• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Foreword
 Special management zones
 Best management practices
 Appendices
 Glossary
 Back Cover






Title: Silviculture best management practices, 2000
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 Material Information
Title: Silviculture best management practices, 2000
Physical Description: iii, 98 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: Florida Department of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 2000
Copyright Date: 2000
Edition: Rev.
 Subjects
Subject: Forest management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water quality management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Technical Advisory Committee.
General Note: Includes glossary.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083818
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 48841378

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Foreword
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Special management zones
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Best management practices
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Appendices
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Glossary
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Back Cover
        Page 99
Full Text

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Best Management Practices


Eirorida 8.
Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services


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CHARLES H. BRONSON
Commissioner


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In the Fall of 1991, a 22 member Technical Advisory Committee began a process to review and
revise the Silviculture Best Management Practices for Florida. That process which is currently on
going includes many hours of study, much debate and discussion, and visits to the field, all of
which contributed to and are reflected in this revision of the BMP Manual. In that regard, this
Manual represents the Committee's collective best efforts to establish and maintain sound, re-
sponsible, guiding principles for silviculture operations in the State of Florida.

For personal commitment and numerous contributions toward the development of this document, the
following individuals who served on the original Technical Advisory Committee and their respective
agencies, organizations or companies, during that time of service, are most gratefully acknowledged:


Honorable Bob Crawford
Committee Chairman and
Commissioner of Agriculture
Mr. Carl Carpenter
Committee Vice-Chairman and
Deputy Commissioner of Agriculture
Mr. Jeff Vowell
Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services,
Division of Forestry
Dr. Hans Riekerk
School of Forest Resources and Conservation
University of Florida
Mr. Eric Livingston
Florida Department of Environmental
Regulation
Mr. Robert Pennock
Florida Department of Community Affairs

Mr. David Fisk
Suwannee River
Water Management District
Mr. Will Ebaugh
USDA Forest Service
Mr. Jack Pons
Florida Department of Natural Resources

Mr. Brad Hartman
Florida Game and Freshwater
Fish Commission


Mr. Mike Branch
Container Corporation of America

Mr. Marshall Jacobson
ITT Rayonier
Mr. Rob Olszewski
Florida Forestry Association

Ms. Cecile Nepote
Procter and Gamble Cellulose
Ms. Lynn Pappas
Attorney at Law
Mr. Clay Smallwood
St. Joseph Land and Development
Mr. Jack Vogel
Natural Resource Planning Services
Dr. John A. Wethington
Private Non-Industrial Landowner
Mr. David Gluckman
Attorney at Law

Mr. Bob Simons
Florida Defenders of the Environment

Ms. Judy Hancock
Sierra Club
Mr. Steve Gatewood
The Nature Conservancy

Dr. Bernie Yokel
Audubon Society


Silv i c u l t u r e


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ii Revised 2000


Silviculture


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Acknowledgements ................................................................................
Foreword ............................................................................................... 1
Introduction: BMP History and Purpose................................................................ 1
Monitoring and Regulatory Requirements .................................................................... 2
Special Management Zones ................................................................ 3
Introduction ................ ................... ............................................................................................ 3
P rim ary Zone ......................................... ...................................................................... . 4
Secondary Zone ........................... .......... .......... ......... ............... .......................... . ..... 5
S trin gers ............................ ...... ................................................................................ . .......... 5
Application of SMZs: ........................................................................................................ 7
P perennial Stream s ..................................................... ...... .......... ........................................ 7
Interm ittent Stream s .............................................................................. .......................... 10
Lakes, Sinkholes and Special Waters ............................................................................ 12
Best Management Practices ............................................................... 16
Introduction ....................................... ................. .... ......................................... . ........... 16
Application of BMPs: ...................................................................................................... 17
P public L an ds ........................... ...... ........ ... ... ..... ... ............ ............................................ 17
W wetlands .... ............................... ......... ....................... .. ....... .......... .... ................................. 18
C an als ................................................... .. ................. .... ... ................ ................. ......... 2 1
S in k h oles ........................................ .......... .......... ................................................................. 2 3
F forest R oads ................................... .... .............................................................. . .... 24
Stream C crossings ......................................................................................................... . ........... 27
T im ber H harvesting .................................................. .............................................................. 30
Site Preparation and Planting .......................................................................................... 31
F irelines .................................................... .... .............. ... ...... ................................... . 32
Pesticide and Fertilizer Application .................................................................................... 33
W aste D disposal ........................... .. ......... ........... .......... .... .............................. . ...... 34
W et W weather O operations ........................................................................................................ 35
E m ergency C conditions .............................................................................................................. 36
Appendices .......................................................................................... 39
1 SMZ Widths/Site Management Recommendations(SSC) ............................................ 40
2 Soil Erodibility/K-Factors of Florida Soils .................................................................... 58
3 Guide for Estimating K-Factors and Slope Category .................................... .......... 62
4 OFWs, ONRWs, Class I Waters of Florida ............................................................... 64
5 W etland T ypes........................................................................................................................ 67
6 Seeding Rates for Vegetative Stabilization ................................................................ 68
7 Spacing for Road Drainage Structures........................................................................ 69
8 Road Drainage Design Illustrations ............................................................................ 70
9 Culvert Sizing Tables ...................................................................................................... 76
10 Special Management Zone Acreages Calculations................................................... 82
11 Exceptions to Primary Zone Management Criteria.................................... ........... 83
12 Division of Forestry Field Offices ................................................... ......................... 86
13 Water Management District Offices.......................................................................... 88
14 US Army Corps of Engineers Offices ................................................................... 89
Glossary ............................................................................................... 91


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Sfwreword


Introduction
This manual establishes the Best Management Practices (BMPs) for silvicul-
ture operations in Florida. These practices are designed as the minimum stan-
dards necessary for protecting and maintaining the State's water quality as well
as certain wildlife habitat values, during forestry activities. As such, they repre-
sent a balance between overall natural resource protection and forest resource
use.

In addition, these practices were developed specifically for silviculture and are
intended to be applied on all such operations. However, they are not intended for
use during tree removal or land clearing operations associated with development
or other activities that have non-forestry objectives.

Best Management Practices for Silviculture in Florida were first established
in the mid 1970's in response to the Federal Clean Water Act of 1972. Those
original BMPs were designed exclusively to protect Florida's streams and lakes
from potential sources of pollution associated with forestry activities.

In 1992, Agriculture Commissioner Bob Crawford established a BMP Techni-
cal Advisory Committee which included representatives from state and federal
government, university, forest industry and environmental groups. This commit-
tee was directed to review the existing BMP Manual and revise the practices
where necessary to reflect the scientific, social and economic changes that have
taken place since the original BMP development.

With this revision, some of the original practices have been retained as part of
the continuing strategy to achieve water quality goals. However, many of these
practices have been expanded to address additional water resource features such
as sinkholes, smaller lakes, canals and wetlands. In addition, general ecological
considerations and wildlife habitat values have been included in specific BMP
objectives, resulting in expanded versions of original BMP concepts such as
Special Management Zones, as well as new ones such as BMPs for wetlands.

Although many of the relationships between silviculture activities and im-
pacts to natural resources have been well quantified, many others have not.
Consequently, as significant new information has become available, it has been
incorporated into the practices in this Manual. To that end, the BMP Technical
Advisory Committee will continue to meet biennially, in concert with BMP compli-
ance monitoring, to evaluate the status and progress of BMP implementation and
effectiveness.

Because of the extensive revisions to this document, some of the technical
terms used in the Manual have specific definitions that may differ from conven-
tional or traditional meanings. The reader is strongly advised to review the
Glossary of terms prior to reading the Manual or implementing the practices.


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BMP Monitoring and Regulatory Requirements
Since 1981 the Florida Division of Forestry has monitored BMP implemen-
tation by conducting a biennial Compliance Survey. Like BMPs in general, the
Survey has traditionally been heavily oriented toward forestry activities
involving intensive pine management, near streams and lakes. With the new
and expanded practices in this Manual, BMP compliance monitoring was also
revised. Following the development of this Manual in 1993, a BMP Monitor-
ing Task Force revised the Compliance Survey making it compatible with the
new BMPs, and more technically and statistically sound. The revised Survey
was first used in 1995 and includes significant procedural changes such as a
numerical scoring system for determining BMP compliance, special criteria for
identifying a significant risk to water quality, and an expansion of the Survey
into all Florida counties. Through 1999, the Survey has determined a state-
:" wide, long-term average of 92% compliance with silviculture BMPs.

:.i .In addition, a BMP Effectiveness Study was completed in 1999, using the
Survey as a measure of BMP compliance and using stream bio-assessment
techniques to measure water quality. The study concluded that where silvi-
culture BMPs were properly applied water quality, aquatic habitat and
overall stream ecosystem health were protected.
The BMPs in this Manual are intended for implementation on all silvicul-
S. ture operations regardless of whether or not the operation is subject to other
regulatory standards or permits. Anyone who desires to conduct silviculture
P 9 activities that are not in compliance with this Manual must necessarily seek
i and obtain a permit from the appropriate local, state and/or federal govern-
ment agency prior to conducting the operation. In addition, the maintenance
of State water quality standards is required during all silviculture operations.


Si lvi cu I t u r e


Pest Management Practices










jecial Management Zones


Introduction
The Special Management Zone (SMZ) is a BMP which consists of a specific
area associated with a stream, lake, wetland or other waterbody that is desig-
nated and maintained during silviculture operations. The purpose of the SMZ is
to protect water quality by reducing or eliminating forestry related inputs of
sediment, nutrients, logging debris, chemicals and water temperature fluctuations
that can adversely affect aquatic communities. SMZs provide shade, streambank
stability and erosion control, as well as detritus and woody debris which benefits
the aquatic ecosystem in general. In addition, the SMZ is designed to maintain
certain forest attributes that will provide specific wildlife habitat values. Snags,
den and cavity trees as well as mast producing trees, left in the SMZ, are neces-
sary to meet habitat requirements for certain types of wildlife.
As described in the following sections, the SMZ is subject to specific criteria,
that defines operational restrictions, and special management objectives. In
addition, the SMZ has a specific width which is based on the size and type of
waterbody involved, and on the Site Sensitivity Class (SSC). The SSC is based on
the local soil type and slope percent, which indicate the general potential for
erosion and sedimentation. For determining the SSC, Florida soils have been
classified as A, B or C, with A being stable and C being highly erodible. Percent
ground slope has also been classified as 1 through 6, with 1 being relatively flat
and 6 being very steep (Appendices 2 and 3).
The SSC for a given site is a combination of soil and slope percent and is
expressed as Al through C6. For example, an Al site would have stable soils and
flat topography, whereas a C6 site would have highly erodible soil and steep
slopes. Likewise, the SMZ width associated with an Al site would be relatively
narrow compared to the SMZ associated with a C6 site (Appendix 1).
The Special Management Zone has three principal components the Primary
Zone, the Secondary Zone and the Stringer. One or more of these components may
apply on a given forestry operation, depending on the SSC and on the type and
size of waterbodies on site. The following sections provide a detailed description of
the three SMZ components and the practices that are acceptable or prohibited
within each one. Practices that are acceptable within all components of the SMZ
include direct seeding, hand planting or machine planting on the contour of the
land, prescribed burning for site preparation on slopes less than 18%, and basal
application of herbicides and insecticides.

Primary Zone
The Primary Zone applies to perennial streams, perennial lakes, sinkholes
with perennial water, Outstanding Florida Waters (OFW), Outstanding National
Resource Waters (ONRW), Class I Waters, and in some cases wetlands (see


Silv icu t ure


Pest Management P














Wetlands Section). Although forestry activities are allowed, this Zone has signifi-
cant timber harvesting restrictions, and varies in width from 35 to 200 feet per
side, depending on the type and size of the waterbody (see Appendix 1 and Appli-
cation of SMZs). The Primary Zone provides water quality protection to adjacent
waterbodies by maintaining shade, and by reducing the disturbance to ground
cover vegetation and leaf litter. In addition, this Zone also provides important
wildlife habitat values particularly for those species that require snags, cavities,
tall trees and other characteristics generally associated with older and less
disturbed forest conditions.

Selective timber harvesting and other forestry operations are allowed in the
Primary Zone, subject to the specific management criteria listed below. However,
selective harvesting within this Zone is intended to be conducted in conjunction
with harvesting of a specific adjacent area. In addition, forestry operations,
particularly harvesting and skidding, within the Primary Zone should exercise
special precautions to maintain as much of the natural forest condition as pos-
sible. A decision not to harvest at all within this Zone may provide additional
natural resource benefits.



A) Clearcut harvesting is prohibited in the Primary Zone except for special condi-
tions described in Appendix 11.
B) Clearcut harvesting is always prohibited within 35 feet of all perennial waters
and within 50 feet of all waterbodies designated as OFW, ONRW or Class I
Waters. No exceptions apply.
C) Selective harvesting may be conducted to the extent that 50% of a fully stocked
stand is maintained. The residual stand should conform to the following:
1) Trees should be left to maintain the approximate proportion of diameter
classes and species present prior to harvesting, except that oaks (other than
water oaks) and den trees may be favored.
2) Repeated entry into a harvested Primary Zone in short time intervals for
additional harvesting is prohibited.
3) No trees will be harvested in stream channels or on the immediate stream
bank.
D) Special emphasis should be given to the following, within the Primary Zone of
the SMZ:
1) Protection of very large trees and/or old trees.
2) Protection of snags and cavity trees.
3) Protection of trees where any part of the canopy overhangs the water.
E) The following forestry activities are prohibited within the Primary Zone of the
SMZ:
1) Mechanical site preparation.
2) Operational fertilization.
3) Aerial application or mist blowing of pesticide.


S i l v i c u t u r e


Pest Management P














4) Loading decks or landings, and log bunching points.
5) Road construction except when crossing a waterbody.
6) Site preparation burning on slopes greater than 18%.

