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|Table of Contents|
Table of Contents
List of members
History of association
Papers presented at 1957 annual meeting
Reprints and notes of interest
1957 Year Book
FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING
Winter Haven, Florida
November Ii, 1957
1957 Year Book
FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING
Winter Haven, Florida
November 11, 1957
FLORIDA LYCHEE GROWERS ASSOCIATION
VOLUME IV PRINTED 1958
Officers of 1956-57 -------. --.-----------------------. 4
Officers of 1957-58 ------ ----- -------------------- - 4
List of Members -----------------------------------.----- 5, 6
History of Association ---------------------------- 7
Treasurer's Report ------------------------------- 8
Papers presented at 1957 Annual Meeting
Lychee Fruitfulness T. W. Young, Sub-Trop. Exp. Sta., Homestead 9
A Comparison of the Size and Percentage Pulp, Seed and Skin of
Brewster Lychees Grown in Different Parts of Florida, III S. John
Lynch, U. of Miami, Coral Gables ---------- -- 13
Erinose Ed L. Ayers, Commissioner, Fla. State Plant Board ---_________ 15
Lychee Freezing Experiments C. W. DuBois, Chief, Food Tech-
nology Section, Plymouth, Fla. ...---____. ____.__.-------------- 17
The Department of Fruit Crops' Place in Research John W. Sites,
U. of Fla., Gainesville -------------------- 19
Twig Borer Injury in the Lychee F. Gray Butcher, U. of Miami,
Coral Gables ----------- --. 21
Marketing Lychees in the New York Area Peter Lee, 1957 FLGA
Marketing Agent for N. Y. Metropolitan Area ___------------------ 22
Notes on Drying of Lychees R. A. Dennison and C. B. Hall, U. of
Fla., Gainesville ------------------------ 25
Suggested Methods for Top-Working Lychee Trees Roy O. Nelson,
U. of Miami, Coral Gables ------------- 27
Lychee Marketing Highlights 1957 Wm. R. Grove, Jr., Laurel----- 31
Lychee Processing Experiment George B. Macfie, Jr., U. of Miami,
Coral Gables -----------------. 33
Reprints and Notes of Interest
New Developments in Lychee Marketing Gordon Palmer, Osprey_-- 35
Pollinating Insects on Lychee Blossom F. Gray Butcher, U. of Miami,
Coral Gables _____ ____-----------------_-------------- 39
A Leaf Beetle Feeding on the Stems of Lychee George W. Dekle,
State Plant Board, Gainesville -------------------- 42
A Note on the Fruiting of the Mauritius Variety of Lychee R. Bruce
Ledin, Sub-Trop. Exp. Sta., Homestead ---- --.-------------------- 45
FLORIDA LYCHEE GROWERS ASSOCIATION
OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES
November 1956 to November 1957
President ... .....-
1st Vice President .
2nd Vice Presidents
District Number One-
District Number Two
District Number Three-
Erle L. Wirt, Jr.
Donald R. VanSickler
Harold G. Johnstone
S. John Lynch
S. John Lynch
---.. Gordon Palmer
---.------- -- --------------- ---Judge C. E. Ware
-----.---- ------ --- - William R. Grove, Jr.
..-----------.---------------- Arthur M. Hill, Jr., Harold G. Johnstone, J. B. Pinkerton,
D. R. VanSickler, Erie L. Wirt, Jr.
_-.............. S. John Lynch District Number Four ...... .......... John K. Rice
-...--...... William C. Arthur District Number Five..-.......- William R. Grove, Jr.
.---_.. .... --Arthur E. Gose District Number Six.. .....-.--..... Curry O. Dodson
..--------... ... Gordon Palmer, Henry A. Simpson, Raymond A. Trevelyan
S. John Lynch
Arthur M. Hill, Jr.
Henry A. Simpson
John K. Rice
William R. Grove, Jr.
William R. Grove, Jr.
John K. Rice
Henry A. Simpson
FLORIDA LYCHEE GROWERS ASSOCIATION
OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES
November 1957 to November 1958
President -...-......----..---- ----..--- -------- ------. --. John K. Rice
1st Vice President ....... ...------- --.---.--. -- --- ----------- ----------------- Charles E. Ware
Secretary-Treasurer -.. ---.-- ----.. - ------ ----William R. Grove, Jr.
2nd Vice Presidents ..... Arthur M. Hill, Jr., Harold G. Johnstone, James B. Pinkerton, Donald R. VanSickler
District Number One .
District Number Two
District Number Three .
----- S. John Lynch District Number Four .. --........... Erie Wirt, Jr.
...-__William C. Arthur District Number Five --- Gordon Palmer
._-.. -- John K. Rice District Number Six ..........----- Curry 0. Dodson
- .._._ .. ----- ----------------- Henry A. Simpson, Ray A. Trevelyan
Erie L. Wirt, Jr.
William R. Grove, Jr.
S. John Lynch
Charles E. Ware
Henry A. Simpson
S. John Lynch
Arthur M. Hill, Jr.
Henry A. Simpson
Donald R. VanSickler
William R. Grove, Jr.
S. John Lynch
FLORIDA LYCHEE GROWERS ASSOCIATION
LIST OF REGULAR MEMBERS
Anderson, T. J., Box 61, Pierce
Arthur, Col. William C., 2476 Fairway Dr., Vero
*Asper, Pervis I., Rt. 3, Box 444, Lakeland
*Barnes, Mrs. O. T., Box 223, Osprey
Bateman, W. E., Rt. 1, Box 405 (Davie), Ft. Lauder-
Bishop, R. G., Rt. 2, Clermont
Bodden, Wm. J., 3304 Highland Ave., Tampa
*Brockway, E. K., Lake Louis Groves, P. O. Box
Brown, Miss Jessie M., 3400 Riverview Blvd.,
*Burhans, C. L., 3601 E. Perch Dr., Ocala
Burke, E., Box 515, Clermont
Carbone, Sebastian, 2163 7th St., Sarasota
Caribbean Gardens, Attention J. Kuperberg, Naples
*Cassel, E. G., Rt. 3, Box 255-B, Sarasota
Coconut Grove Palmetun, Attention Ray Vernon,
Manager, P. O. Box 136, Coconut Grove
Constantine Farms, Inc., T. J. Constantine, P. O.
Box 1400, Clearwater
Couch, Adam, 5555 31st St., North, St. Petersburg
Couch, Mrs. Margaret, Box 123, Bartow
Crews, C. E., Box 174, Avon Park
Crum, Roy M., Rt. 1, Box 651, Ft. Lauderdale
Curtis, Charles F., Rt. 1, Box 59, Clearwater
*Curtis, Raymond M., 3575 Stewart Ave., Coconut
Davison, Mrs. Allen S., 3400 Riverview Blvd., Bra-
*Dixon, Col. V. B., Box 591, Venice
*Dodd, Chas. K., 1731 Bay St., Sarasota
Dodson, C. O., 15806 E. 1st St., Redington Beach,
Douglas, W. W., Box 113, Parrish
*Dyer, John W., 4000 8th St., South, St. Petersburg
Eagleton, Clyde, Jr., Rt. 5, Box 2380, Sarasota
'Estes, Robert J., Box 893, Lake Wales
Forrest, John R., 1012 N. Garden Ave., Clearwater
Freke-Hayes, J. J., Seminole Rd., Babson Park
Goessling, Leo J., Box 307, Stuart
*Gose, A. E., 1748 N. Lakeview Dr., Sebring
*Groff, Mrs. G. W., Rt. 1, Box 53-T, Nokomis
"Grove, Col. W. R., P. O. Box 7, Laurel
*Hamilton, M. Kenneth & Sophie, Key Ave., Eustis
*Henry, Dr. J. M., Box 110, Nokomis
*Hill, Arthur M., Jr., Box 306, Vero Beach
Home, Fred R., 102 E. Buffalo Ave., Tampa
*Horton, H. N., R.F.D. Box 365, Land O'Lakes
Jesse, Edwin G., P. O. Box 764, Ft. Pierce
Jimenez, Gus R., Box 5112, Tampa
Johnson, Einar C., 560 S. Saratoga, St. Paul 16,
Johnson, Capt. Victor, Rt. 1, Box 406, Homestead
*Johnston, Julian A., Box 811, Winter Haven
*Johnstone, H. G., Laurel
Kiefer, Mrs. E. L., 4525 Hyacinth Way, South, St.
Kluberg, W. N., Box 635, Avon Park
La Voie, Louis, Box 416, Rt. 1, Ft. Lauderdale
Lee, Carrol R., Box 252-K, Rt. 3, Sarasota
Lindsey, Raymond G., 1507 Edgevale Road, Fort
Loftis, Warren T., Rt. 2, Box 73, Lutz
Lowe, E. M., Box 450, Rt. 1, Largo
*Lynch, Prof. S. John, Univ. of Miami, P. O. Box
1015, South Miami 43
*Marigo, James, Rt. 1, Box 413, Ft. Lauderdale
*McMullen, Dr. Fred B., Jackson Bldg., Clearwater
*Miami, University of, Attention S. J. Lynch, Coral
Miller, John B., Box 1152, Ft. Lauderdale
*Mitchell, C. C., Drier Ave., Box 188, R.F.D. No. 1,
*Moore, Mrs. Dorothy, 480 Island Circle, Sarasota
*Morrissey, E. J., Rt. 1, Box 408-C, Homestead
Nelson, Mrs. Wickliffe, "Casa Rosa," 802 Georgia
Ave., Winter Park
Orman, Fred, P. O. Box 334, Stuart
*Palmer Nurseries, Osprey
*Parsons, Adm. E. C., Box 81, Osprey
Petersen, William 0., 2251 Bay St., Sarasota
Phleger, Lee, 12601 S.W. 77th Ave., Miami 43
*Pinkerton, J. B., R.F.D. No. 3, Merritt Island
Pitts, Glenn G., 6212 Foster Ave., Tampa
*Popham, J. H., Jr., The Oaks, Osprey
*Porter, Mrs. Bella T., Rt. 1, Box 38, Clermont
Rao, Dr. John O., Osceola Hospital, Kissimmee
*Reaves, Dr. Hugh G., 1444 Harbor Dr., Sarasota
*Rice, Maj. Gen. John K., R.F.D. No. 1, Clermont
*Roberts, Pasco, Box 728, St. Petersburg
Royall, Lemual J., Jr., 173 Fern Way, Miami Springs
*Ruffing, John, Rt. 2, Box 66, Dade City
*Simpson, Henry A., Geneva
Stewart, Clyde M., 433 61st St., North, St. Peters-
Stixrud, Mrs. Madeleine E., Box 741, Tice
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Rt. 2, Box 508,
*Summers, W. J., Laurel
Thompson, Dr. T. S., Venice
*Tingley, C. L. S., Jr., Rt. 2, Box 518, Laurel
*Trevelyan, Col. Ray A., De Soto City
*Turner, Donald L., 1271 4th Street, Sarasota
*VanSickler, Col. D. R., Laurel
*Ware, Judge C. E., Rt. 1, Box 858, Largo
Wells, J. Frank, 336 Bridgers, Auburndale
Williams, Foy R., Rt. 1, Box 552, Sebring
*Wirt, Erie L., Jr., Babson Park
Wittmer, J. C., 1817 16th St., North, St. Petersburg
*Wyles, W. Eugene, 198 No. 40th St., West, Braden-
FLORIDA LYCHEE GROWERS ASSOCIATION
LIST OF PROFESSIONAL MEMBERS
Ayers, Edward L., Plant Commissioner, State Plant
Beckenbach, J. R., Director Agr. Exp. Stas., Univ. of
Boss, Dr. Manley L., Dept. of Botany, University
of Miami, Coral Gables
Butcher, Dr. F. Gray, Univ. of Miami, P. O. Box
1015, South Miami 43
Dekle, George W., State Plant Board, Gainesville
Dennison, Dr. R. A., Agr. Exp. Stas., University of
DuCharme, Dr. E. P., Fla. Citrus Exp. Sta., Lake
Fifield, Willard M., Provost of Agric., Univ. of
Gardner, Dr. Frank E., Sub-Trop. Fruit Investiga-
tions, U. S. Hort. Sta., 2120 Camden Road, Or-
Goldweber, Seymour, Univ. of Miami, P. O. Box
1015, South Miami 43
Howlett, Dr. Freeman, Chairman Dept. of Hort.,
Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio
Joiner, Jasper, Fla. Agr. Ext. Service, Univ. of
Kelsheimer, Dr. E. G., Gulf Coast Exp. Sta., Bra-
Lawrence, Fred P., Fla. Agr. Ext. Service, Univ. of
Ledin, Dr. R. Bruce, Sub-Trop. Exp. Sta., Univ. of
Loomis, Harold F., U. S. Plant Introduction Garden,
Macdonnell, John Henry, Flamingo Ave., Bay Island,
Macfie, George B., Jr., Univ. of Miami, P. O. Box
1015, South Miami 43
Marloth, Dr. Raimund H., The Citrus & Sub-Trop.
Hort. Res. Sta., Nelspruit, Eastern Transvaal,
Union of South Africa
Mounts, M. U., Fla. Agr. Ext. Service, Rt. 5, Box
36-B, West Palm Beach
Mustard, Margaret J., Univ. of Miami, P. O. Box
1015, South Miami 43
Nelson, Roy O., Univ. of Miami, P. O. Box 1015,
South Miami 43
Popenoe, Dr. Wilson, Director Escuela Agricola
Panamericana, Apartado 93, Tegucigalpa, Hon-
duras, C. A.
Reuther, Dr. Walter, Citrus Exp. Sta., Univ. of Cali-
fornia, Riverside, Calif.
