Group Title: Environmental Entomology, 30 (1). pp. 82-88.
Title: Performance of various trap types for monitoring populations of Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Species.
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Title: Performance of various trap types for monitoring populations of Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Species.
Series Title: Environmental Entomology, 30 (1). pp. 82-88.
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Liburd, Oscar E.
Stelinski, Lukasz L.
Gut, Larry J.
Thornton, Gary
Affiliation: University of Florida -- Entomology and Nematology Department
Publication Date: 2001
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Subject: Diptera   ( lcsh )
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Volume ID: VID00001
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PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLuN


Performance of Various Trap Types for Monitoring Populations of
Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Species

OSCAR E. LIBURD, LUKASZ L. STELINSKI, LARRY J. GUT, AND GARY THORNTON'
Department. i .i .... i. Center for Integrated Plant Systems, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824



Environ. Entomol. 30(1): 82-88 (2001)
ABSTRACT The eastern cherry fruit fly, '.. cingulata (Loew), and black cherry fruit fly,
R. fausta (Osten Sacken), are the most important insect pests of cherries Primus spp. in the eastern
and midwestern United States. In 1998, we studied the responses of cherry fruit fly species using the
recommended V-shaped Pherocon AM board. -- ..:. -",:: more R. cingulata flies were caught on
boards with aqueous solutions of ammonium baits compared with boards that had solid ammonium
baits mixed into the Tangle-Trap. Captures of R. fausta flies were low in 1998 and the weekly trapping
data never exceeded a total of five adults. In 1999, several commercial traps were evaluated including
the unbaited, three-dimensional Rebell trap and different types of ammonium baited spheres and
boards ., .. ..... a 9-cm-diameter red sphere, a modified version ofthe Ladd trap (L & S trap), and
the Pherocon AM yellow board in the vertical and V-shaped orientations. There were significantly
more R. fausta flies caught on unbaited Rebell traps compared with any other commercial traps
studied. Red sphere treatments (regardless of baiting system) consistently captured significantly
fewer R. fausta flies than any other treatment evaluated. For R. cingulata, total captures on unbaited
Rebell traps were not significantly different from other commercial traps including the 9-cm-
diameter red spheres baited with ammonium acetate mixed into the Tangle-Trap, L & S traps, and
the baited Pherocon AM yellow boards deployed in a vertical orientation. The study demonstrated
that the unbaited Rebell trap was the most effective and selective device evaluated for monitoring
R. fausta and R cingulata flies. In addition, red sphere (9-crm-diameter) traps were found ineffective
for use in R. fausta monitoring programs.

KEY WORDS Rhagoletis cingulata, Rhagoletis fausta, flies, traps


MICHIGAN PRODUCES 75% of the nations sour cherries,
Prunus ceras-s L., and -12% of sweet cherries, P.
avium (L.). The 1998 gross receipts from sour and
sweet cherries exceeded $50 million (Michigan Agri-
cultural Statistics 1998). Economically, the eastern
cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), and the
black cherry f .- 11 -., R. fausta (Osten Sacken), are the
two most important pests of cultivated cherries in the
eastern and midwestern United States (Frick et al.
1954). R. cingulata is the most abundant among the
two species and can be distinguished from the black
cherry fruit fly by the presence of white horizontal
bands across the abdomen (Howitt 1993).
Bush (1966) noted that R. cingulata and R. fausta
were .... 1.. -. .:1 distinct and _.- .:- .11 sep-
arated. In southwestern Michigan, both species
readily infest cultivated cherries. R. cingulata is the
dominant species and emerges from overwintering
sites -3 wk later than R. fausta. Although both species
j. ... infests cultivated cherries (Glasgow 1933),
there are clear-cut differences in native host prefer-
ences. The native host of R. cingulata is the wild black
cherry, P. serotina Ehrh., whereas R.Jfausta is confined
to pin cherry, P. pennsylvanica L. (Glasgow 1933).