Secondary Zone
The Secondary Zone applies to all intermittent streams, intermittent lakes
and sinkholes with intermittent water. In addition, for perennial waterbodies,
OFWs, ONRWs and Class I Waters, the Secondary Zone may apply as an "add-
on" to the Primary Zone (Figure 1 and Appendix 1).
For intermittent waterbodies, the Secondary Zone is always at least 35 feet
wide on each side of a stream or around the circumference of lakes and sinkholes.
Depending on the SSC, the width of the Secondary Zone for intermittent
waterbodies may be as much as 300 feet (See Figure 2 and Appendix 1).
The SSC is used to determine the width of the Secondary Zone, in the case of
intermittent waters, as well as the necessity for the Secondary Zone, in the case
of perennial waters, OFWs, ONRWs and Class I waters. Generally, the more
erodible the soil and the steeper the slope, the wider the Secondary Zone, and/or
the wider the entire SMZ. Appendix 1 lists the SSC for all combinations of soil
and slope conditions, and provides the width requirements for the applicable
Special Management Zone under each condition.
The Secondary Zone has no timber harvesting limitations unrestricted
selective harvesting and clearcut harvesting are both permissible anywhere
within the Secondary Zone. However, the following operational restrictions apply:



1) No mechanical site preparation.
2) No operational fertilization.
3) No loading decks or landings.
4) No site prep burning on slopes greater than 18%.
5) No roads except for crossings.


Stringer
The Stringer applies only to intermittent streams, intermittent lakes and
sinkholes with intermittent water, and is composed of trees left on or near the
bank along both sides of these waterbodies. The Stringer can provide limited food,
cover, nesting and travel corridors for a number of animals, especially birds.


Silviculture


Pest Management Practices I














Stringers are most beneficial when connected to larger Special Management
Zones where they provide benefits to water quality by reducing the risk of sedi-
mentation and bank damage. The presence of a Stringer provides a physical
barrier, helping to insure that heavy equipment operation in and around the
water is minimal. Stringers also foster the use of designated crossings, and help
equipment operators locate and identify streams and other water bodies during
site preparation and skidding.
There are no specific requirements for species, size or spatial distribution of
trees left in the Stringer. However, trees left in the Stringer should favor hard-
wood species, potential den trees and snags, and to the extent possible, provide a
continuous, connected canopy except for designated stream crossings. All trees
which occupy the immediate stream bank should be included in the Stringer.


Silviculture t r e


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f plication of SMZs: Perennial Streams


Perennial streams are those that have a well defined channel and main-
tain flow or continuous pools of water throughout most of the year under
typical climatic conditions. This includes natural streams that have been
altered by dredging and/or straightening (see Canal Section). For perennial
streams, the overall Special Management Zone is composed of a Primary Zone
and, depending on the SSC, possibly a Secondary Zone. The Primary Zone for
perennial streams ranges in width from 35 to 200 feet, depending on stream
width or type, as shown in Table 1. Primary Zone widths in Table 1 are given
for one side of the stream only. However, the Zone is applied to both sides of
the stream. In addition, where the stream is connected to the inflow and/or
discharge point of a flowing wetland, the Zone extends an additional 50 feet
beyond the defined channel into the wetland(Figure 4). The Primary Zone is
measured from the stream, beginning at the break in slope at the top of the
stream bank, out to the designated width. Stream width is the typical bank to
bank width of the stream within the harvest unit, measured in feet.



Stream Width/Type Primary Zone
<20' 35' per side
20-40' 75' per side
> 40' 200' per side
OFW 200' per side
Class I 200' per side
ONRW 200' per side .-

Selective timber harvesting is allowed within the Primary SMZ, consistent ,.
with the Primary Zone -Management Criteria. Clearcut harvesting is prohib- -
ited in the Primary SMZ, unless the operation qualifies as an exception as
described in Appendix 11.
Depending on the SSC of the harvest unit, a Secondary Zone may also be .
required. If so, the Secondary Zone width is measured beginning at the outer ;"
boundary of the Primary Zone and continuing landward for the required _""'
distance as determined by the SSC (Appendix 1). Figure 1 shows examples of
Primary and Secondary Zones on several different perennial streams, each
with a different SSC. Note that where there is no Secondary Zone required, :
the Primary Zone is the total SMZ. Likewise, where the SSC is such that a.'
Secondary Zone is required, the total SMZ width is the sum of the Primary
Zone and Secondary Zone, up to a maximum of 300 feet. ;
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example 1: 12-foot wide Perennial Stream SSC: A3
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Example 3: 42-foot wide Perennial Stream SSC: A2
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plication ofSMZs: Intermittent Streams


Intermittent streams are those that have a well defined channel but
maintain only seasonal flow under typical climatic conditions. This includes
natural streams that have been altered by dredging and/or straightening (see
Canal Section). For all intermittent streams, the Stringer is required. The
total SMZ for intermittent streams consists of the Stringer, which occupies the
immediate stream bank, and the Secondary Zone. The Secondary Zone, like
the Primary Zone, is measured from the stream, beginning at the break in
slope at the top of the stream bank, out to the designated width. In addition,
where the stream is connected to the inflow and/or discharge point of a flow-
ing wetland, the Zone extends an additional 50 feet beyond the defined chan-
nel into the wetland (Figure 4).

All intermittent waterbodies are afforded a Stringer and a Secondary Zone
of at least 35 feet, regardless of the SSC. However, depending on the SSC, an
intermittent stream could have a Secondary Zone as wide as 300 feet (Appen-
dix 1). Figure 2 shows examples of Secondary Zones on several different
intermittent streams, each with a different SSC. Note that the total SMZ is
composed of the Stringer and the Secondary Zone no Primary Zone applies to
intermittent streams.


Silviculture t


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Silvicul t u re


Example 1: 25-foot wide Intermittent Stream SSC: Al
(low soil erodibility; 0-2% slope)

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Application ofSMZs: Lakes, Sinkholes & Special Waters



Perennial Lakes and Sinkholes

A Primary Zone of 35' applies to all perennial lakes that are 2 acres or
larger in size, and to sinkholes that maintain perennial surface waters. This
Zone is measured from the lake or sinkhole, beginning at the break in slope at
the top of the shoreline, out to the designated width. In addition, a Secondary
Zone may apply to these waterbodies depending on the SSC associated with
the harvest unit (Table 2). The Secondary Zone, if required, would begin at
the outer boundary of the Primary Zone and continue outward from the lake
or sinkhole the specified distance (See Appendix 1).

Intermittent Lakes and Sinkholes

A Stringer and a Secondary Zone of at least 35 feet apply to all intermit-
tent lakes that are 2 acres or larger in size and to sinkholes that maintain
intermittent surface waters (Figure 3). Depending on the SSC associated with
the project site, the Secondary Zone could extend out as much as 300 feet
(Appendix 1)

Tal :S ZWdh o Laks Sikoe & SpcaWtr


Perennial
Primary Zone Secondary Zone


Lakes
Sinkholes
OFW
ONRW
Class I


varies with SSC
varies with SSC
varies with SSC
varies with SSC
varies with SSC


Intermittent
Primary Zone Secondary Zone


(Stringer)
(Stringer)
200'
200'
200'


min. 35'
min. 35'
varies with SSC
varies with SSC
varies with SSC


OFW, ONRW and Class I Waters

Outstanding Florida Waters (OFWs) and Outstanding National Resources
Waters (ONRWs) are waterbodies that have been identified as having unique
and/or exceptional values and therefore are afforded extra protection from
potential sources of pollution. Class I Waters are those that have been desig-
nated as a drinking water supply and are also afforded extra water quality
protection. For these reasons, a 200 foot Primary Zone applies to all OFWs,
ONRWs and Class I Waters, regardless of the type or size of the waterbody. A
list and location of these waterbodies is provided in Appendix 4.


S i I c u I t ti r c


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Pest Management Practices












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Example 2:

Perennial Lake,
5 acres in size;

OFW Designation

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Example 1:
Perennial Lake,

5 acres in size;
SSC: Al




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U st Management Practices


Introduction
The following sections of this Manual provide the listing and application of
Best Management Practices established for silviculture operations in Florida.
The BMPs are arranged by specific application to various land types,
waterbody types, forestry activities and special conditions. It should be noted
that the Special Management Zone concept, described in the previous section,
is also a BMP and is frequently referenced under the various BMP applica-
tions.

The Best Management Practices in this Manual are generally presented as
individual practices within a particular category. However, the basic BMP
concept is the implementation of all practices that apply to a given forestry
operation. In that regard, no single practice is designed to accomplish the total
BMP objective. For example, applying the SMZ criteria to a stream within a
forestry operation without regard for other applicable BMPs, could significantly
reduce the effectiveness of the SMZ to protect water quality. On a given for-
estry operation, the effectiveness of any particular practice, as well as overall
BMP effectiveness, is largely dependent upon the implementation of all appli-
cable BMPs throughout all aspects of the operation.


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Sication of BMPs: Public Lands


Unlike forest management on private lands, the need to derive economic
return may not be the dominant force that leads to public land ownership or
drives public land management. Often, the acquisition and management of
public land has as its objective, to maximize ecological restoration, preserve
existing natural resources and facilitate optimum public use.

When such is the case, the BMPs in this manual must be considered as
minimum standards that, by themselves, will not always achieve public land
management goals. Consequently, public land management agencies charged
with developing and implementing management plans for public lands should
do so in conformance with this Manual, and to the greatest extent practical,
with the following enhancements:

Areas within the Special Management Zone designated as a Primary Zone
should be managed as a no-cut zone. Any timber harvesting within these no-
cut zones should be limited to operations that are in association with ecologi-
cal restoration or wildlife habitat enhancement practices. However, isolated
wetlands and intermittent streams on state forests shall be exempt from OFW
derived Primary Zones. Each individual state forest, within the forest man-
agement plan, shall prescribe management practices for isolated wetlands and
intermittent streams on a case by case basis.

The Special Management Zone is only one of the BMP concepts that may
S warrant additional consideration by land managers prior to implementation
on public lands. Public land management agencies are advised and encour-
Saged to augment the BMPs where appropriate, particularly on lands that are
managed for non-forestry objectives. Protection of forested wetlands within
these lands should be given special consideration.
SIn addition, such agencies should maintain environmental/ecological
S inventories of public lands and actively implement and study alternatives that
exceed the BMPs in this manual. Results should be well documented to help
S facilitate future BMP revisions. Copies of enhanced management plans or any
such studies should be forwarded to the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services, Division of Forestry.
Note: Public land management agencies must often adhere to specific legislative provisions or policies
When developing and implementing management plans on certain public lands. In particular, the USDA
I Forest Service is constrained by the Clean Water Act, the National Forest Management Act, and National
Environmental Policy Act to develop and implement a Land and Resource Management Plan that will govern
management of certain federally-owned forested land. Similar constraints may occur in legislation that
governs acquisition and management of lands owned or controlled by local, regional, or state agencies.
o'* To the extent that adherence to these BMPs do not, I ..nh, with legislatively established management
Goals, objectives, requirements, or mandates, public agencies are required to incorporate these BMPs into
management plans. In addition, to the greatest extent practical, public agencies are encouraged to incorporate
the above BMP enhancements wherever applicable.


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A plication ofBMPs: Wetlands

For regulatory purposes, wetlands are defined by the presence or absence
of specific types of vegetation, soils and hydrologic conditions. However, it is
not the intent nor within the scope of this Manual, to define wetlands for
regulatory purposes or to use any particular regulatory definition. Wetlands,
for the purpose of this Manual, are listed by type in Appendix 5.
In addition, areas of pine flatwoods may contain certain wetland types
listed in this Manual, such as cypress ponds. However, for the purpose of this
Manual, pine flatwoods are not considered wetlands. Conversely, the presence
of pine species within swamps, sloughs or floodplains does not necessarily
make these areas "pine sites".
Because of the generally wet soil conditions associated with forested
wetlands, some of these areas can be very sensitive to forestry activities,
particularly during flooding or periods of soil saturation. For silviculture
operations in general, wetlands are probably most susceptible to changes in
hydrology or hydroperiod, which can result from improper forest road con-
struction, logging operations, and certain types of site preparation activities. .
In general, the BMPs that apply to any other land type also apply to
wetlands. For example, a stream within a wetland area would receive a SMZ,
and a road or stream crossing constructed within a wetland would be required ;.
to apply the appropriate BMPs. However, because of the sensitivity of some '
types of wetlands to certain forestry related activities, the following special
BMPs also apply.
Drainage and Conversion -
Ditching in association with road construction and maintenance, fireline .
plowing or other activities in wetlands, must not significantly change the
hydrologic condition of wetlands or the overall drainage pattern of the site.
Do not significantly alter the natural drainage or flow patterns on forest
lands immediately adjacent to wetlands, particularly isolated wetlands,
such as cypress ponds or gum ponds. Logging slash must not be pushed
into or piled around ponds or other isolated wetlands.
Do not conduct intensive mechanical site preparation such as bedding,
raking and windrowing in wetlands.
Avoid fireline plowing in wetlands (see Fireline Construction).
Roads
When constructing roads in wetlands, refer to the Roads section of the '
manual in addition to the following BMPs. .
Avoid fill road construction, especially in floodplains or other wetlands


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Best Management Practices


I i















with flowing water. Roads constructed at ground level are less likely to
restrict flowing water.

Do not construct permanent roads in wetlands except to serve large and
frequently used areas, provide access for a crossing, or provide fire protec-
tion.

When crossing wetlands, insure that fill roads are properly and ad-
equately culverted and do not act to impound or divert normal stormflow,
flood flow or sheet flow (see Stream Crossings).

Harvesting
For harvesting timber in wetlands: wetland area means the acres of
each contiguous wetland within a contiguous ownership; selectively cut
means to harvest in accordance with the Management Criteria for the
Primary Zone of the SMZ (see Special Management Zones); leave trees
are large, mast producing and/or cavity trees that represent the older age
classes within an existing stand.

A) Harvesting in a wetland area less than 200 acres must meet the follow-
ing criteria:
1) retain all snags within the wetland area, to the extent that safety and
harvesting operations allow; and,
2a) retain at least 3 to 5 leave trees per acre: if a wetland flow-way is
present, leave trees should be left along it's center line; otherwise leave
trees should be randomly distributed throughout the wetland; or,
b) retain at least 10% of the harvest area as selectively cut the 10%
area may be left anywhere on-site. However, for wetlands with a well
defined stream, an SMZ (as specified in the SMZ section) will be
required for the stream, and may be used as part or all of the 10%; for
flowing wetlands the 10% should be left along the center line of the
wetland flow-way to the greatest extent possible.

Note: 2b) is the preferred option where it is applicable

B) Harvesting in a wetland area 200 acres and larger must meet the
following criteria:
1) retain all snags within the wetland area, to the extent that safety and
harvesting operations allow; and,
2) retain at least 1 to 2 leave trees per acre: leave trees should be left
along the center line of the wetland flow-way if applicable; otherwise
leave trees should be randomly distributed throughout the wetland.
3) clearcut areas cannot exceed 160 acres in size.
4) all clearcuts must be separated from any other clearcut by a 200'
Primary Zone or by a 200' wide area which has an average tree height of
at least 20 feet. For wetlands with a well defined streamss, the Primary


Silviculture


E.,


Pest Management Practices I















Zone left along the stream may be used to contribute toward the 200'
requirement. For flowing wetlands, trees left along the center line of the
wetland flow-way should be used to separate clearcut areas where
applicable.