Ruehle, Dr. George D., Vice Director in Charge,
Sub-Trop. Exp. Sta., Univ. of Florida, Home-
Shrum, Jeffrey E., Jr., Research Agron., U. S. Plant
Intro. Sta., P. O. Box 226, Coconut Grove, Fla.
Sites, Dr. John W., Agr. Exp. Stas., Univ. of Flor-
Spencer, Dr. Herbert, Sub-Trop. Fruit Investigations,
U. S. Hort. Sta., 2120 Camden Road, Orlando
Stahl, Dr. A. L., Univ. of Miami, P. O. Box 1015,
South Miami 43
Storey, Dr. W. B., Citrus Exp. Sta., Univ. of Cali-
fornia, Riverside, Calif.
Suit, Dr. Ross F., Fla. Citrus Exp. Sta., Lake Alfred
Thompson, Dr. D. B., Fla. Agr. Exp. Stas., Univ. of
Van Der Meulen, Dr. A., The Citrus & Sub-Trop.
Hort. Res. Sta., Nelspruit, Eastern Transvaal,
Union of South Africa.
Veldhuis, Dr. M. K., U. S. Citrus Products Station,
Whitehouse, Dr. W. E., Sr., Horticulturist, Fruit &
Vegetable Introductions, U.S.D.A., Beltsville,
Winters, Harold F., Crop Development Section,
U.S.D.A., Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Md.
Young, Dr. T. W., Sub-Trop. Exp. Sta., Univ. of
Reitz, Dr. H. J., Citrus Exp. Sta., Lake Alfred
History of the Florida Lychee Growers Association
A group of people interested in the growing of lychees in Florida, number-
ing 58 men and women, met on October 11, 1951 at Winter Haven, Florida,
to discuss the formation of a lychee growers organization. The late beloved
Colonel William R. Grove was chosen chairman of the group and of a seven
man executive committee including Messrs. Dean V. Porter, S. John Lynch,
C. E. Ware, E. L. Wirt, Jr., Arthur M. Hill and Henry A. Simpson, charged
with the details of formally organizing a Lychee Growers Association.
The charter meeting of the Florida Lychee Growers Association was held
November 5, 1952, at the Soreno Hotel, St. Petersburg. Judge C. E. Ware as
chairman of the Constitution and By-laws Committee, read to the members the
Articles of Incorporation (Charter) and By-laws, as suggested by the Executive
Committee. They were accepted and approved unanimously. The Executive
Committee was re-elected with the change of R. A. Trevelyan for D. V. Porter,
who withdrew due to ill health, and William R. Grove, Jr., replacing his
recently deceased father. The Charter was signed by nine members and the
Act of Incorporation submitted to the State Department. The Board of Di-
rectors met following the organizational meeting of the Florida Lychee Growers
Association and elected as the first officers: President, William R. Grove,
Laurel; Vice-President, C. E. Ware, Clearwater; Sec.-Treas., Gordon Palmer,
The Board of Directors, elected from each of six districts in the state,
meet bimonthly to conduct the regular business of the Association. The entire
Association meets each November at Winter Haven, at which time the year's
business is reviewed and a forum of papers is given of interest to growers and
shippers of lychees.
FLORIDA LYCHEE GROWERS ASSOCIATION
TREASURER'S REPORT 31 DECEMBER 1957
Bank Loan .......... ........-........- --
Fresh Fruit Sales (1956 crop) .... ---------
Fresh Fruit Sales 1957 _...--.....-.
Frozen Fruit Sales .
Income Taxes Withheld --........-........ ..
Membership Fees ..-. ... .
Packaging Materials ..--.._..-... ----- ..... ....
S.S. Taxes withheld .. ----.-..---.......---.-
Yearbook Sales ...... ------ ---
TOTAL INCOME ---...- ------
Annual Meeting ..-.. -... ....... ----..-------
Bank Charges -.....---. ----- --
Bank Loan Payment .......-....-_.... .... ------
Consultant Services ..--..- ...-- ...- .
Deep Freeze Expenses -....--..........- --------...
Florida Agricultural Council ........ ---------.....
Fresh Fruit 1956 Crop ...- .. ..- ... ...........
Fresh Fruit 1957 Crop ..-- .-.. ---.....-... ---
Income Tax Withheld -- .. --------
Lawyer _-.. ---... ---. -......
Magazine ...-.--....... ...--..- -----
News Bulletin ---- ----- --
Office Supplies ---.--------- --
Packaging Materials ..........-..-...... --------.
Postage ..... ----------
Preparation Tax Return --..... --..........---. ----
Research ....--..... ------ -
Salary .........----. -----
Social Security Taxes .. -............... -- ... ...---
Telephone & Telegraph ..--................--------
Travel .................. ..-- .. -
U. S. Department of Agriculture ........---------
U. S. Department of Commerce .....---- -------.....
Yearbook ..... ...-...--------
TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS --. ------- -
Bank Balance, December 31, 1956 ..-........-....------- ..
Plus Receipts .....-----. -- ------
Less Disbursements .............-......-------
Bank Balance, December 31, 1957 .....-......... ------.
--...--...... --. __ ..- ....- $ 3,000.00
.-.. ---- ........ 494.01
-- -.............. ..... ...... 9,055.38
-.-.-. ---.-- .. ------. 502.08
--. -- ------ 61.60
--.-.-.- ..--- ------. 70.00
.----..-- -. .- 1,013.91
..--...--- ....-- .... - 27.01
---.-.--- ... .. ------ 112.00
-$.....----- -$ 461.51
--.-------. --- 20.46
..... .---..---.----- 49.20
.---- --- .--- . ..- 3,000.00
----..--. ----- 2,745.89
-.... ... ........... .... .......-- -- .. 152.32
--..... ....-....--. ---... ...... 50.00
... .- ...--- ....-- .. 1,298.80
-------------- -- 3,636.75
-- ---------- 123.20
.....---... --- -- 175.00
..-. ..---....---- 3.00
-.-------. --- 699.15
.....- .... .--- .-- 427.18
------------- - 25.00
-..-. ...- .....- 22.48
-..--....--- .....- .. ... .- 1,200.00
-- ----------- 212.22
.- ------------ 40.00
.---. ------ 775.90
---. ------------- $15,809.31
-..-............. --------.---....$. 1,745.10
--. ---------- 14,335.99
-.. ------....- 15,809.31
-- ---- -----... $ 271.78
Dec. 31, 1956 Dec. 31, 1957
....- $966.27 $580.96
T. W. YOUNG
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
Commercial plantings of lychees, Litchi chinensis Sonn., (mostly Brewster
variety) in Florida are relatively young, few being over about 15 years of
age. As a rule, trees have grown well in all areas where plantings have been
made and in a number of groves are now of bearing size. The following
discussion on the performance of lychees in Florida is confined to Brewster
trees of bearing size.
Yields have been erratic generally. The usual pattern of behavior is not
that commonly associated with alternate bearing, although sometimes there
appears to be a trend towards alternation. Ordinarily, each season some trees
bear near their potential capacity, but unsatisfactory crops are produced by
many trees most seasons. Occasionally most of the trees in some plantings have
produced fair to good crops, with light crops or none on the remainder. Perhaps
with increasing age, yields will become more consistently satisfactory. However,
from an economic standpoint, it is important to know if lychees can be made
to bear profitable crops regularly before they reach maturity. This raises the
question as to what factors are involved importantly and commonly in lychee
Aside from requirements for normal good vegetative growth, certain en-
vironmental conditions and cultural practices have been thought primarily
involved in promoting satisfactory flowering and fruiting of lychees. Recurring
temperatures between 30 and 40 degrees F. in late fall and winter, combined
with relatively dry weather during this time, supposedly induce dormancy and
condition the trees physiologically for flowering and fruiting. Withholding
fertilizers after about mid-summer is thought also to check vegetative growth
and help induce the necessary dormancy.
The apparent influence of these factors on lychee yields in six groves,
typical for the several lychee growing areas of the state, has been studied for
the past three years. Data on weather, fertilization, dormancy, bloom and yields
have been obtained from representative plots in each grove each year. Informa-
tion gathered thus far is not sufficient to predict how these factors operate
and is inconclusive. A critical review of this information for the 1956-57
season, condensed below, shows that the subject still needs considerable clari-
The grove under observation at Geneva suffered some cold damage in
November and December, but it was minor on most trees, and did not appear
sufficient to affect flowering and fruiting measurably. Temperatures from 28.3
to 40.0 degrees F., with an average minimum of 33.0 degrees F., were recorded
here on 13 days. for a total of 125 hours at or below 40 degrees F., distributed
over a period of about two months from November 11 to appearance of first
general bloom in January. Weather was dry prior to bloom, and little irrigating
was done, but the trees did not suffer from drought. The last fertilization
before bloom was in July. Conditions appeared favorable for satisfactory
flowering and fruiting, but the trees tended to remain vegetative. Good rains
occurred in late January after bloom started and were satisfactory for the
remainder of the season. Fertilizer was applied again in late February. Al-
though most of the trees had produced light crops the previous season, they
bloomed poorly in 1957 and yielded an extremely light crop. A little late
bloom, on which some fruit matured, continued until June.
The grove on Merritt Island, included in this study, is in a relatively warm
location and suffered no cold damage in the 1956-57 season. Temperatures
from 34.0 to 40.0 degrees F., with an average minimum of 37.7 degrees F.,
were recorded on 10 days, for a total of 38 hours at or below 40 degrees F.,
distributed over a period of about six weeks from November 23 to appear-
ance of first general bloom in January. Weather was dry before bloom, and
there was no irrigation, but the trees did not suffer from drought. The last
fertilizer prior to bloom was applied in September. Conditions here also ap-
peared favorable for satisfactory yield. As in the grove at Geneva, however,
the trees continued to flush through fall and winter. Good rains fell in late
January and through the remainder of the season. Nitrogen fertilizer was
applied in February about a month after bloom started. Although the crop
the previous season was light, the 1957 bloom averaged light and the crop
was the smallest in several years.
Trees in the grove under observation at DeSoto City are younger and
smaller than in the groves at Geneva and Merritt Island, but most of them are
of sufficient size to be relatively fruitful. A number of them bore well in 1956,
but the majority set poor crops or none. Temperatures from 33.8 to 39.0 de-
grees F., with an average minimum of 35.8 degrees F., were recorded in this
grove on 11 days, for a total of 52 hours below 40 degrees F., distributed over a
period of about two months from November 11 to appearance of first general
bloom in January. Weather up to bloom time was dry, but good soil moisture
was maintained most of the time by irrigation, and the trees did not suffer for
moisture. The last fertilization prior to bloom was in August. Most of the trees
were rather active vegetatively throughout fall and winter. Good rains came in late
January and continued at fairly satisfactory intervals for the remainder of the
season. The trees were fertilized again in March, after bloom was well advanced,
and in May. The bloom was light generally and the yield light. None of the
trees bore a good crop.
Trees in the grove at Osprey were similar in age and size to those at
DeSoto City. Some had fruited well the previous season, but most of them
had borne light crops or none. Temperatures from 34.0 to 39.5 degrees F.,
with an average minimum of 37.4 degrees F., were recorded here on 10 days,
for a total of 39 hours below 40 degrees F., distributed over a period of about
two months from November 11 to appearance of first general bloom in January.
Weather was dry up to bloom time, but good soil moisture was maintained
constantly through sub-irrigation. The trees were fertilized heavily in July
and November with mixed fertilizer, and again in January about time of bloom
with a heavy application of nitrate of soda. They also received nutritional
sprays of copper, zinc and manganese. Most of the trees flushed some during
fall and winter. Good rains occurred in late January and through the remainder
of the season. The bloom was fair to good on most trees and a good crop was
produced. Only a few trees failed completely.
In the grove under observation at Davie the trees are growing on mucky
fine sand, which is inherently relatively high in nitrogen. Soil moisture is
usually favorable for growth through sub-irrigation. Although these trees
have received no fertilizer for several years, they have made excellent growth
and are larger than average for their age. They remain almost constantly
vegetative, however, and have never bloomed or fruited satisfactorily. Bloom
was damaged by cold in 1956 and they bore no fruit that season. In the 1956-57
season, temperatures from 31.7 to 39.6 degrees F., with an average minimum
of 35.4 degrees F., were recorded on eight days, for a total of 54 hours below
40 degrees F., distributed over a period of about five weeks from November
28 until a scattered bloom in January. Weather was dry until late February,
but soil moisture was favorable for growth, and although no fertilizer was applied,
the trees were active vegetatively throughout the season. Rains occurred from
late February through the remainder of the season. Little bloom appeared
and the crop was a complete failure, except on two trees which produced
The grove at Homestead experienced less cold than the other groves
discussed here, with the possible exceptions of those at Osprey and Merritt
Island. Also, the first temperatures below 40 degrees F. occurred in the Home-
stead grove about one to two weeks later than in the other groves, except at
Davie. Temperatures from 33.0 to 39.0 degrees F., with an average minimum
of 35.3 degrees F., were recorded on eight days, for a total of 39 hours
below 40 degrees F., distributed over a period of about five weeks from
November 28 to appearance of first general bloom in January. Weather was
dry prior to bloom, and there was no irrigation, but the trees did not suffer
from drought. Rainfall was fairly satisfactory from mid-February through the
remainder of the season. The trees had borne little or no fruit the previous
season. The last fertilizer before bloom was in July. There was some vegetative
flushing during fall and winter before bloom, but in general these trees remained
more dormant than those in the other five groves discussed. Fertilizer was
applied again in February. Bloom and yield on most trees was satisfactory.
