Front Cover
 Front Matter

Group Title: gem of the Caribbean,
Title: The gem of the Caribbean
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083844/00001
 Material Information
Title: The gem of the Caribbean
Series Title: gem of the Caribbean,
Physical Description: 88 p. : illus. (partly col.) fold. pl., fold. map. ; 21cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wright, Irene Aloha, 1879-1972
Publisher: The Isle of Pines publicity company
Place of Publication: Isle of Pines
Publication Date: 1909
Subject: Description and travel -- Isle of Pines   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Cuba
Statement of Responsibility: by I.A. Wright; illustrated from photographs especially taken for this publication by W.H. Wark.
General Note: p. 61-88, advertising matter.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083844
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01875728
alephbibnum - 000141677
lccn - 09007420

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
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Full Text

The Getnof the



Illustrated from Photographs especially taken for
this publication by W. H. WARK, of
The American Photo Company
Obispo 70o, Havana, Cuba

Published by
A. E. WILLIS, Presidenr W. H. WAK, \' Vice Pred;ident
D 0. C IIlDR.. iei.ecnr.Tie,.,rel


Co iElrl. l'it,1 by The l1le [F Pir,!Ep PublicirS Co.

". A spot endowed by the
hand of Providence with so many
blessings, willfully denied to her
by men incapable of correct judg-
ment, and who may, fortuitously,
in the course of time, stand in need
of her favors."-Dr. Jose de la Luz
Hernandez, in his. "Memoir on the
Salubrity of the Isle of Pines."

"Know'st thou the land? 'Tis there the lemon blooms;
'Bove shady groves the golden orange looms."

Colombo Headland and Beach, Where the Discoverer Landed

' HRISTOPHER COLUMBUS discovered the
SIsle of Pines in June, 1492; he sighted it
on St. John's Day and named it The Evangelist.
In search of provisions and water he landed,
presumably on the beach under Colombo Head-
land, so named in his honor.
Having obtained the water, at least, he and his men re-
embarked and picked their way back, as they had come, over
shoals and reefs, to the first, and as yet the only, European
settlement in the New World, at Isabella, on the north coast
of the Island of Hayti.
The traveller of today reaches the Isle by steamer.
The steamship "Cristobal Colon," a clean, comfortable
vessel, operated by the Isle of Pines Steamship Company, plies
between the Isle of Pines and Bataban6, on the southern coast

of Cuba, clearing from the latter port on Wednesdays and
Saturday on arrival there of the train which leaves the United
Railways' station of Villanueva, in Havana, at 5:50 p. m.
She is due to arrive in Jiicaro at 5 a. m., and Nueva Gerona at
8 o'clock, of the following Thursdays and Sundays. She
returns to Cuba from the Isle of Pines on Mondays and Fri-


A ^ ^ ^*-. i

'k ,:

The Steamship Cristobal Colon

days, clearing from Nueva Gerona at 5 p. m., and from Jilcaro
at 7, to connect with the train leaving Bataban6 for Havana at
5:15 a. m., of the following Tuesdays and Saturdays.
The steamer "Veguero," belonging to the Vuelta Abajo
Steamship Company, clears from Bataban6 every Friday morn-
ing for the Isle of Pines on arrival there of the train which
leaves Havana at 5:40 a. m., from Villanueva Station, arriving
at her destination about 5 o'clock in the afternoon.

The Steamship Veguero Leaving Jucaro Landing

Which of the two vessels the traveller takes depends
entirely on whether he wishes to make the journey by day, on
the "Veguero," when bright sunlight plays through the
waters over which he passes, displaying all the brilliance of
marine plant and animal life existing in its shallows, or
whether he prefers to go by night, on the "Cristobal Colon,"
when a southern moon illumines the still expanse of all that
quiet sea.
The trip from Havana, chief city of Cuba, to Bataban6, the
port of embarkation for the Isle, is made in two hours' time.

Jucaro Landing


Moonlight on the Caribbean Sea
Custom House and Wharf at Nueva Gerona
Havana itself is accessible by way of a dozen steamship lines
connecting it with Galveston, New Orleans, Mobile, Tampa,
Key West, Miami, New York and Boston.
So, thanks to modern conveniences in transportation, the
journey to the Isle of Pines today is not what it was at the
time his fear of grounding and wreck on uncharted reefs and
bars kept the First Admiral awake night and day, until he
sickened from exhaustion and never, in fact, regained his shat-
tered health.



SOLUMBUS makes no mention of inhabitants on
the Isle, but it was peopled then by an Indian
tribe, governed by a chief and a council of old
men. The tribe was at peace with itself, but at
war with any and all tribes on the main island
of Cuba; but none of these could prevail over
the Isle Indians. They owned no masters, till the white man
came, encroaching from north and east. As he advanced they
retreated to south and west, and disappeared, leaving behind
them only an indefinite name,-"Los Indios," (The Indians)-
applied to a district along the Siguanea shore, and to keys
outside that bay, which were, perhaps, the last stand of a
vanishing people.
The Isle lies south of Cuba, opposite the narrowest part
of that insular mainland, to which an elevation of fifty feet in
the fifty miles of intervening sea bottom would connect it by

Santa F6 River near Ojo de Agua

A Princess of Camaraco
(Camaraco, the Indian name for the Isle of Pines)

dry land, as once, in ages past, it undoubtedly was attached.
Its longitude is given as 820 24" west, latitude, 210 28' 15"
Its area is estimated at 900,000 acres.
Of these, 300,000 lie south of Lanier Swamp, which divides
the Isle into two.
This South Coast, as it is called, is a wilderness of giant
hardwood trees, mahogany, majagua, cedar and a hundred
other highly prized varieties, growing sturdy and tall from a
soil so scarce among the jagged rocks that support the jungle
there it seems impossible it could afford sufficient nourish-
ment to that luxuriant growth.
Americans own three-fourths of this wild district, where
a fortune awaits transportation facilities.

Inhabitants are few. They congregate in huddled,
weather-faded huts on the rocky ledge of the southermost
shore, where there are a few coves into which light-draught
schooners venture in search of the little hardwood that is
exported, mainly in the shape of tobacco poles for the province
of Pinar del Rio. These residents (there are some eighty
families) are mulattoes and blacks, natives of Grand Cayman
(a British islet still further south) and Jamaica, and they speak
English with "an English accent." They are descendants in
blood of the old buccaneers and they know the shores of the
Isle of Pines better than "native" or American, either, today.
Across the marsh (named for Lt. D. Alejo Helvecio
Lanier, who made the first scientific map of the Isle, in 1831),
runs a narrow strip of coral rock, used as a trail between the
South Coast and the northern section of the Isle, when, as is
the case two months only in the year, it is not submerged.*
Usually, when one ventures to the South Coast, it is by
schooner or by launch, skirting the shore.

The South Coast, as seen from the San Pedro Hills
The Whitney Land Company


HE northern portion of the Isle of Pines,-which
is the Isle proper, as generally known,-is of a
nature entirely different from that evident in
the South Coast. It consists of a plain, level or
undulating; its general elevation is 75 to 125
feet above tide. Over these plains countless
little streams work their way, joining waters to form the half
dozen rivers of volume; a growth of trees larger and greener
than found elsewhere mark their courses across country.
Rising from the general plain are mountains, in ridges,
and isolated peaks; Bibijagua and Colombo, jutting pictur-

Streams Overshadowed with Bamboo, Palms Marble Cliffs of Casas
and Wild Fruit Trees Mountain

esquely into the sea; Casas and Caballos standing guard on
each side of Nueva Gerona; Daguilla, in the southeast and
Cafiada in the west, are among the most important. The ap-
proximate height of the latter is 1507 feet.

The Isle has valuable mineral resources. It was examined
in 1901 by three geologists, Messrs. C. Willard Hayes, T.
Wayland Vaughan and Arthur C. Spencer, who made a recon-
naissance of Cuba under the direction of Major General
Leonard Wood, then Military Governor.