C) A harvest unit which contains five or more small isolated wetlands,
each less than two acres in size, must retain 20% of the number of isolated
wetlands unharvested. For example, if the harvest unit contains ten, two
acre cypress ponds, eight may be clearcut and two must be left uncut until
the regenerated stands on the other eight attain an average tree height of
at least 20 feet.

Skidding
Minimize skidder and other heavy equipment operation in wetlands
during wet conditions to avoid widespread excessive soil rutting. Although
some minor rutting may occur in a typical wetland harvesting operation,
skidders and other heavy equipment operations should be planned for dry
seasons and/or dry periods as much as possible.

To the greatest extent possible: forestry operations in wetlands which
exhibit seasonal inundation or saturation should be limited to dry condi-
tions only, and forestry operations in wetlands which are continually
saturated or inundated should be limited to low-water conditions.

When skidding in wetlands with organic soils, concentrate skid trails to
as small an area as possible, and minimize the number of trails on a given
site (see Timber Harvesting).

Note: Ditching and drainage activities as well as the placement of fill material in
wetlands generally requires a permit from regulatory agencies. Individuals engaged in
such activities are advised to contact the appropriate agency for specific guidance
(Appendices 13 and 14). In addition, state water quality standards may apply to wetlands
that are connected to streams, lakes, or other waterbodies.


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Figure 4


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SMNZ For Stream

Defined Stream

Flowing \Wetland

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Best Management Practices


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Implication of BMPs: Canals


Best Management Practices for canals are designed to provide additional
protection to Florida's water resources. Since canals are often connected to
streams, lakes or other waterbodies, forestry activities adjacent to canals have
the potential to impact water quality through such connections.
For the purposes of this Manual, the term canal does not include natural
streams that have been hydrologically modified by dredging or straightening
to enhance their efficiency to transport water. Although such "modified
streams" may have been significantly altered, they are still geographically
located to receive and transport storm water and thus are connected directly
to other waters. In most cases, they continue to perform important natural
stream functions particularly if they have associated wetlands. For these
reasons, BMPs for modified streams (including SMZ criteria) are identical to
those for any other naturally occurring perennial or intermittent stream,
except for maintenance activities (see Canal Maintenance section).
Canals, for the purposes of this manual, are totally man-made and gener-
ally independent from natural drainage features. As artificial systems, canals
exhibit only periodic and limited characteristics of natural streams and
usually receive periodic maintenance. Canals do not include forestry road-side
ditches or upland field ditches.

BMPs for Canals
During normal silvicultural operations, do not operate heavy equipment
within canals or in such a manner as to result in damage to the canal
bank.
Avoid canal crossings when possible. Where necessary, construct cross-
ings in accordance with the Stream Crossings section of this manual.
Do not conduct bedding, chopping or other site preparation activities in
such a way that results in direct surface water discharge into a canal.
Avoid dropping logging slash in canals; remove significant amounts of
logging slash from canals.
Do not discharge pesticides not approved for aquatic use, fertilizer, or
other pollutants into canals. Do not dispose of chemical containers and/or
equipment rinse water in canal waters.


Silviculture


Pest Managemnt Pratices













Canal Maintenance
Maintenance for modified streams and canals should be minimized.
When necessary, conduct canal re-dredging during periods of low flow.
Minimize disturbance to canal banks and retain as much "streamside"
vegetation as possible.
Use appropriate erosion, sediment and turbidity control practices to
reduce sediment transport.
When conducting road maintenance adjacent to a canal, do not discharge
road spoil on the canal-side of the road.
Note: Before conducting canal Maintenance, contact the appropriate regulatory
agency(s) such activities normally require authorization and/or permits (Appendix 13).


Silviculture


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_est Management Practices I










pMplication ofBMPs: Sinkholes


Sinkholes are important waterbodies because geologically and hydrologi-
cally active sinks may form a direct connection between the land surface and
groundwater with little or no filtration through soil layers. Consequently, any
pollutants that enter a sinkhole have the potential to contaminate groundwa-
ter. Sinkholes support a unique combination of plants and animals that are
very sensitive to pollution, temperature and sunlight changes and may depend
on leaf litter and organic debris for food sources.
In addition to the water resource concerns for sinkholes, there are also
safety concerns. Ground conditions near sinkholes may be very unstable
geologically and prone to collapse. Heavy equipment operation in and around
these areas could result in damage to or loss of equipment, structures, and
physical harm to workers and operators.

BMPs for Sinkholes
For sinkholes with perennial or intermittent open water, or which
connect to an intermittent or perennial stream, apply the appropriate
Special Management Zone to the sinkhole (See Application of SMZs).
Do not place any debris, trash, or waste in any sinkhole or in any sur-
face drainage feature that flows into a sinkhole.
Avoid mechanical operations such as harvest or site preparation, fertili-
zation, or pesticide use in sinkholes.
When working adjacent to sinkholes, do not alter land surface slope to
direct surface drainage into the sinkhole apply mechanical site prepara-
tion such as bedding on the contour.


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AI plication of BMPs: Forest Roads


Forest roads represent the single greatest potential for severe, long term
erosion and sedimentation from forestry activities. The nature of roads gener-
ally involves maintaining a "bare soil" condition on the road surface and
periodic maintenance of both the surface and any associated ditches.
Permanent access roads are often accompanied by permanent drainage
ditches or other drainage structures designed to transport stormwater. Seri-
ous road deterioration can result if ditch or drainage structure capacity is
exceeded during storm events. This can lead to flooding of the road and
surrounding area, scouring of the road and ditch surface, blowing out of roads
and culverts, all of which may ultimately result in sediment delivery into
streams or other waterbodies. To properly design, build, drain and maintain
forest roads, the following BMPs are provided.

BMPs for Forest Roads
Road Planning
S-'. Carefully plan the location and the desired drainage features before
construction, using soil survey maps, topographic maps and aerial photo-
graphs Plan construction activities for dry periods.
Minimize stream and wetland crossings. Roads will be less costly to
Build and maintain, equipment "down time" will be reduced and the water
Resource will be protected.
Road Construction
I Avoid construction operations during wet conditions If possible, com-
plete construction several months before heavy usage. This will reduce
surface scour and decrease sediment transport.
* Balance cuts and fills to maximize use of local material and to maximize
roadbed stability.
To reduce both road costs and disturbed surface area, minimize the road
" width consistent with the anticipated type and amount of traffic.
l* For fill road construction, keep road shoulders at a gentle slope to
minimize erosion and accelerate revegetation.

Stabilize road banks and critical road segments using mulch, seed and
fertilizer, or other methods to keep the road from washing and to keep
sediment out of streams (Appendix 6).
Road Drainage
Drain road systems using culverts, cross ditches, turnouts, etc., to
encourage long term stability, reduce maintenance, and protect water
quality (Appendices 7, 8, and 9).


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Pest Management Practices














Where applicable, use practices such as turnouts or ditch plugs, to
reduce the volume and velocity of ditch flow.

All road drainage practices that divert ditch flow or road surface runoff,
must direct such flow onto vegetated areas where it can be adequately
dispersed do not direct ditch flow or road runoff into streams, lakes or
other waterbodies.

Use cross-drain culverts on roads where there is a need to direct ditch
flow from one side of a road to the other, underneath the road surface.

Use cross-ditches on roads where there is a need to channel ditch or
road surface drainage from one side of the road to the other, over the
surface of the road.

Base the size of the culvert or cross-ditch on the road ditch size, type
and slope of the road and the expected volume of water to be handled
during storm events.

Use water turnouts to periodically turn ditch flow out and away from
the road, and onto an adjacent vegetated area for dispersal of road runoff
and sediment. Vegetated areas used for water turnouts must be adequate
in size and have sufficient ground cover to assimilate discharges.

Use broad base dips on permanent roads for dispersion of road surface
drainage in the absence of road ditches the use of a broad base dip
provides exceptional drainage and virtually unlimited trafficability. This
road drainage practice is best suited for new road construction and on
especially critical road segments designed for all-weather traffic and heavy
use.

Use water bars for temporary access roads, firelines and skid trails,
where a physical barrier is needed to disrupt and disperse runoff and
sediment. Since water bars vary from 1 3 feet in height, they are gener-
ally not suitable for high speed or heavy traffic loads, but can be used to
effectively close a road to vehicular traffic.

Road Maintenance
All drainage structures should be periodically checked and maintained,
especially following excessive rainfall events. If signs of sediment and/or
turbid discharges are present, take immediate corrective actions for any
problem.

Ditches and culverts should be kept free of major obstructions and
ditches should be allowed to revegetate as much as is practicable.


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Close or restrict traffic on roads whenever possible this will allow
roads to stabilize and revegetate.

Seeding and fertilizing, mulching or otherwise stabilizing critical seg-
ments of temporary and permanent roads will accelerate revegetation,
ensure road utility in the future and protect nearby watercourses. Seeding
rates and types are listed in Appendix 6.

Note: Spacing recommendations for cross-drain culverts, cross-drain ditches, water
turnouts, broad base dips and water bars have been computedfor a wide range of road
slopes and are provided in Appendix 7. Appendix 8 provides illustrations of the design
and installation for each of these drainage practices.


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IBest Management P


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pi flication ofBMPs: Stream Crossings


Stream crossings represent the point at which a forest road or skid trail
comes in contact with a waterbody. Consequently, some type of planned
crossing is necessary to protect water quality. Careful consideration should be
given to determining the type of crossing to be used, and in constructing the
project. The principal objectives of a stream crossing are to provide a dry
surface crossing even during periods of stormflow, and to provide adequate
conveyance of flow beneath the road fill so that impounding of flow does not
occur. BMPs for stream crossings are provided below.

BMPs for Stream Crossings
In General
Minimize the number of crossings on a given stream, and cross streams
perpendicular to the flow at the most narrow section. This minimizes the
area of disturbance and simplifies construction. -
Any erodible fill material or other areas normally exposed to flowing
water should be stabilized with rip-rap, vegetation or other appropriate
material following construction.
Avoid planning construction of crossings for wet periods avoid construc-
tion during high water conditions.
Culverts
The use of a culvert is the most common method for constructing stream
crossings associated with forestry activities. Culverts are well suited for i
crossing both perennial and intermittent streams as well as other wet areas.
However, several other types of stream crossings are also well suited for
forestry related stream crossings under certain conditions.
Place culverts in a section of the stream channel that is relatively straight
and free from curves, meandering or major obstructions. i.
Place the bottom of the culvert at the same elevation as the bottom of the
stream, and at approximately the same slope.
Keep the height of the entire structure (culvert plus fill) as low as possible .4
to reduce the potential for impounding large areas of water.
Use a culvert diameter that is sufficient to carry the normal flow expected.
Culvert sizing for permanent installations should be based on the size and
nature of the stream channel being crossed, or on the size and nature of the
watershed above the crossing. Appendix 9 provides two possible methods for
determining culvert diameter. '
When crossing broad channels or wetlands, several small culverts, spaced


S i vi culture


18est Management Practices
























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throughout the crossing, are normally preferable to a single large one. This
arrangement maintains a lower road surface elevation and does not artifi-
cially concentrate the flow into one small segment of the channel.

For temporary stream crossings, a culvert may be sized to reflect seasonal
flo conditions. For example, during normally dry periods a small culvert may
provide adequate stormilow capacity on a temporary basis. However, a culvert
sized under such conditions must he removed immediately following the
activity, or replaced with a size that will accommodate normal year-round


SPeriodically inspect all culverts to prevent clogging, plugging and eventual
failure. Remove anL debris or sediment deposits that have the potential to
cause culvert clogging.

Hard Surface Crossings
Hard surface crossings or fords. are commonly used for stream crossings
during forestry operations. These crossings consist of lining the stream chan-
nel with rock, brick, logs, concrete, or other such material. In some cases, the
stream bottom may be naturally armored and may accommodate light traffic
without artificial substrate.

Hard surface crossings may be constructed on both perennial and inter-
mittent streams, and offer some important advantages over culverted cross-
ings. In many cases, a hard surface crossing may cost considerably less than a
culvert crossing, depending on the availability of surfacing material. Also,
hard surface crossings are virtually maintenance free and normally do not
become clogged or plugged because they maintain the natural shape of the
stream channel. This is a particularly important feature in areas with beaver
populations.

The material used in hard surface crossings is relatively large and stable.
Consequently, these type crossings usually do not fail or blow-out the way other
structural crossings can. As long as the armoring material does not significantly
impound tlow or cause erosive currents, these crossings can accommodate normal
streamflow while providing good access at very low risk to water quality.

The major disadvantage of hard surface crossings is the limited access during
periods of high flow. For that reason, these crossings are best suited for relatively
small, well defined channels that tend to have "flashy" stormflow characteristics.
Also, hard surface crossings are usually not well suited for high speed, main haul-
road applications.

SUse clean material that will not rapidly degrade and that is heavy
enough to stay in place during high flow conditions, i.e., lime rock, rail-
road rock, bricks, etc.


S i I v i c u I t u r e


est Management Practices I















Do not use asphalt or other petroleum based materials.

Do not construct a hard surface crossing on streams where the bottom is
mucky, muddy or otherwise unstable, or if down-stream water quality stan-
dards violations occur under normal operating conditions.

Do not use logs or logging slash as a permanent hard surface crossing
material. Logs may be used to facilitate temporary crossings but must be
removed from the channel upon completing the operation.

Keep the height of the surfacing material at a minimum; hard surface
crossings must not significantly restrict normal streamflow.

Note: Make sure that crossings are in compliance with other standards and regula-
tions that apply all types of stream crossings may be subject to permitting by regulatory
agencies.


Si vicu t ture


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Pest Management Practices











Application ofBMPs: Timber Harvestings


Timber harvesting activities should be conducted carefully, especially on
steeper slupes and near stream,, lakes. sinkholes, wetlands or other
waterbodies. When harvesting timber in close proximity to a
waterbody, follow the specific criteria provided in the Special Man-
agement Zones section of this manual. Depending on conditions, timber
harvesting in these areas may be significantly limited.

BMPs for Timber Harvesting
Skid Trails
Locate skid trails along the contour whenever practical to promote
revegetation and reduce sil erosion. It skidding must be done up or down
the slope, the operator should skid uphill and avoid long, continuous skid
trails.