1 Northwest Horticultural Research Center, Michigan State Uni-
versity, Traverse City, MI 49684.


Although the time spent on leaves versus fruit is a
function of time of day and weather, in cultivated
cherries, Smith (1984) found that R. cingulata spends
more time foraging on host fruit compared with leaves,
whereas Prokopy (1976) found R. fausta spends more
time on the leaves compared with the fruit of host
plants. In addition, R. cingulata oviposits into cherries
in the ". i stage (just before becoming ripe),
whereas R. fausta oviposits into the "full" green fruit.
The behavioral and ecological differences that exist
among the species may have implications for the de-
velopment of individual management tactics for R.
cingulata and R. fausta.
For almost three decades, cherry fruit 11 ... ,. .I
pest management (IPM) programs in Michigan have
relied on visual and i 1 i ,; traps to make control
decisions. The standard strategy adopted by most
growers involved the deployment of baited Pherocon
AM yellow sticky boards in cherry orchards (Prokopy
1975; Reissig 1976). The detection of one fly on a trap
. .. .1. i I I ,by ground and aerial applications
of insecticides, primarily organophosphates.
In an attempt to develop a reliable trap for moni-
toring R. cingulata, Prokopy (1975) found that sticky
. II rectangle traps, hung in the standard vertical
orientation, were just as effective in capturing R. cin-
gulata 1-. as any other traps and orientations evalu-


0046-225X/01/0082-0088$02.00/0 2001 Entomological Society of America






LIBURD ET AL.: BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS AMONG CHERRY FRUIT FLIES


ated. However, when sticky II cone traps were
hung in a 45-degree angle, with the apex-down, they
were _..:- ..-,1I more selective in captuing R. cin-
gulata flies than other trap orientations tested. In a
later study, Reissig (1976) also showed that yellow
panels folded into a 45-degree angle with the adhesive
outside were as effective and more selective in cap-
turing R. cingulata flies than standard vertical rectan-
gle yellow sticky boards. In his study, spheres baited
with 50% ammonium acetate solution attracted signif-
icantly more R. cingulata than R. fausta flies.
In studies with the related European cherry fruit fly,
Rhagoletis cerasi L., Russ et al. (1973) compared re-
sponses of R. cerasi to two and three-dimensional traps
in replicated field studies. He found that the response
of R. cerasi to three-dimensional traps was superior
compared with the two-dimensional sticky rectangu-
lar boards. Further investigations indicated that day-
light '11i.- *,: yellow was highly attractive to R.
cerasi and that a medium or large II surface (15
by 20 cm) captured significantly more flies than a
small, dark colored sphere mimicking the host fruit
(Boller 1969; Prokopy 1969; Prokopy and Boller 1971a,
1971b).
With another closely related species, the western
cherry fruit fly, R. indifferens Curran, AliNiazee
(1978) evaluated several types of traps including
Pherocon ICPY-MAGO, Pherocon AM yellow boards
and Saturn ii. spheres and found no significant
,:: i. .. in the response of R. indifferens to traps
deployed in replicated field experiments.
To date, management strategies for R. cingulata and
R. fausta have been combined, despite significant dif-
ferences in their behavioral response, host species
used for larval development, geographical location,
and variation in emergence patterns. Our hypothesis
was that management strategies for R. cingulata and R.
fausta should differ based on the individual behavioral
patterns within the two species. Our objectives were
to study the current monitoring techniques for both
species and then to develop appropriate trapping sys-
tems based on species ,... ,i responses to visual and
ii .. .. stim uli.

Materials and Methods
Research on the cherry fruit fly was conducted at
Hood's Orchard in southwest Michigan and at the
Michigan State University Northwest Horticultural
Research Station in Traverse City, MI. Hood's orchard
was selected as the study site because it has resident
populations of R. cingulata and R. fausta and a 10-ha
block of tart cherries, P. avium. The site at the North-
west Research Station (Traverse City) consisted of a
5-ha block of sweet cherries with two cultivars, 'Na-
poleon' and 'Hedelfingen'. R. cingulata is the dominant
species at the Northwest Research Station but small
numbers of R. fausta are caught occasionally on mon-
itoring traps.
Experimental designs were completely randomized
blocks (blocked by sweet cherry cultivars at the
Northwest Station) with four replicates. Traps were