Typical River Scene on the Treasure Chest on Bibijagua Beach, Discovered
Santa F6 by a Pleasure Party of Americans

In some places, as at Santa Fe, and in the valley of the
Mal Pais River, they found deposits of manganese.
In the west they found indications of the presence of iron
ore. In the Sierra de la Siguanea, where Lanier Swamp meets
Siguanea Bay, very pure hematite was picked up, though no
veins of workable size were discovered.
These geologists called attention, in their report, to the
fact that the white quartz sands of the Isle beaches are valu-
able for building purposes; that "mal pais" gravel, which
abounds in all the northern section, is the best of road-making
material; and that Daguilla diorite is admirably adapted for
They examined Caballos Mountain and found it made of
marble, the beds being most conveniently laid for working.
The marble ranges in quality from statuary white to less per-
fect grades, good for inside finishing and outdoor work. Casas
Mountain is likewise one immense marble bed, though less
well known.
For three hundred years after its discovery the Isle of
Pines (which early dropped its pious title of The Evangelist
-4r 'to assume that one it still wears (Isla de Pinos, in Spanish)
suggested, unquestionably, by the pine forests which cover its

,Four Year Old Trees

northern portion) was better known to buccaneers of the
Spanish Main than it was to any representatives of the Spanish
Monarchs, in whose name the discoverer proclaimed over it a
sovereignty they could not maintain against English and
Dutch marauders, "thieves by land and by sea," who made
their rendezvous there.
Their craft lay at ease in the river mouths, hidden from
view by the twisted mangrove growth that fringes them, and
safe from pursuit, since only the pirates knew the shallows and
deeps of the treacherous waters along those coasts. From the
Isle they sallied forth, to harry the shores of Vuelta Abajo, to
raid the towns of eastern and central Cuba, and the Pearl
Coast and Panama; to threaten Havana and Cartagena in all
their pride, and even to attack the plate fleets themselves,
escorted though they were by royal men-o'-war. Many a great
galleon they boarded and looted, removing treasure in coin
and bar, and gold and silver gauds the Spanish conquerors had
wrung from tribal kings on the continent; this plunder they
brought to the Isle of Pines for division, and some of it was
buried in secret caches for safe-keeping.

Before the year 1600 white settlers from Cuba had estab-
lished themselves on the Isle of Pines. They lived in huts
along the shore and fished and hunted for their food. In 1596
Drake massacred all of them that he could lay sword to; before

A Native Hut Along the Casas River

Pines of the Isle (On the San Juan Plantation)

the Captain-General of Cuba could avenge such an insult to his
authority "The English Dragon" had sailed away, leaving
behind a memory of horror that effectively checked for years
all attempt at further colonization of the Isle.
In 1630 the Spanish Sovereign, theretofore hardly aware
that he owned it, presented the Isle entire,-a kingly gift!-to
one Captain Hernando Pedroso, and by inheritance it passed
on. until, in 1716, it was the property of two brothers, Nicolas
and Francisco Duarte; when Francisco died, Nicolas pur-
chased his share from the widow, and thus became sole lord
of a magnificent domain.

It was Nicolas Duarte who, in 1728, commissioned a
French expert, named M. Gelabert, to establish the first cattle
ranches; they were San Juan and Santa Fe, and comprised
approximately the territory of tracts still bearing those same
names, administered now by the San Juan and the Santa F6
(both American) land companies.
And while M. Gelabert was busied in the southwest, Sr.
D. Francisco Abella, also acting on orders from D. Nicolas
Duarte, was as fully occupied in the north and east, where he
built up still other great cattle ranges. Before D. Nicolas
died he had divided the Isle into seven estates, which he left,
one each, to his seven sons.


One of these inheritors, D. Francisco Javier Duarte, was
named first "capitan a guerra" (a post somewhat correspond-
ing to that of governor) of the Isle, in 1763. He was shortly
succeeded by his son, D. Domingo Duarte, and after him came
D. Andres Acosta y Duarte, appointed to the post in 1765.
None of them found the captaincy grateful; in vain they
asked Havana for the authority necessary to bring immigrants
to the Isle; the Captain-General of Cuba, Count de Ricla,
while evincing far more interest in, and knowledge of, the
Isle than any of his predecessors had shown, realized that he

Sheep Ranch Benito Ortiz, near Nueva Gerona

could not defend the place and he was, therefore, loath to
make it any more inviting to raiders than they already found
it, every now and then. In vain, too, these early governors
pleaded with the spiritual authorities to establish a parish
church in the Isle; the district was part of the diocese of
Quivican, in Cuba, and Quivican was loath to lose even such
isolated and neglected stray sheep as the "pineros" certainly
were at that early date.
In 1765, too, the Isle was first formally organized as a
political part of Cuba; Captain-General Count de Ricla made
it a "partido" and in 1773 his successor, Marquis de la Torre,
gi.P levied the first taxes,-a certain number of cattle to be con-
tributed annually to the public supply of Havana.

Cattle Ranch Benito Ortiz, near Nueva Gerona


For the cattle industry flourished in the Isle in those
days. In 1792 there were twenty great estates, owned among
three landlord families,-the Duartes, the Selavers and the
Zayas. Fourteen thousand three hundred and seventy-six
head of live stock they counted, in all. Their herds ranged
free. They pastured on the grass and aromatic plants of the
valleys and drank at the running streams. The hogs fattened
on the berry that falls from the royal palm. They were
rounded up by dogs when wanted for export to Cuba, from
landings that existed then on the Casas and on the Nuevas
There was little money either in beef on the hoof, or in
"tasajo" (jerked beef) sent to Bataban6 and thence to Havana.
There was a little more profit in hogs, and still more in
breeding draught animals for which there .was demand in
Cuba. The Isle oxen were fine and firm and hard-hoofed.
So life came easy. The "pineros" certainly did not make
it hard. They lived on meat; they had it fresh on "killing
days" and salt upon all others. When there was milk, they
drank it; when it was not handy, they cheerfully did without.4
What fruits and vegetables they planted, thrived; but they did

W Street Scene in Santa F6, showing the Church,
the Post Office, the Appeal Office and
the Santa Fe Hotel
Hotel Ceballos at Santa F6
not exert themselves to advance agriculture, or even to vary
their own fare with garden produce. Their tobacco was
famous yet its culture was never properly developed.
There were 78 inhabitants on the Isle in 1774 when the
first census of Cuba was taken; in 1792 they numbered 86.

This count did not include, presumably, the "floating
population," which, in 1780, raised the total to 200. In that
year, it was reckoned that of the 200 but 75 were honestly
employed. The rest were vagabonds, who found life pleasant
in wandering from ranch to ranch; fugitives from justice as
more strenuously exercised elsewhere; smugglers, who knew
the schedule of stray ships that beat in from Jamaica with

Laurel Trees on the Plaza at Santa Fe

goods for the market of Cuba from which Spain so rigorously
excluded, as far as she was able, all save her own subjects; and
there were wreckers, too, among the lot,-harmless fishermen,
to all appearances, who were not loth to lure a passing mer-
chantman to destruction on hidden rocks.
It was D. Andres Acosta, captain of the Isle, who, 'acting
on authority from Havana, rounded up a few of these undesir-

ayo Bonito near Santa F6
Under the Bridge at Santa F6 The Santa F6 Hotel
Showing the Magnesia Spring An American House

ables one fine day in 1780, and shipped them back to Cuba; he
promised to do likewise by all the rest, whereupon the popu-
lation of the Isle dwindled from 200 to exactly 76.

The English were already profiting more by the advan-
tages of the Isle than either residents there or the Spanish
Schooners manned with Jamaicans and Caimaneros lay
off the South Coast and when they departed, stumps where'%
there had been great hardwood trees in the forests there, told

All American-"Vista Hermosa" Plantation, near Santa F&-H. A. Christy, Owner

that the vessels had not returned in ballast. Jamaican and
Caimanero fishermen, too, fully equipped for the work, laid
nets for tortoise and turtle from Punta del Este to Indian
Keys; they captured more in a few weeks' intelligent fishing
than the Spaniards had to show for the desultory expeditions
of a year.
And so time passed on. The Isle lay basking in the sun
that shone bright through the clear resinous air of her rugged
hills and ranges, her pleasant valleys between, and over her
savannah lands, pine-clad, and crossed with a thousand little
Buccaneers became less bold; they degenerated into mere
poachers, prowling to this day where the tortoises are, when
revenue cutters are not there, also.
Yet the sole industry of the Isle,-stock-raising,-went
steadily from bad to worse, languishing to complete extinc-
tion. Tobacco still grew well, when it was planted; enough
was produced in 1845 to permit exportation of some of it.
Corn, rice, sweet potatoes, watermelons and mangoes were,
at that time, sent from the Isle to Cuba for sale.


Entrance to the Barracks (Cuartel) at Nueva Gerona


Meanwhile, from the houses which were headquarters for
the Santa F6 breeding farm, the town of Santa F6 developed.
The great trees that shade the turn of the river there, where
the mineral springs well up, seem to invite residence in that
pleasant spot.
The modern town lies on both sides of the stream. The
Plaza, with its dense old laurel trees, along with many dwelling
houses, general stores, and the Spanish hotel (Hotel Ceballos)

Street Scene at Nueva Gerona-Palace Hotel on the Left

are on one bank, from which a bridge leads to the other where
the Santa F6 Hotel, the school building, the postoffice, the
Appeal office, and the church stand, on wide, clean streets,
irregularly laid.

