Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Executive summary
 A sense of place
 Population growth and growth...
 The shape of things to come
 Transportation and circulation
 Corridors, boulevards and...
 Recreation and open space
 Downtown Naples: The public...
 Housing choice
 Community institutions: Education,...
 Scenarios for the future of the...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Naples, Florida
Title: Naples, Florida : Regional Urban Design Assistance Team, April 2-7, 1987
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083813/00001
 Material Information
Title: Naples, Florida : Regional Urban Design Assistance Team, April 2-7, 1987
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects
Publication Date: 1987
Subject: Architecture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083813
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Executive summary
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page 1
    A sense of place
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Population growth and growth management
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    The shape of things to come
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Transportation and circulation
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Corridors, boulevards and byways
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Recreation and open space
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Downtown Naples: The public heart
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Housing choice
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Community institutions: Education, arts, culture
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Scenarios for the future of the greater Naples area
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Back Cover
        Page 79
        Page 80
Full Text

0 F


April 2-7,




The Committee for Urban Design

January 27, 1987

Westinghouse Communities of Naples
801 Laurel Oak Drive
Naples, Florida 33963

Re: Regional/Urban Design Assistance Team
(R/UDAT) Visit April 2-7, 1987


Naples is one of the fastest growing Metro areas in
the nation and appears to be at a turning point. Many citizens
are concerned that this inevitable growth will adversely alter
the character and image of Naples.

The Committee for Urban Design, a group appointed by
the City Council and representing a broad spectrum of the commu-
nity, feels a R/UDAT team visit could help the area establish
more effective planning tools to manage growth and create an
urban design framework which would help us improve the quality
of our built environment.

The Regional/Urban Design Assistance Team (R/UDAT)
program is a public service of the Urban Design and Planning
Committee of the American Institute of Architects (AIA). The
R/UDAT process begins when a local government, community organi-
zation, or AIA Chapter recognizes a local urban design or commu-
nity development concern and asks the national AIA for help.
The AIA responds by fielding a multi-disciplinary team of ex-
perts to work with that community. An intensive four-day work-
shop is held and subsequent follow-up visits are made as neces-

While this program is a public service, there are cer-
tain expenses which must be defrayed such as the representatives
travel and living costs during the visit. We are asking for
your support through a financial contribution. A donation of
any amount will be greatly appreciated. Thank you for your ded-
ication to the betterment of our community.

Very truly yours,

Edward J. Oates, Jr., Co-Chairman
Urban Design Committee

/1;c4opommunity Development Department, City Hall
74ftighth Street South Naples, Florida 33940

Regional Urban Design Assistance


2-7, 1987

A Program of the American Institute of Architects



April 2-7, 1987



INTRODUCTION . . . . . .

What is a R/UDAT

A SENSE OF PLACE . . . . . .







HOUSING CHOICE . . . . . .

. . . i

. . . . 1

. . . . 2

. . . . 6

. . . . 16

. . . . 23

. . . . 32

. . . . 37

. . . . 44

. . . . 53



APPENDIX . . . . . . . . ... . .68


Steering Committee and Resource People

Acknowledgments and Thanks


This report identifies a number of
fundamental issues about the
future direction of Naples and
Collier County. It reports what
key issues were presented to
R/UDAT, discusses those issues in
terms of their physical, social
and/or financial impacts, and
recommends strategies to confront
those impacts.

The report portrays an image of
Naples with its own unique sense of
place. Its citizens have
emphasized their wish to preserve
the quiet, relaxed way of life. At
the same time the City is part of a
County that is growing tremendously
and as a result, creates problems
commonly associated with rapid
growth. How the City of Naples
should react and adapt itself to
changes in the surrounding
unincorporated area while
maintaining its own identity and
good relations with the County
government is a challenging task.

Both the City and the County have a
large number of assets-- physical,
environmental, economic, and
especially human which should
enable it to cope with the
challenge of the future. But there
are liabilities, which must be
satisfactorily addressed.