Alternate bearing and tree age both can be eliminated, toa great extent,
as imprjtant^ fl'Jtors in explaining the difference in performance among trees
of the various groves discussed here. If alternate bearing had been an important
controlling factor, it would seem that most of the trees under observation should
have borne good crops in 1957, since most of them had borne light crops or
none in 1956, and many had light crops or none in 1955, according to individual
tree records. Nevertheless, only in two of the six groves did an appreciable
number of trees bear good crops in 1957. If age was involved primarily, then
the trees on Merritt Island, for example, should have borne better than those
at Osprey, since the former are about twice the age of the latter. The amount
of cold below 40 degrees F. was approximately the same in both groves, and
soil moisture was more favorable for dormancy on Merritt Island than at Osprey,
but the trees on Merritt Island averaged light crops, while those at Osprey
averaged good crops. Furthermore, observations on scattered mature trees
indicate that they do not bear good crops regularly.
As experienced in the groves discussed here, recurring temperatures between
30 and 40 degrees F. in fall and winter prior to bloom, regardless of amount or
date of first cold of 40 degrees F. or below, fail to account satisfactorily for the
behavior of the trees. To illustrate, during the past season the groves at Geneva,
DeSoto City and Davie all experienced considerably more cold below 40 degrees
F. than did the groves at Osprey and Homestead, yet flowering and fruiting in
the former three were poor, while the latter two averaged good bloom and yields.
It is barely possible that cold damage may have reduced yields some at Geneva,
but not likely appreciably. Moreover, there was no cold damage to trees on
Merritt Island, where minimum temperatures and duration of cold below 40
degrees F. were quite comparable to these conditions at Osprey and Homestead,
but bloom and yield on Merritt Island averaged poor. The first cold of 40 de-
grees F. or lower occurred at Geneva, DeSoto City, and Osprey on November
11, at Merritt Island on November 23 and at Davie and Homestead on Novem-
ber 28. These examples demonstrate that the cold factor alone did not induce
sufficient dormancy to promote satisfactory flowering and fruiting consisten4ly-.-,
Dry weather may have accounted partly for the trees at Homestead being
more dormant than those-ii any-oFWie'oether groves discussed. They were not
irrigated and bloomed and fruited well. However, weather was dry before
bloom and there also was no irrigation on Merritt Island, but the trees tended
to remain vegetative prior to bloom and yielded poorly. In contrast to soil
moisture conditions in these two groves, soil moisture was favorable for growth
at all times, through sub-irrigation, in the Osprey grove. Here the trees were
at least as active vegetatively before bloom as those on Merritt Island, however,
they matured as good a crop, relatively, as those at Homestead, and a much
better crop than those on Merritt Island. Or compare the performance of the
trees at Osprey with those at Davie, where soil moisture was also constantly
favorable for growth. At Davie the trees remained vegetative, bloomed poorly
and set little fruit. A correlation between soil moisture, whether low and favor-
able for dormancy or relatively high and favorable for growth, and dormancy
or yield is lacking in these examples. Obviously, the role played by soil mois-
ture, at the range of levels normally found in these soils, was subordinate to
some other factor or factors in promoting fruitfulness of lychees.
Time of application of fertilizer appeared to have little or no observable
influence on subsequent vegetative and fruiting behavior of lychees in these
six groves. Take the trees in the groves at Geneva and Homestead for example;
in both groves the last fertilizer application before bloom in the 1956-57 season
was in July. Soil moisture was low and probably fairly comparable in the two
groves. At Geneva the trees remained rather vegetative throughout the season
and did not bloom or fruit well, while the trees at Homestead became relatively
dormant and bloomed and fruited well. In contrast to time of fertilizer applica-
tion at Geneva and Homestead, the trees at Osprey were fertilized relatively
heavily in July, November and in January. Soil moisture was favorable for
growth at all times. Although the trees were inclined to be somewhat vegeta-
tive, on the average, they bloomed and fruited well. Any implication that the
high level of nutrients in the soil at Osprey during fall and winter may have
accounted for this satisfactory performance in contradicted by the poor per-
formance of trees at Davie. The mucky fine sand on which the Davie trees are
growing is inherently high in nitrogen, the element most often limiting for
vegetative growth. At Davie, as at Osprey, soil moisture was constantly favor-
able for growth. While no fertilizer was applied at Davie, the highly vegetative
condition of the trees during fall and winter was evidence of an ample supply
of nutrients at that time. Also, in this connection, as has been pointed out, the
satisfactory performance of the trees at Homestead was made with a relatively
low level of nutrients in the soil probably.
If a combination of low temperatures and soil moisture in fall and winter
before bloom, and withholding fertilizer after summer, would bring about
fruitfulness of lychees, it seems that the trees at Geneva, which also had the
supposed advantage of age, would have been more fruitful than those at Osprey.
Theoretically, all these factors were more favorable for fruiting at Geneva than
at Osprey, but yields were in reverse. There is a strong implication from these
investigations that some factor or factors, other than those discussed here,
exert an important controlling influence on the behavior of lychees.
Individual tree records for the past three years on the plots in these six
groves show that completely dormant trees do bloom and fruit better than trees
which tend to be vegetative in fall and winter before bloom. Yields are usually
somewhat in direct proportion to the amount of bloom produced. Therefore,
if growth could be checked generally in the fall, yields should improve. As it
is, in each grove usually only a small portion of the trees will become completely
dormant and the remainder continues some vegetative growth at intervals, even
though they are all under the same environment and culture. In fact, it is not
unusual to find vegetative growth and flowering on adjoining shoots of the same
branchlet. This stresses the complexity of the problem of fruitfulness in lychees.
Time alone will answer the question as to whether or not there will be an
improvement in yields with age. There are limitations on the extent of control
the grower can exercise over environmental factors such as temperature and soil
moisture. Trees can be protected against damaging cold by grove heating and
against drought by irrigation. Nothing can be done, however, to cause recurring
cold weather above freezing for a month or so before bloom or to dry out the
soil during periods of heavy rainfall in fall and winter. With care, a fair
amount of control over the nutrient level in the soil, during the period when
the trees should be dormant, is possible on most soils where lychees are grown
in the state. Whether this will prove to be an important factor remains to be
established. The research agencies are investigating lychee nutritional problems,
but are limited somewhat as to the range in grove conditions they can feasibly
include. The experiences of growers will be a valuable supplement to this
formal research. This is especially true for a grove that remains on a given
program for at least several years.
A Comparison of the Size and Percentage Pulp, Seed and
Skin of Brewster Lychees Grown In
Different Parts of Florida. III.
S. JOHN LYNCH
Division of Research and Industry, University of Miami
Coral Gables, Florida
This report is the third in a series examining the size as measured by
weight and the percentage pulp, seed and skin of Brewster lychees grown under
diverse soil and climatic conditions in Florida (1, 2). The four locations cor-
respond to the principal lychee producing areas of the state, and by obtaining
the fruit from the same groves of airlayered trees of the same variety each year,
the study should eventually show if regional environments play a part in the
physical characteristics of the fruit. New and promising varieties have been
included in the previous reports (1, 2), but this year only the Brewster variety
Samples, each consisting of 100 fruit of random collection, were obtained
from the same Brewster groves as checked last year. The same procedure was
followed in making these determinations as described in the first report (1).
TABLE I. Comparison of the Size and Percentage Seed, Skin and Flesh in Some
Florida Grown Lychees 1957 Season
No. of Av. Wt. Av. % Av. % Av. %
Variety Type Seed Fruit Fruit (gms.) Seed Skin Flesh
Brewster Normal Seed 96 18.76 15.14 19.34 65.53
(Perrine) "Chicken-tongued" 4 17.13 3.35 19.56 77.09
All Types 100 18.69 14.71 19.35 65.95
Brewster Normal Seed 90 18.80 17.55 16.88 65.57
(Geneva) "Chicken-tongued" 10 15.73 4.20 18.37 77.43
All Types 2100 18.49 16.41 17.01 66.58
Brewster Normal Seed 63 19.79 12.99 17.72 69.29
(Osprey) "Chicken-tongued" 37 18.60 3.65 17.93 78.42
All Types 100 19.35 9.66 17.80 72.54
Brewster Normal Seed 93 21.23 16.30 17.94 65.76
(DeSoto City) "Chicken-tongued" 7 16.73 4.78 16.57 78.65
All Types 100 20.92 15.66 17.86 66.48
TABLE II. Comparison by Years of Some of the Physical Properties of Brewster Lychees
Grown in Different Locations in Florida
Av. Wt. Av. % Av. % Av. % % Seed
Location Year No. Fruit Fruit (gms.) Seed Skin Flesh Chicken tongue
Perrine 1955 100 16.02 16.86 18.55 64.59 9
1956 100 18.72 18.70 22.53 58.77 5
1957 100 18.69 14.71 19.35 65.95 4
Average 17.81 16.76 20.14 63.10 6
Geneva 1955 100 15.04 16.18 14.88 68.94 18
1956 100 15.46 14.00 12.93 73.06 24
1957 100 18.49 16.41 17.01 66.58 10
Average 16.33 15.53 14.94 69.53 14
Osprey 1955 100 18.15 15.28 14.16 70.57 11
1957 100 19.35 9.66 17.80 72.54 37
1956 100 18.76 10.66 22.22 67.12 33
Average 18.75 11.87 18.06 70.08 27
DeSoto 1956 100 18.04 15.39 19.16 65.45 10
City 1957 100 20.92 15.66 17.86 66.48 7
Average 19.48 15.53 18.51 65.97 8.5
Table I shows the results from the 1957 crop. The percentage of edible
pulp was about the same for fruit from all locations except for Osprey, which,
having the greatest number of "chicken-tongued" fruit and average skin thick-
ness, indicated about 6 percentage points higher pulp content. Skin weight,
which presupposes skin thickness, was slightly higher from fruit in the Perrine
area than from any of the other areas. However, a slightly thicker skin would
indicate a fruit which would hold up better in shipment and not bruise so easily
When an average for three years of some physical constants of Brewster
lychee fruits grown in different parts of Florida is compiled, it shows that there
is often as much variation in fruit size between different years in one location
as there is in average size for all locations. The percent skin on fruit grown in
the Geneva area is generally less, and most years considerably less, than from
fruit in other locations. The fruit grown in the Perrine area all years produced
fruit with the thickest skin. Average percent seed has been found to be con-
sistently lower from fruit grown in the Osprey area, and this area also shows a
high consistent percentage of edible pulp, closely followed by fruit from the
The comparisons of fruits from these several locations in the state should
be continued for a few more years to either definitely establish differences be-
tween regions or show no appreciable differences between regions. The results
of these three years work indicate slightly smaller average seeds in fruit grown
in the Osprey area, and fruit with slightly thinner skin grown in the Geneva
area. The greater percentage of fruit with "chicken-tongued" seed in the Osprey
area is of interest if this remains constant. The lower percentage of "chicken-
tongued" fruit in the Perrine area could be due to a high saturation of bees in
the lychee orchard during bloom, thus assuring greater pollination. Average
fruit size as measured by weight is fairly constant for the entire state.
A more definite study of the factors which affect the physical character and
quality of lychee fruit should include the variation of nutrient elements applied
in the fertilizer program. Such data should be available in a few years and
may prove that nutrition is as important as location in production of lychee fruit
of good marketing quality.
1. Mustard, Margaret J. and S. John Lynch. A Comparison of the Percentage Pulp, Seed and Skin of
Lychees Grown in Different Parts of Florida. Proc. Fla. Lychee Growers Assoc. 2:12-15. 1955.
2. ------- -------. A Comparison of the Percentage Pulp, Seed and Skin of Lychees Grown
in Different Parts of Florida. II. Proc. Fla. Lychee Growers Assoc. 3:53-54. 1956.
ED L. AYERS
Commissioner, Florida State Plant Board
Erinose is a thick growth of brown felt-like hair produced on the underside
of lychee leaves infested with the mite Aceria litchii (Keifer). The mite also
causes the leaves to become distorted and thickened; the upper surface some-
times becomes elevated from the infestation on the lower surface. The raised
areas are sometimes referred to as blisters.
The mite is microscopic, approximately 1/200 of an inch long; when ob-
served with the aid of a microscope, the tiny worm-like mite with two pair of
legs is white to amber colored. S. C. Misra reported the life cycle of this mite
as not exceeding 14 days in India. The mite attacks the new growth of lychee
during the flush growth. No one knows where the mite occurs during the ab-
sence of new growth. Lychee is the only host on which this mite has been
The erinose mite is considered one of the most serious foliage pests of
lychee in Hawaii. It has been reported in all lychee growing regions of the
world. The mite is apparently host specific, and infestations are the result of
infested plants being transported from one area to another.
Erinose mite was first discovered in Florida by Dr. J. M. Henry and Mr.
William R. Grove, Jr., at the Henry groves, Nokomis, Florida, in 1955. Infested
lychee foliage was submitted to the State Plant Board in Gainesville by Mr.
Grove. Specimens were sent to Dr. H. H. Keifer, Systematic Entomologist,
California State Department of Agriculture, Sacramento, California, for identi-
fication. When we received the determination of erinose mite, Aceria litchii
(Keifer), in November, 1955, from Dr. Keifer, the mite was not considered an
economic pest, but only a new record for the State. We were not aware of Dr.
T. Nishida and Dr. F. G. Holdaway's publication on "The Erinose Mite of
Lychee," Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station Circular No. 48, dated Oc-
tober, 1955. This publication was secured and reviewed. It goes into con-
LYCHEE LEAVES INFESTED WITH ERINOSE MITE
1. Deformed upper surface.
2. Lower surface showing felt-like growth.
siderable detail on the damage caused to lychee trees by this mite.
In 1953, several lychee plants were imported from Hawaii by Dr. Henry
and set out in his grove at Nokomis. It is possible one of the plants was carrying
erinose mite, and the infestation now established in Florida is the result of this
Corrective measures have been arranged with quarantine officials of the
USDA Plant Quarantine Division in Washington on importation of lychee propa-
gative material from Hawaii; the plant material will be fumigated prior to ship-
ment from Hawaii.