In 1826 the government at Havana, acting on advice con-
tained in official reports, notably one made by Sr. D. Jose
Hipolito Odoardo Grand-Pr6 (1826), determined to establish
a garrison in the Isle; it had long been recognized, and is still
that the Isle of Pines commands the south side of Cuba.
Lt. Col. Clemente Delgado y Espafia, first commander-in
chief of the Isle, arrived with the first soldiers ever station,
on it.

Don Andres Acosta donated land on the Casas River for
the purpose, and the settlement of Nueva Gerona was made
on the present site of the capital city.
Its founding almost depopulated Santa Fe; in 1831 but
three houses in the old town were inhabited. By 1849, how-
ever, Santa Fe had recovered. D. Manuel Calvo had a distil-
lery there; he made varnish, turpentine, etc., from the sap
of 320,000 pine trees he had tapped. He also commenced the
first weekly steamship service between Bataban6 and the Isle.
Business prospered as it had not done before, and there was
life enough in the Isle to support two towns.
So Nueva Gerona grew. Its barracks (cuartel) was fin-
ished in due season. The military hospital was there, despite
the fact that private patronage still preferred the mineral
springs at Santa F6. Stores multiplied with the demand of
increased population, and the municipal capital became what
it is; in general appearance, a typical Latin country town,
with bright-colored plastered houses, red tiled, with pillared
porticos, facing upon streets along which passes at leisurely
gate the usual traffic of a rural headquarters.

Ruins of Old Marble Quarry at the Foot of Mount Caballos

"The Monument"

The marble mountain, Caballos, has contributed much to
the development of Nueva Gerona. In 1834, M. Chueaux, the
French chemist and geologist, then exploring the Isle in search
of gold supposed to have supplied a pirate mint with ore,
discovered the composition of that mountain, recognized its
value, and forthwith obtained a concession to work its marble
beds. He established quarries and began the work of exploi-
tation. Death cut short his labors.
Five years later the Captain-General of Cuba, O'Donnell,
bought the place and formed a company to work the quarries.
Docks were built in Colombo Bay. American machinery was
installed and work began on a scale of extravagance that made
the collapse of the company, which occurred in 1849, inevitable
from the beginning despite the fact that convict labor was
utilized, the pay being ten cents per diem per man.

For the Isle had been made a penal settlement and thither
Spain sent the political prisoners she wished away from the
Peninsula; to their goodly company she added others she




61- I-P

wanted out of Cuba. Furthermore, a motly crew of petty
malefactors,-idlers, sneak-thieves and generally objectionable
persons,-were shipped to the Isle from Havana. Some were
allowed- their liberty there; others were confined at Nueva
Gerona. Some were compelled, and all were permitted, to
work on roads, clearing, and cultivation of the soil.


A good many found employment, or it was found for them
by their keepers, with Major SardA, who bought the quarries

Major Sarda's Old Homestead

the O'Donnell company abandoned, but did not work them.
Instead, he made tiles and brick at Brazo Fuerte; he also had
tanneries there.
After his death the property (marble mountain, wrecked
machinery, ruins of tanning vats and tile moulds, and half-
demolished buildings on the banks of the Brazo Fuerte
stream) were acquired by Mr. T. J. Keenan, of Pittsburg.
He has done nothing, yet, with the quarries; on the site of
the old tile factory he has built one of the handsomest winter
homes in the Isle. In place of M. Chueaux' tropical garden,
which was Ihe Frenchman's recreation, is a citrus fruit grove

"Brazo Fuerte," T. J. Keenan's Residence, near Nueva Gerona


And as Mr. Keenan has taken possession of Brazo Fuerte
where a Spanish Captain-General and a Spanish engineer
were owners in their day, so his compatriots have bought up,
in small parcels, lands that were originally the holdings of the
Duartes, the Selabers and the Zayas.
"The 'Yanqui' has taken possession. . He has estab-
lished himself. . He is building anew, in his own way, on
the debris of the past order of things. The sugar estate which
existed in the Bibijagua district, is gone; its wide fields are
grass-covered, and the walls of its factory buildings are crum-
bling to the ground. Its present American owner will sell you

Reception Room at "Brazo Fuerte"

Ruins of Old Sugar Mill at Bibijagua

town lots in the immediate vicinity. The plantation house at
Las Nuevas ('Pearcy's Place') once the center of a small
principality, is a scattered ruin. . haunted they say, by the
spirit of a suicide. The Americans who live there lose no
sleep on that account.
"And like the country places which were its pride, the
old era has vanished. In place of the almost feudal conditions
which prevailed from the day when Captain Pedroso received
the Isle as a gift from his monarch, through the su-
premacy of the Duartes, down to D. Andres Acosta's succes-
sion, a new regime has developed, accompanied by orange
groves, frame houses and motor cars; it is democratic, ener-
getic, individual and all-American."-(From "The Isle of Pines,"
published by the Department of Agriculture, at Havana).

How literally true it is that Americans own the Isle of
Pines, either as companies or as individual settlers,-is evident
at a glance at the accompanying map; the colored sections are
all that remain under "native" (non-American) ownership.
With the change in ownership of the Isle has come a cor-
responding change in its .customs, its prevailing language, and
all its interests.

The Old San Juan Homestead

English, as Americans use it, is the language of the coun-
try. Catholic services in English are held in the churches at
Nueva Gerona and Santa F6. Protestant ministers preach in
English at Episcopal and Methodist services held, in rotation,
at all the settlements. There are five public schools, main-
tained by the Cuban government, for American children; they
are conducted in English by American young women,-
teachers trained to American methods.
American money is the medium of exchange.
American-made goods are displayed in all the shops.
American hotels are open at Nueva Gerona, McKinley,
Santa F6, Columbia and Los Indios.
American spring wagons, drawn by Missouri mules,
American buggies, motor-cycles and touring cars, have re-
placed the clumsy "native" ox-cart, and they travel over the
best of roads provided by an American Provisional Governor
of Cuba, in order that fruits and vegetables raised by Ameri-
cans in the groves and gardens of the Isle may be hastened on
their way to the American markets they aspire to capture.
Americans own the Isle of Pines Bank, at Nueva Gerona.
Americans established and edit and own the weekly news-
paper, "The Isle of Pines Appeal," at Santa F6.

Americans maintain the bi-weekly steamship service between
the Isle and Cuba; at Bataban6 they turn the business of
making connection with Havana by rail over to the United
Railways, an English company.
Americans have built and live in the thousand little frame
houses on the hills and on the upland savannahs.
And theirs are the thousand citrus fruit groves wherein
the future of the country is ripening to gold.


It was in 1898 that the American invasion began. In that
year the Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Spanish-
American war. By virtue of one of its clauses the Isle passed
(according to one interpretation) from Spanish to American,
not Cuban, sovereignty. Believing this to be the case, Amer-
ican settlers came in, buying their forty acres here, their
twenty there, their larger holding over yonder, in firm con-
viction that it was American soil they were getting.
In 1902, however, when the American Military Govern-
ment of Cuba withdrew, leaving a republican form of self-
government constituted in that island, the Isle of Pines found
itself, to its considerable vexation, still administered as an
integral part of Havana, just as it had been theretofore.

Nueva Gerona Church

One of the Native Roads

But, in the interim, a treaty between the United States
and Cuba had been negotiated wherein the Isle was re-ceded
to Cuba in exchange for a coaling station in the island of
Cuba. This attempted re-cession, according to many, is full
recognition of American ownership of the Isle, acquired by the
Treaty of Paris in 1898.
And since the American-Cuban treaty making such re-
cession has never received the approval of the United States
Senate, and is, therefore, without force, and void, it is further
claimed that the Isle is still American, thanks to that same
Treaty of Paris.
The opposition, however, holds that the Isle has never
ceased to be Cuban, and that, if it ever becomes American,
some explicit, mutual agreement must be reached to that

Leaving the matter of sovereignty for final adjustment at
some future date, the Isle is getting along pleasantly enough
as it is. Technically, the whole island is but one municipal
district, over which Mayor Benito Ortiz presides to the com-
plete satisfaction of "natives" and Americans alike. He is a

An American Home near Nueva Gerona
Spanish Laurel at Santa F6 which throws a shade 115 feet
Casas River above Nueva Gerona


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The Old and the New-American Motor Car and Cuban Ox-cart

man who knows what justice is, and acts in accordance with
that knowledge. He took office at a difficult time, and re-
moved the difficulties. He is well-liked by all.

During the four years and little more that the Republic
of Cuba managed to "go it alone" under Tomas Estrada
Palma's presidency (1902-6), the Isle of Pines chafed under
the complete neglect of her interests. Other municipalities,
on the mainland, fared no better, however.
In 1906 a summer "picnic" entitled a revolution by those
who participated, overthrew the Palma regime and happily
necessitated the establishment of an American Provisional
Government over Cuba.
This occurrence affected the Isle about as much as it did
any one State of the American Unidn. It made a few weeks'
interesting reading in the newspaper. "Tranquility was com-
plete in the Isle," to quote a formula of report, both before and
during and after this armed demand for public office made by
the "outs" in the Cuban political game. Peace prevailed in
the Isle, regardless of disturbance in Cuba, just as it had dur-
ing the long years that Cuba fought Spain in real warfare, for
an independence she seems not to know how to manage, un-
assisted, now that it has been obtained.