In developing a strategy for
action, R/UDAT intensively
investigated the City of Naples and
Collier County through site visits,
workshops with community leaders
and interested citizens, a public
hearing, and analysis of provided

The overriding problem facing both
the City of Naples and Collier
County is the drastic increase in
population growth in the County.
The report recommends that viable
growth management plans must be
enacted by both the City and County
in order to understand its impacts
and respond accordingly.

The specific issues addressed in
the R/UDAT report were:

The sensitivity of the natural
environment and the
delineation of areas probably
unsuitable for development
should direct the intensity
and location of development.

Growth should be encouraged to
concentrate in close proximity
to two to three urban centers
adjacent to major arterials
such as Route 951, Immokalee
Road and the intersection of
Route 951 and the East Trail.

Traffic congestion is a major
problem, especially during the
season, but is aggravated
throughout the year by the use
of indiscriminate curb cuts.
To the degree possible,
traffic should be diverted
from Route 41 to Goodlette
Road, Airport Road and finally
Route 951 as growth pushes
eastward. However, it is
mandatory that strict curb cut
standards for all County
arterials be immediately
adopted and that subdivision
applications which require
substandard curb separations
be denied.

Downtown Naples should be
vitalized to achieve the
broader goals of the City.
The plan to do so should
include land from the hospital
to 12th Avenue, from the Trail

to 6th Street north of 5th
Avenue and from the bay to 3rd
Street south of 5th Avenue.

Higher visual and physical
standards should be adopted
for the major County

Both the County and the City
should incorporate open space
trails, parks, beach access,
and recreational facilities in
their specific growth plans.

In order to meet the needs of
the City and County needs for
affordable housing, both
jurisdictions should develop
and fund the implementation of
their housing programs.

The City can choose to do
nothing, it can turn inward,
it can create a strong
partnership with the County,
or it can aggressively annex
property to the east. Each
choice carries risk, and each
has appeal to different
segments of the City's
population. However, not all
will agree which is the best

It is not the function of the
R/UDAT team to set forth one
particular vision for the future of
the City of Naples/Collier County
region. Rather, this report
presents recommendations which may
be considered and then acted upon
by the government and residents of
the City and County. Methods and
tools needed for implementation are


The Naples R/UDAT team would
like to acknowledge the
efforts of the many people
who made this R/UDAT happen.
We believe the community has
benefitted from the under-
standing that an inter-
disciplinary professional
team, independent and without
vested interests, is an
appropriate method of
analyzing the City's and
County's growth problems.
Clearly, the success of this
R/UDAT has been, and will
continue to be, dependent upon
the commitment by the City
Council, County Commission,
and literally scores of
community organizations
and individuals.

We would like to thank the
Committee for Urban Design,
the local steering committee.
To Al French, Lodge McKee, Ed
Oates and all the members of
this committee, we would like
express our appreciation for
their months of planning and

It has been apparent to all
the members of this team that
this community is indebted to
Mayor Edwin J. Putzell, Jr.
for his leadership and courage
in addressing the issues
facing this community.

The entire City staff has been
superb. We would like to give
special thanks to Roger Barry,
Ann Walker and Trish Thompson
and all of those people who
sustained us throughout the

Dave Pettrow has been
especially helpful, and we
have been encouraged by the
enthusiasm and cooperation
from the County staff.


Florida /
\ / //


.- r-o


In October, 1986, the Naples,
Florida Committee for Urban Design
applied to the American Institute
of Architects in Washington, D.C.
to have them form a Regional/Urban
Design Assistance Team (R/UDAT) to
study certain growth and
development issues in the City of
Naples and Collier County.
Appointed by the City Council and
actively promoted by Mayor Edwin J.
Putzell, Jr., the Committee worked
hard to develop broad-based
community interest for the project
which is reflected by support from
the Collier County Commission and
Chairman Max Hasse and numerous
organizations and individuals.
Organized and coordinated by Alfred
W. French III, AIA, the Committee
application was approved in
December, 1986, and a R/UDAT was
appointed to visit Naples on April
2-6, 1987.