After skidding activities are complete, stabilize skid trails where neces-
sary bi installing water bars or similar structures at recommended inter-
vals Seeding and fertilizing skid trails will accelerate stabilization on
erodible suils and or steep slupes.

When skidding in muck or peat organic) soils such as in swamps, bogs
or similar wetlands, concentrate skidding to as few trails as possible this
will confine soil compaction to small areas.

When skidding on mineral soils, -uch as in uplands, skidding should be
dispersed so that soil compaction is minimal even in individual trails.

Keep main skid trails out of all Special Management Zones except to
approach a designated crossing.

Slash Disposal
In order to allow natural, unrestricted water flow and to protect the
water's nutrient balance:

Logging slash, such as tops and limbs, which are incidental to timber
harvesting activities may he left in place, as long as such material is not
left in a waterbody.

Remove logging slash from all w9aterbodies including both intermittent
and perennial streams, lakes and sinkholes.

Do not pile or push logging slash into cypress ponds or strands, swamps,
marshes, grassy ponds, or waterbodies such as streams, lakes, sinkholes or
similar water resource features.


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ofBMPs: Site Preparation & Planting


Although site preparation activities are part of the reforestation operation,
these activities can temporarily create large areas of bare soil. Depending on
soil types and slope, mechanical site preparation in particular, may have the
potential for significant erosion and sedimentation. For these reasons, me-
chanical site preparation may be restricted or prohibited near streams, lakes,
sinkholes and other waterbodies. When conducting site preparation
activities near surface waters, follow the specific criteria provided in
the Special Management Zone section of this manual.

BMPs for Site Preparation and Planting
Plan site preparation and planting procedures prior to timber harvesting
activities.

Select only the site preparation techniques that are necessary to estab-
lish seedlings and minimize vegetative competition do not needlessly
disturb the ground surface or expose the topsoil.

Do not conduct mechanical site preparation within any part of the
Special Management Zone.

Do not conduct intensive mechanical site preparation such as bedding,
raking and windrowing in wetlands.

When chopping, pull chopper perpendicular to a waterbody to orient soil
indentations along the contour (not necessary if chopping is followed by
bedding or if the waterbody is separated from the chopped area by wind-
rows or a similar barrier to overland flow).

Arrange windows and soil beds parallel to a waterbody or wetland in
order to provide a barrier to overland flow, prevent concentration of runoff
and reduce erosion.

When using a blade to shear, push, or pile debris, keep the blade above
the soil surface. This will minimize erosion and facilitate rapid site recov-
ery and tree growth.

Do not pile or push logging slash into cypress ponds or strands, swamps,
marshes, grassy ponds, or waterbodies such as streams, lakes or similar
water resource features.

Do not conduct site preparation burning within the SMZ when slopes are
greater than 18%.


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Pest Management P


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application of BMPs: Fireline Construction


Fireline construction is an integral component of both fire suppression and
prescribed hurning. However. fireline, can result in excessive erosion and
water quality degradation. Lines plowed in wetlands can also result in exces-
sive drainage and possibly unvt c sin of wetlands to non-wetland systems.
Extra pIecautions are necessary when constructing firelines near surface
waters and wetlands.

BMPs for Firelines
PlowI firelines only where necessary, making use of existing barriers
such as roads. %Laterbodies, etc.
Where pus.ible. Ilue alternatives to plowed lines such as harrowing, foam
line-., \et li t-ne u'r p)erl'n ent gra&,.

Do not plow line-s through sensitive areas such as wetlands, marshes,
Iprali'e and .a\ annas unle,, absolutely necessary. Avoid these areas or
use alternative line construct iIn methods.
Maintain minimum plom depth at all times.
When crossing %waterbidies with plowing equipment, raise the plow to
prevent ciinnecting the line directly to the waterbody.
D.i not construct tirelines which act as drainage systems, particularly
those that might connect or drain isolated wetlands.
Avoid constructing plowed firelines in the Special Management Zone,
particularly the Primary Zone.
Use watei bars, turnouts and or vegetation to stabilize firelines when
erosion and sedimentation might otherwise result.
When re\egetating firelines, use native species when possible.
Orient firelines along the contour wherever possible to prevent erosion
and gullying.
Do not prescribe burn foir site preparation purposes within the Special
Management Zone when the slope of the site is 18% or greater (SSCs 5
and 6). Burning for ecological purposes on steep slopes is not restricted.


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Pest Management Practices I










pllication ofBMPs: Pesticide & Fertilizer Use


Pesticide and fertilizer application is a common silvicultural management
technique in some areas of Florida. Pesticides and fertilizer are usually
applied near tree planting time or shortly after. Occasionally, nitrogen fertil-
izer and some types of pesticides may be added later in the rotation.
These chemicals generally do not pose a threat to water quality as long as
they are applied according to the label and in compliance the following BMPs.

BMPs for Pesticide and Fertilizer Use
Pesticides
Choose equipment that directs the chemical only to the target area.
Misdirected or excessive amounts of pesticides are wasteful, expensive and
can pose a serious threat to water quality and aquatic life.
Do not conduct aerial application or mist blowing of pesticides or fertil-
izer within any part of the Primary Zone keep drift from such operations
out of the Primary Zone.
Do not leave pesticide containers on site these should be rinsed and
disposed of according to the directions on the label.
Do not rinse spray equipment or discharge rinse water in waterbodies,
wetlands or within the Special Management Zone.
Fertilizer
Do not apply fertilizer or locate fertilizer transfer/loading areas within
the Primary Zone of the SMZ.
Whenever practical, apply fertilizer to maximize the uptake of nutrients,
which might otherwise move off-site; consider the use of slow release
fertilizer when conditions are appropriate.
For information concerning fertilization, refer to Florida Extension
Service Circular 735, Fertilization of Slash Pine Plantations. This docu-
ment references Slash Pine, but results apply to Loblolly Pine as well.
Note: Some pesticides require the applicator to be certified by the Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Also, pesticide labels may have additional restric-
tions for application near open waters or wetlands. Read and follow the label. Failure
to comply with requirements of pesticide labels can result in civil and/or criminal penal-
ties under state and federal law.


S i lvi cul t u[ e


Best Management Practices








Ljl;~(:'".n:~ I
;'"' :
:1


S ilv i 1 1 r e


,'", *


Application ofBMPs: Waste Disposal


Heavy equipment such as tractors, skidders and large trucks are com-
monly used in forestry activities. Consequently, routine maintenance activities
including oil changes, often take place at the work site, i.e. "in the woods".
Proper collection and disposal of waste oil is necessary to prevent soil and
water contamination and to promote oil recycling.

Florida Law prohibits the discharge of pollutants both on the ground and
in waterbodies. Pollutants include petroleum products of all kinds, including
used oil. The discharge itself and the failure to report the discharge may be
subject to penalties under Florida Law and Federal Law. Discharges or spills
should be reported in accordance with the requirements of the Department of
Environmental Regulation rules.

BMPs for Waste Disposal
Waste Oil
During equipment maintenance, waste oil should be collected and stored
until properly disposed:

Do not discharge waste oil or other pollutants on the ground, in sink-
holes, or in waterbodies of any kind (including wetlands and canals).

Do not mix waste oil with other materials such as degreasing solvents,
carburetor cleaners, etc. Such mixing may render the waste oil unsuitable
for recycling and therefore unacceptable at recycling centers.

Solid Waste
Do not dispose of solid wastes, such as trash, litter, containers, etc. into
waterbodies of any kind.

Remove trash, litter and other solid wastes from project areas. In par-
ticular, remove and properly dispose of all chemical containers, hydraulic
fluid and oil containers, oil filters, batteries, and tires.

Note: For information concerning oil spill reporting requirements, contact the local
Department of Environmental Regulation office at 1-800-320-0519.

Note: Most counties in Florida maintain a waste oil collection facility which will
accept used oil and hydraulic fluid. Contact your County Landfill Operation for the
nearest location of such a facility.


Best Management Practices










application ofBMPs: Wet Weather Operations


Creek and river floodplains and isolated wetlands are periodically inun-
dated, which can result in large areas of flowing and/or "standing" water.
Heavy equipment operation, such as skidding, in flowing water or in standing
water that is contiguous with nearby flowing water is likely to cause the
discharge of sediment or turbid runoff into waters of the State. Discharges of
this nature can cause numerous problems to the water resource and may also
constitute a State water quality standards violation.
In addition, heavy equipment operation during flooded or saturated soil
conditions can cause excessive rutting, which may result in significant soil
compaction. If such rutting is widespread, overall reforestation of the site may
be severely limited.
The best alternative for logging during wet weather conditions is to
postpone the operation until drier conditions prevail. However, when opera-
tions must be conducted, the following BMPs apply.

BMPs for Wet Weather Operations
Avoid heavy equipment operations, especially skidding, during flooded or
wet soil conditions. Under certain conditions, special low-ground pressure
equipment or other alternatives to conventional skidding may be neces-
sary.
Do not operate heavy equipment, especially skidders, in floodplains
when they are flooded or during conditions of flowing or standing floodwa-
ter.
Minimize skidder and other heavy equipment operation in wetlands
during wet conditions to avoid widespread excessive soil rutting. Although
some minor rutting may occur in a typical wetland harvesting operation,
skidders and other heavy equipment operation should be planned for dry
seasons and/or dry periods as much as possible.
Confine skid trails to as small an area as possible when working in
organic or muck soils, especially during wet conditions.
Note: Wet weather forestry operations have the potential for creating water quality
standards violations. Such operations that generate an offsite discharge of visibly turbid
water above natural background levels, are likely to be in violation of State water quality
standards.


S i I v i C U I t ti r e


Pest Management P










Replication ofBMPs: Emergency Operations


In the event of a wildfire, insect or disease epidemic, or other natural
catastrophe. a Best Management Practice nma\ be temporarily relaxed to aid fire
suppression, to conduct appropriate salvage techniques, and to promote rapid
site recovery. Harvesting guidelines which apply to the Special Management
Zone may be relaxed to allow salvage of damaged or downed timber.

BMPs During Emergencies
Wildfire
Firelines, road construction and stream cronsings will be unrestricted
during enmergencieq, hut stabilized according to Best Management Practices
following the salvage and revegetation process (see Fireline Construction
sectionn i.
When necessary, mechanical site preparation techniques may be con-
ducted within the Special lManagement Zone to help return the site to a
productive, protective condition.
Insect and Disease
During insect or disease epidemics, appropriate pesticides and/or harvest-
ing mai be used within the Special Management Zone to protect and main-
tain the health of the affected and surrounding forest.


Si viculture


Pest Management P




















































S i I V i k' U I t i l I C


est Management P








































































38 Si v i c u t u r
38


Ri;Management



















SMZ Widths/Site Management Recommendations(SSC).....................40

Soil Erodibility/K-Factors of Florida Soils......................................58

Guide for Estimating K-Factors and Slope Category...........................62

OFWs, ONRWs, Class I Waters of Florida.....................................64

W etland Types..................................................................................... 67

Seedling Rates for Vegetative Stabilization...................................68

Spacing for Road Drainage Structures....................................69

Raod Drainage Design Illustrations................................... ........... 70

Culvert Sizing Tables................................. .......................................76

Special Management Zone Acreages Calculations...............................82

Exceptions to Primary Zone Management Criteria.............................83

Division of Forestry Field Offices...................................................86

Water Management District Offices..................................................88

US Army Corps of Engineers Offices....................................................89


,.I '% .:

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39


S i v i cu tu r


Pest Management P


AApp nelie












g Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSCA1


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)


STREAMS


Intermittent iAlI


Strnger


Perennial 10.20 ft.j 35 norie 35
Perennial 120-40 ft.i 75 none 75
Perennial i40+ ft.j 200 none 200

OFW, ONRW. Class I Waters 200 none 200
LAKES
Intermittent Stringer 35 35
Perennial 35 none 35
OFW, ONRW, Class I Waters 200 none 200
SINKHOLES
Intermittent Stringer 35 35
Perennial 35 none 35

"P IOD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIONS


Permanent Roads 0-300 Culvert or Cross Ditch none
Water Turnouts 200
Broad-base Dips none
Temp. Roads/Skid Trails 0-300 Water Bars 250


SFirelines


0-300


Water Bars


, SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX


0-2 3-7 8-12 13-17 18-22 22+
Low < 0.20 Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6


S i v i c I


IsstMaagmet ratie













Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC A2



SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)



STREAMS

Intermittent (Afll Stringer 45 45

Perennial 10-20 ft.i 35 10 45

Perennial i20-40 rt.j 75 none 75

Perennial 140+ nf.i 200 none 200

OFW. OrJRW. Class I Waters 200 none 200

LAKES

Inrerrmiltent Stringer 45 45

Perennial 35 10 45

OFW. OrJRW, Class I Waters 200 none 200

SINKHOLES

Internineni Stringer 45 45

Perennial 35 10 45


ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMEND'


Permanent Roads


0-3001


Cul.ert or Cross Ditcl
Water Turnouts
Broad-base Dips


Tenip. Roads Shd Trails 0-300 Water Bars 135

Firelines 0-300 Water Bars 135


SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX



0-2 3.7 8-12 13-1; 18-22 22+

Low .. 0.20 Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

Moderate 0.21 0.27 B1 B2 B3 BJ B5 B6

High 0.28 Cl C2 C3 C4 C5 C6


Silvicu t u re


k 4.


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Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations *SSC A3



SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)



STREAMS


IntermiTlent lAlli

Perennial 10-20 ft.

Perennial 120-40 ft.i


Stringer


none


60

60

75


Perennial 140+ ft.i 200 none 200

OFW, OfrRW, Class I Waters 200 none 200

LAKES

Intermittent Stringer 60 60

Perennial 35 25 60

OFW, 0.JRW. Class I Waters 200 none 200

SINKHOLES

Intermittent Stringer 60 60

Perennial 35 25 35


^ ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIONS



Permanent Roads 0-300 Culkert or Cross Ditlc 150
Water Turnouts 100
Broad-base Dips 140

Temp. Roads.'Shld Trails 0-300 Water Bars 80

Firelines 0-300 Water Bars 80


S.. SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX



0.2 3-7 8-12 13-17 18-22 22+

Low 0.20 Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

S Moderate 0.21 0.27 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6

High :0.28 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6


S ilvi c u I t ure


I.1


i


Pest Management Practices I


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Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC A4


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)

StreaClasPriaryft.) econary(ft.) tal SMZ (ft.)