hung within cherry canopies on the south side (ex-
posed to sunrays) -0.3 m from fruit and foliage. The
foliage immediately surrounding the traps was cleared
to prevent any interference between hung traps and
the tree canopy (Drummond et al. 1984). Traps were
spaced 20 m apart, with -30 m between blocks. Traps
were replaced (with new traps) after each trapping
period of -3 wk in 1998. In 1999, traps were changed
at -4 wk intervals in the first half of the season and
3-wk intervals in the second half. All traps were ro-
tated on a weekly basis.
1998. Only the Hood's orchard site was used for our
studies in 1998. Research was designed to assess the
visual and ': , i response of R. cingulata and R.
fausta to the recommended V trap with various arnm-
monium bait formulations (. .1. 1975, Reissig
1976). Unbaited Pherocon AM II sticky boards
obtained from Great Lakes IPM (Vestaburg. MI) were
hung in V-shaped orientation (folded into a 45-degree
angle with apex downward and sticky surface out-
ward) because Prokopy (1975) and Reissig (1976)
found this orientation to be highly selective in cap-
turing R. cingulata flies.
Five treatments (:i were evaluated by either
placing baits into attached vials or incorporating bait
formulations into the 13 g of Tangle-Trap on .. .11
unbaited Pherocon AM II sticky boards. Treat-
ments consisted of 2.0 g of ammonium acetate and 0.5 g
protein hydrolysate (Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI), 2.0 g of
ammonium acetate without protein hydrolysate,
aqueous ammonium acetate solution containing 2.0 g
of ammonium acetate and 0.5 g of protein hydrolysate
dissolved in 4 rl of water, aqueous arnmonium acetate
solution containing 2.0 g of ammonium acetate with-
out protein hydrolysate. The fifth treatment (control)
consisted of a Pherocon AM :1 board without
bait.
Treatments that included solid ammonium baits
were thoroughly mixed into the Tangle-Trap on a
yellow sticky board just before field deployment.
Treatments consisting of aqueous ammonium solu-
tions were placed into scintillation vials (National
Diagnostics, Atlanta, GA) and plugged with cotton
wool (Liburd et al. 1999). Vials were then securely
fastened in the upper corner of the trap with masking
tape and reinforced with staples.
1999. In addition to comparing responses of R. cin-
gulata and R. fausta to the recommended Pherocon
AM yellow board in the V-orientation, we also wanted
to evaluate other . ....... .. I .11 I traps used for
monitoring key Rhagoletis species. Both sites (Hood
Orchard and the Northwest Horticultural Research
Station) were used in our 1999 field studies.
1999 Hood Orchard Study. Two treatments were
selected from our 1998 study for further investigation
in 1999. These treatments were the recommended
Pherocon AM il sticky board ( -- ._.* I orien-
tation) baited with aqueous ammonium acetate solu-
tion as previously described, and a Pherocon AM yel-
low sticky board (V-shaped orientation) baited with
2.0 g of ammonium acetate and 0.5 g protein hydro-
lysate mixed within Tangle-Trap. Four new treat-