What is a R/UDAT

The Regional/Urban Design
Assistance Team (R/UDAT) program is
a service of the Urban Planning and
Design Committee of the National
American Institute of Architects.
Its purpose is to assist American
cities and towns to answer
questions about urban planning and
design in order to help civic,
social, and business leaders
effectively plan short and long
term goals for their communities.

Team members are experts in
architecture, urban design,
landscape architecture, economics
and finance, political and social
sciences, growth management, and
public policy. Team members are
unpaid volunteers, recruited from
all over the nation.

Over 90 cities with a combined
population of more than 10 million
citizens have been served and
professional services valued in
excess of $2 million have been

The team's visit is four days and
is coordinated by a Steering
Committee. The team has been
assisted by local professionals and
students from the University of
Miami and the University of Florida
in Gainesville.

The process is very intense and
includes team meetings with
community groups, site visits and
tours, public hearings and late
night work sessions. This report
is the end product of the four day


This report seeks to present a
comprehensive and well-balanced
vision of the future physical
development of the City of Naples
and western Collier County, an area
which we have called the Greater
Naples Area. It takes into account
a variety of competing and inter-
related issues which have played
and will continue to play important
roles in shaping the form of the
City and region, and attempts to
set a stage for an approach to
future planning which, in the
opinion of the R/UDAT team, will
serve the best interests of the
people who live and work in the

After two days of meetings, formal
and informal, with more than 150
public officials, businessmen and
women, professionals, civic
association representatives, and
residents; after intensive review
of planning and other data, exten-
sive site visits by foot, by
trolley, and by helicopter, the
R/UDAT team members arrived at a
shared view of Naples and the
Greater Naples Area, which has
guided the team through its
analysis and served as the basis
for framing its recommendations:

[1] The people of Naples view their
city in two different ways, which
are often in competition with each
other. First, people have a
preservation oriented view which
envisions as the ideal a gentle,
quiet lifestyle largely free of
friction or conflict. Physically,
this view is reflected in a low-key
setting of softly rendered small
scale buildings set back from tree
lined streets amidst lush tropical
plantings. It is a view of a life

to be conducted in leisure and
grace which wishes neither to
intrude nor to be intruded upon.

At the same time, though, people
have a more activist view of their
community as a business center,
with a focus on a thriving commerce
and retail center as the vital
heart of the City. In this view,
if it is to maintain its competi-
tive position and its vitality, the
City must continue to play a strong
role in the regional marketplace.
Furthermore, that by improving its
marketplace position, the city will
increase its ability to control its
future, and indeed, influence the

growth of its region in a favorable
direction. This view would
maintain, as one individual noted
during the R/UDAT public hearing,
that "there's a sentiment that all
you have to do to preserve some-
thing is to freeze it, this
sentiment is wrong."

Indeed, even the City's Comprehen-
sive Plan reflects this dichotomy,
stating that "....Naples is a
unique resort [and] retirement
community." Many residents see
themselves living in a retirement
community, but do not see them-
selves as a resort, with all that
implies in terms of commercial and
service activity. The key to the
future vitality of Naples is to
balance these views as two parts of
a whole, each of which are complete
only when considered in tandem with
the other. Its ability to retain
its vitality into the future will
lie in its ability to manage its
existing strengths in beauty and
charm, while carefully and system-
atically building programs and
facilities which create new
business and economic opportunities
on a scale consistent with the
character and self-image of the

[2] Residents of Collier County
outside the City of Naples,
however, seem to view their place
in many different ways:

First, as an extension of Naples,
fully recognizing that while they
may share the facilities of Naples,
its physical setting cannot readily
be duplicated.