STREAMS

Intermittent (All) Stringer 300 300
Perennial (0-20 ft.) 35 265 300
Perennial i20-40 f.i 75 225 300
Perennial 140+ f.i 200 100 300

OFW, OPJW, Class I Waters 200 100 300
LAKES
Internntert Stringer 300 300

Perennial 35 265 300
OFW, OrRW, Class I Waters 200 100 300

SINKHOLES
Intermittent Stringer 300 300

Perennial 35 265 300

ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIONS


Permanent Poads 0-300 Cullert or Cross Ditch 125
Water Turnouts 75
Broad-base Dips 125
Ternp. Roads Sidc Trails 0-300 Water Bars 60


Firelines


0-300


Water Bars


SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX


0-2 3- 812 1317 18-22
Lo -0.20 Al A2 A3 A4 AS5


Silviculture


I


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Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSCA5


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)


STREAMS
Intermittent iAlli Stringer 300 300
Perennial (0-20 ft.i 35 265 300

Perennial 120-40 ft. 75 225 300
Perennial 140+ ft.i 200 100 300

OFW, ONRW. Class I Waters 200 100 300
LAKES
Intermittent Stringer 300 300

Perennial 35 265 300
OFW. OrNRW. Class I Waters 200 100 300

SINKHOLES
Intermittent Stringer 300 300

Perennial 35 265 300

ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIONS


Permanent Roads 0-300 Culvert or Cross Ditch 100
Water Turnouts 50
Broad-base Dips 120
Temp. Roads Skid Trails 0-300 Water Bars 45
Firelines 0-300 Water Bars 45

.SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX


0-2 37 8-12 13-17 18-22 22+
Low : 0.20 Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

Moderate 0.21 -0.7 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6


:.0.28


S i v i u t u r e


:I : W _ _


Best Management Practices


o-IN


1
a
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Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC A6


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)
^^1-I^^^---^I.B------

STREAMS
Intermittent (All) Stringer 300 300

Perennial (0-20 ft.) 35 265 300
Perennial 20-40 ft.i 75 225 300

Perennial 140+ ft.i 200 100 300

OF, OIlRW, Class I Waters 200 100 300

LAKES
Intermittent Stringer 300 300

Pererniral 35 265 300

OFW. OJRW, Class I Waters 200 100 300

SINKHOLES
Internittent Stringer 300 300

Perennial 35 265 300


ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIONS

Stutr I Zon Wit (f. I TramnsAlwdI Saing(f.


Perriarnent Roads


0-300


Cul.ert or Cross Ditch
Water Turrouts
Broad-base Dips


Temp. Roads Skid Trails 0-300 Water Bars 30

Firelines 0-300 Water Bars 30


SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX


0-2 3-7 8-12 13-17 18-22 22+
Low <0.20 Al A2 A3 A4 A5 AG

| Moderate 0.21 -0.27 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6


.-0.28


Cl


Silvicu t ure


Lest Management P


'"'











Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC B1


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)


STREAMS

Intermittent IAlli Stringer 35 35
Perennial 10-20 ft.i 35 none 35
Perennial i20-40 ft.i 75 none 75

Perennial J40+ ft.i 200 none 200

OFW, OfJPW, Class I Waters 200 rone 200
LAKES

Internittent Stringer 35 35

Perennial 35 none 35
OFW, OJRW, Class I Waters 200 none 200
SINKHOLES

Irtermittern Stringer 35 35

Perennial 35 none 35

.\ ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIONS


Permanent Roads 0-300 Culiert or Cross Ditcl none
Water Turnouts 150
Broad-base Dips none

Temp. RoadsSlid Trails 0-300 Water Bars 250
Firelines 0.300 Water Bars 250

S SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX


Sod0-2 3-7 8-12 13-17 18-22 22+

Low <0.20 Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6
Moderate 0.21 0.27 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6
High --0.28 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6


Silviculture t u r


Pest Management P


JK'











Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC 82


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)


STREAMS

Intermittent (All) Stringer 60 60

Perennial (0-20 ft.) 35 25 60

Perennial i20-40 1ft. 75 none 75

Peiennial J40+ ft.i 200 none 200

OFW. ONRW. Class I Waters 200 none 200

LAKES

Internit entr Srinmer 610 60

Perennial 35 25 60

OFW, OIPRW. Class I Waters 200 none 200

SINKHOLES

Inltrrnit[ ent Stringer 6 60 60

Perennial 35 25 60


ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIONS


Permanent Roads 0-300 Cul.ert or Cross Ditch 200
Water Turnouts 120
Broad-base Dips 180

Temp. Roads SIHO Trails 0-300 Water Bars 135


Firelnes


0-300


Water Bars


SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX


02 3- 12 13-17 18-22

Lovv -:0.20 A AI2 A3 A I A5


Silviculture


,1.
i~:r
d
PBErl
9;:


ft.
... I


Vc


i


[Best Management Practices





























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Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC 83


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)


STREAMS
Intemrinterit Alli Stringer T5 75
Perennial 10-20 ft.i 35 40 75
Perennial 120-40 ft.j 75 none 75
Perennial i40+ ft.) 200 none 200
OFW, OrJRW, Class I Waters 200 none 200
LAKES
Interrrii.tent Stfiriger 75 75
Perennial 35 40 75
SOFW. OriRW, Class I Waters 200 none 200

SINKHOLES
Intermittent Stringer 75 75
Perennral 35 40 75

06AfD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIONS


Permanent Roads 0-300 Culvert or Cross Ditcn 150
Water Turnouts 100
Broad-base Dips 140
STemp. Roads.Skid Trails 0-300 Water Bars 80
Firelines 0-300 Water Bars 80

SSITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX


Soe0-2 3-7 8112 13-17 18-22 22+
Low 0.20 Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6
Moderate 0.21 0.27 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6


'0.28 1


Silvicul t ur e


Best Management Practices


: L.

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a


T .


I High











Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC B4


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)

Stea lasrm ar f.ecnay(t.oaM(f


Intermittent (All)

Perennial 10-20 ft.i

Perennial 120-40 ft.i


STREAMS

inger 300 300

35 265 300

75 225 300


Perennial 140+ ft.i 20)0 100 300

OFW. ONrRW. Class I Waters 200 100 300

LAKES
Intermittent Stringer 300 300

Perennial 35 265 300

OFW, Or.RW. Class I Waters 200 100 300

SINKHOLES
Intermittent Stringer 300 300

Perennial 35 265 300


ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIOQr


Permanent Roads 0-300 Cul,ert or Cross Ditcr 125
Water Turnouts 75
Broad-base Dips 125

Temp. Roads Slid Trails 0-300 Water Bars 60

Firelines 0-300 Water Bars 60


SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX



0-2 3-7 8.12 13-17 1822 22+

Low <0.20 Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

Moderate 0.21 0.27 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6


I.


S ilviculture


Hign -0.28 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5


West Management Practices
F--- I


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Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC B5


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)

E--I.
STREAMS

Intermittent (All) Stringer 300 300
Perennial 10-20 ft.i 35 265 300

Perennial 120-40 ft.i 75 225 300

Perennial 140+ ft. 200 100 300

OFW. OrJRW. Class I Waters 200 100 300
LAKES

Intermittent Sinrnger 300 300

Perennial 35 265 300

OFW. Or0PW, Class I Waters 200 100 300
SINKHOLES

Intermitent Stringer 300 300

Perennial 35 265 300


:.; ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIONS


Permanent Roads 0-300 Culvert or Cross Ditch 100
Water Turnouts 50
Broad-base Dips 120

Temp. Roads'Slid Trails 0-300 Water Bars 45


I Firelines


0-300


Water Bars


SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX


0-2 3-7 8-12 13 .17 18-22 22+


Low -0.20

Moderate 0.21 0.27


-0.28


Al

B1


B5


I F F I + I


C1


___________________________________ 6 6


Silvicul t u re


f. ;r '





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Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC B6


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)



STREAMS

Intermittent (All) Stringer 300 300

Perennial 10-20 ft.i 35 265 300

Perennial i20-40 f.1 75 225 300

Perennial 140C+ ft.i 200 100 300

OFW, ONRW, Class I Waters 200 100 300

LAKES

Interminent Stringer 300 300

Perennial 35 265 300

OFW, OrNRW, Class I Waters 200 100 300

SINKHOLES

Intermittent Stringer 300 300

Perennial 35 265 300


ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATION


Permanent Roads 0-300 Cul'ert or Cross Ditci 75
Water Turnouts -10
Broad-base Dips 110

Tenip. Roads. Slid Trails 0-300 Water Bars 30

Firelines 0-300 Water Bars 30


SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX



0-2 3-7 8-12 13-17 18-22 22+
Lo :0.20 Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

Moderate 0.21 0.27 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6


S I v c I t u r e


t;,


~I


a

~.*
~. .-.
.\i
:Ljb:
.~n:
r:,
e


High :-0.28 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5


Best Management Practices


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Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC Cl


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)



STREAMS
Intermittent (All) Stringer 35 35

Perennial 10-20 t.i 35 none 35

Perennial 120.40 ft.I 75 none 75

Perennial i40+ ft.) 200 none 200

OFW, ONJRW, Class I Waters 200 none 200

LAKES
Interniittent Stringer 35 35

Perennial 35 none 35

OFWV, OJRW, Class I Waters 200 none 200

SINKHOLES
Intermittent Stringer 35 35

Pereriial 35 none 35


ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIONS


Permanent Roads 0-300 Culvert or Cross Ditch none
Water Turnouts 150
Broad-base Dips nore


Tenp. Roads/Skid Trails

Firelines


0-300

0-300


Water Bars

Water Bars


SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX


l0o2 3 .7 8 12 13-17 18-22 22+
Low < 0.20 Al A2 A3 AJ A5 A6


S i l v i c u t u r e


I.^J^MaJJ..LUJJPractces


_ .,J ** .












Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC C2


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)



STREAMS


Intermittent (All) Stringer

Perennial (0-20 ft.) 35

Perennial 120-40 ft. ;'5

Perennial 140+ ft.i 200

OFW, OrJPW, Class I Waters 200

LAKES

Interrnttent Stringer

Perennial 35

OFW, ONRW, Class I Waters 200

SINKHOLES


ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIONS I


Culhert or Cross Ditch
Water Turnout[
Broad-oase Dips


LOil E: 0.20


Si vicu t ure


Pest Management P


~
P4
1
~i~!


Permanent Roads


0 300












Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC C3


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)


STREAMS

Intermittent (All) Stringer 80 80

Perennial (0-20 ft.i 35 45 80

Perennial 120-40 ft.i 75 5 80

Perennial 140+ rf.i 200 none 200

OFW, OrJRW, Class I Waters 200 none 200

LAKES

Intermittent Stringer 80 80

Perenlr-ial 35 45 80

OFW, orJRW, Class I Waters 200 none 200

SINKHOLES

Intermitnent Stringer 80 80

Perennial 35 45 80


. ROAD CONSTRUCTION


Permanent Roads


and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIONS


0-300


Culvert or Cross Ditch
Water Turnouts
Broad-base Dips


Temp. Roads Sid Trails 0.300 Water Bars 80

Firelines 0-300 Water Bars 80


SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX


0-2 3-7 8-12 13-17 18-22 22+

Low :0.20 Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

Moderate 0.21 0.27 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6


,0.28


C3


_______________________ _____ I _____ _____


Silviculture


i4

43
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est Management Practices I


~:~ik";~B~;E~i3iCd~_.~ i











Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC C4


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)

StramClas riartc .aIyf ca TlMt


STREAMS
Internittent iAlli Stringer 300 300
Perenrnial 10-20 f.I 35 265 300
Perennial 120-40 h.i 75 225 300
Perennial i40+ ft.i 200 100 300
OFW, OrJPW, Class I waters 200 100 300
LAKES
Internittent Stringer 300 300
Perennial 35 265 300
OFW, OriRW. Class I Waters 200 100 300
SINKHOLES
Inter iitltern Stringer 300 300
Perennial 35 265 300

ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATbImS I


Permanent Roads 0 300 Cul'.ert or Cross Ditchr 125
VWatr Turinouls 7
Broad-base Dips 125
Temp. Roads S -id Trails 0.300 Water Bars 60
Firelines 0.300 Water Bars 60

SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX


S0-2 3-7 8-12 13-17 18-22 22+
Lov, r.0.20 1A A2 A3 AJ A5 A6
Moderate 0.21 0.27 B 1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6


-0.28


C4


S i I v c u I t u r e


'- '.. . -


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Best Management Practices











Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC C5


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)


STREAMS
Intermittent (AIll Stringer 300 300
Perennial 10-20 ft.i 35 265 300
Perennial 120-40 ft. 75 225 300
Perennial 140+ rt. 200 100 300
OFW. OrJRW. Class I Waters 200 100 300
LAKES
Intermittent Stringer 300 300
Perennial 35 265 300
OFW. OrJPW, Class I Waters 200 100 300
SINKHOLES
Internttlenrt Stringer 300 300
Perennial 35 265 300

' ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATIONS


Permanent Roads 0-300 Cul.ert or Cross Ditch 100
Water Turnouts 50
Broad-base Dips 120
Temp. Roads Skid Trails 0.300 Water Bars 45


SFirelines


0-300


Water Bars


SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX


0-2 3,7 8-12 13-17 11822 22+


<0.20


Al


Moderate 0.21 0.27 B1


Hign -.0.28 Cl


4 -4 i -_____________


C2 C3 C4I C C6


S S h


A6
B6


S i lv i c u l t ure c


t,.








uI
I
I!


, TR


LR4-t Manageej n P c[.es.tJ J











Appendix 1 Site Management Recommendations SSC 06


SPECIAL MANAGEMENT ZONES (Each Side)



STREAMS


Stringer 300


300

300


Perennial i0-20 ft.i


Perennial 120-40 ft.i 75 225 300

Perennial 14(+ ft.i 200 100 300

OFW, ONRW, Class I Waters 200 100 300

LAKES
Internment Stringer 300 300

Perennial 35 265 300

OFW,, ONRW. Class I Waters 200 100 300

SINKHOLES

Intermittent Stringer 300 300

Perennial 35 265 300


ROAD CONSTRUCTION and MAINTENANCE DRAINAGE RECOMMENDATION



Permanent Roads 0.300 CuI,,ert or Cross Ditch 75
Water Turnouts 40
Broad-base Dips 110
Temp. Roads Skid Trails 0-300 Water Bars 30

Firelines 0-300 Water Bars 30


SITE SENSITIVITY CLASSIFICATION (SSC) INDEX



02 3-7 8-12 13-17 18-22 22+

Lw .0.20 Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

Moderate 0.21 0.27 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6


High


-0.28


S h b -


C6


Silvicul t ure


4F :-, j. I
1%~f**
5-~x


intermitirent (Alli


Pest Management P


j.
.j
I
1; '
; 8~


r"


rzw
Lj











:' Appendix 2 Soils
I:...