February 2001






ENVIRONMENTAL ENTOMOLOGY


ments (totaling six) were evaluated at this site. These
were an unbaited three-dimensional cross-shaped Re-
bell trap (Swiss Federal Research Station, -i ..- -i:
Switzerland) used extensively in Europe for monitor-
ing the European cherry f,,.,: :' (Boller 1969, Russ et
al. 1973), a 9-cm-diameter red sphere (Great Lakes
IPM, Vestaburg, MI) baited with 2.0 g of ammonium
acetate and 0.5 g protein hydrolysate mixed into 13 g
of Tangle-Trap (Liburd et al. 1998), a 9-cm-diameter
red sphere baited with aqueous ammonium solution
containing 2.0 g of ammonium acetate in 4 ml of water,
a modified version of the Ladd trap (L & S trap)
consisting of II background with a 9-cm-red
hemisphere (the L & S trap was baited with 2.0 g of
ammonium acetate and 0.5 g protein hydrolysate
mixed into 16 g of Tangle-Trap).
1999 Northwest Horticultural Research Station.
The same experiment described above for the Hood's
Orchard site in 1999 was replicated at the Northwest
Horticultural Station in Traverse City. However, an
additional treatment was included in the Northwest
study. This seventh treatment consisted of a baited
Pherocon AM yellow sticky board deployed in a ver-
tical orientation. The additional treatment was in-
cluded because we observed that the , : of com-
mercial cherry growers in Michigan were ...... : .
boards deployed in a vertical orientation for monitor-
ing instead of the recommended V-orientation.
Sampling. R. cingulata and R. fausta flies caught on
traps were counted by sex and removed from traps
twice per week. Unwanted insects were left on traps
in the the field. In 1999, traps were .J 1, inspected
in the field at least once per wk for selectivity in
capturing R. cingulata and R. fausta flies.
Statistical Analysis. Data from all three experiments
were square-root transformed (x + 0.5) and then
subjected to an analysis of variance. Least significant
i..t:- .. (LSD) tests were used to show treatment
mean differences (P= 0.05) (SAS Institute 1989). The
untransformed means and standard errors are pre-
sented in tables and :, .. Data on trap selectivity
were recorded as the percentage of R. cingulata or R.
fausta in relation to other insects captured on the trap.

Results
1998. Response of R. cingulata to Visual and Olfac-
tory Stimuli. Our 1998 experiments showed that dur-
ing the first part of the season (25 June-14 July)
significantly (F = 4.3; df = 4, 12; P = 0.02) more R.
dcingulata flies were caught on traps baited with an
aqueous solution of dissolved ammonium acetate with
or without protein hydrolysate than on traps baited
with ammonium crystals mixed into the Tangle-Trap
(Table 1). On an average, traps baited with aqueous
solutions of dissolved ammonium acetate captured
more than three times as many flies as any other baited
or unbaited traps during this period (Table 1).
The responses of R. cingulata during the second
trapping period (21 July-9 August) were similar to
those observed during the first trapping period. Sig-
nificantly (F = 2.2; df = 4,12; P = ** ) more :, were


Table 1. Attraction of R. cingulata flies to Pherocon AM
V-traps, Hood's Orchard, Paw Paw, Ml (1998)

Mean + SEM
no flies per trap
Pherocon AM/V-trap 25 June 21 July
14 July 9 August
2 g ammonium acetate 3.0 1.3b 1.8 0.8b
2 g ammonium acetate I 0.5 g 3.3 0.5b 1.3 0.5b
protein hydrolysate
2 g ammonium acetate + 0.5 g 11.8 3.3a 14.3 7.2a
protein hydrolysate/4 ml water
2 g annonium acetate/4 ml water 10.8 3.0a 12.0 7.3ab
No bait 2.5 0.9b 6.8 2.9ab

Means in the same column followed by the same letter are not
significantly different, (P = 0.05, LSD test).


captured on Pherocon AM V-traps baited with aque-
ous ammonium acetate compared with traps baited
with solid ammonium acetate or ammonium acetate
and protein hydrolysate mixed into the Tangle-Trap
(Table 1). Overall, traps baited with aqueous ammo-
niurn baits captured more than six times as many flies
as traps baited with solid ammonium baits mixed into
the Tangle-Trap (Table 1). R. cingulata fly captures on
unbaited Pherocon AM traps did not differ signifi-
cantly from captures on traps baited with any form
(solid or aqueous) of ammonium baits (Table 1).
Overall, there were no significant differences in the
performance of Pherocon AM boards baited with
aqueous solutions containing dissolved ammonium ac-
etate bait (2 g) or aqueous solutions of ammonium
acetate plus protein hydrolysate (Table 1). In addi-
tion, there were no significant. il .. ..... traps
baited with solid ammonium acetate and traps baited
with ammonium acetate and protein hydrolysate (Ta-
ble 1). Over the entire season, significantly (F = 83;
df = 1, 2; P < 0.01) more R. cingulata females than
males were caught on traps baited with an aqueous
solution of dissolved ammonium baits. The population
of R. fausta was extremely low and weekly trapping
data never exceeded a total of five adult flies.
1999. Response of R. fausta to Commercial Traps.
Unlike in 1998, high populations of R. fast .i.,h It..
were present during our 1999 field study in south-
western Michigan and highly significant differences
were observed among the traps evaluated (Table 2).
Significantly (F = 54; df = 5, 15; P < 0.01) more R.
S. ... .. ... ,.,* 1. Ihell traps compared with
other commercial traps evaluated during the first trap-
ping period (Table 2). Overall. the I I.. 1: trap caught
twice as many flies as any other trap evaluated during
the trapping period 6 June 2 July (Table 2). There
were no significant differences in captures on baited
Pherocon AM -. II boards or the L & S trap baited
with ammonium acetate (Table 2). Baited 9-cm-di-
ameter red spheres consistently captured significantly
fewer R. fausta flies than any other treatment evalu-
ated during the trapping period 6 June 2 July (Table
2). In fact, at least 30 times more flies were captured
on baited Pherocon AM boards compared with red
spheres during the first trapping period (Table 2).