Second, Collier County is younger
than Naples, and has not developed
a style beyond that shared by many
other fast growing, dispersed, and
highway oriented metropolitan
regions. The County has yet to find
strengths in its positive qualities
in order to build an image for

Third, people view the County -
that part close to the City of
Naples as little more than a sea
of enclaves only loosely connected
by strip commercial development and
rude buildings, or alternatively,
as a funnel through which 1-75 or
the Tamiami Trail bring carloads of
tourists through the County in and
out of Naples. The scale of the
County, its vast expanses of flat
vacant land, overwhelm the low-key
vision of Naples proper, making
comparisons difficult, and the
sense of community remote.

More impressions:

[3] Naples is a small city, but one
which has begun to experience BIG
city traffic volumes on its major
arterials. Traffic volumes that
would be considered commonplace in
large cities are seen as
inappropriate, even troubling, in a
city with Naples' small-town,
low-key, self-image.

[4] The County seems to think of
roads as nothing more than a means
by which cars can get from place to
place. There is a need to begin
thinking of, and designing, trans-
portation facilities so that they
not only serve transportation
needs, but also help mold
desirable land use patterns.

[5] The City of Naples makes up
only a small percentage of a much
larger metropolitan area. While
the population has begun to stabi-
lize within the city, the
unincorporated area around the city
is growing rapidly. Major
increases in population are moving
the social and political center of
the greater Naples area to the
east, toward 1-75.

[6] Not only the poor, but moderate
and middle income people find it
difficult to find housing in the
City. People are forced to move
further and further out to find
affordable housing, further in-
creasing traffic congestion in and
out of the City.

[7] The City is nearly fully
developed. It does not have a
growth management issue to the same
extent the County has. There are,
however, many small infill parcels
still vacant, as well as even more
parcels developed at low density,
potential candidates for redevelop-
ment or intensification.

[8] While the City's developed
character may spare it from
addressing certain concerns, it
raises others how will the City
ensure it remains vital and
dynamic, and not become stagnant
and devitalized.

[9] The County is attempting to
address the growth management

problem. Growth management is as
much a process of framing and
addressing social goals as a
physical planning process; in
Collier County, basic issues of
quality of life and levels of
service provision must still be

[10] Environmental concerns are a
crucially important yardstick for
managing growth and development.
Despite some increase in
environmental consciousness, this
has yet to be fully appreciated by
people in the community.


As the members of the R/UDAT team
discussed these issues, two over-
riding goals, which have guided our
work and our specific
recommendations, emerged:



The greater Naples area is
inevitably going to grow, and grow
rapidly. What it needs, more than
anything else, is a vision of how
it should grow, where that growth
should take it, and what kind of
community or communities it will be
after it has absorbed the growth
that it is today anticipating.
Each one of the sections of the
R/UDAT report should be seen as a
stepping stone toward helping the
citizens and leadership of Naples
and Collier County in framing that
vision for themselves, and making
it a reality.


Both the City of Naples and
the surrounding area in
Collier County have
experienced dramatic
population growth within
recent years. The City of
Naples, which had a population
of less than 5,000 people in
1960, has grown to nearly
20,000 today. Meanwhile, the
unincorporated area of Collier
County, which had a population
of only 11,000 in 1960, has
increased to a population of
well over 100,000 by 1986.
This dramatic increase has led
to an equally dramatic
transformation in the
character of the area from a
quiet, almost rural community,
to a fast-growing community of
increasingly urban and
suburban character.