Category
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
S'.






A







A
r.,



















A
.
















A
"' '.'-."' i



A


S ..^ i : .
. A










- .".' .... .. ., A
f ..... ..E ......

jAo


.b . "
-:"" 7 ..... ::'. I" A.


Soil
Soil Name
Adamsville
Alachua
Alaga
Alapaha
Albany
Alpin
Americus
Anclote
Apopka
Arredondo
Arzell
Astatula
Astor
Barth
Basinger
Bibb
Blanton
Blichton
Boca
Bon iay
Bradenton
Broward
Canaveral
Candler
Cassia
Charlotte
Chiefland


Erodibility Category A
K-Factor Category Soil Name
0.10 A Chipley
0.17 A Cocoa
0.17 A Copeland
0.17 A Dade
0.17 A Delks
0.10 A Delray
0.17 A Eaton
0.17 A Eau Gallie
0.17 A Electra
0.17 A Ellabelle
0.10 A Elred
0.15 A Eulonia
0.17 A Eustis
0.17 A Evinston
0.10 A Felda
0.20 A Floridana
0.17 A Fort Drum
0.20 A Fort Meade
0.20 A Fuquay
0.17 A Gainesville
0.20 A Goldboro
0.17 A Hague
0.15 A Hallandale
0.10 A Holopaw
0.15 A Huckabee
0.15 A Immokalee
0.15 A Johns


Si v i cultu r e


K-Factor
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.15
0.17
0.17
0.20
0.17
0.15
0.17
0.17
0.20
0.17
0.20
0.17
0.20
0.17
0.17
0.15
0.17
0.15
0.20


Pest management Practices
















Catego
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A


ry Soil Name K
Jonesville
Jumper
Jupiter
Kalmia
Kanapaha
Kendrick
Kennansville
Keri
Kershaw
Klej
Klej (Shallow Variant I
Kureb
Lake
Lakeland
Lakewood
Leefield
Leon
Lochloosa
Lucy
Lynn Haven
Lynne
Magnolia
Malabar
Manatee
Margate
Marlboro
Mascotte
Matmon


-Factor
0.17
0.20
0.17
0.20
0.15



0. 17
(.115


0.17
0.15

0.15
0.17
0.17
0.15
0.17
0.15
0.20
0.20)
0 20
0.17
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.17
0.20
0.21)
0.20


Category
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A


Si Iv i ic i Ii t e


Soil Name
Maxton
Micanopy
Myakka
Ochopee
Ocilla
Oldsmar
Olustee
Ona
Orlando
Orsino
Osier
Palm Beach
Paola
Park wood
Pedro
Pelham
Pineda
Pinellas
Placid
Plummer
Pomello
Pomona
Pon pano
Portsmouth
Red Bay
Ridgeland
Rimini
Riviera


K-Factor
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.17
0.17
0.20
0.20
0.20
U.15
0.17
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.20
0.17
0.20
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.20
0.15
(0.17
0.20
0.20
0.10
0.17


Pest Management
















Category
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A


Soil Name
Rutlege
Satellite
Scranton
Sellers
Sparr
St Johns
St Lucie
Stilson
Sulrrency
Tavares;

Soil
Soil Name
Archer
Ardilla
Board an
Bowie
Bushnell
Carnegie
Chobee
Cowarts
C'oxville
Cuthbeirt
Elmeralda

Soil
Soil Name
Angie
Bavboro
Binnsville


K-Factor Category Soil Name
0.17 A Tifton
0.15 A Troup
0.15 A Valkaria
0.15 A Wabasso
0.16 A Wacahoota
0.20 A Wagram
0.15 A Wauchula
0.20 A Welaka
0.20 A \Winder
0.17 A Zuber

Erodibility Category B
K-Factor Category Soil Name
0.24 B Eureka
0.24 B Greenville
0.24 B Hannahatchee
0.24 B Myatt
0.24 B Panasofflee
0.24 B Pantego
0.24 B Peace River
0.24 B Rains
0.24 B Savannah
0.24 B Sunsweet
0.24 B Weston, dark subsoi

Erodibility Category C
K-Factor Category Soil Name
0.32 C Bladen
0.43 C Blakely
0.37 C Blu 1'


Si 1 i c ultu r e


K-Factor
0.20
0.17
0.15
0.20
0.20
0.15
0.20
0.15
0.20
0.20


K-Factor
0.24
0 24
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24
0 24
0.24
0.24
0.24
1 0.24


K-Factor
0.32
0.37
0.37


Category
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B


Category
C
C(
C


Pest Management P
















Category
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C


Soil Name K-Factor
Congaree 0.32
Dothan 0.28
Dunbar 0.2s
Duplin 0 32
Esto 0.32
Faceville 0.32
Fellowship 0 28
Flamingp. 0 37
Flemington 1:.32
Gradv 10.37
Gritne\ 32
Hialeah 0.37
Iberia 0.37
Irvingti n 0.32
Izagora 0.32
Leaf 0.49

Not Applicable
Montverde Palmico
Ocoee Plantation
Okeechobee Sanibel
Okeelanta Terra Ceia


Category
C
C
C1
(C


(?-
C

(C
C
C

C(
C


C
C
C



Organic
Everglades
Lauderhill
lieco


Silviculture


:''""'


Soil Name
L nchburg
Martel
Meggett
Norfolk
Okitibbeha
Orangeburg
Paislev
Pansey
Perrine
Rust':in
Sa\wyer
Shubuta
Stough
Susquehanna
'aucluse
Wahee

c Soils
Oklawaha
Pahokee


Brighton
Cano'va
Dania
Dorovan


K-Factor
0.28
0.28
0.32
0 2,s
0.32
0.28
0.32
0 32
u 32
I0. 2s
0 37
0.28
0 28
0.28
0.28
0.43


Tomoka
Torry


.. ,.' ,


. A.

a,.',,
4%^^ :


Si ,


'li


P MIe.tM.- P..- 1-











S. Appendix 3 Guide for Estimating Soil K-Factors


Soil Surface Texture
Clays
Clay Loams
Loams
Sandy Loam s
Sands


Group A


Group B


Group C








Group D


Estimated Soil Factor


0.24
0.28
0.32
0.20(
0.15-0.17


0.28
0.32
0.37
0.24
0.20


0.32
0.37
0.43
0.32
0.24


0.37
0.43
0.49
0.37
0.28


Soils having high infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted.
These consist chiefly of deep, well-to-excessively drained
sands or gravels with a high rate of water transmission which
produces a low surface runoff potential. The entire solum has
a very low content of clay and typically includes loose sands
through loamy sandy soils.

Soils having moderate infiltration rates when thoroughly
wetted. These consist chiefly of moderately deep to deep.
moderately well-to-well drained soils with moderately fine to
moderately coar-,e textures. These soils have a moderate rate
of water transmission.


Soils having slow infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted.
These soils consist of two groups: 1 those with moderately
fine to fine texture and a slow infiltration rate or. i21 those
with a layer that impedes the downward movement of water.
Both groups results in a slow rate of water transmission.
These soils are "heavy", and range from silt loams through the
silty clay loams.

Soils having very slow infiltration rates when thoroughly
wetted. These soils consist ofr 1 clay soils with a clay pan of
clay layer at of near the surface of the ground or, 12I shallow
soils overlaying nearly impervious materials.


Silviculture r e


1


Best Management Practices


- i
;i













Appendix 3 Guide for Estimating Slope Category


Estimating Slope from Topographic Map Contours

e I N r of C u L s w a 3


i I v i U I t UI


"'""'^'1'