Provisional Governor Magoon, whom President Roose-
velt placed in charge, in Havana, to straighten out Cuba's
badly muddled affairs, wisely decided to turn the revenues
of the country into useful channels, instead of into the treasury
vaults where hoarded millions had but proven an incentive to
treason against an administration that gloried in its surplus.
As her share in appropriations made since 1906, the Isle
got $8,007.94 for storehouses at Jicaro and Nueva Gerona;
$16,721.61 for jail, schoolhouse and the repair of barracks at

Poultry Thrives on the Isle of Pines

the latter place; $25,153 for the equipment of an emergency
hospital, autopsy house, and sanitary services, the repair of
streets and drainage in Nueva Gerona, a town hall there and
a slaughter-house at Santa F6.
Then, $176,525.65 was made available for roads. These
roads,-they are boulevards, in fact,-line the country in every
direction, radiating as it were from Santa F6. From J6caro
one reaches to Santa F6, passing through La Ceiba toward
La Cunagua, its ultimate destination being the Cafiada, San
Pedro and Los Indios tracts. From Juicaro, too, in north-
westerly direction another highway leads via Columbia to
Nueva Gerona and thence through Palm Grove into the Mc-

New Town Hall at Nueva Gerona

Kinley tracts, serving Santa Ana at the same time. There is
a fine government road from Nueva Gerona to Santa F6, via
Santa Rosalia Heights. In fact, Magoon's three fine new
highways, taken together with the Gerona-Santa F6 road,
which has been repaired, form the backbone of the Isle's
routes for wheeled traffic, from which private roads lead in all
directions to every point of the compass. The nature of the
soil, and the topography of the country, lend themselves admir-
ably to road-making and there are no difficulties whatever
encountered in getting from any one section to any other.

These appropriations, effective evidences of consideration
on the part of the Havana administration, have brought in an
era of good-feeling and at present "all's well" with the Isle.
The Americans there resident,-they exceed the Cubans in
actual numbers and outweigh them 99 to 1 if the reckoning be
based on property holdings,-have not given over their keen
desire to obtain recognition for the Isle as American territory.
They would have it understood, however, that the majority
never approved of violence as a means to this end; the few
who seemed at one time to prefer "secession" and "territorial

movement" to attain it, have been retired from prominent
place, and instead of appeal to any such picturesque procedure,
everybody is working all together quietly to make the Isle so
obviously American in reality that the legal status will be
compelled to follow as mere recognition of an already estab-
lished fact.

So American purchase of land in the Isle, and American
settlement of such purchases, continues unabated. Coloniza-
tion is largely directed by land companies, American enter-
prises incorporated under the laws of States of the Union,
financed by American capital, managed according to American
methods, and represented by American officers, both at home
headquarters and at local offices in the Isle.
These companies purchased land in large tracts from
"native" owners and rendered the Isle a great service in
accurately surveying and in clearing titles to the same. Land
titles in the Isle were so hopelessly mixed by 1826 that the
impossibility of proving ownership in order to make legal
transfer of property was mentioned as one of the main hin-
drances to development of the country, and the government
was urged to take the matter in hand. It remained, however,
for American land companies to untie the tangle of conflicting
claims which was often a most difficult and lengthy task and
one decidedly novel to the average American as well.
The surveying of the interior portion of the tracts was a
simple matter of staking the ground out in good American

One of Governor Magoon's new roads in the making


sections and dividing these sections into lots of ten acres up,
but when it came to the question of boundaries all sorts of
queer information had to be collected by the surveyor. For
instance the natives have for many years made a business of
trapping parrots for sale and as this pursuit offered a means of
a good income they were each decidedly opposed to the other
fellow (to so speak) poaching on their ground, so a system of
parrot rights or lines grew up. All the parrots North or South
or East or West of a certain line (usually some natural boun-
dary such as a river) belonged to this person and all on the
other side belonged to that person. Proving these parrot lines
have often been the means of settling boundary disputes.
If (after all possible evidence was in) the two parties to
the boundary dispute could still not agree, recourse was
usually had to the Judicial Survey, a most impressive function
and a survival of the old Roman manner of settling land boun-
daries. Appeal was made to the Court and the Court would
order a Judicial Survey for a certain time.
Come the day there would appear on the ground in dis-
pute, the Judge and a goodly number of court officials sup-
ported and guarded by a detachment of military, the parties to
the dispute accompanied by a cloud of witnesses, and the
surveyors and their assistants.
When all were assembled the Court would hear the tes-
timony and order a line run by the surveyors for a certain dis-
tance, which was then approved. This procedure was kept up
until all of the boundary in question had been surveyed and
approved, which approval was final. The land companies at
present doing business in the Isle can without question give
clear deed and title to the land they sell.
Therefore in all quarters activity is intense and optimism
is the prevailing humor.
The Santa F6 Land Company owns the old Santa F6
ranch, which originally comprised 28,000 acres. Much of this
has been sold to settlers and in and around the town of Santa
F6 are handsome groves.
They are especially well located in point of accessibility
to port of shipment (Jicaro) and in matter of water supply, for

the Santa F6 and Mal Pais Rivers, the Jucaro, Bernardino,
Cayamas and Cuayabo all flow, wholly or partly at least, within
the boundaries of the Santa F6 estate.
At short distance from the town itself, is the estate of
Cayo Bonito. On a hill, shaded with immense old fruit trees
and with palms, is all that remains of one of the great home-
steads of former times. A stream winds at the foot of the
hill; it is arched over with wild bamboo and sturdier trees
hung with strange aeroids.

Native House on the Isle of Pines
East of Santa F6 lie the ten thousand acres of the San
Juan estate, owned by the land company of that same name,
organized in 1904. Near the center of the plantation the town
of Penrose has been platted, four miles from Port J6caro, and
development is going on.
South of Santa F6, the Calabaza Land Company is devel-
oping the Calabaza plantation. Of its original holding of
3.500 acres, 1,761 have already been sold to American settlers,
who have planted fruit and nut trees.
The town of Calabaza has been platted at a point some
twelve miles southwest of Port Jucaro.
The San Carlos Land and Fruit Company is developing
the San Carlos estate. Already, despite the very recent organ-
ization of the company, a force of men is at work clearing for
a 100 acre grove.

1. Two Years and Three Months from Setting
2. Four Years Old, Grapefruit Tree, estimated to be bearing 10 boxes
of fruit this season
3. Fruit Exhibit in Isle of Pines Appeal in Havana
Between San Carlos and Calabaza lies El Hospital tract,
and just north of that is El Canal, adjoining La Ceiba, where
are situated some of the handsomest groves in the country,-
Masons' place, and Brotherhood's, and the Jaques estates,
contiguous to these, but lying within the previously mentioned
district of El Canal.
Beyond La Ceiba the government road is being extended
into La Cunagua tract, where a sawmill is at work among the
tall pines.
Adjoining La Cunagua is the Cafiada tract, and there, on
the private road that leads on, to Los Indios, Mr. Will Hansen
has one of the prettiest homes and the neatest groves in all the
39 1

A Brotherhood Plantation at La Ceiba
Isle. The settlement of Los Indios, built up by the Cafiada
Land and Fruit Company, is on the Los Indios River, some
distance above the point where that stream enters Siguanea
Bay. Residents here have groves that flourish in the white
moist sand.
South of Los Indios, on the Siguanea Hills, the Whitney
Land Company is platting a town, and expects to begin active
development at once. Though the company's holding,-the
San Pedro tract,-is hardly on the market, sales have already
been made, and interest is keen in the new town and its
Just north of the center of the Isle, leaving the South
Coast out of the calculation, is the immense tract known as
San Francisco de las Piedras. It has just been sold to Mr.
T. M. Swetland, of Cleveland, Ohio, and by him transferred
to The Isle of Pines Investment Company, of which he is
This company has had the estate surveyed and has placed
it on the market. A 300 acre restricted residence park is
being laid out in one acre building sites on the highest part
of the tract, which is know:i as San Francisco Heights, and a
one hundred and twenty acre citrus fruit grove is being


East of San Francisco, and northeast of Santa F6, lies
the Santa Rosalia estate, property of the Isle of Pines Land
and Development Company, the first American land company
to commence actual development of the Isle.
This company founded the town of Columbia, at some two
miles' distance from that point on the Jicaro River, which is
Port Jficaro on one side the stream and Columbia Landing on
the other.
Columbia has its school and general store, postoffice,
church service, and quite a goodly neighborhood of Americans
resident among their groves.
Just north of Columbia is the Bibijagua Estate, one of the
most picturesque territories in the Isle. A town has been
platted along the shore, where Bibijagua Mountain comes
down to the sea. A dock is projected in Bibijagua Bay, where
Captain-General O'Donnell had his, from which the marbles of
Caballos Mountains were shipped. The depth of water is
shown by soundings to be sufficient to accommodate fruit
steamers at that point.