During the past two years the State Plant Board has not found erinose
mite in any other lychee planting in Florida. At the 1955 annual meeting of
the Lychee Growers Association held in Winter Haven, Mr. G. W. Dekle, En-
tomologist, State Plant Board, who is responsible for the lychee insect survey
in the State, exhibited material and showed color slides illustrating the damage
to foliage. Up to this time the mite has not been reported by any of the growers
who were present at the meeting and are presumably now familiar with its
Numerous sprays have been applied to the infested trees in the grove by
the owner and by the State Plant Board during the past two years. Parathion
plus Ovotran was used by the grower, while Kelthane was later applied by the
State Plant Board under the supervision of Mr. C. J. Bickner, district plant in-
spector. The miticide Kelthane emulsifiable concentrate, at the rate of two
pints to 100 gallons of water, was applied at approximately 25 gallons of spray
to each infested tree and to the surrounding trees. Three applications were
made at approximately two-week intervals. An inspection of the grove in Octo-
ber revealed infested trees.
On discussing the problem with members of the staff, the following plans
have been proposed: An intensive survey will be made of all lychee plantings
in the State for erinose mite before eradication is attempted. Such a survey is
planned in the area near the known infestation. The regional plant inspectors
are being used for this survey so that they may get the necessary training to
enable them to direct the survey of lychee plantings in their own regions later.
The survey will begin early in December, 1957.
1. Nishida, T., and F. G. Holdaway. 1955. The Erinose Mite of Lychee. Hawaii Agr. Exp. Stat.
2. Dekle, G. W. 1955. Insects on Lychees During the Past Year. Florida Lychee Growers Associa-
tion Yearbook, p. 29.
Lychee Freezing Experiments
C. W. DuBOIS
Minute Maid Corp.
Last summer, General Rice and Colonel Grove, in the interests of the
Florida Lvchee Growers' Association, were looking ahead toward expanding the
market for expected increased production of Florida Lychees. You already
know it, but it is worthy of emphasizing again here that the Lychee fruit market
now consists solely of a fresh fruit market lasting 3 to 4 weeks in the season.
Your marketing committee coordinating their efforts for finding the means
of expanding the Lychee fruit market was enlisting the aid of qualified agencies
to carry out specific phases of a broad program. It is understood that an ac-
knowledged preserve-maker has undertaken to determine how the use of Lychee
fruits may be extended for use in preserves and jellies. The University of Florida
has been investigating the best methods for dehydrating Lychees, and other
groups have been investigating the canning toward a coordinated effort in mar-
keting of Lychees through the processed fruit medium.
Your committee, aware that Minute Maid was in the business of packing
and selling, among other products, frozen fruits, come to us to enlist our help in
making some test and demonstrational packs of frozen Lychee fruits. A survey
of the literature shows that the University of Miami has done a considerable
amount of work on the Lychee. Stahl reported the average composition of
Lychee fruits to be:
Fruit Portion Per Cent
Seed .......-- ---- ---- .. 15.9
Shell -----------..----------- ------- 9.6
Edible Portion .........-------- ------- 74.5
Moisture -- ------ 78.2
Acid .. .. ........... -- ---_1.2
Sugar ------------------- ---- --- 13.57
Mustard and Stahl in 1948 reported that unpeeled, fresh picked fruits packed
in moisture vapor proof, dry-frozen stored well for two years. Quick Frozen
Foods in 1948 reported that Lindner and Storey working in Hawaii had shown
that peeled, deseeded Lychee fruits packed in syrup were good in quality but
were more difficult to process and were less attractive than unpeeled dry packed
fruit. Their lack of attractiveness is due to the fact that the flesh of the Lychee
fruit is so colorless. Dennison and Hall at last year's Lychee Growers' Associa-
tion meeting, recommended the freezing by dry packing fresh picked whole
fruit in vapor tight containers. They reported that quick freezing caused less
liquid loss from fruits upon defrosting than slow frozen ones.
The writer has never worked with Lychee fruits before, but has had ex-
tensive experience with the freezing of citrus sections and the wide variety of
northern fruits such as strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, cherries, peaches,
and the like.
When freezing most fruits it is desirable to make them ready for the table.
For instance, cherries are pitted; strawberries are stemmed; peaches are peeled,
pitted, halved, or sliced; apples are peeled and sliced; and citrus fruits are
peeled and sectioned. In most instances these products are either mixed with
dry sugar or covered with a heavy sugar syrup to preserve their flavor and gen-
eral quality during storage. Blueberries are about the only fruit that is satisfac-
torily preserved by freezing in dry packs.
The package or container in which a product is frozen and stored is ex-
tremely important, contributing much toward the retention of the quality during
storage. The primary purpose of the container is to protect the contents by
preventing the absorption of foreign flavor from the storage room, dehydration
or drying of the contents that occurs unless the container is moisture vapor proof.
It is also desirable that the package be attractive in design, shape, label, and be
convenient to store, handle, and open.
Several packs were made using tin cans and the moisture vapor proof bags
in the carton dry packing unpeeled fruit, dry packing peeled fruit, and syrup
packing peeled and seeded fruit.
The dry packing of fruit was simple and easily done. The fresh picked
fruit was packed in cans and in moisture proof envelopes which then were sealed
and quick frozen. The peeling of the fruit was accomplished by breaking the
skin and stripping off the leather like covering. It may be of interest that the
juice of the fruit itself will not stain the hands or clothing if accidentally spilled,
but contact of the peeling or liquid from the peels will badly stain hands or
clothing. The peeled fruit was packed dry and also in syrup. Observations as
the effect of the presence of the seed in the frozen fruit on flavor, have shown no
indications of any ill effects such as bitterness. The preparations of Lychee
fruits by removing the seed, although preparing the fruit for immediate use, is
not so simple a matter. It is not easy to remove the seeds as the flesh adheres
tightly around the stem area. As a matter of interest, have you ever examined a
peeled Lychee carefully? The flesh adheres to the seed at the stem end, but at
the apex there is a suture or break so that one layer of fleshy portion folds or
Frozen Lychee fruit packed by various methods are exhibited by the demon-
stration table as follows:
1. Fresh picked whole unpeeled fruits were packed dry in Cellophane-
Polyethylene laminated envelopes; heat sealed; placed in square cor-
nered cartons; quick frozen.
2. Fresh picked whole unpeeled fruit packed dry 9 fruits per tin can.
3. Fresh picked peeled fruit with seeds packed dry in tin cans.
4. Fresh picked peeled fruit with seeds packed in plain tin cans 2 ounces
50% sucrose syrup; 10 ounces of fruit (by weight).
5. Fresh picked deseeded fruit packed dry in tin cans.
6. Fresh picked deseeded fruit packed 1 ounce syrup to 10 ounces fruit in
7. Fresh picked peeled fruit with seeds packed dry in Cellophane-Poly-
Generally it is not safe to draw conclusions on frozen products storage for
but five months at 0' F. However, there is no question but that some appearance
is lost with the whole unpeeled dry packed fruits.
1. Stahl, A. L. The composition of numerous tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc., 48, 159-166, (1935).
2. Dennison, R. A., and Hall, C. B. The freezing of Lychee fruits. 1956 Yearbook and Proceedings,
4th Ann. Meeting.
3. Mustard, M. J., and Stahl, A. L. The freezing of some tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. 1748, 0275.
4. Anonymous. Experiments in freezing tropical fruits. Quick Frozen Foods, 7, 52-53. (July, 1945).
The Department of Fruit Crops' Place in Research
By JOHN W. SITES'
Shortly after July 1, 1956, the former Department of Horticulture at the
University of Florida was subdivided into four separate departments, each of
which is to serve major agricultural industries of the state. The departments
thus formed were "Food Technology and Nutrition," "Ornamental Horticulture,"
"Vegetable Crops," and "Fruit Crops." A few of the personnel were also trans-
ferred to a newly organized research group in the Department of Botany.
These newly formed departments were charged with the responsibility of
organizing and developing the teaching, extension, and research programs in
their respective areas. This paper will deal with a discussion of the organization
of the research program and some of the research problems which will be under-
taken by the Department of Fruit Crops.
SHorticulturist and Head Department of Fruit Crops, University of Florida.
How RESEARCH WILL BE DONE
Research will be undertaken by two groups of individuals; graduate stu-
dents, at both master of science and doctorate levels and by permanent research
Staff members. The handling of graduate students has now been set up so that
depending upon the nature of the problem and the supervision and facilities re-
quired, the work may be done either at the "Main Station" at Gainesville or at
one of the Branch Stations in the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Sys-
tem. Full time members of the research Staff may serve on the student's super-
visory committee or may act as chairman or co-chairman, if the student is to
work directly under their supervision. Research people acting in this capacity
must be members of the Graduate Staff of the University. Such an arrangement
provides the Department with one of the finest graduate staffs available any-
where. Further, the University may thus provide graduate students to conduct
basic research in areas of particular interest to Experiment Station personnel.
This type of work will all be done on a cooperative basis between the Depart-
ment of Fruit Crops and the Branch Stations involved. Such an arrangement
provides for a closer working relationship between the College and the Experi-
ment Station and a more closely coordinated research program.
In addition to the research program involving graduate students, the Depart-
ment is also developing a research program around a permanent Staff, but in
areas not now covered by work in progress at the Branch Stations. In general,
this work will be in the fields of plant breeding, plant biochemistry, and meteorol-
ogy as related to plant behavior.
KIND OF RESEARCH IN PROGRESS
The nature of the research which is presently underway may be classified
into short and long-term projects. Short-term projects are those in which the
problem or at least certain specific facets of the problem may be expected to be
completed within one to five years. Presently, we are working on the following
specific problems which would be placed in this category: (1) Effect of levels
of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium on growth and leaf composition of Litchi
chinensis in sand culture; (2) Tolerance of citrus rootstocks to free water in
soils; (3) Preconditioning of plants in relation to cold tolerance; (4) A study
of possible methods of frost protection under Florida conditions.
Other lines of work, because of their indefinite nature, are classified as long-
term projects. Of major importance in this category is research concerned with
the development of suitable varieties of fruits upon which a fruit industry for
north and west Florida may be developed. The rather large geographical area
which extends north from the northern boundary of the citrus belt to the southern
boundary of the Georgia peach belt presently has no commercial fruit industry
of any consequence. Although most of this area is too cold for citrus, it is not
cold enough to satisfy the chilling requirements of most northern fruit varieties.
We are presently engaged in a breeding program to produce fruits with low
chilling requirements, but of sufficiently high quality to compete satisfactorily
on a competitive market. For example, there is a strong market for early
peaches of good quality and suitable varieties could form the basis for a rather
large new industry in parts of the north and west Florida area. From this work
there will undoubtedly also be developed varieties adapted to central and per-
haps southern Florida. Such varieties could be used for interplanting of young
citrus and other fruit plantings to increase the income during the early life of the
orchard. Emphasis is presently being placed on peaches, blueberries, grapes and
the brambles. Although emphasis is being placed on developing varieties useable
for interstate shipment, it is recognized that there may be very satisfactory local
markets developed for many of these fruits and selections will be made with both
outlets in mind. The Florida fruit industry needs greater diversification as a
safeguard against severe freeze losses such as Texas recently experienced. It is
hoped that from this program varieties may be developed to satisfy this need.
Also in the category of long-term research problems is work being under-
taken to try to unveil some of the mysteries of dormancy and chilling require-
ments of plants and a better understanding of the biochemistry and other factors
related to hardiness. Answers to these problems would be of tremendous benefit
to plant research workers, but the problems are complex and their solutions will
most certainly be difficult.
The above is a brief statement of the type organization, the method of ap-
proach and the kinds of research which the Department of Fruit Crops of the
University of Florida has initiated following its recent organization.
Twig Borer Injury In the Lychee
F. GRAY BUTCHER
Division of Research and Industry, University of Miami
Coral Gables, Florida
About the middle of June, 1957, several twig terminals of young lychee
trees in pot culture in our greenhouse suddenly died. Close examination revealed
a larval borer within the twig, with the typical sawdust-like frass pushed out of
the burrow through a small hole in the side of the twig. It was soon found that
initial injury could be recognized before twig terminal death by observing the
first out-pushings of this frass. The illustration (Fig. I) shows typical injury.
These larval borers attacked only the succulent new terminal growth, caus-
ing its death for a distance of a few inches back from the tip. These dead twigs
would soon drop from the tree, and frequently new bunched terminals would
develop below the injured area.
In the small trees in pot culture, infestations developed in relatively few of
the twigs, but the infestation persisted thru-out the summer and fall into mid-
October. During July, the infestation became established in our lychee nursery
area, and soon approximately 10 percent of the terminals were injured. At that
time, a malathion spray was applied and quickly reduced the infestation to a
non-economic level. Numerous dead larvae were found the next day after
spraying. A few infested terminals were found during the late summer in our
field plantings, but this field infestation did not become severe enough to require
Infested twigs were taken into the laboratory, and larvae from them soon
pupated and then emerged seven days later as adult moths. First adults were
obtained on July 16, and were later identified as Proteoteras implicate Hein. by
Dr. J. F. Gates Clark of the U. S. National Museum. This is a representative
of the large lepidopterous family Olethreutidae, containing numerous plant-
injurious species, many of which are stem- and stalk-borers. This species has
not previously been reported as an injurious form, and appears to be known only
from its original description, made in 1924 from specimens collected in "Ever-
Fig. 1. Typical injury to terminal by the twig borer.
glades, Florida," and taken from "bush ash" (1). Several other species of this
genus are known as injurious twig borers, especially Proteoteras willingana
(Kearf.), which is known under the common name of "boxelder twig borer."
Other species are recorded from maple, buckeye and horsechestnut, boring in
the seeds, stems and terminal twigs (2).
