. He was
assisted by him to the caravan a few miles away.
Barth's providential escape served to sharpen his de-
sire for further adventure, for when eight miles from


Sellufet, in the desert region, he set out upon a bullock
to the old and partially decayed town of Agades, and
surprised the Sultan, as the first white man his majesty
had beheld. Barth was two months absent from the
caravan, rejoined it, left it again on the south-western
confines of the Soudan; thence passing through a well-
cultivated country, and among smiling homesteads, he
arrived at Kano, in Haussa, about equally distant be-
tween Sockatoo and Lake Tchad. Kano is a city of
much importance, a centre for trade among the owners
of caravans from the north, south, east and west, and a
resting-place for those eager for repose after passing
amid the difficulties of travel in Northern Africa. Barth
reckoned upon a fair reception, but he arrived in a re-
duced condition, presents to chiefs and princes having
considerably lessened his stock of goods. He was as-
tonished to see the extent of the city, its large, well-
built houses, its trading establishments, the briskness
of its commerce, its workshops and the superior, even
elegant, fashions of dress among the free men and
women. But the Moors are in large numbers in Kano,
and this fact speaks volumes. At Kouka, again, Barth
found it as Clapperton had done, a city of more than
50,ooo souls, engaged more or less in trade and com-
merce, and living in houses and amid surroundings
quite equal to those obtaining in Kano. It was at
Kouka that Barth heard of Richardson's death. The
latter died in the city some weeks prior to the doctor's
arrival. Overweg came in subsequent to a flying visit
paid by Barth to Lake Tchad, and the two started for
exploration in the south, moved in towns and villages
notorious for their systems of slavery, went to the
eastern shores of Lake Tchad, were attacked and plun-


dered by Arabs, and had a ripe experience in the Man-
dara country. At Kouka once more, in February, 1852,
the two parted-Overweg to visit Lake Tchad, Barth to
go to the Begharmi country.
Some tribes of Arabs had rebelled against the Turks,
and he was in some danger while in their hands. Es-
caping from them, he reached Tripoli in the middle of
August, and arrived safely in London on September 6,
Although much of the country he had passed over
was already known, no previous African traveler more
successfully encountered and overcame the difficulties
and dangers of a journey through that region.
The most important result of his adventurous journey
was the discovery of a large river, hitherto unknown,
falling into Lake Tchad from the south, and of the
still larger affluent of the Niger, the Binue, which, rising
in the far-off centre of the continent, flows through the
province of Adamawa.
The courage and perseverance of Dr. Barth, while for
five years traveling 12,000 miles, amidst hostile and
savage tribes, in an enervating climate, frequently with
unwholesome or insufficient food, having ever to keep
his energies on the stretch to guard himself from the
attack of open foes or the treachery of pretended friends,
have gained for him the admiration of all who read his
travels, and place him among the foremost of African



RICHARD BURTON, better known as a traveler by the
name of Captain Burton, may be regarded as the doyen
of African travelers. Burton's discovery of Lake Tan-
ganyika in 1857, started the race for Central African
exploration, in which he was followed by his fellow-
traveler on that occasion, Speke, the discoverer of Lake
Victoria Nyanza, by Grant, the companion of Speke, by
Samuel Baker, and by Stanley, the Prince of African
travelers," as Burton acknowledged him to be.
Captain Burton's name was already familiar to the
public, especially in India, by his adventurous journey
to Mecca, where, in the character of one of the faith-
ful," he worshipped at the Kaaba, the shrine of Ma-
homet, in the eyes of every Mussulman the most sacred
spot on earth. Burton's adventures on this memorable
journey had made him a notable man when he under-
took the exploration of Somaliland, and his pen had al-
ready found congenial occupation in writing an account
of the newly acquired province of Scinde, where he had
served under Napier.
Besides being, perhaps, the most eminent linguist of
his age-he was more or less familiar, we believe, with


twenty-five languages of Europe, Asia and Africa-he
has explored many parts of East and West Afiica. He
was the author of numerous books of travel, and was dis-
tinguished as an archeologist and man of letters, as his
work on Etruria, and his translations of Camoens, and
of The Thousand and One Nights," prove. Sir Rich-
ard Burton was one of the most remarkable men of his
day, and his many-sidedness is shown in his physical
acquirements, no less than in the points indicated above.
He is noted as an accomplished swordsman, and his
book on the sword is a standard work. Altogether, we
may regard him as a veritable admirable Crichton."
He had served in the Indian army, and was regarded
as a reliable and able officer. Little was known of the
Somali when he was selected to explore their country
from Berbera, opposite Aden.
Burton's companion in his expedition was John Han-
ning Speke. His career from his i8th year was one
continuous round of strange and extremely perilous ad-
venture. Born in 1827, he went to India at the age of
17, as a lieutenant in the British army, and served in a
number of general actions. The desperate hazard of
war was not enough for the uneasy, daring, roving spirit
of Speke-he must wander into mysterious Thibet,
climb the great lonely Himalayas, and explore country,
whenever he could obtain leave, in the intervals of
peace allowed to the English troops in India in those
The enterprise of seeing the towering snow-capped
Mountains of the Moon, Kilimandjaro and Keina, was
exactly the thing to suit Speke's taste. Captain Burton
having received a commission from the Government of
India to explore the country of the Somalis, in