On the other side of Caballos 'Mountain is Nueva Gerona,
and all the groves and gardens on which hundreds of Amer-

Pineapple and Orange Grove near Nueva Gerona

icans are spending their time and their money in that imme-
diate vicinity, with a very handsome showing of results.
Northwest of the town is the Palm Grove district.
Almost directly west is the Santa Ana tract, where the
groves are in very flourishing condition indeed, thanks to good
location and conscientious and intelligent care.
In the northwest of the Isle are the McKinley tracts,-
McKinley proper and East and West McKinley. The neigh-
borhood is settled with New Yorkers, and their groves and
homes are prosperous and comfortable.
The Manigua orange grove of 500 acres is growing toward
McKinley town site is platted.
The Tropical Development Company, which handles the
tracts, has sold 14,000 acres and 2,000 are under development.
The number of Americans resident in the McKinley district
is estimated at 200.


Cocoanut Palms on the San Pedro Tract-L. A. Whitney at Foot of the Tree


The Saw Mill at La Cunagua

With very few exceptions, all the settlers in the Isle make
citrus fruit culture their main business. They have, in some
cases, however, gone in for vegetables, for the soil and climate
of the Isle combine to produce as fine vegetables as any market
could desire, and in very wide variety.
What difficulties there are in transportation come hard
on the vegetable growers, since their produce is very perish-
able; yet those of them who cater to it find the home market
profitable and there are indications that a market may be
captured in Havana, by united efforts in that direction.

Los Indios River-The Launch Canada




1. The Pioneer Club. 2. A Glimpse of Child Life. 3. Picnicing at Bibijagua.
4. Swimming Pool at Santa F6. 5. The Hibisus Club.
6. Beach Bathing in Mid-Winter at Bibijagua.

IL -_

Pine Lodge Nursery

The Isle has been recognized as a good tobacco country
for more than a hundred years. When civil war drove the
Henry Clay & Bock Company from Vuelta Abajo, in 1896-8,
that big corporation transferred seedlings and men to the Isle
of Pines and raised tobacco there. The result they obtained
was satisfactory to smokers, for there were no complaints
against the quality of the crops.
No line of activity offers greater inducements to settlers
than the raising of tobacco. It is, however, a difficult art, and
must be learned from "natives" by careful observation.

The variety of products possible in the Isle is very wide.
Coffee grows well, and there is hope of reviving the industry
to paying condition.
Cocoanut palms thrive, but they are used rather for deco-
rative than commercial purposes.
Grapes do well; Labadia, who visited the Isle in 1826,
urged that viticulture be tried.



Isle of Pines Rice, Corn and Grapefruit-Grown at Vista Hermosa
Californians believe that olives would prosper on the
hillsides; rice grows remarkably well; Americans and
"natives" alike raise upland varieties for their own use. The
Isle exported rice in 1845.
Bananas grow and produce good fruit; there is a local
market for it. To compete in the world's market banana cul-
ture would have to be ca ried on on a large scale.
Dates, figs, cacao,-i i short, to make a long matter brief,
everything will grow. "he only check on the agriculturist
must be, not the limit or what he can raise (there is none!)
but on what he can sell.

Briggs' Grove-100 Acres

Residence of W. C. Schultz
The Americans who own it now have devoted the Isle to
citrus fruit culture. They have scattered their groves from
shore to shore, from the banks of the Nuevas River in the
north, to San Pedro and Calabaza in the south; from Los
Indios in the west, to Penrose in the east; they have planted
them on the slopes of the Ceiba Hills above Santa F6, and on
the leveller lands all about that town.
Their first shipments, already made, have completed full
demonstration of the fact that citrus fruit growing in the Isle
is a profitable venture.
These shipments, of oranges, grapefruit, lemons, pine-
apples, limes and tangerines, have been made (1907-8) from
the Mason and Brotherhood plantations, at La Ceiba, and from
the Rogers estate, near Nueva Gerona.

Total cost of getting oranges and grapefruit from tree to
sale, proves to be about $1.50 a box, with prospects that
expenses will grow less as transportation facilities improve.

Boating on the Casas River

This includes picking, packing, freight over the entire route,
brokerage, lighterage, cartage,-in short, everything. Cost
on pines, lemons, tangerines and limes is proportionate.
The pines shipped from the Isle have sold at $3.00 to $4.50
per crate of twelve to sixteen; the lemons, 250 or 300 to the
box, brought $4.75; the tangerines, 300 to the box, $4.50 to
$4.75; oranges, $2.50 to $4.75 a box; grapefruit as high as
$6.00. These are figures of actual sales made. The market
Vas New York.
The margin is sufficient that settlers are convinced there
is money ahead; they have profits in sight, even should present
conditions fail to improve, as they assuredly will not.


0 DATE, all shipments of citrus fruit and vege-
tables from the Isle to American markets,-
which are the only ones vigorously sought.-
have gone from Isle ports (either Jiicaro or
Nueva Gerona) to Bataban6 and thence across
Cuba, to Havana, and northward to New York,
Philadelphia, or whatever city offered best prices at the
Havana is a crowded port and shipment across Cuba is
expensive. The Isle desires more direct communication with
American markets and confidently expects to have it shortly.
There is a direct schooner line between the Isle and Mobile
(The Isle of Pines Transportation and Supply Company) and
it is proposed by the company to put on a steamer very shortly.

Shallows and reefs which surround the Isle make approach
to it difficult, but soundings show that harbors of depths
sufficient to accommodate fruit schooners may be found at
Estero de la Siguanea and at Los Indios, both in Siguanea
Bay, in the southeast, at Ensenada de los Barcos in the north,
in the Nuevas River, and at Bibijagua.
Realizing that the problem of quick, direct and cheap
transportation for their fruits, to American markets, is the
biggest rock in their road to success, Isle of Pines growers are
getting together to consider ways and means of its removal.

Symmes Cottage, Los Indios

When a marketable product (such as citrus fruit or gar-
den truck) grows to remarkable advantage in one section of
the earth, and there is certain and profitable sale for it in
another, it is fairly sure that means will be found to get it to
that sale, wherefore, to bring a general statement down to a
specific conclusion, the people of the Isle of Pines deduce that
all their problems of transportation will be solved,-just as
soon as the groves come into bearing and there is freight
enough to make it worth transportation companies' while to
bid for the business.
That time is at hand now.

Old Well at Nueva Gerona

IFE on the Isle is pleasant, and there is a charm
about the place which makes all who lived there
desire to return, if by chance they ever leave.
It is a busy community and there is little
leisure for diversions, yet there is always riding
and bathing, shooting, boating and fishing, and
there are clubs organized with varying intentions, literary and
purely social,-the Hibiscus Club, the Embroidery Club, the
Card Club, the Poineer Club and its overflow, the Carnation
Club, all women's societies; there is the Casas Club for the
young folks who dance, and the Santa Fe Social Club, for the
men, who, however, generously include the ladies in their fre-
quent entertainments. And, finally, of a totally different
nature, there is the American Federation.
This organization exists for the mutual good of Americans
resident on the Isle, and it is staunch to defend their legiti-
mate interests in a legitimate manner.
It considers complaints made by Americans against Cuban
officials; it insists on impartiality in the public services, such
as postoffice, police, etc. No stronger proof of the statement

A Riding Party

Cuban Young Women, Teachers in the Cuban Schools

that an era of good-feeling prevails could be furnished than
the fact that the Federation has not had a meeting for a year or
more, there being no complaints to call it together.

The life of children on the Isle is ideal. They grow strong
and hearty in the fine air and sunshine. Nature offers them a
thousand amusements, in field and forest and stream, and
happy the lad or little lass whose father owns a gentle horse
or provides a pony or, lacking such a real live playfellow, then
a bicycle. The roads are excellent for wheels.
There are good public schools in the Isle, conducted in
English at Nueva Gerona, Santa Rosalia, Columbia, Santa F6
and Los Indios. They are held in comfortable buildings,
fitted out with the latest approved equipment.