The full grown larva of this twig borer is approximately 2' inch long, reddish
in color with a green tinge, and has a distinct reddish-brown head capsule. The
adult moths are inconspicuous olive-green in color, mottled with grey and darker
markings, approximately % inch long and less than 3 inch wide when at rest. We
have not been able to observe the adult moths in nature, and know them only
from specimens reared in the laboratory.
This insect would appear to have a possibility of being a pest of some im-
portance in lychee nursery stock. Heavy infestations can cause rather serious
injury to the total plant growth, and may give rise to undesired branching of
the young tree stock. Additional observations, however, are required to properly
evaluate its importance. Other host plants for this borer in our area are un-
known, but will doubtless be of considerable significance in determining its pest
Heinrich, C. North American Ecosminae, notes and new species. Jour. Washington Acad. Sci.
14: 385-393. 1924.
Craighead, F. C. Insect Enemies of Eastern Forests. U. S. Dept. Agric. Misc. Pub. 657: 1-679. 1950.
Marketing Lychees In the New York Area
New York City
In considering the Lychee market today, one must do so at the luxury level
of marketing. From my own limited experience of one season, I should like to
discuss, particularly, marketing of Lychee among the Chinese population.
In the metropolitan New York area the Chinese community numbers be-
tween thirty to fifty thousand people. Within the six block area known as China-
town, is located the economic and social nerve center of all Chinese East of
Chicago, ranging in the north from Canada, southward to the South American
regions. Where this area normally houses a population of 5,000, on any given
weekend, thirty thousand people roam its district. On the whole, aside from
the tourists, this group represents a Chinese buying element, in town, to stock up
Chinese foodstuffs for the week. At the same time by visiting various stores,
which cater particularly to the family group of the buyer, the buyer could obtain
the latest communications of the home village.
Nowhere in the East is there such a concentration of Chinese foodstuffs as
is located in New York's Chinatown. These foods would include the imported
Chinese sauces and condiments, Chinese fresh vegetables, and all those extra
items so dear to the Chinese palate. Further, the finest of the more common
fruits, as well as the more exotic, are accepted as the usual offering. Little won-
der, that the advent of a true China product, the Lychee, grown in this country,
and produced fresh, would insinuate itself into this market readily.
Previously, when the Lychee made its first appearance on the Chinese mar-
ket, sales were offered through one outlet alone. The fact that a large quantity
was sold attested to the fame of the fruit iself. However, as the season progressed,
and the harvest increased, the frantic sales effort that followed, including drastic
price reduction, indicated a failure to allow for increased productions. This,
together with a failure to distribute on a broader scale, resulted in a dissatisfied
market and an equally disgruntled group of outlets. Inasmuch as 1957 repre-
sented our firm's initial venture into a fresh fruit market, we secured as many
outlets as possible and oversubscribed purchase contracts before shipment. The
shortness of crop for the year made fulfillment of any one contract impossible.
However, what we were more interested in was to regain the confidence of the
market. As each shipment arrived our outlets were informed of the total quan-
tity available. Each outlet then was informed of its allotment. Any dissatisfac-
tion expressed at first, over the quantity allowed, was dispelled by the explana-
tion, that in prior years, thev had never been treated on an equal distribution
basis. Further, as Col. Grove was able to inform us more completely of each
day's harvest, we were able to schedule shipments to coincide with the busiest
sales period of each outlet.
Our outlets are divided into three categories:
1. Supermarket a counterpart to the American Supermarket with the ad-
ditional line of Chinese condiments, dried and canned foods and fresh Chinese
2. Wholesale and retail grocery stores a combination Chinese delicatessen
store, and wagon jobber operation, catering to and delivering to, Chinese families
3. Import houses dealing in fancv Chinese foods and herbs, and mainly
with out-of-town trade in and out of the country.
Threading throughout the commercial fabric of Chinatown's economy are
the family ties, a carry over from the China villages. Each store in Chinatown
zines. These publications are mailed to the smallest hamlets, wherever a Chinese
is practically a venture of one or more family groups, whose origin is from a
particular locale of a China province. These stores in turn are the bases of oper-
ation for most of the out-of-town Chinese establishments. In many cases the
financial and credit assistance would be the main binding agent, and in almost
all cases the New York stores supply the essential communications link to news
from the home country. One can easily see that this communications system pro-
vides the best system of word of mouth advertising as well. Augmenting the
verbal advertising are the journalistic organs Chinese newspapers and maga-
venture of any kind is located. It is a known fact that Chinese are avid and
prolific readers. The smallest articles are scanned, as witness our own small
advertisement on lychees in one of the major Chinese publications. This small
ad elicited inquiries from Mississippi, Denver and Ohio.
One can only assume that the New York area, among Chinese, cannot be
limited to a 50 mile radius, but because of the peculiar nature of the people itself,
would encompass an area of 300 miles.
Let us consider the Chinese community outside of New York. The largest
concentration in the East would then center about Philadelphia and Boston. Con-
ceding a large factor for error, the Chinese population of either city would not
approach five thousand.
On examining a "Chinatown" of a smaller city one would find that as a
rule the Chinese locate in an area not much more than the length of one city
street. Therefore, one can safely assume that each city cannot truly support a
distributor of its own from a population point. Secondly, because of the nature
of the fruit, requiring air freight for the best transportation, it would be an im-
possibility to service directly to these small Chinese areas. Thus, it becomes
necessary to look to those firms which specialize in direct shipments to these
It is my belief that to reach all these potential consumers, albeit on a small
scale, the best channels are situated right in New York's Chinatown. Where the
wagons of these stores cannot reach the destination, then and only then, would
one resort to the mail order.
The mail order, as I see it, presents certain difficulties which are hard to
surmount. From the source there must be a period of storage in a climate which
is conducive to quick maturity and furtherance of the ripening. Secondly, at the
point of receiving the shipment, there must be a further period of storage, await-
ing trans-shipment. These factors, combined with the mailing time, would lend
itself readily to spoilage of the shipment.
At the initial period of harvesting the Lychee may not present the problems
as aforementioned. However, in my daily reports of shipments to New York, I
believe I had pointed out, that with the maturing, there was less ability of the
fruit to withstand the rigors of shipment. The height of the harvest would then
become the most critical point. All this without consideration of the fact that
the later the season, the warmer the weather.
What I should like to recommend in our quest of a broadened market is an
experiment for one season, using New York as a springboard for all shipments
on the East Coast. The extent of the experiment will of course, as in the past,
depend on the crop. Generally speaking, it is my intention to solicit the three
hundred mile area as direct agent of the Association. Any old customers of the
Association would also be approached from New York, but will be respected as
the direct customer of the Association. The reason for this approach is to present
our sales campaign as a unified plan, without confusion of overlapping.
It is obvious that in the last ten years the Lychee groves of Florida have
outgrown the toddlers stage, and are well into the adolescent stage of growth as
an industry. The next step to full grown maturity is usually a quick one, and
the Association must be ready to assume its mantle as the newest member of
Florida's growing new industries.
At this point I should like to briefly touch on the American market, Ameri-
can, in the sense, to distinguish from the Chinatown areas. Despite the fifty
years of the Lychee existence in this country, and despite the intensified cam-
paign of the last ten years, the American market is woefully ignorant about the
fresh Lychees. To reach this market would call for an all out drive, first to edu-
cate before selling. It would call for publicity before advertising. Publicity
highlighting the differences between the dried fruit, as known popularly by all,
and the fresh fruit, which is the newest form to hit the market. It is not enough
that the American market know of the fresh Lychee, it must know how to eat it,
and how to use it as a food. At this early stage I can only suggest that printed
drawings, showing the easy manner in which the shell may be peeled, and then,
the proper manner of eating the meat, while fully cognizant of the pit embedded
In one way, some form of publicity had been obtained through the good
offices of the New York Times. While the publicity had aided in publicizing the
fruit, I had been handicapped in publicizing the Association because of lack of
material concerning the Association. It is my firm belief that in order to obtain
national coverage, it is necessary to project the Association as an entity, and all
benefits deriving therefrom would necessarily fall upon the members and dis-
tributors involved. I should also like to point out that we should not wait until
the crops of Lychee had reached such proportions that it is plentiful for the na-
tion's consumers. It is an old axiom no product has ever suffered where the
demand is greater than the supply, as long as the publicity is there to constantly
make the public aware that the Lychee will be available year after year.
Gentlemen, I can only foresee with confidence the future that awaits the
Lychee industry. From the actual attractions of the Lychee as a fresh fruit,
which has consistently proven itself, there are markets awaiting the other forms
of Lychee to name a few a Lychee nectar, jellies and the frozen Lychee.
Notes On Drying of Lychees
R. A. DENNISON and C. B. HALL
Agricultural Experiment Station
Department of Food Technology and Nutrition
Interest has been shown in the drying of lychees as a possible means of
lengthening the marketing season of lychees and as a means of preservation of
the excess amounts obtained during the short production season. Studies were
initiated to determine the drying characteristics of Florida lychees. Lychees
obtained June 20, from Mrs. D. V. Porter were used for dehydration.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Six lots of three fruits each were dried in a forced draft oven at 700C.
(158"F.) until there was no further change in weight in order to determine the
moisture content of the fruits.
The remaining fruits were divided into three lots for drying at 135, 150 and
1650F. From each lot of fruit, 18 samples of 22 fruits each were selected,
weighed and placed in the dryer (443-A Stewart Warner Dehydrator). Two
TABLE I. Percent moisture (weight loss) and dry weight of lychees dried to constant weight
at 700C. (1580F.)
Sample No. Percent Moisture Percent Dry Weight
1 69.6 30.4
2 67.4 32.6
3 68.1 31.9
4 66.1 33.9
5 71.5 28.5
6 65.8 34.2
Mean 68.1 31.9
TABLE 2. Percent weight loss (moisture) of lychee fruits dried for periods of one to 24 hours
at 135, 150 and 1650F.
Drying Temperature (F.)
Drying 1350 1500 1650
1 5.2 7.3 8.9
2 8.3 12.9 15.1
4 16.1 21.3 26.7
6 21.5 29.0 34.9
8 26.2 36.6 42.0
10 31.7 40.6 47.6
12 34.4 46.0 50.8
17 42.2 55.0 58.7
24 49.7 62.2 66.1
TABLE 3. Presence (+) or absence (-) of mold growth on dried lychee fruits. July 2, 1957.
Not Treated with DHA Treated with 1% DHA
Drying 1350F. 1500F. 1650F. 1500F. 1350F. 1650F.
1 + + + + + +
2 + + + + + +
4 + + + + +
6 + + + -
8 + + +
10 + +
12 + +
TABLE 4. Presence (+) or absence (-) of mold growth on dried lychee fruits. July 16, 1957.
Not Treated with DHA Treated with 1% DHA
Drying 1350F. 1500F. 1650F. 1350F. 1500F. 1650F.
1 + + + + + +
2 + + + + + +
4 + + + + + +
6 + + + + + +
8 + + + + + +
10 + + + + +
12 + -
17 + +- -
samples were removed after each of the following periods of drying: 1, 2, 4, 6,
8, 10, 12, 17 and 24 hours. Since only one dryer was available the experimental
lots were run on consecutive days with the temperature 150F. the first day,
135F. the second and 1650F. the third.
The fruits were cooled and weighed after removal from the dryer. Six fruits
from each sample were removed after weighing and dipped for one minute in a
one percent sodium salt solution of dehydroacetic acid. These dipped fruits
were returned to the dryer for a few minutes until the surface moisture was re-
The fruits were placed in kraft bags and stored at room temperature. No
attempt was made to control the humidity.
The fruits were found to contain an average of 68.1 percent moisture and
31.9 percent dry weight (Table 1) when dried to constant weight at 158F.
Fruits dried at 165"F. lost moisture faster than when dried at 1500F. or
135F. (Table 2). Drying was faster at 150F. than at 1350F.
After being stored for one week, examination showed that there was con-
siderably less mold growth on fruits treated with dehydroacetic acid (DHA) than
on those not treated (Table 3). Untreated fruits showed mold growth if the
weight loss was less than about 50 percent whereas treated fruits showed mold
growth where the weight loss was less than about 25 percent.
The effect of the DHA was still apparent after three weeks of storage but
mold growth had occurred on treated fruits that had lost less than 45 percent in
weight during drying at 150 and 165 F. and less than 35 percent at 1350F.
Examination at the end of four months (October 23) showed the same
amount of spoilage for the DHA treated samples as at the end of three weeks but
the untreated samples showed complete spoilage.
Since the humidity was not controlled during storage, it is possible that the
dried fruits absorbed moisture causing spoilage in the lots which were quite dry
at the beginning of the storage period.
The fruits which had the higher moisture content without any mold develop-
ment had a superior flavor over the fruits which had a lower moisture content.
Fruits dried to a constant weight at 70C. (1580F.) were found to contain
an average of 68.1 percent moisture and 31.9 percent dry weight.
The rate of drying of lychee fruits was slowest at 135F., intermediate at
150'F. and highest at 165F. After drying for 24 hours, fruits had lost 49.7,
62.2 and 66.1 percent moisture at drying temperatures of 135, 150 and 1650F.,
Fruits dipped in a one percent solution of dehvdroacetic acid after drying
showed less mold growth than untreated fruits.
Suggested Methods for Top-Working Lychee Trees
ROY O. NELSON
Division of Research and Industry, University of Miami
Coral Gables, Florida
The procedures for replacing the top portion or bearing portion of a fruit
tree with a different variety can be accomplished by numerous techniques of
Fig. 1. Veneer graft, showing scion fitted to stock
that the lateral bud on the scion is left near the top.
and ready to be wrapped. Note
graftage. The task can be a fairly simple one in most instances, but the size and
tree conformation of the stock to be worked can make it a lengthy and laborious
operation. This discussion will limit the suggestions to a few basic operations
applicable particularly to the veneer and cleft graft when grafting stems 3" to
The term top-working usually is applied to the task of changing the variety
of the top of an older tree rather than the nursery practice of grafting younger
rootstocks. Both replace the existing "top" with a desired variety.