"_s, ,' -

.--. 1 "*-" "* ,



Northeast Africa, and bounded partly by the Gulf of
Aden, Speke obtained permission to join him.
Burton, Speke, and two other Europeans of the party,
Lieutenants Stoyan and Herne, were soon to learn the
character of some of the natives, in an unpalatable
fashion. Hardly had they located themselves near Ber-
bera, when, in the dead of night, they were set upon by
a body of marauders, the animals bought for caravan
purposes were taken, while Speke was made captive,
Stroyan was brutally murdered; Burton and Herne es-
caping without injury. Speke eluded his captors, and
running for the sands upon the Gulf of Aden, he and
his companions were rescued by a passing boat on her
way to the port of Aden.
The expedition to the Somali country having been
formally recalled, Speke hastened to the Crimea. The
war was then drawing to a close, and he had no oppor-
tunity to test the strength of Russian steel. It happened,
as he desired-he was permitted to associate himself
with the force fitting for exploration in Southeast
Africa, taking in the Mountains of the Moon. A broad
and magnificent lake had been spoken of by natives and
Arab traders, and Captain Burton, given the lead of the
party, was empowered to inquire, explore, and report,
as to whether the report was correct or otherwise. On
December 21, 1856, Burton and Speke landed at Zanzi-
bar; not, however, until May, 1857, was the ex-
pedition fairly launched; the rainy season and
illnesses caused inconvenience and delay.
The objective was Ujiji. It was believed then that the
town was at the southern end of the great central lake,
supposed by the way, to be 800 miles long by 350 broad



-wofully under the estimates made at later times, as
we shall presently see.
Through the lands of the Wazaramo, the Wakhuta,
and, extraordinary feature among African natives, the
long-bearded Waziraha, proceeded the caravan to Zun-
gomero. The Wazaramo lived in small huts, sur-
rounded, a number of them together, by strong palisad-
ing. The men and women bestow devoted attention
to their hair, twisting it tightly, and using clay and oil
in the process, while no attention is paid to shielding
the body beyond wearing a cloth round theloins. The
Wakhuta and Waziraha are inferior in some respects,
and take no pride in their dwellings, nor their personal
appearance. Slavery prevails, though not in its worst
forms. West of Zungomero, the aspect of the country
changes-at one time hot springs rise from sandy plains,
at another there are swamps in which the dregs of fever
lie, as Burton and Speke found to their cost, a number
of native porters succumbing, while Burton himself was
stricken and could only journey on in great pain. To
render matters worse, carriers begun a dispute as to
food, and at one place where the leaders expected to
find a good supply of necessaries, not a particle was to
be picked up-slave-hunters had been busy and literally
ruined the village by fire and kidnapping. There was
some compensation for the travelers, however, at
Rumuma, where caravans were wont to stop. Food
was purchased, stores were replenished, and there was a
resumption of the march under more favorable condi-
tions, until the Usagara mountain ranges were practi-
cally left behind, and rest was obtained in Ugogo.
Men and animals were by this time thoroughly fagged
out. Burton was far from well, and Speke was pros-


treated. Still, the halt was not a long one-a party of
Unyamenzi were starting for their homes after serving
as porters, and as those homes were within easy distance
of the Mountains of the Moon, the opportunity of
profiting by the presence of these men was not to be
lost. They were conversant with the route from Ugogo,
and had information to impart as to the wonderful snow-
clad mountains. A start was made in the desired di-
rection, which took the explorers through Unyamyembe,
where Stanley and Livingstone were to part 15 years
afterwards. Burton and Speke were imposed upon by
petty chiefs until Tura was reached, when a fulsome re-
ception was accorded them.
The caravan pushed on, and in September the Unya-
menzi country, embracing the Mountains of the Moon,
was actually reached. It is charming in parts, well
wooded mounds and fertile valleys being conspicuous-
villages lie clustered above the impervious walls of
milk-bush with its coral-shaped arms, and in rich pas-
ture lands graze extensive herds of plump, high-humped
cattle." Speke thinks that Unyamenzi must have been
one of the largest kingdomsin Africa. He refers to the
people as hereditarily the greatest traders in the conti-
nent, and as the only people who for love of barter and
change will leave their own country as porters and go to
the coast. The whole country ranges nearly 4000 feet
above the sea level. The natives are generally indus-
trious, cultivate extensively, make cloths of cotton in
their own looms, smelt iron, and work it up very ex-
pertly, and keep flocks and herds to a considerable ex-
tent. Some of the men are handsome and the women
At Kaze, in December, Burton and Speke were soon


mixing among the Arab merchants who make the town
a caravan centre. Offers of help were made to the
Englishmen, and some valuable information was
gleaned. Our travelers were assured that Ujiji was not
upon the southern end of the great lake of which they
were really in search-that it did not stand upon the
lake. The vast sheet they desired to explore was farther
north, and from it ran a- river flowing north again. This
was news indeed. Another wonder. What solution?
Burton and Speke had no definite idea then that the
" farther lake was the Victoria Nyanza, and that the
" river flowing north was none other than the mighty
Nile, whose sources had been for long centuries a secret
to geographers, and the search for which was to cost
Livingstone so tremendous an amount of trouble and
eventually his very life.
Increasingly curious as to the developments of the
future, the explorers left Kaze after a stay of three weeks'
duration-only to be mortified, however, by mutiny
among the carriers, by the desertion of a number of
those men they were depending upon to assist them in
the selection of route, and by inability, for a season, to
obtain others. The eyes of the leaders were seriously
affected, and, for a week Burton lay prostrated by an
illness that threatened his existence. The dawn of the
year 1858 was a sad one; notwithstanding the travelers
were marching past the bases of what they believed to
be those mountains, word of which had prompted them
to start upon their journeyings.
February 13, 1858, was to be a red-letter day, alike
for the expedition and in the history of geographical
discovery. Burton had mounted the summit of a rocky
eminence, when his heart leaped-he beheld the water