While the growth of the area
has been dramatic in recent
years, it is likely to
continue for some time to
come. While the pace of growth
has slowed in the City of
Naples, as the City's vacant
land inventory is gradually
reduced, it is continuing
unabated in the surrounding
unincorporated area. Driving
along Route 41 or Davis
Boulevard in the County, the
traveller is confronted by a
seemingly never-ending stream
of new subdivisions,
condominiums, planned
developments, and shopping
centers. To the north, Pelican
Bay is just beginning to
accommodate the population

which it will contain when
completed. Massive
developments such as the
Vineyards have not even begun

The extent to which this
growth will continue can be
measured by a key statistic:
at this time, within Collier
County there are some 85,000
unbuilt units within approved
Planned Unit Developments and
as many as 40,000 additional
non-PUD approved subdivision
lots, for a total of 125,000
unbuilt allowable housing
units. Thus, with no
additional approvals of new
development proposals as many
as 200,000 to 300,000 people
could be added to the
population of Collier County
during the coming years.
Nearly all of this population
would be located in that part
of the County immediately
adjacent to the City of
Naples, in the area that the
County refers to as its "urban
service area".

We do not expect all of this
population increase to take
place immediately; indeed, at
least some of these allowed
lots may not be developed for
many years, if ever. Much of
this development, however, is
likely to take place. Collier
County has projected that its
population, including the City
of Naples, will increase from
today's 126,000 to 218,700 by
the year 2005 an increase of
more than 90,000 in less than
twenty years. Of this
increase, over 60,000 or 2/3
will take place in the Urban
Service Area adjacent to the
City of Naples.

What this means is
straightforward: the City of
Naples, which as little as ten
or fifteen years ago was a
small city, even a town,
surrounded largely by open
country, is becoming a part of
a larger city that we could
call Greater Naples. This
city, which will stretch from
Immokalee Road in the north to
below the Tamiami Trail to the
south, and from the Gulf of
Mexico east to Route 951, an
area of approximately 100
square miles, is projected to
have a population of 150,000
by the year 2005. Within this
city of Greater Naples, the
City of Naples proper, with a
population of in excess of
20,000 people, will be only a
small part of the whole.

The significance of this
transformation for both the
City and County is great.
Economically and socially, the
City will find its importance
waning within the larger area
of which it is a part. Major
economic activity is already
beginning to move outside its
traditional centers within the
City to new locations along
major highways and in new
developments in the
unincorporated areas. As the
character of the larger
community changes, the social
and political roles that the
City has traditionally played
are likely to change.
Decisions affecting the City
may be made by new actors
living outside the City's

At the same time, the County
will have to grapple with even
more serious issues. The
magnitude of development
taking place has already
forced the County to address

directly the problems of
providing the infrastructure
and services needed by an
urban and suburban, rather
than a rural, population. We
have been impressed by the
extent to which in the last
few years Collier County
government has addressed its
need to create, almost from
scratch, a massive
infrastructure system,
including major arterial
roads, sewerage systems and
treatment plants, and water
supply systems. We are hopeful
that in the very near future
the County will address
equally effectively the
problem of solid waste

Still, the provision of
infrastructure is only the
beginning of the County's
responsibility. Using the
tools provided by the growth
management process now
mandated by state law, the
County is now in a position to
begin directing the course of
growth, developing a vision of
its future, and putting in
place the regulatory system
capable of making that vision
a reality. That is the
greatest challenge, in our
judgment, facing Collier
County today.

Character and Diversity
of the Population

As the population of the
Naples area has grown in
recent years, its character
has undergone a significant
change. It is worth noting
that as late as 1960, the
median age in Collier County
was roughly the same as that
in the United States as a

whole. Between 1960 and 1980,
the median age in Collier
County increased from 30 to
38. By 1980, the median age in
the City of Naples was over
57, with 36% of all city
residents aged over 65.

This trend is continuing.
Between 1980 and 1985,
according to a study by the
University of Florida, while
the population of the County
increased overall by 34%, the
population aged 65 or over
increased by 51%.