Vol. 30, no. 1







LIBURD ET AL.: BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS AMONG CHERRY FRUIT FLIES


Table 2. Attraction of R. fausta flies to traps of various designs,
baits and orientations, Hood's Orchard, Paw Paw, MI (1999)

Mean + SEM
no flies per trap
Trap design/ orientation/lure
6 June 5 July
2 July 16 July


Pherocon AM/V-trap/2 g ammonium
acetate + 0.5 g protein hydrolysate
Pherocon AM/V-trap/vial 2 g
ammonium acetate in 4 ml water
Rebell
Red sphere (9 cm diam)/2 g
ammonium acetate + 0.5 g protein
hydrolysate
Red sphere (9 cm diam) /vial 2 g
ammonium acetate in 4 ml water
L & S (modified Ladd trap) /2 g
ammonium acetate


15.3 + 9.2b 9.8 3.3ab


250 -250
Pherocon AM yellow board Pherocon AM yellow board
200 V-trap / 2 g AA & 0.5 g PH 200 V-trap / vial 2 g AA
150 150
100 100
50 50
"'oo^ ^ loo^ --
,\ ---- --o^ / ___ so"


49.0 10.7b 15.5 1.3a 250 250
Red sphere (9-cm diam) Red sphere (9-cm diam)
S200 2 g AA & 0.5 g PH 200 vial 2 g AA
101.3 23.5a 20.5 8.0a
1.5 0.3c 0.0 1 0.0c 15so0 150
100 100
1.5 1.2c 0.0 O. Oc o50

33.8 1.8b 9.3 5.6b 0 0


Means in the same column followed by the same letter are not
significantly different, (F = 0.05, LSD test).



Moreover, the highly attractive unbaited t1. I i trap
caught 67 times more R. fausta flies than either of the
red sphere treatments (Table 2).
Responses of R. fausta "i. during the second trap-
ping period, 21 July-9 August, :. i. the same pat-
tern as those observed during the *' .... period.
The unbaited Rebell trap and Pherocon AM yellow
board baited with a vial containing aqueous ammo-
nium acetate captured 1.,: ...1 I (F = 15.6; df = 5,
15; P < 0.01) more R. fausta flies than the L & S trap.
However, captures of R. fausta on Pherocon AM V-
traps baited with 2 g of ammonium acetate mixed into
the Tangle-Trap did not differ significantly from cap-
tures on the experimental L & S trap. Both the Rebell
trap and Pherocon AM board captured ._.,:. ,., ..
(P < 0.05) more R. fausta than either of the red sphere
treatments. In fact, we did not catch any R. fausta flies
on red spheres during this trapping period (Table 2).
Throughout the entire trapping period I. ,.. ...11
(F = 49; df = 1, 2; P < 0.01) more R. fausta females than
males were captured on the unbaited Rebell trap and
the baited Pherocon AM boards, whereas such a dif-
ference was not recorded with other traps evaluated
(Fig. 1). There were no significant differences among
male and female captures for baited red spheres and
L & S traps (Fig. 1). Throughout the trapping periods,
the iw.I- -.. : I... :I trap was the most selective device
capturing >75% of R. fausta, compared with ammo-
nium baited red spheres (mixed into the Tangle-Trap)
and Pherocon AM boards in V-orientation (with vial),
which captured 10 and 43%, respectively, of R. Jausta
flies. In 1999, captures of R. cingualta remained very
low at the Hood's Orchard research site and weekly
counts never exceeded four flies.
1999. Response of R. cingulata to Commercial
Traps. Responses of R. cingulata to commercial traps
at the Northwest Horticultural Research Station dur-
ing the first trapping period were different from those
observed for R. fausta exposed to the same stimuli at
Hlood's Orchard. The Rebell trap, which captured sig-
nificantly more R. fausta than any other trap at the