- -




of Tanganyika. In the first place his gaze filled him
with dismay, he records; the remains of his blindness,
the veil of trees, and a broad ray of sunshine illuminat-
ing but one reach of the lake, had shrunk its fair pro-
portions. Somewhat prematurely he began to curse
his folly in having risked life and lost health for so poor
a prize, and to propose a return to the coast. But ad-
vancing a few yards, the whole scene burst upon his
view, filling him with admiration, wonder, and delight.
Nothing, in sooth, could be more picturesque than this
first view of Tanganyika Lake, as it lay in the lap of the
mountains in the gorgeous tropical sunshine, its clear
waters gleaming against a background of steel-colored
mountains." To Speke the magnificent spectacle and
the thrill of delight were denied. He was not far from
Burton, but was suffering from inflammation of the eyes,
his vision was dimmed, he was the only one in the
throng standing within the shadows of what they re-
garded as the Mountains of the Moon, who could not
look upon their imposing slopes nor yet upon the waters
of the vast lake. An amount of keen disappointment
would have been saved to Speke, had he known that the
exploration party were not standing anywhere near the
Mountains of the Moon. These grand, snow-capped
giants are much farther north ; they are east-southeast
of the then undiscovered Victoria Lake-not rising from
the eastern shores of Tanganyika. The explorers
scarcely realized their true position.
Boats for the conveyance of the party to Kanele, in
the Ujiji district, were obtained; but their reception,
though pleasing, was followed by the extortions of the
chief Kannina and his refusal of help towards procuring
a boat, that the great lake might be explored. A month


was wasted, in an unsuccessful attempt to hire an Arab
sailing vessel, and it was not until many more days had
elapsed that two wretched canoes were obtained; for
which an exorbitant price had to be paid. With them
went the chief Kannina. He knew something of a
river flowing from the mountains into the lake, and
would show it to them. He refused to continue in their
company after the arrival at Uvira, at the north-east end
of the lake-the Warundi regarded him as an enemy,
and he feared to provoke their hostility.
All the searching and all the inquiries made by Bur-
ton and his followers yielded nothing to their view in the
shape of a river. They were now at the farthest point
traders were permitted to touch-beyond was a country
of savages among whom it was advisable not to venture.
Provisions were short, and the means of barter, and the
presents were running out. The order was given, there-
fore, for a return to Ujiji.
On May 13, Burton and Speke were back at Ujiji,
whence a return was made to Kaze, and Speke, accom-
panied by 10 Beloochs and 20 carriers,set out in search
of the second lake, concerning which information had
been given by Arabs and traders. Burton was so ill
that he had to me carried from Ujiji to Kaze, and at the
latter place he remained during Speke's absence north
It was a journey beset with trials of patience-bad con-
duct on the part of the porters, detention by petty chiefs,
and, by no means least, a detour and a long suspense
in the new lake region, owing to the prevalence of bitter
But the daring and faith of Speke were to be re-
warded. He was certain, before the end of July arrived,
that he was approaching another great inland sea; and


on August 3, his eyes were gladdened and his senses
quickened by the vast expanse of the blue waters of the
Nyanza or lake, bursting suddenly upon his gaze. He
had seen its waters, as a fact, on July 30, but in narrow
Speke, in his book of travels, says: The pleasure
of the mere view vanished in the presence of those
more intense and exciting emotions which were called up
by the consideration of the commercial and geograph-
ical importance of the prospect before me. I no
longer felt any doubt that the lake at my feet gave birth
to that interesting river the source of which has been
the subject of so much speculation and the object of so
many explorers. The lake is so broad you could not
see across it, and so long that nobody knew its length."
The breadth was estimated at 1oo miles-as Speke re-
marks, no one had any idea of its length, more than
one native seemed to think its termination in the north
was in the end of the earth. Speke was forced to make
his way back to Burton without obtaining any concep-
tion of the area of this the largest inland sea of Africa.
People at home could scarcely credit Speke's account
and estimate of this vast lake when he recited them-a
lake to which'he gave the name of Victoria," in honor
of the Queen of England.
Extraordinary, however, as Speke's opinion of the
Victoria Nyanza seemed, it was no exaggeration. Much
as he saw, and great as was his estimate of areas unseen,
what he has stated has actually fallen below the mark.
Subsequent travelers have sailed its waters and explored
its banks, but even they have had an inadequate notion
of its vastness. It has been left to Stanley to give us a
more correct idea of the tremendous extent of this lake.

. .. . .



i-s I9tPia: :-S

iii-II_ ., VA


A" 1~


Thirty years after its discovery by Speke, he passed its
southern limits in the company of Emin Pasha, after
bringing him from the Equatorial province, and says, he
and his companions then made an unexpected discovery
of real value in Africa of a considerable extension of
the Victoria Nyanza to the south-west. The utmost
southerly reach of this extension is south latitude 200 48',
which brings the water within 155 miles from Lake
Tanganyika. No one had ever a suspicion of this before.
He made a rough sketch of it, and found that the area
of the lake was increased by this the latest discovery to
26,900 square miles, or just 19oo square miles larger
than the reputed exaggerations of Captain Speke. An
inconceivably wonderful lake, and having possibilities
we are quite unable to understand !
Speke rejoined Burton at Kaze, August 28, and re-
ported to him his momentous discovery. Circumstan-
ces prevented a return t6 the Victoria Nyanza, and a six
months' march was begun to the coast, Zanzibar being
the limit reached.
Again in England, Burton and Speke were the lions
of the season, and their discoveries formed the main
theme for geographers for many a day. To Burton were
awarded the gold medals of the English and French
Geographical Societies. In the following year he was
appointed British Consul in Fernando Po. On October
20, 1890, he closed his varied and eventful career.
Lady Burton, in the "life" of her husband, says:
Burton was the pioneer (without money, without food,
without men, or proper escort, without the bare access-
aries of life, to dare and do, in spite of every obstacle,
and every crushing thing, bodily and mentally), who
opened up that country. It is to him that later followers,