Despite this trend, many
people in the community
stressed the importance of
trying to maintain the
diversity of the Greater
Naples community, not only
with respect to age
distribution, but also with
respect to income
distribution. We share this
concern. We believe that a
socially and economically
diverse community is a
community with greater
vitality, capable of seeking
and achieving a richer and
more attractive quality of
life and character. Such a
community can support more
vigorous cultural and
educational institutions, and
provide a stronger base of
support for a wide range of
community organizations -
cultural, environmental,
political, and the like to
enhance the community as a

Tools for Community

The tools to foster continued
diversity of the community lie
in the policies adopted with
respect to housing as well as
economic development. While
both of those will be
discussed in separate
sections, land use policies
with respect to these crucial
issues should be discussed

Economic Development

The R/UDAT team believes that
the City and County should
focus their economic
development policies on the
overriding objective of
further diversifying the
economic base of the area by
going beyond the traditional
economic bases of tourism and
second home development and
expanding into new fields
capable of providing diverse
year-round employment
opportunities with greater
potential for personal
advancement and economic
opportunity. Many different
elements must be integrated
into such a policy, including
creation of more advanced
educational opportunities
within the County,
strengthening of cultural
institutions, and provision of
affordable housing.

A major area that must be
included is that of land use
regulation. Land use planning
should focus on creating
opportunities for
non-residential development
that will be attractive to
high quality industrial,

research, and office
development. These can
include well planned, well
situated, and attractively
designed industrial and office
parks. Even more important,
however, in creating truly
attractive location
opportunities is the creation
of intensive, possibly urban
centers of multiple uses and
diverse activities. In these
centers, development can
become more than the sum of
its separate parts.

Residential Development

The key tool available to the
City and County government to
maintain and enhance community
diversity is the enactment of
land use regulations that
foster such diversity. While
the County, with its vast
resources of vacant land, has
far greater scope in this
regard than the City of
Naples, both have significant
roles to play.

Planned Unit Development:
Collier County, through its
Planned Unit Development
process, has a flexible tool
through which a variety of
housing types can be
accommodated. Indeed, the full
range of PUDs in the County
shows many different housing
types single family
subdivisions, a variety of
types and styles of
condominium developments, and
luxurious retirement and
second home communities built
around golf courses.

The County should encourage
and expand the diversity of
the housing supply within
those PUDs for which rezoning
has already taken place, but

which have not yet been built.
Under the authority provided
under the 1985 Comprehensive
Planning Statute, the County
should consider not only
requirements for affordable
housing discussed elsewhere
- but for an overall mix of
housing types within its
inventory of approved but
unbuilt PUDs. Such
requirements, if imposed,
should be based on a careful
analysis of the need for
different types of housing as
well as on the realities and
market constraints affecting
development so that
unrealistic development
conditions are not
inadvertently imposed.

Infill development: The
scattered pattern of
development in the
unincorporated areas near the
City of Naples has left a
variety of parcels, large and
small, along or in close
proximity to major arterial
roads and unlikely to be
utilized for PUD development
like that taking place in more
outlying areas. Such areas,
particularly those close to
major potential activity nodes
[such as the area around the
County facilities at the
intersection of Route 41 and
Airport Road] are particularly
appropriate for medium and
higher density zoning,
including multifamily housing,
zero lot line single family
development, and more
affordable senior citizen

Mobile home communities:
Modern mobile home communities
offer further opportunities
for diversifying the housing
stock in a way consistent with
attractive development and
environmental protection.

With respect to both infill
development and mobile home
communities, the County should
consider identifying
appropriate areas and creating
"as of right" zoning districts
for these uses rather than
waiting for rezoning

Encouraging diversity in the
City: While the greatest
volume of new housing
development and creation of
diverse housing opportunities
will take place in the
unincorporated areas, the City
is not without opportunities.
Some of the opportunities in
terms of mixed use development
and the upgrading of
substandard housing are
discussed elsewhere. Without
major planning efforts, or
expenditure of resources,
however, the City can foster a
variety of flexible zoning

Infill: There are many small
infill parcels in the City on
which density could be
increased above permitted
levels without affecting the
character or appearance of the
area. The low density
standards governing nearly all
residential development in the
City, in conjunction with the
high land prices, prompt
developers to construct large,
and therefore, expensive
units. Density incentives for
smaller units, and for more
affordable units should be

Accessory apartments and
conversion: Many of the larger
older single family houses in
Naples, particularly in busy
or partly commercial areas are
becoming less attractive for
single family use; at the same

time, their price puts them
out of reach of families that
might otherwise want to use
them for that purpose. By
permitting accessory
apartments in these buildings,
or their conversion to 2 or 3
family occupancy, they can
provide additional housing
diversity while continuing to
maintain the traditional
visual and environmental
character of the community.