250 250
5 L&S trap
200 Rebell 200 2gAA & 0.5 g PH
150 / 150
100 100




Date
Fig. 1. Response of adult R. fausta to traps of various
designs, baits and orientations, Southwest MI (1999)
[ ... Male; -Female]

Hood's Orchard research site did not catch signifi-
cantly more R. cingulata than red spheres (9 cm di-
ameter) baited with 2 g of ammonium acetate and 0.5 g
of protein hydrolysate mixed into the Tangle-Trap
(Table 3). Furthermore, captures of R. cingulata on
.. : II traps did not differ ..I. .... from captures
on the L & S trap (Table 3).
The experimental Pherocon AM boards in the ver-
tical orientation (commonly used by growers) baited

Table 3. Attraction of R. cingulata flies to traps of various
designs, baits and orientations, Northwest Horticultural Research
Station, Traverse City, MI (1999)

Mean SEM
no. flies per trap
Trap design /orientation/ lure 1 fly- 30 trap
1 July 30 July
26 July 17 August
Pherocon AM/V-trap/2 g 35.5 13.9bc 6.8 3.2b
ammonium acetate + 0.5 g
protein hydrolysate
Pherocon AM/V-trap/vial 2 g 53.3 17.6bc 17.8 8.1ab
ammonium acetate in 4 ml water
Pherocon AM/vertical (standard) /2 85.8 26.6ab 23.8 13.3ab
g ammonium acetate + 0.5 g
protein hydrolysate
Rebell 98.8 34.4a 49.0 22.8a
Red sphere (9 cm diam) /2 g 84.5 29.3ab 17.3 5.3ab
ammonium acetate + 0.5 g
protein hydrolysate
Red sphere (9 cm diam) /vial 2 g 17.0 7.6c 6.3 b 3.0b
ammonium acetate in 4 ml water
L & S (modified Ladd trap) /vial 2 g 67.0 1 18.8ab 17.8 5.7ab
ammonium acetate

Means in the same column followed by the same letter are not
significantly different, (P = 0.05, LSD test).


February 2001






ENVIRONMENTAL ENTOMOLOGY


with 2 g of ammonium acetate and 0.5 g of protein
hydrolysate captured statistically as many flies as the
Rebell, red spheres (without vial) and the L & S trap
(Table 3). However, R. cingulata captures on Phero-
con AM i. boards deployed in a V-orientation
were . ...:1 (F = 3.0; df= 6, 18;P = 0.03) lower
than those on .. I.. !: traps regardless of the baiting
system used (Table 3). During the first trapping pe-
riod, Pherocon AM yellow boards in the V-orientation
captured 1.9 times fewer flies when baited with a vial
containing aqueous ammonium acetate solution, and
2.8 times fewer flies, when baited with 2.0 g of am-
monium acetate and 0.5 g of protein hydrolysate mixed
into the Tangle-Trap relative to captures on the Rebell
trap (Table 3). During that same period, R. cingulata
captures on these 5. I .- boards did not differ signif-
icantly from captures on red spheres baited with a vial
containing aqueous ammonium acetate solution or the
L & S trap (Table 3). During the second trapping
period the .. 1.. II trap did not capture .1 ) : ill
more R. cingulata flies than the other treatments eval-
uated.
Throughout both trapping periods, there were no
significant IT ...... in male and female captures on
:, I... ~,, types for ..... .. I,. Theunbaited
i. : : trap was the most selective device evaluated,
capturing >70% of R. cingulata flies, compared with
the ammonium baited red spheres (mixed into the
Tangle-Trap) and Pherocom AM boards in V-orien-
tation, which only captured -55 and 46%, respec-
tively, of R. cingulata flies.