that Grant, and Speke, and Baker, and Stanley, and all
the other men that have ever followed, owe it that he
opened the oyster shell for them, and they went in to
take the pearl. I don't want to detract from any other
traveler's merits, for they are all brave and great, but I
will say that if Richard Burton had had Stanley's money,
escort, luxuries, porterage, and white comrades, backed
by influence, there would not have been one single
white spot on the whole map of the great Continent of
Africa that would not have been filled up.
It was the first successful attempt to penetrate that
country, and laid the foundation for others. It was the
base on which all subsequent journeys were founded;
Livingstone, Cameron, Speke and Grant, Baker and
Stanley carried it out. During these African explora-
tions he was attacked with fever 21 times, by temporary
paralysis, and partial blindness. Tanganyika was Bur-
ton's discovery. Nyanza was Speke's."



SPEKE could not rest in England. His adventurous
spirit was in no sense subdued by the vicissitudes lie had
met among mountain passes of India and Thibet, upon
the Somali plains, in the Crimea, and in connection with
three years' exploration in South-east Africa; he was
convinced that what he had seen of the Victoria Nyanza
and in the country of the Mountains of the Moon was
but a tithe of what might be gleaned thereabouts.
There were, he felt sure, immense openings arising from
a resumption of travel in those regions-elements to
lead men on to sustained discoveries of greatest impor-
tance. The scheme Speke had cherished of traveling
to the sources of the Nile and following it to its very
outlet far away in North Africa was not forgotten by
him. And he determined that at all costs he would
reduce his convictions to the test. If no public body
would help him, he would go out at his own expense as
he originally intended, pursue his way, and come out
victorious, or-perish in the endeavor.
Speke was not to launch his enterprise unsupported.
Roderick Murchison was President of the Geographical
Society, and his active sympathy was enlisted. The
theory of Captain Speke (he had been promoted in the

'A tO r

? ~ i~ 4-.-


- 01-


British Army) that the Nile took its rise in the Victoria
Nyanza, was favored by many, and they were very anx-
ious that it should be thoroughly established. Nine
months elapsed before he left the shores of England,
as leader of the new expedition. He was somewhat
disappointed in the amount of money voted him-
$12,500,-and in his vovage to Zanzibar. He could
not obtain passage thither at the time fixed by him-
he and an old friend, Captain Grant, who was to ac-
company him inland, had to take the West African
coast route to the Cape, and to sail thence for the port
of debarkation. The time was not wholly lost, how-
ever. Speke received carbines, ammunition, and instru-
ments from the Government at home, and, while at the
Cape, a sum of $15oo was set apart by Parliament
there for the purposes of the expedition, and ten Hot-
tentot members of the Mounted Rifles were placed at
his disposal, as well as a corvette for the shipment of
his party to Zanzibar. On the way there the vessel
chased and overtook a slave ship, in which were 500
poor blacks, who were released, when opportunity
Speke and Grant left Zanzibar in August 1860, and
the start eastwards was made from Bagomoyo. Provis-
ions and articles for presents to native potentates were
borne in plenty by the blacks. Eleven mules and five asses
were taken for carrying purposes also. Very soon the
force was reduced by sickness and desertion, and the
gaps could not be filled without much trouble and prov-
ocation. There were 54 Wanguana freed-men, and
about 20 Zanzibaris as porters, in addition to the Hot-
The march was through the flat country of Uzaramo,


through uneven stretches of Usagara, Ugogo, and Un-
yameuzi, until Lake Victoria was touched upon its


5 I. .-.


south-western limits. Experiences passing through
were not of the happiest. There were greedy chiefs to
satisfy, porters.mutinied and deserted, natives were sus-

picious, because they had the impression a slave-raiding
caravan was approaching; guides were not to be trusted,
porters were deceived and robbed, and in one village an
illness contracted by Speke nearly proved fatal. Grant
was then at some distance making observations
and confirming native reports, and before rejoining
Speke his escort was attacked, stripped of their loads,
and put to flight. A few only of the loads were re-
But compensation was in store for the travelers who
had now been fighting against nature, and often against
savages, for twelve months. Speke and Grant left Usai
behind and crossed into Karagwe, upon the western
shores of the Victoria Lake, to find it a land of milk and
honey. It contained a hitherto undiscovered lake, to
which Speke gave the name of Little Windermere.
Upon the very borders of Karagwe the badly-used, re-
duced explorers were met by messengers sent by Ru-
manika, the king, to accord them hearty welcome, and
to offer them the best food and liquor in the land.
Speke says, To do royal honors to the king of this
charming land, I ordered my men to put down their loads
and fire a volley. Here we saw, sitting cross-legged
upon the ground, Rumanika and, his brother Nnanaji,
both of them men of noble appearance and size. The
king was plainly dressed in an Arab's black choga, and
wore for ornament, dress stockings of rich-colored
beads, and neatly-worked wristlets of copper. At their
sides lay huge pipes of black clay. The king and his
brother had fine oval faces, large eyes and high noses,
denoting the best blood of Abyssinia." The curiosity
of the monarch as to how the explorers had found their
way into his kingdom had to be satisfied, time flying