There is a resident Methodist pastor, Rev. Redmond, at
Santa F6, and a Methodist Chapel there. Rev. WV. W. Steele
comes over from Havana to conduct Episcopal services on the
Isle. These two ministers travel from settlement to settle-
ment, on a schedule which provides all sections with Sunday
services of some sort, if not every Sabbath, at least every
other. There are Catholic services in English held at both
Santa F6 and Nueva Gerona.
And, finally, there can be no doubt of the salubrity of the
climate of the Isle of Pines. The temperature is steady; the
maximum of the year is say 96, reached at high noon in

Magnesia Spring at Santa F6

The Magnesia Spring at Nueva Gerona

August, 1907; the minimum is say 510, recorded at 6 a. m.,
in January, 1908. The soil is sandy and absorbs moisture, so
that there is no unhealthful dampness. The air is clear and
fragrant with a piney perfume; it is a sea air but never chill or
The Isle was the resort of.persons in ill-health long before
1800. By 1826 it was widely known to physicians in Havana
and about that year the Spanish government took action
which resulted in the establishment in the Isle of an acclima-
tion and convalescent camp for Spanish soldiers, afflicted in
Cuba at that time with Asiatic plague and cholera as well as
yellow fever, smallpox and dengue. None of these diseases
ever invaded the Isle. Actually, cases were imported from
Havana with the troops sent over to save the recruits from
sure death, yet the epidemics did not spread, despite the fact
that ignorance of sanitation, and the overcrowding and expos-
ure to which the men were subjected, offered every induce-
ment to propagation of the maladies.

Wilcox & Tracy Grove near Nueva Gerona

There are countless mineral springs in the Isle, magnesia
and iron being common in their composition. Those at
Nueva Gerona and at Santa F6 are best known. Authentic
professional records exist detailing cures effected by their use
"(See Dr. Jose de la Luz Hernandez's Memoir on the Salubrity
of the Isle of Pines.)
At Santa F6 new tiled bathhouses have been erected for
the convenience of those who desire to use the waters there.

Grove of Chas. S. Brown, President of Canada Land & Fruit Company

Projects exist for pretentious sanitariums elsewhere,-
especially at Santa Rosario springs.
Certainly, as soon as the Isle is as widely advertised .in
English as it has been in Spanish, its name will become syn-
onomous in the first language as it is in the latter for climate
and waters that bring relief to all suffering with throat and
lung affections, stomach and bowel complaints, certain private
diseases and all eruptions of the skin. This water is exported
and finds large sale all through Cuba.
For some years past good physicians have hesitated to
recommend patients to the Isle believing that good hotel
accommodations were lacking there. This is no longer the
case, for excellent hotels are open (The Santa F6 Hotel, The
American Hotel at Nueva Gerona, The Orchid in the Pines at
McKinley, The Grove House there, and still others at Colum-
bia and at Los Indios).

For the sick, for those merely worn out and therefore in
need of rest, and for the well in search of a unique experience,
a trip to the Isle of Pines offers every attraction.
To the man in search of a good investment, a self-support-
ing home, amid pleasant surroundings in a country with a
future as well as a present, the island presents such oppor-
tunities as he will not find elsewhere and of which he should
hasten to take immediate advantage, for others, like himself,
appreciate the possibilities.

A Modern Home on the Isle

1. Hart's Bungaloo.
2. El Canal Tract (Jack's Place).
3. Home of ex-Mayor Knight, of Buffalo.
4. Young Tobacco Field on the Brotherhood
Plantation, La Ceiba.

5. Brotherhood Fruit Grove, La Ceiba,
near Santa F6.
6. On Cayo Bonito River.
7. Clark's Cottage, Columbia.
La Ceiba Road.

pp IT


r, I a- -,q,_


The Bibijagua Estate, Dr. George U. Cresewell, Columbia,
Isle of Pines.
The Calabaza Land Company, E. W. Schultz, president,
Watertown, Wis., W. C. Schultz, representative, Santa
F6, Isle of Pines.
The Cafiada Land and Fruit Company, Charles S. Brown,
president; address, Marinette, Wis., or Los Indios, Isle
of Pines.
Cayo Bonito Homestead, W. C. Schultz, at Santa F6, Isle
of Pines.
The Isle of Pines Company, J. A. Hill, president, 44-60 East
23rd Street, New York; S. H. Pearcy, Nueva Gerona,
Isle of Pines, manager.
The Isle of Pines Land and Development Company, Ira A.
Brown, president, Columbia, Isle of Pines.
The San Carlos Land and Fruit Company, Dr. Edward S.
York, president, 910 G Street, Washington, D. C.; James
M. York, agent, Santa F6, Isle of Pines.
The Isle of Pines Investment Company, T. M. Swetland,
president; F. L. Swetland, manager, Cleveland. Ohio; C.
E. Ford, superintendent, Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines.
The San Juan Land Company, E. W. Schultz, president,
Watertown, Wis.; W. C. Schultz, representative, Santa
F6, Isle of Pines.
The Santa Ana Tract, J. A. Miller, offices at Nueva Gerona,
Isle of Pines.
The Santa F6 Land Company, Robert I. Wall, president, 611
Monadnock Bldg., Chicago, and Santa F6, Isle of Pines;
Clement J. Wall, manager, address the Chicago office.
The Tropical Development Company, Horace P. Hayes,
president, 17 West Swan Street, New York; or address
the manager, McKinley, Isle of Pines.
The Whitney Land Company, L. A. Whitney, Nueva Gerona,
Isle of Pines.
William R. Hill & Co., Neptuno 15, Havana, Cuba.

1. "On from Island unto Island at the Gateway of the Day."-Tennyson
4. Bath House at Santa F6.
6. Benito Ortiz, Mayor of the Island.
8. Dining Room, Orchid in the Pines Hotel-McKinley.

Are You Going to

Havana, Cuba

The Isle of Pines?
Go via the quickest, safest and best way the

Louisville and Nashville Ry's magnificent
new train, the South Atlantic Limited, daily
between Cincinnati, Chicago, Louisville and
Atlanta and Florida, passes through the
most scenic portion of the south, the famous
blue grass region of Kentucky, following for
many miles the Old Boone Trail, Cumberland
and Blue Ridge Mountains of Kentucky and
Tennessee, The beautiful Clinch River of
Tennessee, the Chilhowee and Smoky
Mountains of Georgia.

Choice of Routes via NEW ORLEANS, MOBILE,
( Magnificent Double Daily Vestibuled
Train Service Composed of High Back Seat
Coaches, : Reclining Chair Cars, : Standard
Pullman Drawing Room Sleepers, : Electric
Lighted Dining Cars (Meals a la Carte)
Do Not Buy Tickets Unless You Have Consulted an
Agent of the L. C& N. Ry'.
F. D. Bush Geo. E. Herring
Div. Pass. Agt. Tray. Pass. Agt.
Cincinnati, 0. Cleveland, 0.

M Splendid

Orange Groves

1 The best soil on the Isle of Pines fcr
citrus fruit growing is the deep, rich, rc d
gravelly loam of
San Francisco De Las Pledras
"The Heart of the Island"
This soil with its rolling surface and splen-
did drainage will produce Oranges with
the beautiful color of the California Fruit,
the thin skin of the Florida Fruit, and the
weight, sweetness and delicious flavor
peculiar to the Isle of Pines Fruit.
q The San Francisco Estate has been
subdivided in 20 acre tracts and each tract
has been accurately described and photo-
graphed by the surveyors. Maps have been
published showing the survey and will be
sent on request to prospective settlers.
Ask for particulars.
Ninth Floor Park Bldg.
Cleveland, Ohio.


Winter Homes
q A Residence Park of three hundred
acres is being surveyed and laid out in
one acre bungalow sites on

San Francisco Heights
"The Winter Resort of the Island"
q Due to its elevation San Francisco
Heights commands the most perfect climate
and the finest views of the whole island
and is completely free from insect pests.
q It is undoubtedly the best location for a
Winter Residence in the Isle of Pines or
the whole West Indies. Lots are being
sold under a peculiar plan which insures a
high standard of houses as well as a
superior class of residents.
Building restrictions.

Write for particulars.
Ninth Floor Park Bldg.
Cleveland, Ohio.

Owner of the Santa Anna Estate
Real Estate
Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, W. I.

Santa A nna is three and one-half miles from
Nueva Gerona, the capital of the
Island, and fronts on both sides of the Government road.
Its lands are particularly adapted to the culture of Citrus and
other fruits and vegetables. It is sub-divided into 20-acre
tracts, and is being occupied by industrious American fam-
ilies, who are successfully making it into the most attractive
and desirable colony of the Island. It is an established neigh-
borhood, the general improvement of which has the united
support of every family.
Investigation is invited before purchasing elsewhere
Special contracts for improvements for non-resident
owners. Large and small, improved and unimproved
tracts in other parts of the Island.