Discussion
Our study demonstrated that the three-dimen-
sional, t.,.. ,.:. .: i.. : :1 trap was the most effective and
selective device evaluated for capturing R. fausta flies.
During the first trapping period, the unbaited Rebell
trap caught considerably more R. fausta flies than any
other traps examined. In addition, the I. I. :I trap
caught the first R. fausta fly 4 d earlier than the other
traps studied at the Hoods Orchard research site. In
Michigan, early detection of R. '. Ji. .* .. .. :
successful management of cherry fruit flies. R. fausta
flies begin to lay eggs -7 9 d after emergence, and
>10% of the entire population is likely to emerge
within 1 2 wk of the first fly emergence (Liburd and
Stelinski 1999). Therefore, growers must detect flies
early to select the most appropriate management tac-
tics for meeting the stringent zero tolerance (for
cherry maggot) policy regulated by Federal laws. In
Europe, the three-dimensional Rebell trap has been
the most effective device used for detecting early
populations of the European cherry fruit fly for more
than two decades (Russ et al. 1973).
During the second trapping period, R. fausta re-
sponses to baited Pherocon AM boards were not sta-
tistically different from those observed for the Rebell
traps, irrespective of the baiting system used. We do
not know the reasons for the shift in response of R.
fausta to these commercial traps during the second
trapping period. During the first trapping period, traps


were out in the orchard for about a week before the
majority of flies were caught. Perhaps, during that
time, the Pherocon AM boards may have lost the bulk
of their odor power. Replacement Pherocon AM
boards on 5 July (second trapping period) may have
b( :. .,: . .:..1, and lost power toward the end
of the season when fewer flies were caught. Other
factors that may have contributed to the shift in re-
sponse of i. fausta flies include the ripening of cher-
ries, fly maturation, ... .. : ...... .1.,
and residential 1l populations.
Another crucial observation from a management
standpoint was that during both trapping periods
there was very little attraction of R. fausta flies to
9-cm-diarneter red spheres. This observation has par-
ticular relevance for management programs in Mich-
igan as some growers in the state rely on red spheres
(9 cm diameter) for monitoring both species of cherry
fruit fly. Our results indicate that the practice of using
red spheres (9 cm diameter) for monitoring R. cingu-
lata may be a viable tactic but a completely futile
approach for R. fausta management. It is possible that
the 9-erm-diameter spheres were too large, and thus
beyond the range of supernormal stimulus effective
for attracting R. fausta Il..
In 1998, the tart cherries at the Hood Orchard re-
search site became infested with brown rot Monilinia
fructicola (G. Wint.) disease in mid-July. The diseased
cherries rotted and wilted before peak oviposition of
R. cingulata flies, but after R. faista larvae had already
exited the fruit. This was the primary reason for the
low captures of R. cingulata I.. in 1999.
The response of R. cingulata to the unbaited Rebell
trap was not as dramatic (compared with other traps)
as that of R. fausta. Although the majority of R. cin-
gulata flies were found on 1.. I II traps during both
trapping periods, these counts were not statistically
.:. i. ..0 from those recorded for the 9-cm-diameter
red spheres or the baited Pherocon AM board in the
vertical orientation. However, the Rebell trap (non-
baited) was the most selective device tested, capturing
>70% of R. cingulata :i,. compared with baited red
spheres (mixed into the Tangle-Trap) and vial baited
Pherocom AM boards in V-orientation, which only
captured -55 and 46%, respectively, of fi. cingulata
flies. This high degree of selectivity may be owing to
the fact that the Rebell trap is unbaited, and therefore
large numbers of other Dipteran insects that are usu-
ally attracted to the ammonia of baited II boards
and red spheres were avoided.
The -. 1 11 superiority of the unbaited Rebell trap
sterns from its visual attractiveness to both fi. fausta
and R. cingulata flies. The trap is comprised of two thin
( .1... ..... r mm thick) plastic panels that snugly
fit into each other, creating a three-dimensional, cross-
shaped structure. This configuration appears to pro-
vide a greater field of visual stimulus (regardless of fly
approach) to R. fausta flies, which spend the bulk of
their time foraging on host leaves. The three dimen-
sional plastic Rebell trap is pigmented with daylight
II. ... .* yellow color, the "II.. . of which is
maintained throughout the course of the season. Al-