" like magic until the shades of evening fell and royalty
and visitors separated, the latter to choose their own
camping-ground amid charming scenery.
Throughout a month's intercourse with Rumanika,
Speke experienced nothing save pleasure. Hunting,
exploring, inquiring into the customs of the people,
resting, day succeeded day all too quickly. When,
however, a message came from the mighty Mtesa,
king of Uganda, in January (1862), that he would re-
ceive the travelers, and the protection of Arab traders
could be had, Speke was compelled to bid good-bye to
Rumanika and his well-disposed people. Grant was too
ill to be moved. After the lapse of a month, Speke
neared Mtesa's capital. Like Rumanika, he sent cour-
iers to welcome the explorer, and to promise to make
him comfortable.
Speke's first view of the capital presented a magnifi-
cent sight-a whole hill was covered with gigantic huts
such as he had never seen in Afiica before. "I pre-
pared for my first presentation at court," says Speke in
his account of the reception by Mtesa, "though I cut
a sorry figure in comparison with the display of the
dressy Waganda. They had head-dresses, and were
rich in ornaments. A number of the four hundred
wives kept by Mtesa stood in little groups gazing upon
us. Courtiers of high dignity stepped forward to greet
me, dressed in the most scrupulously neat fashions.
Men, women, bulls, dogs, and goats were led about by
strings; cocks and hens were carried in men's arms;
and little pages, with rope-turbans, rushed about, con-
veying messages, as if their lives depended on their
swiftness, everyone holding his skin cloak tightly round
him lest his naked legs might by accident be shown.


The mighty king was sitting on his throne. He
was a good-looking, well-figured, tall young man of
twenty-five, sitting on a red blanket spread upon a
square platform of royal grass, encased in tiger-grass
reeds. The hair of his head was cut short, excepting
on the top, where it was combed up into a high ridge,
running from stem to stern like a cockscomb. The
king wore many ornaments, principally of brass and
copper. He was very affable and our interview was
very satisfactory."
Speke appears to have taken Mtesa's fancy. Proba-
bly his presents had much to do with it. A healthy
spot was fixed upon for Speke's abode, food in plenty
was set apart for him, and on many days Mtesa ac-
companied him on hunting expeditions. So fond, in-
deed, was the king of Speke, that he would not hear of
him leaving his dominions, and for more than four
months our hero was compelled to stay in the neighbor-
hood of the court. All was not pleasant to Speke of
course. Mtesa showed distinct traits of cruelty. He
thought nothing of ordering subjects off to grinding,
lingering tortures and to execution; to treat them as
beasts, and to countenance daily sacrifices of human
beings. At times Speke's blood was roused and he
dared to appeal to the monarch for clemency; nor were
his desires always unheeded. With the queen-dowager,
Speke was much of a favorite-she bestowed two wives
upon him as a signal mark of favor, but to his disgust.
Speke's detention was a source of great annoyance t&
him. Through one channel only was there any pros-
pect of release. Mtesa desired to open up his country
to trade, and as Speke conversed with him repeatedly
of the constant trading operations upon the Nile right


L I c




NDA. 79



away north and east from Khartoum through the Sou-
dan to the Red Sea, and of the impetus that would be
given to it by extension to Uganda, if he, Speke, were
permitted to go and relate all that he had seen in the
kingdom, Mtesa began to think that perhaps the best
course would be to allow the visitor to depart. He
promised that the departure of Speke and his men
should not be long delayed. This rejoiced Speke, and
Grant arriving at the capital under an escort of Mtesa's
men, his pleasure was unbounded.
The end came with the dawn of July 7, when Speke
and Grant and their faithful henchmen bade farewell to
Mtesa, bearing with them a large quantity of ivory for
trade. Grant was too unwell to proceed rapidly, and it
was decided that he and a portion of the caravan should
march slowly to the west into Ungoro. Speke made
for the head of the Victoria Lake, and on July 19, his
was the magnificent reward of standing upon the banks
of old Father Nile. Speke describes the scene as most
beautiful. Nothing could surpass it. It was the very
perfection of the kind of effect aimed at in a highly-kept
park, with a magnificent stream about 700 yards wide,
dotted with islets and rocks-the former occupied by
fishermen's huts, the latter by sterns and crocodiles
basking in the sun-flowing between high grassy banks
with rich trees and plantains in the background, where
herds of hartbeests could be seen grazing, while the
hippopotami were snorting in the water, and florikan
and guinea-fowl, rising at our feet." A few trials more,
-now in thick jungle, anon crossing streams and rapids,
and among wondering and suspicious natives, and Speke
. was thrilled by the fact that he was standing near the
head of a series of charming falls constituting the outlet


I We

-~=-~-~=-~-~~--~-~;~RI PON FALLS.~P"


of the Victoria Nyanza and the principal source of old
Father Nile. Here was a grand discovery indeed-one
denied to all other Europeans throughout the ages in
spite of unwearied searching.
To the falls Speke gave the name of Ripon."
" Though beautiful, the scene was not exactly what I
expected," Speke writes in his book, for the broad
surface of the lake was shut out from view by a spur of
hill, and the falls, about twelve feet deep and 500 feet
broad, were broken by rocks. Still it was a sight that
attracted one to it for hours." Thence upon the bosom
of the Nile, upon roughly constructed boats, Speke and
his party sailed northwards for some days, to leave the
water, after being attacked by Wanyoro, and to rejoin
Grant, and, subsequently, the whole united caravan en-
tered Unyoro and stood before the capital of the king,
Kamrasi, who had sent the presents of fowls and plan-
tains in token of friendship.
Like the monarch of Uganda, the king of Unyoro
was surrounded by courtiers, but there was a lack of
imposing ceremony. Kamrasi sat upon a stool when
receiving the strangers, but there was a variety of dressed
skins about and around him, and his ornaments were
profuse. Speke's chronometer was a special object of
envy to Kamrasi. They got on fairly well with Kamrasi,
aroused his curiosity by presenting him with a Bible,
spoke to him of trade, and delighted him by their prow-
ess in the hunting-field. Hearing that the servants of
Petherick, the noted English trader upon the Nile, south
of Khartoum, was in the neighborhood of Gondokoro,
in what has since been known as the Equatorial, or
Emin's province of the Soudan, Speke and Grant were
delighted beyond measure. Nearly two years had