r::.**r '~~I
"'
":
~~~ .~:7'`


Pest Management Practices I










Appendix 4 Special Waterbodies




OFWs, ONRWs, and Class 1 Waters of Florida

NOTE: The following information is taken from the DEP 1993 Surface Water
Quality Standards. Section 62302, January 5,1995. For additional information
regarding water quality standards. delineationn, etc.. please refer to aobrementioned
document or call the Department of Enironmental Protection at 850I4S71855

Class 1 Waters: Waterbodies that are designated for use as a potable water supply.

County Waterbody County Waterbody

Bay Bayou George & Creek Hillsborough Cow House Creek
Bear Creek Hillsborough River
Big Cedar Creek
Deer Point Indian River St. Johns River &
Impoundment Tributaries
Econfina Creek Jackson Econfina Creek

Brevard St. Johns River & Manatee Manatee River
Tributaries Lake Evers

Broward Abandoned Rock Pit IWard Lake
Brandon River &
Calhoun Bear Creek Tributaries
Econfina Creek
Martin Lake Okeechobee
Charlotte Alligator Creek
Port Charlotte Canal Okeechobee Lake Okeechobee
System Palm Beach Canal C-18
Prairie Creek West Palm Beach
Shell Creek Catchment Area

DeSoto Horse Creek Clear Lake.
Prairie Creek Lake Magnolia and
waterway connecting
Gadsden Holman Branch them.
Mosquito Creek
Quincv Creek Sarasota Big Slough Canal
Cooper Creek
Glades Lake Okeechobee My.akka River

Hendry Lake Okeechobee Washington Econfina Creek


S i lvicultu r e


joest Management Practices


















Outstanding Florida Waters and Outstanding Natural Resource Waters:

Waterbudies that exhibit unique characteristics in termS of quality and vlue
IOF\('FWs or meet specific water quality standards lONRWs i. designated b\ the
State and Federal Goverment respectively t';r additional protection against
pollution and degradation.

NOTE: Refr t, 1.9'? DEP Surfi.ac Watrr Quali/ty StY/aloard. 62.-302.6,00.
.700 tur additiunai it.alns. a'ccepti'Ii. and idelin lii ti' .i .

Outstanding Florida Waters(OFWs) generally include, but are nut limited ti. the
tfll i\m ng -urltace \raters

A) Waters in National Parks. Pleterve-, \Wildlite Rltuge-. and \Vilderne~s; Areas.
Everglades National Park iMonroe, Dade, and Coi.llier Counties i I
Caloo-?ahatchee National Wildlife Refuge I Lee Count\ i *
St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge i Jefferson. Wakulla. Tailor Countie-s :

B) Waters in the State Park System and Wilderness- Areas. ''
Dead Lake, State Recreation Area l ullt ('nunt\v I
Falling Waters State Recreation Area I Washingtion (Count I
Ichetucknee Springs State Park i Colum lnha. Su\wannee 'Countles i
Lake Talquin State Recreation Area I Leon. Gadsden. Libert. Counties
Tomuka State Park IVolusia Countv
Devils Millhopper State Geological Site IAlachua Co-unt\ I
Koireshan State Historic Site 'Lee Count\

C) Waters ~ within areas acquired through donation, trade, or purchase under the
Environmentally Endangered Lands Bond Program. Conservation and Retreation
Lands Program. Land Acquisition Trust Program, and Save Our Coast Pro.gam.il
Goethe State Forest
Little Big Econ State Forest
Point Washington State Forest
Semninale State Forest
Jennings State Forest
Tiger Bay State Forest.
Homosassa Tract WSF
Jumper Creek Tract WSF

D) Rivers designated under the Scenic and Wild Rivers Program. Federal Wild
and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968 as amended, and lMyakka River Wild and Scenic


Silv i c u t u re


i,3
:::;
1. `i t
s
i
~' '.
IC

~nl~


Pest Management Practices
















Designation and Preservation Act:
Loxahatchee National Wild & Sceruc River Segment IMartin. Palm Beach Counties'
Wekiva Florida Scenic and Wild River Segment 'Lake, Seminole Counties

E) Waters within National Seashores, National Marine Sanctuaries. National
Estuarine Research Reserves, and certain National Monuments:
Canaveral National Seashore IBrevard. Volusia Counties
Gulf Islands National Seashore lEscambla. Santa Rosa Countiesi

F) Waters in Aquatic Preserves created under the provisions of Chapter 258.
Florida Statutes;
Alligator Harbor I Franklin Countyv
Apalachicola Bay Franklin County'
Big Bend Seagrasses i\Wakulla, Jefferson. Taylor. Dixie. Levy
Counties with exceptions'

G) Waters within the Big Cypress National Preserve;


H) Special waters as listed in 62-302.700 191 i :i


Apalachicola River
Aucilla River
Blackwater River
Butler Chain of Lakes
Chassahowitzka River System
Chipola River
Choctawhatchee River
Clermont Chain of Lakes
Crooked Lake (Polk County i
Crystal River
Econlockhatchee River System
and Tributaries
Hommosassa River System
Kingsley Lake
North Fork Black Creek
Lake Powell


Little Manatee River
Lochloosa Lake
Ochlockonee River
Oklawaha River
Perdido River
Rainbow River
Santa Fe River
St. Marks River
Shoal River
Silver River
Spruce Creek and Tributaries
Suwannee River
Tomoka River and Tributaries
Wacissa River
Wakulla River
Withlacoochee River and Lake System


Outstanding National Resource Waters (ONRWs):

SBiscayne & Everglades National Parks

A.*-`


Silvicu t u r e


IBest Management Practices










Appendix 5 Wetland Types




COMMON WETLAND TYPES *

Bay Heads
Bogs
Bottomland Hardwood Swamps
Cypress Strand Swamps
Cypress Domes
Cypress Ponds
Flag Ponds
Freshwater Tidal Swamps
Grass Ponds
Gum Ponds
Gum Swamps
Hydric Hammock
Pitcher Plant Bogs
River & Creek Floodplain Swamps
Sawgrass Marshes
Seasonal Marshes
Seepage Slopes '
Seepage Swamps :
Sloughs
Strand Swamps
Wet Prairie
Willow Head

*NOTE: For purposes of BMP implementation. Pine Flatwvoods is not considered
a wetland although sites of this nature may exhibit some of the same
characteristic of the wetlands li-ted above.


Silviculture


r*


i >;


Best Management Practices












Appendix 6 Seeding Rates for Vegetative Stabilization
Roads, Stream Crossings & Landings


See Mixtr Schedule


North Florida


Peninsular Florida


Planting Season > Oct.-Feb. Feb.-Sep.
Soil Quality > Fine Textured Coarse Textured Fine Textured Coarse Textured
IMod Poorl-DraindDrained l-Drainedi I Mod. Poorlh Drained IWrll-Drainedi

Pounds per Acre Application
Seed
Mixture 1 Mixture 2 Mixture 3 Mixture 4

Aeschyno mene 1
Pensacola Bahiagrass 40 40 40 40
Common Bermudagrass 10 10 10 10
Arrowleaf Clover 4-
Crimson Clover 10-
Hairy Indigo -4 4
Browntop Nlillet- 10 10


ryegrass


I 0


1I.


SSource Carl DeFazio. Suil C.inser,\atin S-.n ce. 1977 ,Mi,.diied).


Roa .d Ara TbI


Source: ('arl DeFjziu. Soil
Co.nservatioin Servle,. 1977.

Where neded

Example: Multipl appropriate
acreage .i I lue of ujad lh th,-
recommended d sed nixture or
fertilizer ini Lhb Ac


e.g.: A S
S750" t It.
"" 1;n 4 Ib- .

:- i 2to 2.


ecl ion If 12 ft ide hy
ing road w.nuld require
d' Pen.saco:i BahCi.ng, .
X 4u I-bs. ac


Road Lth
(Ft.)


Road Width in Feet


50 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0 03
100 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.06
250 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.10 0.15
500 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.21 0.29
750 0.17 0.21 0.24 0.31 0.44
1000 0.24 0.28 0.32 041 0.58
1500 0.34 0.41 0.48 0.62 0.87
2000 0.48 0.56 0.64 0.83 1.15
5000 1.15 1.38 1.61 2.07 2.87

5280 1.21 1.45 1.70 2.18 3.04

Surte IU S DI A Fi:riet Seivice. 1977


Silviculture


PestManagement1rac-tice.14


Region >










Appendix 7 Drainage Structures


Recommended Spacing for Drainage Structures


Drainage Systems


Ai A2 SA3 A4 AS Al


Permanent Roads


Culverts and Cross Ditches
VWater Turnouts


None 200

200 120


Broad Base Dips None 1S(, 140 125 120 111)
Firelines. Skid Trails & Temporary Roads

Water Bars 250 135 80 60 45 30



Drainage Systems Bi B2 B3 B4 B5 B6
Permanent Roads

Culverts and Cross Ditches None 200 150 125 100 75

Water Turnouts 200 120 100 75 50 40

Broad Base Dips None 1S80 140 125 120 110


Firelines, Skid Trails & Temporary Roads


Water Bars


250 135


Drainage Systems Cl C2


80


C3


C4


C5


C6


Permanent Roads

Culverts and Cross Ditches None 200 150 125 100 75
Water Turnouts 200 120 100 75 50 40

Broad Base Dips None 180 140 125 120 110
Firelines, Skid Trails & Temporary Roads


Water Bars


250 135


60


45


Silviculture


F,

'4/


Pest Management


i
X A '


A


60


4.5 :31)












Appendix 8 Access Roads


Closed Culvert


L .
---------""""""---------. T; OuI:1...


R aidd Sur'a._ a Cnd ul t-rT pI.h


Road Surface


1!- inch nl ninn ri t., 'i ..1."i,
*.r hkill th, ul rt diam'-Iter


Har.dj r inp r-d birth I:.r .7.r -I I 11


Silvicu t u r e


^r


les ..ManagmentPracice





















Open Box

Culvert


L.- - ...[ .
- ----- ,r, -, ..,..


* I.)


Road Surface


Ij, h dia ii I '" [ r
*p ll: ...1 .1.R ,r, l .l,-,


.A p ,I .I X i l.:. r . i '. -- \ ]
I,, ,,r r], ,r n i I|,i- n P.,,. I ,il l' r rl


Silviculture


p~.


I.Ut management JJ.L


.~..
..-.~




















Cross Ditch


Le-I. ,I
- -- -------- --- (j Ot-Iiip.
1 inch in I et 1


Rrdd Suralac and ('ro;,
Ditch Pitch


Road Surface


Road Surface


Si v i c(:I t I r


uest Management





















Water

Turnouts


I

I



1+



[II:,F..- I ,

7I



Water
Turnout


d.o
I
ater do


Al,

I
/

I-


ArI -


|1%
I





-- ,


Water
"S Turnouts

h /
%- % .


1. -a '


[~q.r. i


[ .p..
Ar-..s


A*..,-- Rd


Silviculture


AS
4
*!i

"* :.;o : ,
- S
,;'~

ai.--1~

*^I S'*

'^*'f


Pest anageent


-ft
























Broad Base Dip


L,. ,... l
Ia l i I I in l, t u n h .
', h r, h..t.


R.,.;i s.urtl -,i' d Br..,d Pa.r. Dip pilch


[Iri ]ri 2..r ;rlmt,


4- -~ 4-


-*4-


- ,
I:o J
0 000..0


Silviculture


U.1: rC;;


ir i, .. i I 1,-. c,
flr..ur v -,. I -Li


IeestManagemet Practices


-1 1-





















Water Bar


I--- - -
'.111111111


hI .-11 ,jI I r.j % -j ,I.: r E ., I .


Si vicul t ure


Pest Management P


.
pi


&..; -










Appendix 9 Culvert Sizing




Stream Size/Site Condition Method
Procedure:
1) Measure bottom channel width i\\'j and channel depth IDI from bottom tu
top of bank.
2) Determine whether slope upstream is flat, moderately or extremely hilly
and refer to appropriate Table IA-C' on the following pages.
For areas with no perceptible change in elevation upstream of the culvert
area, choose I FLATi slope.
In moderately hilly areas, such as a rise of two 21i feet for every 100 feet of
run. choose Moderate INI)ODi slope.
In extremely hilly areas. with an approximate rise of ten 1101 feet or more for
every 100 feet of run, choose critical IC'RITi slope.

3) Read corresponding culvert size based on width and depth of stream
channel.
Assumptions:
Roughness factors: Slope:
n = 0 030 for channel FLAT = 0.05'4
n = 0.024 foir CMIP culvert MOD = 2.001'
CRIT = 10 00 0'

Calculations assume corrugated Metal Pipes IC(MP which project slightly out of fill.


Si v i c ult u r e


Pest Management P tactics I





















-- I


Stream
Width
(Ft.)


Stream Depth (Ft.)


S i I v i c u I t u r e


LRest management Prac
F -


Mis"


t



i
~j
..;.,

i
~t

rr
,,

i ~t~j~t
j














Tabl B: Cuvr Dimtr (ice)frMdrteHlyCniin
Slpe Upstr am 2-10% -S


Stream Depth (Ft.)


0.5


1.0


1.5


2.0


2.5


3.0


3.5


4.0


1 12 21

2 15 27 36 48

3 18 33 42 54 2-42 54 3-54 4-42

4 21 3h 48 2-48.3-36 3-484-42 4-48

5 27 42 54 2-48 3-42 3-48 4-42 4-54

6 :0 42 61) 2-54 3-42 4-48

7 :0 48 61 3-48 4-42 4-54

8 33 54 2-54 3-48 3-54 4-48 4-54

9 36 54 2-54 3-48 3-54 4-48

10 42 60 3-48 4-42 4-54


S\ Where flows \ere determined to cause the culvert size to exceed 4 60-inch
pipes, no size is provided. This table provide-s tor most temporary installations
S in Northwest Florida. For larger sizes of channels bridge works ma\ prove
more economical.


Silviculture


Stream
Width
(Ft.)


S Man.agemen.-. t P.l



















SStream Stream Depth (Ft.)


1.0


1.5


4 4


42 54


' 2-I4S .3-42


2-54 3-42 13-54 4-4,S


2-56 :3-4-

3-54 4-48


II+


2-4,- 4 :-3 3-5: 4-4,0

2-54 3-4 s 4-54 5-54

2-60 3-4I 4-60 5-54


3-54 4-4s


Where lo\ws were determined to cause the culvert size to exceed 4 60-inch
pipes, no size is provided. This table provides Ror most tempoirary in tallation,
in Northwest Florida For larger sizes of channels bridge works may prove
more ecoCnomfical


Silviculture


Width
(Ft.)


0.5


2.0


2.5


15

21

27


3.0


3.5


'-54 3-42


4.0


3. 54

36 6' I(

412 hi


4-5-4 5-4


7

8

9


4.s

54


I


PestManagment Practice


'
J.i.,
i 11*~"

i;


.L














Watershed Size Method
Procedure:
1) From Table D below, for the given watershed area, soil, and slope condi-
tions, read corresponding drainage area i. e., cross-section area of pipe required
for 2 1 2 inches of rainfall per hour.

2) Select culvert size from Table E Inext page that has at least the required
area determined above.


!LI


Impervious

3.4

5.8

8.0


Site Conditions (Soil Type

Steep Moderate
(25%4+) (15-250%)


Hea vy


Moderate

1.9

3.2


& Slopes)


Gentle
(0-159o)


Light

1.2

2.0


SFlatland


Sandy

(1.7

1.2


S 50 11.6 9.7 6.4 4.1 2.3

60 13.4 10.1 7.4 4.7 2.7

70 15.0 11.2 8.3 5.3 3.0

80 16.6 12.4 9.2 6.3 3.3

90 18.2 13.6 10.1 6.3 3.6

100 19.7 14.7 10.8 6.8 3.9

200 33.2 24.9 18.4 11.7 6.6

300 45.7 33.6 27.1 15.8 9.0

400 56.0 42.0 30.5 19.5 11.2

500 66.8 49.4 36.6 23.2 13.2


113.0


88.9


62.1


39.4


22.4


*Modified from Talbot's Formula for a 2 1/2-inch/hr. rainfall event.
Silv U I t u r


Water-
shed
Acres


Soils

10

20


'B
"


r~~t~

~a~
31~1~1














Tb E C P- S R i f D Area*


X-Section
Area (Sq. Ft )


Diameter
(In.)


X-Section
Area (Sq. Ft.)


Diameter
(In.)


0.55 10 12.60 48

0.79 12 15.90 54

1.25 15 19.60 60

1.80 18 23.80 66

3.10 24 28.30 72

4.90 30 33.20 78

7.10 36 38.50 84

9.60 42 44.20 90

*King's Handbook un Hydraulics, modified hv Forestry BMP Handbook Techni-
cal Advisor\ C'omnittee Courte v if ITT RavAn:tri.

Note: For watersheds that require more than 44.2 quare feet of pipe la 90-
inch pipe, multiple pipe combinations should be used to meet the require-
ments. It is generally preferable to use multiple pipes of the same size and the
pipes should be spaced leaving a distance of 1/2 the pipe diameter between the
pipes. For example, if two 72-inch pipes are required, the pipes should be
spaced 36 inches apart.









Si c u t '.
fs.k












SAppendix 10 Special Management Zone Acreage

Sp.iecial: M...r


Stream
Width
(Ft.)


Area of Primary SMZ, Each Side (Acres.)


35 Feet


75 Feet


200 Feet


25 0.02 0.04 0.11

50 0.04 0.09 0.23

75 0.06 0.13 0.34


100

200

300

400

500

750

1000

1500

2000


0.08

0.16

u.24


0.32

0.40

0.60

0.80


1.21


i +


1.61


0.17

0.34

0.52


0.46

0.92

1.38


i i


0.69

0.86

1.29

1.72


2.58


3.44


1.84

2.30

3.44

4.59


6.89


9.18


5000 4.02 8.61 22.96


5280


4.24


9.09


24.24


Note: Where both sides of waterbodv are owned
multiply acreage from table by 2.


by the same landowner,


Silviculture


j

i
;"-5
tl:
tt1:: r:
1:_~
n
~

*r.i.-
d
~bs
J


ij


LU4s..ManagementJP










Appendix 11 Exceptions
to Primary Management Zone Criteria




1) No individual tract or tracts-in-contiguous-owncrship may be required to
designate more than lit', of the total tract area as Primary Zone ISee Example
1

2) N1., PrimarN Zone ma\ be required beyond .35 feet from' a Iperennial \v.aterbild\
or 351 feet frI.im an\ O)FW. OCNR\\' Ir Clas: 1 Wat-er. where the titte. have been
tr'arIltin:il\ nmanrw ge.l fir tthe pulrpoii e Ot pine prIn dud.tlAj .and. \thet',. t here is an
..xi tiring predionlin nce of pine tree.- v. ith n, 'inifficant comi puntent .i.f .large Rized
IIi inerchantalle Ill-rdv. cr d t tree- ISee Examjple 21.

3) Where Exceptii-ns 1 I.tr 2 do nut p..1ipl (clearcut harve.tin g in! the Primary
Zone i. perm -i a1l:le piro ided that no clearci-utting take-; place within .35 feet of
ani\ perennial \\ aterb.id'. oir \ within 511 tett itf a\n OF\., ONRW Ir ('lass I
Water. and \ here.

a) The total aireage ili-ar:ut doe- not exceed 25', of the art'a des-inated as
Priman' Zone. and the numibe r r t aCre.t lealcut are added-On to the Primary
Zone, acre fr' acre These additional acre.- added-,n to the Primar\ Zone.
must be direct\ connect-ed to the Prnmarv Zone boundary \~thin the harvest
unit. ma\ not extend out bheyvond that houndarv more than 2U1 feet. and mut