Mixed use: A variety of mixed
use opportunities exists in
the City, along shopping
streets such as 3rd Street
South and 5th Avenue, and
potentially along parts of the
Tamiami Trail immediately
north of the Four Corners.
Such development can enhance
the commercial vitality of
these areas, strengthen the
visual fabric of these
important community nodes and
entrances, and create further
diversity in the housing

Any discussion of growth
management in Collier County
and the City of Naples must
begin with an understanding of
Florida Law. In 1972, the
State Legislature enacted the
State Environmental Land and
Water Management Act (Chapter
380). This law was directed
at Developments of Regional
Impacts (DRIs) and
developments in Areas of
Critical State Concern. The
policy behind such law is that
local governments should
continue to have total
responsibility for those land
use decisions which affect
persons within its
jurisdictions. The State's
role is to represent the
broader public interests in
those land use decisions which
have a substantial regional or
statewide impact.
1 0

Under the 1972 law, decisions
on DRI's and developments in
Areas of Critical State
Concern, are made by the local
government, but pursuant to
the policies and standards set
forth by the State. Collier
County has been processing
DRIs over the past several
years pursuant to the 1972

However, it was the Local
Government Comprehensive
Planning Act of 1975 (Chapter
257) which created the present
framework for growth
management both at the County
and City levels. The law
mandates that each local
government adopt a
Comprehensive Plan and
designate a local planning
agency with overall
responsibility for the
preparation of the
Comprehensive Plan and for the
conduct of the Comprehensive
Planning Program within the
local government.

The 1985 Local Government
Comprehensive Planning and
Land Development Regulation
Act requires every local
government in the State of
Florida to adopt at least nine
specific elements as part of
its Comprehensive Plan. These
elements include designating
plans for:

A) Future Land Use
B) Traffic Circulation
C) Sanitary Sewage, Solid
Waste, Drainage & Potable
D) Conservation
E) Recreation/Open Space
F) Housing
G) Coastal Zone Protection
H) Intergovernmental
I) Utilities

Land use decisions in Collier
County are presently made
pursuant to the Collier County
Comprehensive Plan enacted by
the Board of County
Commissioners on December 6,
1983. This Plan supercedes
the 1979 Collier County
Comprehensive Plan. The
County Plan, containing the
nine state mandated elements
as well as certain optional
elements, acts as the overall
planning document for future
growth within the County.

The goal of future land use in
the County is described as
"the achievement of a quality
living environment through a
well-planned mix of compatible
land uses, while preserving
the integrity of the natural
environment". The most
important assumption of the
land use plan is that
developments should be timed
with the facilities necessary
to support them. Pursuant to
the present Plan, the
predecessor Plan and the 1982
Zoning Ordinance, the Board of
County Commissioners has
reviewed and approved a large
number of subdivisions and
PUDs. The Plan contains seven
land use designations urban
area, vested areas, rural
areas, community and
interchange, industrial, parks
and preserves, and coastal
resource management and
recreation areas. The major
focus of this report will be
on the so-called urban area.