Vol. 30, no. 1






LIBURD ET AL.: BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS AMONc CHERRY FRUIT FLIES


ternatively, the I..l ,.i Pherocon AM II traps
have a greater tendency to decay, becoming tarnished
and losing 1 .. i :1. color during a ty. .1 1, .J -
summer (because of heavy rain and sun exposure).
Our 1998 findings supported the earlier work of
Prokopy (1975) and Reissig (1976) that Pherocon AM
,. II : ... .. the V-orientation appeared to be: ., I
selective to R. cingulata. However, the degree of se-
lectivity of the V-orientation was lesser when com-
pared with the Rebell trap. Our 1998 results demon-
strated that traps baited with aqueous solutions
containing dissolved ammonium acetate crystals were
three to six times as attractive as traps baited with
ammonium acetate crystals embedded in the Tangle-
Trap. These results were similar to those observed by
Reissig (1976) who also found that baiting yellow
boards in the V-orientation with ammonium acetate
solution increases the attractiveness to R. cingulata
II.. compared with other ammonium baits mixed into
the Tangle-Trap.
The low counts of R.jausta flies during the 1998 field
season were probably due to the late establishment of
the experiment (25 June). We subsequently learned
that this was after peak emergence of R. fausta in
southern Michigan. Populations of R. fausta -.. ill
emerge -3 wk earlier than R. cingulata. This situation
was corrected in 1999 by starting the experiment -3
wk earlier.
We observed differences based on sex in the re-
sponse of R.cirngulata and R. fausta to the 1'.
foliage-mimicking traps with or without ammonia. A
higher percentage of R. fausta females compared with
males were attracted to the unbaited Rebell trap and
the Pherocon AM yellow boards. In contrast, both
male and female R. cingulata responded with near
equal- .. :. ...... to these commercial traps. This dif-
ference in species response was observed throughout
both trapping periods and did not appear to change as
flies matured. We conclude that. II foliage-mim-
icking colors and ammonium volatiles serve as stimuli
for both sexes of R. cingulata. However, these same
stimuli appear to be -. i ,,11. more important to R.
fausta females than males for host or mate finding and
recognition. Perhaps the response R. fausta males is
guided by different stimuli while foraging.
Our research demonstrates that the Rebell trap is
the single most effective and selective device that is
commercially available for monitoring both R. fausta
and R. cirgulata. The study also showed that red
spheres (9 cm diameter) are ineffective for monitor-
ing R. fausta. However, spheres can be used in man-
agement programs for R. cingulata. This difference in
attraction to spherical traps between the species has
future ;.,.:.i. .:.. .. in control programs using the re-
cently developed insecticide-treated sphere technol-
ogy (Hu et al. 1998, Liburd et al. 1999). The potential
use of red or black insecticide-treated spheres may be
a viable future strategy for the management of R.
cingulata but not R. fausta. A possible future research
direction for the control of R. fausta is the develop-
ment of a I: three-dimensional, nonstick, insec-
ticide-treated device.


Acknowledgments
We thank Hood's Orchard and the Northwest Horticul-
tural Research Center for the use of their cherry plantings.
We thank Ronald J. Prokopy and Steven R. Aim for critical
review of earlier drafts of the manuscript. We thank Dan
Youngfor ... ... -. ......i,._ ..! J.: .. W also
thank the staff at the Trevor Nichols Research Complex and
Northwest Horticultural Research Center for their valuable
assistance on this project. Also, we thank Jill Bockenstette for
her help in making tables :- 1. i manuscript. The
researchreportedhere was supportedby U. .... i...
Grant No. 61-4058.


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Received for pubication 21 March 2000; accepted 16 August
2000.


Vol. 30, no. 1




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