elapsed since they saw a third white man, and as they
were still 2000 miles from the mouth of the Nile, it may
be imagined how eagerly both looked forward to the
Starting from Kamrasi's palace at last, Speke and his


followers headed for the Nile banks, trusted themselves
to the Nile waters again, passed the Karuma Falls, and
through what is known as the Kidi Wilderness, and on
November 29, the conical huts of the naked Koki in
Gani were sighted, then the Madi, to be known here-


after by Samuel Baker, Gordon, and Emin Pasha, were
seen, and the outpost of civilization, garrisoned by ir-
regular troops in the pay of the Egyptian Government,
was reached with feelings of profound gratitude, news
of Petherick being a short distance away heightening the
joy of the explorers. Egyptian rule as understood in
the Soudan territory had become hateful and fearful to
the natives, not a few of whom fled as Speke and his
men advanced, not feeling safe by any means in their
company. They could not know that the travelers
were not plunderers. In February (1863), Gondokoro,
then little more than a cluster of huts, still a trading
station of some importance upon the White Nile, came
in view, small sailing craft and dhows were seen, and to
the unspeakable delight of Speke and Grant, Samuel
Baker appeared in the midst of a throng of people to
accord them the very heartiest congratulations at an
escape from what he and many others believed would
have been certain death in the vast lake regions. Baker
had ascended the Nile thus far in search of Speke and
Grant, and was prepared to go much farther. Petherick
was at the moment 70 miles away, and did not come in
for some time afterwards.
While Baker went exploring south-west, one result
of which was the discovery of the Albert Nyanza-
Speke and Grant took a voyage down the Nile to Khar-
toum. This took a month. On April 15, they were
aboard a sailing vessel bound for Berber, whence they
joined a caravan across the desert to Korosko, and took
Nile boats for Cairo, where they arrived at the latter
end of May, 1863. It was at Cairo that the faithfuls "
and Speke and Grant separated. The former were paid
off" and sent coastwise to their homes, via Zanzibar,


in charge of Bombay-the two Englishmen returning
to England, after an absence of four years and eight
months, to be deservedly honored on every hand.
Captain Speke did not live long to enjoy his wonder-
ful successes. He died September 15, 1864, from the
effects of wounds received by him accidentally while out
shooting. He was then but 38 years old.
Although not, as he supposed, the discoverer of the
remotest source of the Nile, Speke was undoubtedly
the first European who saw the Victoria Nyanza, while
the adventurous and hazardous journey he and Grant
performed together, places them in the front rank of
African travelers. They opened up an extensive and
rich district hitherto totally unknown, and made many
important discoveries.
Captain Speke was the first to traverse the territories
of those savage potentates, M'wanga, Mtesa and Kam-
rasi. The names of Uganda, Unyoro, the Somerset
Nile, the Ripon and Karuma Falls, are now familiar in
our mouths, and among the honored names of Great
African Travelers, that of Speke, and in a lesser degree,
of his accomplished companion, Grant, will ever hold a
prominent place.



DAVID LIVINGSTONE was born at Blantyre, near Glas-
gow, Scotland, about the year 1817. He worked in a
cotton factory in his youth; and studied medicine and
theology, with an intention to labor as a missionary,
and was sent by the London Missionary Society to
South Africa, in 1840. He landed at Cape Town, and
for the next sixteen years of his life (to 1856) he
labored in medical and missionary efforts for the good
of the people, without any cost to them.
Up to this time the explorers of Africa had confined
their travels to the north-western regions; they had
traversed the Niger to its mouth, they had visited Tim-
buctoo, sailed on Lake Tchad, and crossed the continent
from the Gulf of Benin to the Mediterranean. Every-
where the Europeans had passed through scenes of
horror caused by the slave-hunters; ruined towns, de-
populated districts, roads lined with skeletons, and car-
avans of negroes dragged from their homes to be sold.
From Cape Town, he went round to Algoa Bay,
where he proceeded about 800 miles into the interior to
Kuruman, the missionary station of the Rev. R. Moffatt,
whose daughter he afterwards married.
He went on to Lepole, where he spent six months


i ''





learning the language and habits of the Bakwains. These
people being driven by another tribe from their country,
he was unable to form a station at that place. He was
more successful at Mabotsa, also inhabited by the Bak-
wains, to which place he removed in 1843. It was here,
while chasing a lion, that he nearly lost his life. He
had fired both barrels of his gun, and was reloading
when the lion, though desperately wounded, sprang
upon him, catching his shoulder, both man and beast
coming to the ground together. Growling horribly,
the fierce brute shook him as a terrier dog does a rat."
The gun of his companion missed fire, when the lion,
leaving Livingstone, attacked him. Another native came
up with a spear, when the lion pounced on him; but
the bullets at that moment taking effect, the fierce brute
fell down dead. Besides crunching the bones into
splinters, he left eleven teeth wounds upon the upper
part of my arm." The wounds soon healed, but to the
end of his life he occasionally felt the effects of the
knawing he had received.
The-chief of the Bakwains, Sechele, became a Chris-
tian, and exerted himself for the conversion of his peo-
ple. The Dutch Boers (or farmers), who had pushed
forward to the confines of the country, proved, however,
most adverse to the success of the mission, by carrying
off the natives and forcing them to labor as slaves.
By the advice of Dr. Laidley, Sechele and his people
moved to the Kolobeng, a stream about 200oo miles to the
north of Kuruman, where Livingstone formed a station.
He here built a house with his own hands, having
learned carpentering and gardening fiom Mr. Moffatt,
as also blacksmith's work. He had now become handy
at almost any trade, in addition to doctoring and preach-


ing, and as his wife could make candles, soap and clothes,
they possessed what may be considered the indispensa-
ble accomplishments of a missionary family in Africa.