About that question of ROOFING, we've got that
solved for you

Carey's Cement Roofing
For information, apply to
Obrapia No. 55, Havana, Cuba

Santa Fe Hotel
D. BELL CLEAVER, Proprietor


1880 1908

Buckeye Nurseries
Grape Fruit Oranges Lemons

The oldest and largest Citrus Nursery in Florida.
You get the benefit of nearly thirty years
experience. We have supplied over 75 per cent
of all trees planted on Isle of Pines. The best
advertisement is a host of satisfied customers.
We have them. Write for Catalog to

Tampa, Florida

Las Tunas Plantation

Land for sale in any quantity
at right prices

Havana, Cuba

Isle of Pines Bank
Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines
West Indies

WM. MAS6N, Vice-President

CLAUDE V. ALIurTT, Cashier
L. A. WITTER, Asst. Cashier

Interest Allowed
on special accounts in Savings Department at Three per cent
per annum for money remaining six months


C. V. ALLNutr



Bradley's Fertilizers
They are a known quantity on the Isle of Pines.
Mason Bros.' La Ceiba Grove uses only the
Bradley brands; their results won good prices
and blue ribbons at the Cuban National Horti-
cultural Exhibit. F. C
Sole Agent for the Isle of Pines
Santa Fe

All size Tracts in Almacigos and La
Ceiba Plantations La Ceiba Grove
Deeds Made Out Promptly Fruit packed and shipped to any
Correspondence Solicited part of Canada, Cuba or United
Best Land for Fruit Growing States. We handle the Blue Rib-
bons won at the Cuban Horticul-
E. C. MASON tural Exhibit, 1908. Price, $3.50
Agent for Wm. Mason, H. J. Mason, per box, Shipside, Isle of Pines.
M. W. Preston, T. B. Van Buren,S. H.
and D. C. Francisco, C A. Baker. F. C. MASON, Manager
SANTA FE, ISLE OF PINES Santa Fe, Isle of Pines

H. M. Binkley & Co.
Judicial Surveys and Adjustment of Boundaries a Specialty
Oldest established firm in Cuba or Isle of Pines
Cable Address "BINKLEY," Havana
Western Union Code

Steel Lighthouse at Cayo Caiman Grande
For Government of Cuba

Steel and

Piers and

Built by The Snare & Triest Co.

The Snare & Triest Co.
FRED'K SNARE, President


143 Liberty St., New York

and Havana, Cuba

The American Hotel

Headquarters for Tourists
Nueva Gerona Isle of Pines
Rates, $2.00 per day Rooms with or without board
Special rates by the month Free Baths
Saddle horses and buggies for rent in connection with the hotel

The American Hotel, Nueva Gerona.

The peer of all beers acknowledged


Made of the choicest German malt and best
Bohemian hops

Havana Brewery

We will be glad to show
you our plant

On the Vivijagua Estate
Ideal locations for sea-
side cottages. Best site
in the West Indies for a
modern hotel. Boating,
bathing and fishing every
day in the year. Three
splendid bathing beaches
on this property. Marine
and mountain views : :

Vivijagua Estate
On the north coast near Nueva
Gerona. An old sugar planta-
tion. Rich soils for growing
citrus fruits, vegetables, cof-
fee, cocoa, tobacco and sugar
cane. Will sell in lots of any
size desired, at reasonable
prices. Correspondence invited.

Columpo Bay Land Co.
Santa Fe,
Isle of Pines.

Obispo St. No. 97
Spanish Hand-made Lace
Mantillas, Linen Goods FERRO & SUAREZ
Handkerchiefs Proprietors



Civil Engineers and General Contractors
Estimates furnished for buildings of all descriptions
Maps and Plans Drawn SANTA FE, ISLE OF PINES
Blue Prints - Private Road Building WEST INDIES

Fruit Trees Real Estate
John K. Harper
Owner of
Sante Fe, Isle of Pines

Citrus Fruit Trees
Experience has taught us that nursery stock, raised on the Island,
makes by far the most successful groves. I supply the planters
with Orange, Grape Fruit, Lemon and Lime Trees, budded on
sour orange stock, every tree stake trained, and guaranteed true
to name, and free from scale. The supply is limited. Send in
your order early.
Real Estate
Developed and Undeveloped Properties bought, sold and exchanged.
Send me a list of your properties that are for sale.
I have at present some beautiful small groves for sale, five to
ten acres fenced, one to three years old, and trees in bearing.
Prices and terms reasonable. Also many farms from ten to forty
acres each. Write at once for particulars.

Isle of Pines Transportation
and Supply Co.




Direct Service between Isle of Pines
and Mobile, Alabama
L. A. WHITNEY, Manager F. W. HARPER, Manager
Isle of Pines Mobile, Ala.


Whitney Land Co.
Isle of Pines, Cuba
(San Pedro Purchase, 20,000 Acres)

4.This property is located on
the shores of Siguanea Bay, and
has a valuable frontage of eight
miles, with high ground over-
looking the bay and sand beach.
4The bay reaches out to the
Yucatan Channel, forming the
direct waterway to the United
States from the Isle of Pines.
L Parties contemplating the purchase
of land on the Isle of Pines should see
this tract before buying.
4The commercial importance of the
location exceeds all other tracts, and con-
tains valuable fruit and vegetable land.
The Whitney Land Co.
1212 and 1214 Stephen Girard Building
Or "Isle of Pines, Cuba" PHILADELPHIA, PA.

We are Headquarters for

Kodaks ndPhoto Supplies

Developing and Printing
for Amateurs

Souvenirs, Views of Cuba and Isle of Pines
Expert Optical Work

The most complete line of Station-
ery and Office Supplies in Cuba

L. C. Smith & Bros. Typewriters
"Writing in Sight"

Office Furniture and Business Systems

National Cash Register Co.

Harris Bros. Company
O'Rielly 104-6-8, Havana. Cuba


Fetter & Ross' Store

Fancy Groceries, General Hardware

We furnish any merchandise desired and guarantee satisfaction. Warehouse
for feed and fertilizer. Isle of Pines Agents for White Wolf Stock Food


Nueva Gerona Isle of Pines

W. D. Middleton F. L. Tucker Elmer French

(Successors to MIDDLETON & HARPER)
To Whom This May Concern:
We want to state our case plainly and as briefly as possible. We are contractors for clearing
land, plowing, fencing, planting trees and caring for groves by the year; we are doing more of
this work than any other person or concern on the Isle and doing it as well as the best, at less
cost to our clients; we want you to write us if in want, and want your business after thorough
investigation on your part.
We care for groves in and within reasonable distance from Santa F6 for the following people,
to whom we refer as to workmanship and reliability,etc.
ARCHIBALD FRIES, care of B. & 0. Gen'l A. DUDLY, Marinette, Wis.
Office, Cincinnati. P. J. PETRUSCHKE, West Duluth, Minn.
A. N. FRIES, 19g0 Colerain Ave., Cincinnati. P. F. BERKE, West Duluth, Minn.
GEO. E. SMITH, 1902 Colerain Ave., Cincinnati. MATHIAS LEE, Crystal Falls, Mich.
H. L. CRANE, 242 McCormick PI., Cincinnati. W. L. STEELE, 59 La Salle, Chicago.
A. R. KELLOGG, 315 High St.,Marquette, Mich. C. J. HOTCHKISS, Fox Lake, Mich.
J. C. MORRELL, care of Allouz Bay Dock Co., A. E. SANGSTER,Cheboygan, Mich.
Superior, Wis. E. FRENCH, Santa F4, Isle of Pines.
M. E. BATES, 1862 Sherman Ave., Evanston, Ill. ROBERT BRUHN, Edgerton, Wis.
H. L. SHEPHERD,400 Manhattan Bldg., W. F. WOOD, Haigler, Neb.
Duluth, Minn.
We want you to ask us about our plan of making you loo% in two years and want to state
here and now that we have never deceived a single person since we have been in business here
and are seldom mistaken. We have been 14 years continuously in citrus fruit culture and will
cheerfully answer all questions relating to same; don't buy any trees to plant that are not adapted
to the Isle. If you visit the Isle look at the Esstrella Solitario grove of looacres,just finished by
deal worse. We refer to any and all merchants on the Isle, The Isle of Pines Bank and The
Isle of Pines Appeal. Send for our little book on Fruit Culture, tells you something about the
possibilities of making money in real estate also.
(Successors to MIDDLETON & HARPER)

W E offer for sale about 9,000 acres of
very choice fruit, vegetable and tobacco
land in the Eastern Part of the Isle of Pines.
The San Juan tract is situated nearer to
Jucaro, the first port of entry, and nearer to
the city of Santa Fe, than any land now
offered for sale. At Santa Fe is where the
noted mineral springs are, and the vicinity
where most of the Americans are located.
Most of our land is easily cleared, costing
about one-third as much to clear than the
majority of the lands on the Island. This
you will find is quite an item, a saving from
$10 to $15 per acre. There is no swamp, all
of the land can be plowed. Many of those
that have purchased land on our tract have
set out grape fruit trees which are looking
Being so admirably located, and having a
rich soil, we see no reason why, in a few years,
our tract should not be one of the garden
spots of the Island. Everything considered,
our price is very low and our terms reasonable.