The most reliable method for preparing the tree for top-working is to prune
off or dehornn" the existing top at a convenient height for future good tree con-
formation and allow several new shoots to develop for grafting. An important
thing to remember when dehorning is to allow as short a period as possible of
defoliation, otherwise too great a shock will occur to the other parts of the tree.
If the tree to be topworked has several branches which are at a desirable height
from the ground for good tree conformation, dehorn all but one branch, leaving
it to carry on the life processes to at least a partial extent. When new shoots
begin to sprout on the stubs of the dehorned branches, the one remaining may
then be removed. The more dormant season is usually considered the best time
for dehoring the tree. It is advisable to white-wash the tree immediately after
dehorning to prevent sunburn. The following formula can be used, lime 5 lbs.,
zinc sulfate %3 lb., with water added in enough quantity to form a workable
Trees which have a single trunk for several feet from ground to branch
spread are at somewhat of a disadvantage in converting to a new top. First of
all, more of the old top must be removed if lower branch spread is to be accom-
plished. This means that the entire top must be removed and in some instances
the tree may die from this shock. However, in most cases sprouts will arise from
dormant buds on the main trunk.
Some procedures should be mentioned which may be useful in helping
arouse dormant sprouts on the stubs of the dehorned trunk or branch stubs. The
cut surfaces should be coated with either a tree wound compound or a warm
50-50 beeswax paraffin mixture. It is not proven as yet but it might be advisable
to place a small collar of paper around the stub as is done when cleft-grafting
large stems, and then fill a small amount of damp peat or sphagnum moss over
the branch or main trunk stub, whichever is the case. This tends to stimulate
callus formation for healing over the cut area and by preventing the tissues near
the cut from drying out, the dormant buds near the cut will spring. This is ad-
vantageous as branching close to the cut will give a neater looking top-worked
tree and a well-healed wound. When the sprouts have reached pencil size
diameter grafting can be attempted.
METHODS OF GRAFTING
Veneer Graft: Select a scion from a terminal stem, with the buds in the leaf
axils swollen, but not too far advanced. The buds break off easily when handled
in this advanced sprouting stage, and they should be handled carefully. The
stems containing the scions should be from vigorous growths of as large a
diameter as possible. The stem color should be grey-green or that is, just past
the green stage, still retaining prominent lenticels. The trees from which bud-
wood is to be selected can be conditioned to provide better graftwood by hedg-
ing, thus bringing out flushes of new, larger diameter stems. This practice will
have to be timed so as to provide these scions when graftage conditions are opti-
mum as to weather and condition of trees to be top-worked. The period consid-
ered best for attempting graftage is April through August. The veneer graft
using a particular type of scion is illustrated by Fig. 1. Wrapping of the scion is
done with a strip of 3' gage vinyl film and care is taken to wrag snugly and also
to provide a very small space through which the bud may emerge Fig. 2. This
will allow leaving the wrap in place for a longer period than is usually the prac-
tice in graftage. The wrap may be left on for 6 to 8 weeks without any harm
to the stock or scion.
The springing of the bud of the scion should not be attempted as early as is
done in citrus but instead allow 4 to 6 weeks time for good union to take place
between scion and stock, and then lop the stock over as is done in forcing citrus
buds. Subsequent handling of the bud growth will have to be cared for by con-
ventional methods of staking, tying, and shaping of the new top. It is a good
Fig. II. Veneer graft showing scion with plastic film strip. Note that an opening has
been left near the top of wrap for the bud to emerge through.
practice to pinch back the new top periodically when large trees have been top-
worked. Growth is so rapid on these stocks that the new top is unable to mature
quickly enough to support the frequent growth flushes.
Cleft Graft: The cleft graft can be used to advantage many times. When
using this method, select a scion of diameter size which is most practical for the
diameter of the stem to be grafted. It should contain a ring of buds which ap-
pear where the preceding growth cycle ended and a new one started. This ring
of more or less dormant buds is known as the terminal bud scar and by using a
scion with these numerous buds, it is assured that at least one bud will spring.
The cut on the branch of the stock to be grafted is completely cut off a few
inches from the point where it emerges from the trunk and then a downward cut
is made through the center making an opening several inches long. The scion is
then trimmed to a wedge like shape and is fitted into this cut. It is wrapped se-
curely and covered with a plastic bag or by a collar of paper containing dampened
moss. If a plastic cover or bag is placed over the graft some method of shading
should be provided, otherwise severe heat storage occurs under the plastic. It is
a good practice also to make several slits or small holes in the plastic cover to
allow for heat to dissipate.
It should be mentioned that chip budding and shield budding are also suc-
cessful methods for graftage of lychee. Any method successfully used is greatly
dependent on the knowledge and skill of the propagator and the condition of the
scion and stem to be grafted. The main difficulty in getting a lychee grafted at
this time is due to the fact that very few experienced propagators have attempted
it, either from the lack of opportunity, or no real need until now has been indi-
cated. A greater familiarity with the growth habits of the varieties to be worked
with is needed. Very little is known about rootstocks. The degree of compati-
bility between the graft and rootstocks of the various varieties will not be known
for several years.
Lychee Marketing Highlights 1957
WM. R. GROVE, JR.
The 1957 fresh lychee crop, marketed through our association, was only
14,549 pounds, far below normal expectancy. The reasons for this small crop
were probably the relatively warm winter of 1956-57 and the dry spring follow-
ing. Since it was apparent a couple of months before the season that the crop
would be small marketing plans were necessarily curtailed. At the same time
research was conducted in many new fields to find uses for the lychee in other
than the fresh form.
This research was prompted by a marketing study undertaken by the New
York consultant services of Lohman-Cones. Experiments were made in drying,
deep-freezing in various forms, canning, preserving, and use as a candy in-
The fresh fruit in 1957 came from 20 growers whereas in 1956 the fruit was
supplied by 25 growers. The fruit came from counties as follows:
County Lbs. Per Cent
Brevard __- - - - 860 6
Dade --- 895 6
Highlands -- -- - -2,182 15
Hillsborough _- --- -- 100 1
Lake ---- 540 4
Manatee ------ 675 5
Pinellas -- -- -- 330 2
Polk -- ------ 380 2
Sarasota ----- 8,232 57
Seminole ____ _________ __ 355 2
TOTALS 1------- 4,549 100
/ 1-7 L YC1E6
3,d o PoaIWOr
6 'Y-dY- 64
2,ra7o <-rVA I(44yr j fowO/ 6&y
13 , r *
/0 7 /0 /_ t
- E --- --~~4ty
Fresh lychees were distributed as follows:
D. C. ..__----- -
Illinois ---. ____
New York _.__.
Oregon .____.. __..
.-.. -- --..... 45
---..----. ..- .... -- 1,210
---.-- .... 240
.-- ----. 730
---. ---. 200
--..--- ... 30
----- -.... 130
-- ----.. 570
Rhode Island --
South Carolina ---.......
Texas .. .. ......_ ....
Virginia .---.-.-...__._____.. ..... .___
W yoming --------_._------- ..
Canada Ontario --
Canada British Columbia-
Canada Alberta -----..----
American Can ---
JacQuemoux Candy ----
Minute Maid ----
Rath Packing ________
Univ. Fla. - - - -
The flow of lychees on a day-to-day basis is shown in Fig. 1. (Note that
88% of the crop moved in the 11 day period from June 10 to June 20).
As in 1956 one staff member was employed as marketing agent for the
association. For the New York metropolitan area Mr. Peter Lee, New York City,
functioned as marketing agent in a most satisfactory manner.
Marketing procedures and packaging materials were similar to those em-
ployed in 1956. Advertisements in Telefoods magazine, the journal for the
quality foods trade, and new point-of-purchase display banners were innovations.
After the season comments were solicited from growers and buyers. The
significant point raised by the buyers was general dissatisfaction with the plastic
bag used the past two seasons for one-half pound of fruit.
The supply of fresh lychees was away below the demand. Efforts were
made to secure new customers, mostly as the result of the Telefoods ads. As a
result we served 102 customers, excluding the New York area. Forty-four of
these customers were influenced by the Telefoods ads.
The 1957 crop was of small quantity and the season was of very short
Lychee Processing Experiment
GEORGE B. MACFIE, JR.
University of Miami
Lychee fruits obtained from University of Miami Experimental Farm were
used primarily for testing of canning and/or processing methods. Secondarily a
check on methods of drying were considered and tests made to explore the pos-
sibilities of drying on a small scale by the individual grower.
The generally accepted range of time and temperature seems to center
around 150F for about 42 hours. Of course this will vary with local conditions
such as size and internal ratio of flesh to seed of the fruit, relative humidity, and
the efficiency of the individual dryer itself. One drying test was run using a
glass dessicator, water aspirator, and three infra-red heat lamps. A vacuum of
22 inches of mercury was drawn and with the aspirator in constant operation, the
vacuum was either maintained or slightly increased as the experiment proceeded.
Fruit was placed in the dessicator in a single layer on the porcelain rack. The
lamps were evenly spaced around the dessicator shining at about a 450 angle to
the fruit with the lamp itself some 8 inches from the rim of the cover. At the
same time a drying test was begun in the forced air dehydrator. Both tests were
observed for a period of 20-24 hours. After the last observation the dessicator
collapsed either from external pressure or heat caused by the lamps. However
during the observations, no particular advantage of the vacuum could be ob-
served. One objection to the infra-red type heat is that without constant agita-
tion, the fruit is heated unevenly.
Drying tests were run at about 1900F for 24 and 36 hours. At the end of
24 hours the fruit had a caramelized taste, but were not sufficiently dry for ex-
tended storage. After 36 hours, the fruit was scarcely edible.
In the past, the major thoughts of preservation were concerned with the
process of freezing. Next in line would be the process of simple canning. While
the lychee adapts itself to this method very readily, the end result is not particu-
larly appetizing, and in a very simple acceptance test on the South Campus was
not accepted with any degree of enthusiasm. The process used was merely peel-
ing and placing in simple syrup with a fraction of citric acid and autoclaving.
Two samples were prepared, with and without seed to check on development of
off flavors due to presence of the seed. No general acceptance test has been
made on this point.
It is conceivable that lychees might be best presented to the public in the
form of some specialty food, which allows a wide range of coloring and additives
as well as bringing, in most cases, a better price for the same amount of fruit. Of
course it should be borne in mind that these additives, etc., generally make a less
stable product since most dyes are subject to fading or change, and there is
usually quite a change or transfer of flavor on extended storage. One such
product was made and tested. The formulae and conclusions are as follows:
BRANDIED (RUM) LYCHEES
4 Ibs. peeled fruit
li2 cups water
6 cups sugar
Combine sugar and water. Stir until dissolved. Boil for 5 minutes.
Put fruit into hot syrup and simmer for 10 minutes.
Lift out fruit and drain well. Boil syrup for about 10 minutes, pour over
fruit and let cool.
Lift fruit out of syrup with perforated spoon and place in hot, sterile jars.
Add syrup to half volume of jar. Add equal amount of either rum or
brandy. Close jar.
The fruit used in the test were colored with standard food dyes. In one lot, the
fruit was soaked over night in a solution of sugar (about 15%) and dye. In an-
other lot, the dye was added to the syrup. After some 5 months storage, the
color of the second lot has almost faded out. In some of the jars, a large portion
of the liquid has disappeared, although the jars are still tightly sealed. This has
occurred in both lots of samples, and might be due to either absorption by the
fruit, or faulty seals on the jars.
Generally speaking, successful drying will depend on a well regulated
dryer, since the flavor of the fruit deteriorates badly at high temperatures. Simple
canning of the fruit is easily accomplished with very good flavor retention, how-
ever the appearance of the product is not too good. Manufacture of specialty
items from lychees seems feasible, however the products should be thoroughly
tested over a long storage period before any definite formula recommendations
can be made.
New Developments In Lychee Marketing*
The lychee, the ancient and favorite fruit of the Far East with origins dating
back 3500 years in Chinese prehistory, was introduced into Florida in the 1880's.
It was not however until the late 1940's that it began being grown here as a
commercial crop. In 1951, the Florida Lychee Growers Association was or-
ganized as a marketing cooperative and today it represents some 90 growers who
control all but a small fraction of the lychees being produced in the state.
The variety of the lychee now being grown commercially in Florida is
known as the Brewster. Of the many varieties which have been planted experi-
mentally here, to date it seems to be the one best adapted to our climate and soil
conditions. Orlando marks about the northern limit of its cold tolerance and
from there south to Homestead, lychee groves are spotted here and there across
the state the greatest concentration of plantings being in Sarasota County.
The south-central Florida area is the only place on the North American continent
where the lychee is now being grown on a commercial scale.
Lychee fruit grows in clusters on large and magnificent evergreen trees
reaching 50 feet tall and as much across. The Brewster fruits reach the size of
large strawberries dark red in color. This variety blooms in the winter and the
fruit ripens over a four to six week period beginning early in June. The harvest
starts slowly for a week or ten days, then rapidly increases to a peak for another
week or ten days during which peak period as much as % of the whole annual
crop ripens for marketing. After the peak, production drops rapidly and grad-
ually tapers off. The fruit cannot be picked early to ripen off the trees, and
once ripened on the tree, it must be immediately picked or it will be subject to
rapid spoilage. Ripe fruit will ordinarily keep 7-14 days so that there can be no
delay in its marketing. In fact, shipments to northern points are made by air
freight, ordinarily the same day that the fruit is picked.