Among the visitors to the station was Mr. Oswell, who
deserves to take rank as an African traveler. Hearing
that Livingstone purposed crossing the Kalahari Desert


in search of the great Lake Ngami, he came from India
on purpose to join him, accompanied by Mr. Murray,
volunteering to pay the entire expenses of the guides.
The Kalahari, though called a desert from being com-
posed of soft sand and being destitute of water, at this
time supported prodigious herds of antelopes, while
numbers of elephants, rhinoceros, lions, hymnas, and
other animals roamed over it. They find support
from the astonishing quantity of grass which grows in
the region, as also from a species of water-melon, and
tuberous roots.
Such was the desert Livingstone and his party pur-
posed crossing when they set out with their wagons on
June I, 1849, from Kolobeng, They traversed 300
miles of desert, when at the end of a month, they reached
the banks of the Zonga, a large river, richly fringed with
fruit-bearing and other trees, many of them of gigantic
growth, running north-east towards Lake Ngami. They
were cordially received by the peace-loving inhabitants
of its banks.
Leaving the wagons in charge of the natives, Living-
stone embarked in one of their canoes. Frail as are
the canoes of the natives, they make long trips in them,
and manage them with great skill, often standing up
and paddling with long, light poles. They thus daringly
attack the hippopotami in their haunts, or pursue the
swift antelope which ventures to swim across the
river. After voyaging on the stream for twelve days,
they reached the broad expanse of Lake Ngami.
Though wide, it is very shallow and brackish during
the rainy season. They here heard of some large rivers
flowing into the lake.
Livingstone's main object in coming was to visit


Sebituane, the great chief of the Makololo, who live
about 200 miles to the northward. The chief of the
district refused either to give them goods or allow them
to cross the river. The season being far advanced, they
returned to Kolobeng, Mr. Oswell going down to the
Cape to bring up a boat for the next season.
Half of the premium for the encouragement of geo-
graphical science and discoveries was awarded to Liv-
ingstone for the discoveries he made on this journey.
Sechele, the Christian chief of the Bakwains, offered
his services, and with him as a guide, accompanied by
Mrs. Livingstone and their three children, they set out,
in April, 1850, taking a more easterly course than before.
They again reached the lake, but most of the party
being attacked by fever, the design of visiting Sebituane
was abandoned.
The third journey, was begun in the Spring of 1851.
First traveling north, and then to the north-east, through
a region covered with baobab-trees, abounding with
springs, and inhabited by Bushmen, they entered an
arid and difficult country. Here, the supply of water
being exhausted, great anxiety was felt for the children,
who suffered greatly from thirst. At length a small
stream, the Mababe, was reached, running into a marsh,
across which they had to make their way. During the
night they traversed a region infested by the tsetse, a fly
not much larger than the common house-fly, the bite of
which destroys cattle and horses. It is remarkable that
neither man, wild animals, nor even calves as long as
they continue to suck, suffer from the bite of this fear-
ful pest. While some districts are infested by it, others
in the immediate neighborhood are free, and, as it does
not bite at night, the only way the cattle of travelers


can escape is by passing quickly through the infested
district before the sun is up. Sometimes the natives
lose the whole of their cattle by its attacks, and
travelers frequently have been deprived of all means
of moving with their wagons. Having reached the
Chobe, a large river which falls into the Zambesi,
leaving their attendants camped with the cattle on an
island, Livingstone and his family, with Oswell, em-
barked in a canoe, and went down about 20 miles to
an island, where Sebituane was waiting to recieve them.
The chief, pleased with the confidence Livingstone
had shown in bringing his wife and children, promised
to take them to see his country, that they might choose
a spot to form a missionary station. He had been at
war nearly all his life, with the neighboring savage
tribes, but had got himself in a secure position behind
the Chobe and Leeambye, whose broad streams
guarded him from the inroads of his enemies. He
had more subjects and was richer in cattle than any
chief in that part of Africa. The rivers and swamps,
however, of the region produced fever, which proved
fatal to many of his people. He was anxious for inter-
course with Europeans, and showed every wish to en-
courage those who now visited him to remain in his
territory. A few days later the chief was attacked with
inflammation of the lungs, and in a short time breathed
his last. Before his death he expressed the hope that
the English would be as friendly to his children as they
had been to himself. The chieftainship devolved on a
daughter, who gave the visitors leave to travel through
any part of the country they chose. They accordingly
set out, and traversing 130 miles to the north-east,


reached the banks of the Zambesi, the chief river of
Southern Afiica.
From the prevalence of the tsetse, and the periodical
rise of the numerous streams causing malaria, Living-
stone was compelled to abandon the intention he had
formed of removing the Bakwain people thither that


they might be out of the reach of their rapacious neigh-
bors, the Dutch Boers. The river was, he at once saw,
the key of Southern Africa. This was a most impor-
tant discovery, for that river was not previously known
to exist there.
The magnificent stream, on the bank of which he now
stood, flows hundreds of miles east to the Indian Ocean