Please write us for booklet
and further information

San Juan Land Company

Arthur Thomas Donnelly
Chief Engineer Department of Public Works, Isle of Pines
Civil Engineer and Surveyor
Nueva Gerona, I. of P.
Surveys and sub-divisions of land, Cable address "Donnely"
Construction of public and private roads, able address "Donnelly"
reservoirs, and ditches for irrigation Nueva Gerona

The American Candy Kitchen
Prado 99 Prado 99
Anything from the old fashioned stick
candy to fine chocolates and bonbons.
Office and Factory: Dragones St. No. 46
"El Encanta" Dragones,
Galiano and San Rafael St. Front of Marti Theatre



General Construction Work

P. 0. Box 724 :: Havana, Cuba

Residence: Herradura,
Pinar del Rio Provence, Cuba

E. W. SCHULTZ, Pres. F. E. GROVE, 1st Vice Pres. A. F. WATKE, d Vice Pres.
Watertown, Wis. Menasha, Wis. Fon du Lac, Wis.
H. R. SWANKE, 3d Vice Press. M. H. GAEBLER,Sec'y
Tigerton, Wis. Watertown, Wis.
HENRY UEHLING,Treas. R. I. WALL, Director
Watertown, Wis. Bernaza 3, Havana, Cuba

Calabaza Land Company
Incorporated under the laws of the State of Wisconsin
Paid up capital $70,000.00
General Office: Branch Ofice:
Owners of the

Calabaza Plantation

on the Isle of Pines

We offer for sale some very choice fruit, vege-
table and tobacco lands at reasonable terms.

The "Calabaza" contains some of the richest
and most fertile soils on this wonderful Island. It
has a large number of "Arroyos" (Creeks) of
crystalline spring water, that ripples oceanward
in deep, clean beds. The western boundary bor-
ders on the Rio Grande river, only two miles
from its mouth, where there is opportunity for
fine dock facilities.
Every acre of this plantation will some day sell
for $1,000. We want settlers to help put it there.
This is an exceptional chance for those who
will wake up to the fact that dollars can be made
on Isle of Pines land where pennies are made on
American farms. Write for information.

72, OBISPO 72
A large stock of Dress Goods and Confections for ladies and children
Silks, Woolens. Linens, Cottons and Fancy Articles
Spanish Mantillas, Linen and Pineapple Handkerchiefs, Pineapple Cloth

This Book Printed by
Publishes of High Grade Programs, Advertising, Booklets and a
General Line of Commercial Job Work.

Tourist and Settler
Contemplating a visit to Cuba, or making an Investment in the Island, address the
undersigned for Information, Literature, and Sample Copy of Magazine
Christina Station I. A. WRIGHT, Editor HAVANA, CUBA

Settlers and others on their way to and from the
Isle of Pines should take advantage
of the facilities offered by the


For making short and interesting excur-
sions to Matanzas, Guines, Madruga and
other places on this the most scenic railway
of Cuba, any of which are easily accom-
plished in one day.

For further particulars consult the beautifully illus-
trated 78-page booklet, issued free on application to

United Railways of Havana
Havana, Cuba

Notice to Prospectors

Persons contemplating investing or settling in
the Isle of Pines will find it to their advantage
to write to or see me before consummating their
negotiations. Improved and unimproved
property for sale on terms to suit purchaser.
Information given upon application.

Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines
West Indies

Ask for

Ron Bacardi
From Bacardi & Co.
Santiago de Cuba

The best tonic drink in Cuba
A product of the sugar cane. Absolutely pure.


Habana Deposit
Bacardi & Co.
43 San Ignacio St.


D. S. de Jongh, Jr.
Sole Agent for U. S. and Canada
128 Water St., New York

A two-year-old Isle of Pines Grape Fruit Tree bearing

Isle of Pines Steamship


The steamer Cristobal Colon of this line will make
a night run between Batabano and Isle of
Pines, Wednesday and Saturday evenings, imme-
diately upon the arrival of the train leaving
Villanueva Station, Havana, at 5:50 p. m.

Returning from the Isle of Pines
From Isle of Pines Monday and Friday evenings,
to connect with train leaving Batabano at 5 :25
a. m. for Havana.

George Beaudry

Hotel, Cafe and Restaurant
Cor. Ortiz and Marti
Meals at all hours
Home made Pastry NUEVA GERONA
Cold Drinks Isle of Pines

CHARLES S. BROWN. Pre iLn. E. G. ALLEN. S.crtar
Los Indios. Isle of Pines. W. I. Marinette. Wisconsin. U. S. A.

Canada Land and Fruit



Owners of

Canada and Los Indios Tracts
Location: Siguanea Bay, the Deep Water
Harbor of the Island

We have at our new and progressive town of
Los Indios a sawmill, general store, school, hotel,
church, post-office and nursery, all under the su-
pervision of Americans. A strictly American town.
We also have row boats and gasoline launch
for pleasure parties. Fishing and hunting the best.
We own the finest citrus fruit, vegetable and
tobacco land on the island. We offer same for
sale in acreage to suit purchaser, either for cash
or on installment.
All titles guaranteed absolutely perfect.
Write for prospectus and further
information to our general office at
Marinette, Wisconsin

Dealer in
Horses, Mules, Cattle and Hogs
Sole agent in Cuba for WHITE WOLF STOCK FEED
guaranteed better and cheaper
than other feeds
Stable Coneha and Ensenada Office and Warehouse
Telephone 6150 Mercaderes 5 Telephone 227

Are You Looking for

an Investment?

Isle of Pines real estate is abso-
lutely safe and will pay big
profits. We have choice im-
proved and unimproved property
for sale in large or small tracts
at very attractive prices.

We have had seven years experience in
citrus fruit culture and vegetable growing
and are prepared to answer all questions.

For further information address
Santa Fe, Isle of Pines

The Cleanest Soda Water Factory in Cuba
In 1905 The Coca-Cola Co. of Atlanta, Ga.,
established a branch 'ottling plant in Havana,
and met with such encouragement that in 1907
they purchased property and erected a building
especially for the manufacturing and bottling
of Coca-Cola. This is the most modern type
of factory building - concrete construction,
lighted and ventilated on all sides and perfectly
hygienic in every respect. From this building
goes out the purest, cleanest, most healthful soft
drink in the Island of Cuba.
Coca-Cola has long since won the
title of The National Beverage of the
United States, and is now taking on
even wider popularity, and is to-day
the favorite among thousands of peo-
ple in Cuba, Canada and Mexico.
Coca-Cola has been analyzed thousands of times by the
most eminent private and official chemists of every country
in which it is sold with the result that all of them pronounce
it absolutely harmless.
Sold everywhere Get the genuine

Results from Griffing's Trees

Our carefully and scientifically grown
Florida Trees will give maximum results
for Cuban, Isle of Pines or Porto Rican
We have furnished hundreds of thousands of
trees for planting in the Islands, have studied the
wants and requirements of the planters. This,
together with experience gained in planting and car-
ing for over twelve hundred acres of Citrus trees in
Cuba, gives us a knowledge of the planters' wants,
and how to fill them, enjoyed by no other firm.
We offer a complete line of Grape-
fruit (Pomelo), Orange, Lemon and other
fruit, nut, ornamental trees, roses and
shrubbery adapted to the Islands.
Our Prices are Right
Illustrated Catalog Free

The Griffing Brothers Co.



James B. Clow & Sons
New York Chicago Havana
Manufacturers and General Importers of
Plumbing Supplies
Building material, water works, sewerage
and drainage material. Wind mills, deep
well power and hand pumps, water tanks,
acetylene generators. The well known
brand of PAROID ROOFING. Our materials
are of the best quality, and our prices rea-
sonable. All inquiries will have prompt attention.

Hotel Brookyln
First-Class American Hotel

Prado 97



'Fronting Park, Choice Rooms Restaurant American Plan
American Beds Also a la Carte
MRS. H. WEIDEMANN, Proprietress




American Photo Co.
(Illustrators of this Publication)
Are the Best Equipped Commercial
Photographers in Cuba

We are prepared to take pictures We have a large collection of
Any Size, Any Place, Any Time Cuban and Isle of Pines views

Developing and Printing for Amateurs
receives the same attention
as our own work

The American Photo Co.
Obispo 70, Havana, Cuba

The Isle of Pines Appeal
Established April 14, 1904

The only newspaper devoted to the interests of
the Isle of Pines. Prints all information con-
cerning the Island, industrial, agricultural, etc.

For further information, address
The Isle of Pines Appeal
Subscription, per year $2.50 NUEVA GERONA, ISLE OF PINas
Six months, $1.50 P. O. Box 323, HAVANA, CUBA

A. E. WILLIS, Proprietor and Publisher -

88 _-

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