The Association has been marketing lychees for the past 5 seasons, the
smallest crop having been 7500 pounds in 1955. The 1957 crop amounted to
14,500 pounds. Prices have ranged from a few sales at a low of 50c per pound
Paper presented before the Florida State Horticultural Society, Oct. 31, 1957 at Miami Beach.
to $1.00 per pound, f.o.b. airport of delivery in Florida. For the past two
seasons the price has held consistently at 75c per pound, f.o.b. Shipments are
made direct on order to retailers and wholesalers, except in New York area where
the Association works with a special sales representative on a commission basis.
Packaging is in 10-pound units using mango-type lugs. For the first three years
of Association marketing the fruit was packed loose in the 10-pound lugs. For
the past two years, it has been packaged in '-pound polyethylene bags, 20 to
the 10-pound lug.
The extremely brief harvesting season and the short shelf life of the Brewster
lychee obviously present serious marketing problems. In the few years since the
beginning of commercial production of the fruit, intensive studies have been
under way toward finding means, through selective fertilizing or otherwise, of
stretching the period of ripening of Brewster fruit. At the same time, work has
gone forward with the testing for suitability in Florida of many known varieties
now being grown in other parts of the world, as well as with the creation of new
varieties through seedling plantings. There is every reason to believe that this
work will result in the perfection of strains whose fruit will ripen at a time
other than that of the Brewster. Progress is also being made in the development
of improved packaging and storage techniques to lengthen the shelf life of the
fruit. Further, there are indications that fruit picked slightly underripe keeps
much better than fruit picked full ripe.
Another field in which much urgently needed research is now being carried
on is in the control of the blooming and fruiting characteristics of the Brewster.
At the present time, it is still impossible to predict the size of the new crop until
a month or so before the fruit actually begins to ripen. For instance, on the
basis of a 25,000 lb. crop in 1955 and a 20,000 lb. crop in 1956, the 1957 crop
could have reached 50,000 or even 75,000 Ibs., taking into consideration that
the potential bearing capacity of already producing trees was increasing each
year and that every year more new young plantings come into production. Yet
the total poundage for 1957 was only 14,500.
Up through 1956, with a ready-made Chinese-American market to fall back
on, the marketing of the lychee as a fresh fruit had presented no real problem.
From the beginning, growers have been aware that the lychee can be frozen or
dried or otherwise processed for sale and they have always foreseen the day
when some form of processing would be needed in order to dispose of fruit
surplus to the fresh market. It was not until last autumn, however, that the
Association, faced with a potential 75,000 lb. crop in 1957, felt justified in going
to the expense of formally investigating the market for lychees in processed form.
A decision was reached last December to call on professional marketing ex-
perts for counsel, and subsequently the Association engaged the joint services of
Lester Cone Associates, Sales Development Consultants, and J. P. Lohman Or-
ganization, Public Relations Specialists of New York City. This Cone-Lohman
group was asked, first, to make a survey of the commercial possibilities of the
lychee industry as a whole; second, to evaluate the relative merits, production-
wise and saleswise, of the lychee as a fresh fruit and of the lychee in each of its
possible processed forms, and third, to investigate the potential markets for the
lychee in its various forms and to appraise the risks and costs involved in opening
these markets. Depending on the results of this analysis, the Cone-Lohman
group were to give us a flexible plan or roadmap to guide the Association's mar-
keting activities in the foreseeable future as well as a specific recommendation as
to how the 1957 crop should be handled.
In due course, the Association was presented with an exhaustive and thor-
oughly documented report. Without here going into the reasoning behind them,
the recommendations made were in essence as follows:
The lychee as grown in Florida today, in spite of certain drawbacks, has
enough commercially exploitable good qualities for a market to be built on it. It
should be considered an exotic luxury fruit and marketed as such for the fore-
In its fresh form the lychee offers maximum taste value to the consumer
and minimum packaging, processing, etc., costs to the grower. The fresh fruit
however has the serious drawbacks of being almost unknown to the public and
of having a short harvesting season and short shelf life. Except for specialty
gourmet shops, merchants are reluctant to promote or even handle any new
product, regardless of its merit, if it does not permit them to cash in on repeat
sales. The possibility of spoilage further prejudices them against the lychee.
Further, the unpredictability of the size of the crop at the present time makes it
all but impossible to gauge advance promotional expenditures to fit the supply
of fruit. Over selling will be wasteful, underselling will leave unmarketable fruit
on hand. Even though in spite of these drawbacks there will always be a grow-
ing market for the fresh lychee, the future of the lychee industry in its present
stage of development should not be based on the lychee in its fresh form. Even-
tually the bulk of the fruit will best be sold in some processed form or forms.
The frozen lychee offers the next best taste value to the fresh fruit, at the
same time eliminating the short season problem. But technical problems of freezing
and storage procedures as well as merchandising complications somewhat offset
the taste value advantages.
Canned lychees would not be subject to the technical and merchandising
problems of the frozen product, but taste value would undoubtedly suffer. Also,
unless protected by import tariffs, canned lychees would be subject to competition
from cheap labor areas of China and elsewhere where they can be grown.
Dried lychees are the form in which the fruit is now best known in America
and offer interesting packaging opportunities both in the shell as well as peeled
and pitted as high-priced specialty gourmet products. Dried lychees too would
have foreign competition.
Other possibilities are in the field of specialty items such as brandied,
pickled, stuffed, or glazed lychees; lychee juice; lychee wine; lychees as flavoring
for ice cream, gelatin, sherbet, soft drinks, etc. Processing costs and public ac-
ceptance would determine the feasibility of lychees in these forms.
Cone-Lohman's specific recommendations for future planning were that in
1957 efforts had necessarily to be directed to selling the crop as fresh fruit simply
because no processed form of the fruit had yet been perfected. At the same
time they urged that the Association plunge heavily into developing new processed
lychee products, allowing as much fruit, time and money to these experimental
endeavors as could be afforded, even if it meant sacrificing some of the fruit that
could otherwise have been sold fresh. They pointed out that the all-important
product development program might take several years, particularly in view of
the short seasons each year during which fresh fruit would be available to make
tests. As soon as promising processed forms were perfected, trial production
runs should be made in order to establish costs and for market testing for public
acceptance. Future planning would obviously have to depend on the results
The Association accepted the Cone-Lohman report and began planning ac-
cordingly. It soon became apparent from a disappointing bloom that the 1957
crop was not going to be anywhere nearly as large as it might have been. Ad-
vance promotional activities were therefore limited to a feature article along with
2 paid advertisements in Telefood Magazine, a trade publication of specialty
food dealers. A surprising flow of trial orders was received from this source,
about doubling the number of non-Chinese customers from former years. Direct
by-mail solicitation of former years' customers produced pre-season orders at an
encouragingly increased volume over previous years, so that at the start of the
season better than 8,000 pounds of fruit were on order, not including commit*
ments from New York Chinatown where on the basis of previous years' experience
we could expect minimum sales of 10,000 pounds.
Our harvest was not only small at 14,500 pounds, but it was unprecedentedly
brief, lasting only 3 weeks. After the fruit was gone, repeat orders poured in
at a rate that indicated our total sales would have been doubled or tripled if fruit
had been available over the normal 6-week season.
In pursuing experimental processing, arrangements were made for product
development work by American Can Company in the canning field; by Minute
Maid in the freezing field; and by the University of Florida and the University
of Miami in the drying field. Other than these three basic forms of processed
lychees, Palmetto Canning Co. experimented with the lychee as an ingredient in
jelly or preserves. The University of Miami worked with brandying the fruit
and with other home recipes. The University of Florida tested some lychee ex-
tract as a flavoring for ice cream and three candy companies experimented with
lychees as an ingredient for candy. The Rath Packing Company received lychees
to try as a possible flavoring and tenderizing product to be cooked with meats.
Finally, fruit was sent to a quality bakery in New York City to see if lychees
could be utilized in cakes and breads in the way that raisins are used.
The detailed results of this experimental work will not be officially reported
until the Association's Annual Meeting on November 12 this year. From pre-
liminary indications, however, it would seem from the various tests which re-
quired peeling and depitting the fruit, the expense of this tedious work when
done by hand is excessive and except in the case of high priced specialty gourmet
items, or until the work can be mechanized, a more promising approach to the
processed lychee field will be with those products which can be marketed with
skins and seeds intact. In this direction, the tests made with freezing and with
drying the fruit with skins and seeds intact showed encouraging results. New
techniques of sharp freezing were tried, and statistical studies were made of de-
hydrating procedures for varying lengths of time and at varying temperatures.
Depending on how the several test runs made stand up under storage conditions,
there is every reason to believe that in these two forms, acceptable products with
optimum keeping conditions will be developed for market.
Marketing plans for the 1958 season will not be made until after the Asso-
ciation's Annual Meeting next month so that no definite program has as yet been
worked out. Presumably as much fruit as necessary will again be allocated for
development of processed products. Also trial production runs may be made of
any products that may show promise in order to establish costs as well as for test
marketing. Saleswise, efforts will again probably have to be toward marketing
as much as possible of the crop as fresh fruit. In case there should be any slack
after the fresh fruit sales and in excess of the needs of the development pro-
grams, it is likely that the surplus will be dehydrated for later marketing as
"lychee nuts." It is true that the return will undoubtedly be less from dried
fruit than from fruit processed in some of its other forms. Nevertheless, the
process of dehydrating is relatively simple and practical, and there already exists
a sizable market for the dried nuts among the Chinese-American population. As
nearly as can be determined from the U. S. Dept. of Commerce, without going
to a considerable expense for a detailed statistical analysis, dried Ivchee nuts are
imported into America at the rate of the equivalent of something like a half
million pounds of fresh fruit each year.
These then are the principal new developments in Ivchee marketing during
1957. We have begun exploring the Ivehee's possibilities as a processed product,
based on an objective professional evaluation of the Ivchee as a fresh fruit and in
its various processed forms. Starting somewhat at random in a number of
loosely related investigations, we have been able to narrow the field so that here-
after we can concentrate our efforts in the more promising directions. At the
same time, this year we have greatly expanded the market for fresh fruit. We
have a long way to go but we feel confident that we have made an intelligent
and healthily early start.
Pollinating Insects On Lychee Blossoms*
F. GRAY BUTCHER
Division of Research and Industry, University of Miami
It is generally recognized that lychees are pollinated by insects, and brief
reports have indicated that adequate numbers of honey bees in lychee plantings
will be helpful in assuring an adequate fruit set (1). Khan (2), studying
lychee pollination and fruit formation, states that "pollination from another
flower, either of the same plant or of a different plant, is inevitable in the litchi
plant." He observed "large numbers of many different insects" visiting the blos-
soms, but did not identify them or correlate their activity to total fruit produc-
tion. Singh and Singh (3) list without discussion or additional notes eleven
species of insects "found visiting the flowers" of lychee. However, detailed re-
ports of the different insects actively involved in lychee pollination have not been
In an attempt to survey pollinating insects on these fruit trees, collections
of all insects found at the blossoms were made once a week for the 6-week
period from Feb. 19 thru March 26 while blooms were open in our Experimental
Farm planting during the spring of 1957. Collections were made during morn-
ing hours from 10:00 A.M. to noon, and of afternoons from 1:00 to 3:00 P.M.0
Since honey bees were quite abundant in the bloom panicles during most of the
survey period, no attempt was made to collect all specimens of these bees. In-
stead, counts of numbers of bees at a given panicle during a 5-minute period
were recorded as an indicator of relative abundance of honey bees on each count-
Collections obtained during this survey period contained 27 different species
of insects, representing six different insect Orders. The most abundant species
Paper presented before the Florida State Horticultural Society, Oct. 31, 1957 at Miami Beach.
The field collections for this survey were made by Mr. Owen P. Macken as part of a student re-
search project. This assistance from Mr. Macken is herewith gratefully acknowledged.
encountered was the secondary screw-worm fly, Callitroga macellaria (F.), repre-
senting the dipterous family Calliphoridae. Adult flies of this species were col-
lected both mornings and afternoons on each collection date for the entire 6-week
period, and frequently were so abundant that no attempt was made to collect all
of the specimens observed. This fly was quite active throughout the period, fre-
quently moving from one blossom panicle to another, so it surely must have been
an effective pollinator.
The only other insect species approaching the abundance of this calliphorid
fly was the honey bee. Bees were moderately abundant at the lychee blossoms
the morning of the first count when the first blooms were opening (Feb. 19),
and were observed in similar numbers of mornings only on each succeeding count-
ing date until March 12 inclusive. After that date, when blossoming was rapidly
decreasing, relatively few bees were observed. It was interesting to note that
honey bees were not found in the lychee blooms on any date during afternoons.
Microscopic examinations of open lychee flowers revealed that nectar secretions
were absent during afternoon hours, so the bees apparently went elsewhere in
search of nectar. The complete absence of honey bees on the blossoms in after-
noons rather clearly indicates TABLE I. Insects taken at lychee blossoms during
that lychee blooms are an attrac- six-week survey, spring 1957.
tive source of nectar, but they Soecies and No. days observed Total No. of
did not compete successfully Insect Order during survey Specimens observed
with other sources as a supply cTr; c;erra(f" - - - - o;ve 10
Order Dipterao Calliphoridas bundant eEch day
of pollen for bees. ipi ----. 5 ..oe -o o
Orf nlln fnr bs iOder Lr_Denpotera, Celpoides__ ___ -bundanteech d3sy
The complete list of insects r o iosisth bnd-entech day
___________th__ m-on~aa Feb.
irdeE Coleoptcra, Contharidae -
collected is shown in detail in c e lti s 2lu J - -
Table I. As this tabulation indi- O rjdoe .fter Lgaeide P - -
Leot-olossis Phyllopus TJ - -- --- -
cates, the secondary screw-worm rdert- -e ,2Coreid-e 2 ---
fly and the honey bee were the Order uiyrenotera,_Fiitide_ 2 2
only forms encountered in any order HjjynotLra,_VEspid.e 2
considerable numbers. The next re_ Drit.r hidae 1 2s.
most abundant species was the 1- e P.rEidae
0irdcr _)ipters, Ph idoe 2
coleopteran, Chauliognathus ---- .. .