-a mighty artery supplying life to the teeming popu-
lation of that part of Africa.
Livingstone determined to send his wife and children
to England, and to return himself and spend two or
three years in the new region he had discovered, in the
hopes of evangelizing the people and putting a stop to
the trade in slaves, which had begun even thus far from
the coast.
He returned to Kolobeng, and then set out with his
family, a journey of Iooo miles, to Cape Town. Placing
them on board a homeward-bound ship, he turned his
face northward in June, 1852.
As Livingstone's chief object was to select a spot for
a settlement, he ascended, accompanied by Sekeletu,
the great River Zambesi, the upper courses of which he
had traversed in the year 185 I.
From Linyanti Livingstone set out on his journey
westward to Loanda, on the West Coast, and, on his
return, commenced from thence that adventurous ex-
pedition to the East Coast, which resulted in so many
important discoveries.
Recovering from his fever, Livingstone, accompanied
by Sekeletu and about 160 attendants, set out for
Sesheke. They passed numerous mounds, the work of
termites or white ants; which are literally gigantic
structures, and often wild date-trees were seen growing
on them.
Livingstone had a little gipsy tent in which he slept,
though the Makololo huts, which are kept tolerably
clean, afforded the party accommodation. The best sort
of hut consists of three circular walls, having small
holes to serve as doors, through which it is necessary
to creep on all fours. The roof resembles in shape a


Chinaman's hat, and is bound together with circular
bands. The framework is first formed, and it is then


lifted to the top of the circle of poles prepared for sup-
porting it.
The roof is covered with fine grass and sewed with


the same material as the lashings. Women are the
chief builders of huts among the Makololo.
Reaching the village of Katonga, on the banks of the
Leeambye, some time was spent there in collecting
canoes. During this delay Dr. Livingstone visited the
country to the north of the village, where he saw large
herds of buffaloes, zebras, and elans. He was enabled,
by this hunting expedition, to supply his companions
with an abundance of food.
A sufficient number of canoes being collected, they
began the ascent of the river. Livingstone's canoe had
six paddlers, while Sekeletu's had ten. The men
paddled standing upright, and kept stroke with great
exactness. Being flat-bottomed, they can float in very
shallow water. The fleet consisted altogether of 33
canoes and 160 men.
During this nine weeks' tour Livingstone took a more
intense disgust of heathenism than he had ever before
felt, and formed a higher opinion of the civilizing effects
of the missions in the south among tribes which were
once as savage as the Makololo.
Returning down the stream at a rapid rate, they
quickly reached Linyanti.
The chief agreeing that the object of Livingstone's
expedition to the west was desirable, took pains to assist
him. A band of 27 men were to accompany him by
the chief's command, whose desire was to obtain a free
and profitable trade with the white men, and this, Living-
stone was convinced, would lead to their elevation and
As they approached the sea, the Makololo gazed at
it, spreading out before them, with feelings of awe,
having before believed that the whole world was one

* *.-.

-.~ ~~ ~~ .. ....... -i~~jii


il w



extended plain. They again showed their fears that
they might be kidnapped, but Livingstone reassured
them, telling them as they had stood by each other
hitherto, so they would do to the last.
On May 31, they descended a declivity leading to the
city of Loanda, where Livingstone was warmly welcomed
by Mr. Gabriel, the British commissioner for the sup-
pression of the slave trade. Seeing him so ill, he offered
his bed to him. Never shall I forget," says Living-
stone, the luxurious pleasure I enjoyed in feeling my-
self again on a good couch, after for six months sleep-
ing on the ground."
It took many days before he recovered, from the ex-
posure and fatigue he had endured. All that time he
was watched over with the most generous sympathy by
his kind host.
His men, while he was unable to attend to them, em-
ployed themselves in going into the country and cutting
firewood, which they sold to the inhabitants of the town.
Mr. Gabriel also found them employment in unloading
a collier, at sixpence a day. They continued at this
work for upwards of a month, astonished at the vast
amount of stones that burn which were taken out
of her. With the money they purchased clothing,
beads and other articles to carry home with them.
From the kind and generous treatment Livingstone
received from the Portuguese, they rose deservedly high
in his estimation.
He now prepared for his departure. The merchants
sent a present to Sekeletu, consisting of specimens of
all their articles of trade and two donkeys, that the breed
might be introduced into his country, as the tsetse can-
not kill those beasts. Livingstone was furnished- with


letters of recommendation to
the Portuguese authorities in
Eastern Africa.
They were now accom-
panied by their Portuguese
friends, the Londa people,
who inhabit the banks of the
They elaborately dress
their hair in a number of
ways. It naturally hangs
down on their shoulders in
large masses, which, with
their general features, gives
them a strong resemblance
to the ancient Egyptians.


Some of them twist their hair into a number of small
cords, which they stretch out to a hoop encircling the


head. Others adorn their heads with ornaments of
woven hair and hide, to which they suspend the tails
of buffaloes. Some weave the hair on pieces of hide
in the form of buffalo horns, projecting on either side
of the head. The young men twine their hair in
the form of a single horn, projecting over their fore-
head in front. They frequently tattoo their bodies,
producing figures in the form of stars. Although their
heads are thus elaborately adorned, their bodies are
almost naked.
Reaching Calongo, Livingstone directed his course
towards the territory of his old friend, Katema; which
they reached on June 2.
They now took their way across the level plain, which
had been flooded on their former journey. Vultures
were flying in the air, showing the quantity of carrion
which had been left by the waters.
They passed Lake Dilolo, a sheet of water six or
eight miles long and two broad. The sight of the blue
waters had a soothing effect on Livingstone, who was
suffering from fever, after his journey through the
gloomy forest and across the wide flat.
Old Shinti, whose capital they now reached, received
them in a friendly way, and supplied them with provi-
sions. They left with him a number of plants, among
which were orange, cashew, custard, apple, and fig-trees,
with coffee, acacias, and papaws, which he had brought
from Loanda. They were planted out in the enclosure
of one of his principal men, with a promise that Shinti
should have a share of them when grown.
They now again embarked in six small canoes on the
waters of the Leeba. Paddling down it, they next en-
tered the Leeambye. Here they found a party of hunt-

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