be managed in aceordante ,.with the Primary Zone Management Criteria
iSee Example 3a i: or.

b) The basal area uf ioversturi trees within the SMZ is .301 ft2 per acre or less.
and other hardwood species pre-ent are of such low quality iphysiologically
or ecologically I that total stand removal would provi de a greater long term
wildlle and or forestry benefit. However, the total area clearcut under this
exception may not equal more than 10', of the Primary Zone. and any given
elearcut parcel mu.t not he greater than 500l' in length, as measured along
the stream iSee Example T3b

*See figures on following pages for examples of exceptions.


Silvicu t u r e


est Management Practices

















Exception #1:


If the required SMZ
area exceeds 10% of
the tract area, the
SMZ may be reduced
(down to 10%) by
narrowing the SMZ
width.

* Reduced Primary
SMZ

SOriginal Primary
SMZ


4.7


-F-


;'-Y


t


g.-.


. ~- -- ' -

-: '- .. -. ;--
I I

.....

. ';! ^ ''i ^ "


*A l.cg-t. -
-. t - C


- 4 -'- .:N. ; " -
-",-,' E Si .'. i '. ", -" Z --- --




'. 4'" P .t' s A
*4. i . . . . .


Exception #2:


In areas of existing
pine management,
the Primary SMZ is
not required to be
more than 35' wide
(50' for OFW, ONRW
and Class 1 waters)

m Existing Pine
Management
Area


Silvicu t u r e


-t
-4 -~


[BestManagementPractice






















Exception #3a:



A: Clearcut area
within Primary SMZ:
2 acres



B: Area returned
outside Primary SMZ:
2 acres


-c
..,,- L-i..:*.T k -9L / ~ -t
I ;- 7-

*s. 4:d -4 I.~
:,& ~:~:~~ Mw A~
it .- -
i*L -n.


lei .
-'C-
.1.I


*1*


^ .imp.. Jl " "
_' ** .- -.

A- -a..- alL
V ,- : -

-. -- .- #
~ ~ -, 4* r- '.' -"
--'


41:~


4k -I-

*- *


ai-


Exception #3b:


Low Quality
* Hardwood Area
Clearcut within
Primary SMZ


Si viculture r e


r
i ,
~"i



:1 .e
u
*1
cl


L-estMangment.I Practices


%,


.*













Appendix 12 Field Offices


I

i, i
.JA J.;


FIELD UNIT CENTER DISTRICT MANAGER AREA CODE PHONE NUMBER



BFC Blackwater .Ji,, A Wf,.- i.i .,
Forestry Center
IMun.oni


D-2 Chipola Rier .i,-, iph D \rd-... .' '-.1 ;.




D-4 lallahash ee .i,,hn, [i .r '1 4 '. 1 1




D-5 Perry FR.-iph I'i ... i .





D-6 Suwannee Mj rk \ .. .




D-7 Jackson\ ille i Biurc Hal .i 'i4 ..'. '




D-8 \Waccra'aa D.ri,:d E W-t ".12 5.1111.





D-10 Bunnell MTi. hi. I K iu. ': 4 44,. :,; ':,


Silviculture


Pest Management P



























WFC Wilthlaoochee \\nrn Sc hir.t, r ..2 .
Forestry Center
I Brooksiilleie


D-12 Orlando .I.,r, I K 4i I






D-14 Lakeland 1\ F Ht. b hs flh.Ih





D-15 Myakka D.iui-! v '.,,itin.i '441 7





D-16 Okeechobee FPul V Palm.oti.. .. 4h'.,lhi





D-17 Caloosahatchee H nk i.rjh im '41 I-4 .. 1 l






D-18 Everglades Li. ii1 P L l ., ','4 4-,.41 i


Si I v i C u r e


MVIR

*r' !f


j




"KUW
4p '




X.A


Best Management Practices


FIELD UNIT


CENTER


DISTRICT MANAGER


AREA CODE


PHONE NUMBER










A 'Appendix 13 Florida Water Management District Offices


~1

'V1
Akr! m~
V'8lsa~
I ---t j


Northwest Florida Water Management District
Route 1, Box 3100
Havana, Florida 323:33
1850 539-5999

St. Johns River Water Management District
P.O. Box 1429
Palatka, Florida 32178
'9041 329-4500

Suwannee River Water Management District
Route 3, Box 64
Live O(ak, Florida :32060
19041 362-1001

South Florida Water Management District
P.O. Box 24680
3301 Gun Club Road
West Palm Beach. FLorida 33416-4680
1407) 686-8800


Southwest


Florida Water Management District
2379 Broad Street
Brooksville, Florida 33512
(3521 796-7211


Pest Management Practices


S i v ic uI t r











Appendix 14 Army Corps of Engineers District Offices


Big Pine Key Regulatory Office
CESAJ-RD-FT-B
P.O. Box 1619
Big Pine Key, FL 33043-0633
(305) 872-3205

Crystal River Regulatory Office
CESAJ-RD-NF-C
P.O. Box 387
Crystal River, FL 3442.d
(352) 795-1078

Fort Myers Regulatory Office
CESAJ-RD-FT-F
2180 West First Str.tt
Fort Myers, FL 339(1-3217
(813) 694-3438

Jacksonville Regulatory
Division Field Operations Branch
CESAJ-RD-F
P.O. Box 4970
Jacksonville, FL 32232-o019
(904) 232-2502

Merritt Island Regulatory Office
CEDAJ-RD-FI
2460 North Courtney Squarie Blvd.
Courtney Square Building
Suite 216
Merritt Island, FL 32952
(407) 453-7655

Miami Regulatory Field Office
CESAJ-RD-FM
8410 NW 53rd Terrace. Ste. 225
Miami, FL 33166
(305)591-1302


Palatka Regulatory Office
CESAJ-RD-FK
P.O. Box 1317
Palatka. FL 3217S-1317
190-141 325-2112,s

Panama City Regulatory Field Office
i-'ESA.J-RL-N(C
F'P B ,: 1.-.i
I'.iniama ('it\ FL -124112-11151
, S;l, 71 3-0717

Pensacola Regulatory Office
CESA.J.RD-FP
lii,11 n,,.i er nm nt C llntf'
Pt-n,.utL. FL .2.'1-57-194
i s.n i 4;:h -.s:a-Iri

Tampa Regulatory Field Office
'ESAJ-RD-CT
P 0. Bix\ 19247
Tampa. FL :1i3686-9247
1Sl1:31 S40-2.0.)s

Vero Beach Regulatory Office
('ESAJ-RD-t 'T-
2 .1il 9th Avenue. Suite 212-C
\'er Beach. FL :32960i
14071 567-1496


S i v i c u l t u r e


1A;




4*


A-'


'A. 1
1*,.
*'.~ R


lFest Management Practices

















































90 Silviculture


lBest Management Practices










-I X
;j .~51;;


Basal Area Forestry term used to refer to the
density of a stand of trees, expressed in square
feet/acre.

Bedding A technique whereby a small ridge of
surface soil is formed to provide an elevated
planting or seed bed. In Florida, it is used
primarily in wet areas to improve soil drainage
and aeration for seedlings.

Borrow Pit An excavation site outside the
limits of construction to provide material
necessary to that construction, such as fill
materials for road construction.

Broad-Base Dips A periodic reversal in the
grade of a permanent access road for the
purpose of intercepting and diverting surface
water flow without seriously impeding vehicu-
lar traffic.

Cavity Tree (Den Tree) Mature hardwood and
softwood trees that are hollow and typically of
the older age classes that are used by certain
bird and other small wildlife species for shelter
and habitat.

Canal A totally man-made waterbody; does
not include streams that have been modified
by dredging or straightening.

Chopping A mechanical treatment whereby
vegetation is concentrated near the ground and
incorporated into the soil. Chopping may be
used to facilitate burning or to decrease rough
to improve planting conditions.

Class I Waters Waterbodies that serve as
sources of potable water supply; designated
by the State for additional water quality
protection.


Clearcutting A silvicultural system in which
all merchantable timber is harvested within in
a specified area in one operation.

Cross Ditch A shallow depression built
diagonally across a road or trail for the pur-
pose of diverting surface water off the road
surface.

Cross-Drain Culvert A metal, wooden, plastic
or concrete conduit through which ditch flow is
directed underneath the road surface to the
opposite side of the road.

Detritus Natural woody debris such as leaves,
branches, etc., provided by trees serves as a
food source for certain aquatic insects.

Ditch Plugs Materials used to partially or
completely obstruct the flow of water in a ditch.

Erodible Soils Those soils identified as being
subject to erosion based on soil texture, compo-
sition and topography.

Erosion The process by which soil particles
are detached and transported by water, wind
or gravity to some downslope or down-stream
deposition point.

Fertilizers Any substance or combination of
substances used primarily as a source of plant
nutrition or soil amendment.

Firelines Artificial barriers typically estab-
lished by plowing and/or harrowing to contain
fires within an area.

Flowing Wetland A wetland (listed in appen-
dix 5) that has a surface connection to a well
defined stream channel at one or more points,
and has a definite stormwater inflow and/or
outflow.


Silvicul t u re


Pest Management Practices













r


Foam Lines Type of fireline that incorporates
the use of fire-resistant foam material in lieu
of, or in addition to plowing or harrowing.

Hard Surface Crossings (Fords) Rock, brick,
logs, and other stable materials placed on the
bottom of certain perennial or intermittent
stream channels to accommodate light traffic
during periods of low water flow.

Harrowing (Disking) A mechanical means of
scarifying the soil to reduce competing vegeta-
tion and to prepare a site to be seeded.

Harvest Unit Refers to an area of specific size
and location where timber harvesting opera-
tions are being performed.

Haul (Spur) Roads Temporary forest roads
constructed to facilitate the transport of timber
or other forestry related activities.

Hydric Soils Soils exhibiting a considerably
wet nature, typically characterized by a dark
color and associated with wetlands.

Hydrology The scientific study of the proper-
ties, distribution, and effects of water on the
earth's surface, in the soil and underlying
rocks and in the atmosphere.

Hydroperiod Period of time during which
soils, waterbodies, and sites are wet.

Impoundment Areas Those areas in which
water is artificially stored orimpounded.

Intermittent Stream A stream that has a well
defined channel but maintains only seasonal
flow under typical climatic conditions.


..
. a *,' .. S i. *


K-Factor An index representing the potential
erodibility of a soil, by water based on soil texture.

Leave Trees Large mast producing and/or
cavity trees which are representative of the
older age classes of the stand and are consid-
ered valuable for wildlife, or related ecological
purposes.

Logging Debris The unused and generally
unmarketable accumulation of woody material,
such as limbs, tops, cull logs and stumps, that
remain as forest residue after timber harvesting.

Mast-Producing Trees Various species of
trees considered valuable for the production of
food for wildlife.

Modified Stream A natural watercourse
which has been dredged or straightened.

Non-Point Source (NPS) Water pollution
which is not traceable to any discrete or
identifiable facility but rather is generated by
activities in a broad treatment area.

OFWs Outstanding Florida Waters
Waterbodies which exhibit unique characters
in terms of quality and value designated by the
State for additional protection from further
pollution and degradation.

ONRWs Outstanding National Resource
Waters Waterbodies which exhibit character-
istics that meet specific water quality stan-
dards for national designation for protection
from pollution and degradation.

Perennial Stream A watercourse that flows in
a well-defined channel throughout most of the
year under typical climatic conditions.


S i I V i c I I t 11 r P


y ',~~ '
- U5s ~t.


PestManagment. PU


. <. ,


r














Pesticides Chemical substances, either liquid
or granular, that are used for the control or
eradication of undesirable insects, disease,
vegetation, animals and other organisms.
Herbicides, Insecticides, Fungicides and
Nematicides are all considered

Pollutants Natural or man-made waste
material that contaminates air, soil, or water.

Public Lands Those lands which are wholly
owned and managed by any unit of local,
regional, state or federal government. Lands
not wholly owned (i.e., lease, wildlife manage-
ment agreement, easement, life estate, pur-
chase agreement, etc.) may limit the terms of
control by a unit of government.

Raking Component of site preparation in
which trees, stumps, roots, and logging slash
are piled and/or pushed into windows by
tractors equipped with customized blades with
rake tines across the bottom.

Refuse Inorganic waste materials such as
metal, rubber, plastic, and glass.

Regeneration The young tree crop that either
artificially or naturally follows a stand of older
trees removed by harvest and/or disaster.

Rip-rap Aggregate material placed on poten-
tially erodible sites to reduce the impact of
rain or surface runoff on these areas.

Rotation The period of time required to
establish, grow, and harvest a crop of trees at
a specified stage of maturity.


Sediment Soil particles which have been
detached and transported by water during the
process of erosion.

Seed Tree Cut Method of timber harvesting
that provides for the natural regeneration of a
site by leaving single, or small groups of, seed-
bearing trees distributed throughout the
harvest area.

Selection Cut Removal of select trees within
a forest stand based on some economic or
physiological criteria. Generally results in
uneven aged stands.

Shelterwood Cut Removal of mature timber
within a forest stand in a series of harvests
which extend over a relatively short portion of
the rotation in order to encourage the estab-
lishment of essentially even-aged reproduction
under the partial shelter of seed trees.

Silvicultural System A process, following
accepted forest management principles,
whereby the crops constituting forests are
tended, harvested and reproduced.

Site Preparation Measures employed on a
site to dispose of debris, reduce competitive
vegetation, and prepare the soil for artificial or
natural regeneration.

Site Preparation (Prescribed) Burning The
silviculture practice of using regulated fires to
reduce or eliminate debris and vegetation in
preparation for tree planting.

Site Sensitivity Class (SSC) An index of an
area's susceptibility to erosion and sediment
production, based on soil type and slope.


S i 1 v i c u l t u -


Pemanagement Practices















Skid Moving of logs or felled trees from the
stump to the loading point.

Skidder Heavy equipment designed for transport-
ing logs and felled trees within the harvest site.

Skid Trails A temporary road used for the
skidding logs in the forest.

Slash Wood residue, usually tree limbs and tops,
left on the ground after an area has been logged.

Slope An index of the change in elevation of a
land area. Often referred to as a ratio of rise
over run; normally expressed in percent.

Snag Trees Typically isolated standing dead
trees characterized by hollow trunks and/or
limbs which may provide habitat for wildlife.

Stand A contiguous group of trees sufficiently
uniform in species composition, arrangement
of age classes and condition to be a homoge-
neous and distinguishable unit.

Stringer Narrow strip of trees left on and/or
near the banks of intermittent streams, lakes
and sinkholes for purposes of stabilization,
water quality protection, and wildlife habitat.

Special Management Zone (SMZ) An area of
varying width adjacent to a watercourse in
which special management precautions are
necessary to protect natural resources.

Streamside Management Zone The term
Streamside Management Zone has been
changed to Special Management Zone.

Swale A gently sloping depression designed
to transport intermittent runoff from storm
events.


iT r
I.~r I I*
i i
~t il
:v ,;
;--
r.r. I
i ~i~ jB~T~"'f;


Turbidity An optical measurement of the
relative clarity of water.

Water Bar A mound of soil built across a
light-duty road, skid trail, or fireline, for the
purpose of diverting surface water.

Waterbody Any river, creek, slough, canal,
lake, reservoir, pond, sinkhole or other natural
or artificial watercourse which flows within a
defined channel or is contained within a
discernable shoreline.

Water Control Structure Any structure used
to regulate surface or subsurface water levels.

Water Turn out The extension of a road ditch
into a vegetated area to provide for the disper-
sion and filtration of stormwater runoff.

Wetland For the purpose of this Manual,
Wetlands are those land types listed in Appen-
dix 5.

Wetland Flow-way That area of a flowing
wetland where stormwater moves within
variable dimensions instead of a well defined
channel. The area of flow in this case has
enough general confinement to exhibit some
stormflow characteristics, and is evidenced by,
but not limited to: drift lines/racks, sediment
deposits, soil and root scour, absence of litter/
ground cover all in a generally linear posi-
tion.

Wildfire Any fire other than a controlled,
prescribed fire.

Windrow Logging debris and unmerchantable woody
vegetation, piled in rows on the contour of the land.


Silvicult ure


PestManagment PL^U


1




















































Silvi culture


lBest Management Practices




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