Srdejr Diptetrs,_LrSo phgi~deee- . . . ...
marginatus Fab., of the family iniienuified Erecies
Cantharidae. This "soldier y r,0o~Ae.--- --
beetle" was present in lychee _s1 it2t~e, jec zr Tini--l _- 1
Unidentified s ecies
blooms from Feb. 19 through -- titer, a ee 1
March 4. Beetles of this fam- Order iter, Callihoride._e 1_ _
ily are generally known as pol- o. prder 1iterausEide
len and nectar feeders, and Crt"ch .sP.
Order L _rd ot q r,__amEIidte I .I. . . .
undoubtedly the few specimens .Ps roc'=-_o s d.-1
C*rder Uyjenoterj_F2odijdaE 1 _ 1 .
of this species pollinated many Poli:tes op.
1 it 1 o L, Order Ly-enoneter, Vespi-e 01 1
flowers as they crawled over the r-_ii t, 1- 1p.
bloom panicles. --p -n-or o _T i.phiidae ---- i----1
The two hemipterans, Onco- r.t s _ __e1
peltis fasciatus (Dall.) (Lygaei- L O2_je Hyor nide 1 _ot,_Cr-od. e
,Unldentifed, to species
dae) and Leptoglossis phyllopus ;re- .rlo~_eteo- ch,_che neo.d.e. e 1 1 __
(Linn.), (Coreidae), were not _rde_ oeptere, Curcullonidae 1 1
'Phypta erosa (LinnT
numerous enough or found regu- order eml-te2r,_FJhyto-t-id~e 1__- 1
larly enough to be of signili- Crder plomoter,_Cicdellidae 1 1
chance as pollinators. As plant Order Lepidotera,_L ycenidee 1 1
sucking species normally feeding on foliage, they would seldom be con-
sidered as important pollinators of any flowers. The various other forms
encountered are not individually important pollinators. While their move-
ments over the flower panicles could aid materially in pollen distribution to
receptive stigmas, they would all appear to qualify only as incidental visitors to
the flowers rather than as direct pollinators, and are so considered because of the
known habits of the various species represented or their occurrence as single
specimens in the collections. Some of the different wasp species might be
considered as attracted to blossoms, but the lychee bloom did not compete
successfully with other flowers as an attractant for them.
The complete absence of any species of wild bees in the survey collection is
somewhat surprising. Adjoining the lychee planting used in this survey were
rather large expanses of virgin pine-lands in which the natural insect fauna has
not been disturbed. A few weeks after the lychee blooming period, a similar
survey on nearby barbados cherry blossoms revealed a wild bee quite abundant
in the area, identified as Centris versicolor (Fab.) by Dr. C. D. Michener. Like-
wise, numerous specimens of megachilids and andrenids are very commonly ob-
served in the area. However, most of these species appear to be attracted to
flowers primarily in search of pollen, so there is again evidence that lychee pollen
is not highly attractive to pollen-collecting insects.
A summary statement on this survey would thus reveal only three of the 27
species of insects collected were important as pollinators of lychee blooms in our
area during the spring of 1957; these are the secondary screw-worm fly, the
honey bee, and the soldier beetle. The brief study reported by the writer last
year (1) indicated no set of lychee fruit on a screened tree where insects were
absent. Thus, these insects serving as pollinators assume a position of major im-
portance to the lychee grower.
The study on floral biology and sequence of blossom types of lychees by
Mustard, Lui, and Nelson (4) and Lui (5) show rather clearly that some pistillate
flowers are receptive to pollen during a period of several days. While the normal
sequence of floral types provide first male flowers, then female flowers, and fin-
ally male-functioning hermaphrodites, the fact that "all panicles on a tree are
not necessarily at the same stage in the floral cycle at the same time" (4) suggests
the desirability of pollinators as continuously as possible. In this respect, the sec-
ondary screw-worm fly was the only insect species actively working the blooms
both mornings and afternoons. However, since this insect can be considered as
a pest form, and its abundance is not readily manipulated by man, the importance
of honey bees for the lychee grower becomes even more obvious. Their daily
visits in large numbers seeking nectar from lychee blossoms during morning hours
provide excellent pollinating service. Accordingly, it would appear that supplying
honey bees to lychee plantings is an important and a practical recommendation
for assuring adequate pollination and fruit setting.
1. Butcher, F. Gray. 1956. Bees pollinate lychee blooms. Proc. Florida State Hort. Soc. lor
2. Khan, S.A.R.K. 1929. Pollination and fruit formation in litchi. Agr. Jour. India 24: 183-187.
3. Singh, Lal Behari, and Uday Pratop Singh. 1954. The Lychee. Superintendent, Printing and
Stationery, U.P., Lucknow, India. p. 1-87.
4. Mustard, Margaret J., Su-Ying Lui, and Roy O. Nelson. 1953. Observation of floral biology and
fruit setting in lychee varieties. Proc. Florida State Hort. Soc. for 1953: 212-220.
5. Lui, Su-Ying. 1954. Studies of Litchi chinensis Sonn. Unpublished thesis, University of Michi-
gan. p. 1-261.
A Leaf Beetle Feeding On the Stems of Lychee*
GEORGE W. DEKLE
State Plant Board
A native leaf beetle of the Family Chrysomelidae, Exema nodulosa (Blatch-
ley), in the larval stage was found feeding on lychee, Litchi chinensis Sonner, in
stems 3% inch to inch in diameter at Nokomis, Florida during October, 1956.
Over one hundred trees in one grove were found infested with one to eight larvae.
Stem punctures and semi-girdling of the stems were the principal damages ob-
John C. Wilcox, in his publication "Leaf Beetles of Ohio (Chrysomelidae:
Coleoptera)," mentions the subcvlindrical beetles as being of little economic im-
portance. George B. Vogt, Entomologist, U. S. National Museum, confirmed the
State Plant Board's identification of Exema gibber (Oliv.). However, he com-
mented as follows: "I have carefully compared these beetles with the paratype
of Exema nodulosa (Blatchley) here in the U.S.N.M. and consider them con-
specific. You will find this name listed as a synonym of Exema gibber (Oliv.)
(actually Fabricius 1798) in Leng's catalogue. Since there is considerable doubt
about application of this name, I think it best to use nodulosa. Blatchley (1913)
described this species from 10 specimens beaten from scrub oak (Quercus sp.)
near Arch Creek, Sanford and Ormond, Florida. In Barber's manuscript notes:
'The range extends to Shreveport, La. (on Crataegus Cushman), Victoria, Love-
lady, Marshall (on Salix), Trinity (on Quercus) and Goliad, Texas. Four large
females from Orlando, Florida, April-June, 1908, were in pecan (Russell).'"
Other State Plant Board records include adults on oak (Quercus sp.), Orlovista,
Florida, October, 1948, O. D. Link; adult resting on leaf of groundsel (Baccharis
halimifolia L.), Lebanon Station, Fla., October, 1955, G. W. Dekle. Dr. L. A.
Hetrick, Entomologist, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, at Gaines-
ville, has collected both larvae and adults feeding on blackberry and dewberry
(Rubus sp.) during March and April in the Gainesville area.
The interesting account by W. S. Blatchlev in his publication "Coleoptera
of Indiana" on the characteristics and habits of the tribe (Chlamydini) in which
Exema nodulosa (Blatchley) is found is as follows:
"Short, robust, cylindrical or subquadrate beetles of a dull metallic or black-
ish hue, having the eyes large, emarginate; thorax and elytra covered with wart-
like tubercles; antennae widely separated, short, serrate and received in grooves
on the side of prostemum; scutellum truncate behind and with a median tooth in
front which fits into a notch in base of thorax; elytral suture with minute teeth
each side which dovetail between one another. The legs are closely contractile
and when disturbed the beetles draw them and the antennae in and feign death.
They then resemble the excrement of certain caterpillars so closely as to render
their detection difficult, unless the collector is in especial search for them, and it
is said that birds will not pick them up for the same reason. The larvae of this
and part of the next tribe live upon the surface of leaves, and have the curious
habit of enclosing themselves in compact cases, composed of their own excrement,
which they mould into shape by means of their mandibles. They carry their
cases about with them by protruding the front part of their bodies through the
Paper presented before the Florida State Horticultural Society, Oct. 31, 1957 at Miami Beach.
B C D
A. Larva of Exema nodulosa Blatchley resting on lychee. Arrow points to type of injury.
B. Protective case constructed by larva from its own excrement. The case also used by insect
C. Lateral view of adult. Enlarged approximately 12 times.
D. Ventral aspect of beetle feigning death.
(Photos by Jean Smith, State Plant Board of Florida)
open extremity. When about to transform they attach their cases to the twigs,
and close the opening, thus making them answer the purpose of a cocoon."
The leaf beetle larvae were found during an inspection of lychee trees for a
recently introduced erinose mite (Aceria litchii (Keifer)) that had become es-
tablished in Dr. J. M. Henry's grove at Nokomis, Florida. Feeding signs on the
small stems and branches were encountered frequently, and the damage was at-
tributed to grasshoppers and katydids. However, as additional branches were
found damaged and fresh feeding signs became more numerous, closer attention
was directed toward finding the cause. To make it even more confusing, two
specimens of the citrus root weevil (Pachnaeus litus (Germ.)) were collected be-
fore the leaf beetle larva was discovered. Finding a case-bearing leaf beetle was
a surprise. The beetle larva, with its head protruding from beneath the case, was
observed feeding. When the case was disturbed, the larva would retract its head
and become immobile. The larva, clinging to the bark, seemed to become a part
of the plant. Knowing what to look for, we easily located the feeding signs, the
characteristic case, which usually was attached at the fork of small stems, then
collected the larvae.
Forty larvae were removed from the grove on October 12, 1956 by Mr. C. J.
Bickner, State Plant Board inspector, Dr. J. M. Henry, owner of the grove, and
G. W. Dekle, State Plant Board entomologist. The specimens were returned to
Gainesville for rearing and identification.
Two lychee plants in gallon cans were used for rearing the larvae. Twenty
larvae were placed on each plant. Four cases were removed and examined as
follows: (See Table I).
Date Examined Removed (1) Larva Pupa Adult Dead
November 1, 1956 4 4
November 17, 1956 4 3 1
December 1, 1956 4 2 2
December 15, 1956 4 4
January 6, 1957 4 1 3
February 1, 1957 4 2 2
February 18, 1957 8 3* 5
(1) Three cases removed and destroyed by growers when plant was on exhibit at Lychee Growers
annual meeting in Winter Haven. Five larva cases were not accounted for.
When cases were opened the adults emerged.
On February 27, 1957, six leaf beetle cases were removed from lychee trees
at Nokomis and when opened, adults emerged. Observation to date indicates
that the larva of the leaf beetle Exema nodulosa (Blatchley) constitutes a minor
1. Blatchley, W. S. 1910. The Coleoptera of Indiana. Ind. Dept. Geol. and N. R. Bul. 1:1-1386.
2. Wilcox, J. A. 1954. Leaf Beetles of Ohio (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) Bul. No. 43, Vol.-VIII,
No. 3, Ohio Biological Survey, N. Y. State Museum, Albany, N. Y.
A Note On the Fruiting of the Mauritius Variety of Lychee
R. BRUCE LEDIN
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
The Mauritius lychee was a selected seedling made on the Island of
Mauritius in the 1870's. Practically all of the trees in South Africa are descend-
ants of a few originally imported from this Island many years ago. It is the lead-
ing commercial variety in South Africa. A number of trees of this variety are
now under observation in private collections and Experiment Stations in Florida.
An air layer of the Mauritius was obtained by the Sub-Tropical Experiment
Station, Homestead, in 1951 from Mr. F. B. Harrington of Natal, South Africa.
It was planted in the field in 1953 and in 1957 it flowered and bore a crop of
fruit. The tree was 5 feet tall and with a spread of 7 feet. It has grown well in
the rocky alkaline soil and has received the same cultural treatments as the
Brewster and other varieties in the Station's collection.
On June 5, 1957, 14.15 pounds of fruit were harvested; this was two weeks
before the fruit of the Brewster variety was mature. The fruit is medium large,
1% inches in diameter and 1% inches long; it is reddish-brown in color, the flesh
is sweet and juicy, and the flavor is very good. The seed is medium size, to 1
inch long and % inch in diameter. Very few fruits contained aborted seeds.
A very high percentage of the fruit while still on the tree showed anthrac-
nose-type of lesions. This brown spotting began as small spots which gradually
increased in size and penetrated into the flesh, eventually resulting in cracking
and spoiling of the fruit. On nearby Brewster trees, the fruit showed similar
spotting, but only a small percentage. The spring months during the time the
fruit was maturing were wet and may account for the spotting, if due to a fungus.
Marloth in Bull. 286, "The Litchi in South Africa," 1947, page 11, mentions
this same condition on Mauritius fruit grown in South Africa: "While still on the
tree, the fruit is subject to attacks which in some years result in considerable loss.
Under certain climatic conditions a large proportion of fruit exhibits brown areas
on the shell. Such areas not only detract from the later appearance of the fruit
when marketed, but also appear to be associated with considerable more bursting
of fruits than would be normal."
This is a report of the performance of one tree in one season, but it might in-
dicate that the early maturing, good size, flavor, and yield, would make the
Mauritius a desirable variety. The brown spotting, however, unless it can be
controlled, is undesirable.
Further observations will be made.