The Comprehensive Plan of the
City of Naples, Florida,
originally adopted in 1979,
was last amended in 1984. The
preface to the City's plan
describes Naples' "special
uniqueness and charm" which it
attributes in part to its long

1 1

history of comprehensive
planning. It describes the
City as one of clean,
accessible beaches,
prestigious residential
neighborhoods and attractive
shopping districts which "have
created a unique
resort/retirement community".
The City's Plan indicates that
"efficient and economical
water and sewer service, solid
waste disposal, parks,
recreational facilities and
other amenities have been
provided as a result of the
City's commitment to provide
for long range planning for
these City services and

The City of Naples
Comprehensive Plan,
specifically its future land
use element, is described as
providing for "the best
organization and
interrelationship of the
various uses of land in order
to produce a safe, healthy,
convenient, and attractive
environment in which the
residents of Naples can live
and work". Development
proposals within the City
limits have been evaluated and
approved pursuant to the
goals, objectives and policies
set forth in the Plan and
conformance with the City's
Zoning Ordinance.

In 1985 the State Legislature
enacted a series of far
reaching amendments to the
Local Government Comprehensive
Planning Act, and these
amendments will have major
implications for Collier
County and the City of Naples.
Under the new State law and
accompanying regulations, both
Collier County and the City of
Naples will be required to

prepare a Comprehensive Plan
meeting State standards and
criteria and present such Plan
to the State land planning
agency (Florida Department of
Community Affairs) by August
1, 1988. The plans of the
City and County must meet the
"minimum criteria for review
of local government
comprehensive plans" as set
forth by the State. Such
local plans must also be
consistent with the State
Comprehensive Plan and the
appropriate regional policy

Although the State law
recognizes that local
governments are charged with
setting levels of service for
public facilities and services
in their comprehensive plan,
the 1985 law now mandates that
DEVELOPMENT. Thus, public
facilities and services must
proceed in tandem with
proposed developments. If
public facilities and services
for a development are phased,
the development must be
phased. The public facilities
necessitated by the
development must be available
concurrently with the impacts
of the development. Further,
the law requires that public
facilities and services,
unless already available, are
to be consistent with the
Capital Improvement element of
the local government's
Comprehensive Plan or
guaranteed in an enforceable
developer agreement.

Thus, the 1985 amendments will
mandate growth management
plans in Collier County and
within the City of Naples


directly tied to the
availability of the public
facilities and services.
Although this new law imposes
stringent requirements on the
County and City, it also gives
both local governments unique
opportunities for the
enactment of progressive
growth management plans which
will guide the growth of the
County and the City well into
the next century.

Both the City and the County
are hard at work in order to
comply with the August 1, 1988
deadline mandated by State
law. Collier County has
appointed a Growth Management
Coordinator and has set up a
Growth Management Committee
made up of a number of County

A Citizens Advisory Committee
composed of a broad
cross-section of County
residents is working in close
contact with the County's
Growth Management Coordination
Committee. An extensive
document entitled "Collier
County Growth Management Work
Plan" setting forth tasks,
assignments and procedures by
element has already been
completed. The future land
use task elements include
mapping, tabulation, analysis
of availability of facilities
and services to serve existing
land uses, analysis of
character and magnitude of
existing vacant or undeveloped
land, analysis of land needed
for future population,
establishment of goals and
objectives for future growth
management and drafting of
future land use maps.

The City of Naples is also
working to meet the August,

1988 State deadline. A public
workshop on future land use
has already been held by the
City. A draft of the future
land use element has been

There can be no doubt that
once the State accepts the
growth management plans of the
County and City, all future
local government land use
decisions must be undertaken
pursuant to the approved
plans. However, there are a
number of non-legal
constraints on future growth
that should not be overlooked.
Growth can be constrained by
the availability of
undeveloped land,
environmental barriers,
economic conditions which will
impact population migration,
readiness of developers to
build and availability of

In discussing future growth
management, the
interrelationship between
Collier County and the City of
Naples can not be
over-emphasized. The County's
growth policies will have a
major impact within the City
limits and vice-versa. It is
for this reason that, although
the goals of growth management
of the City and County may and
will diverge, there must be
maximum cooperation and
coordination as both entities
prepare their growth
management plans. Since most
of the land within the City is
already developed, major
attention must be focused on
the County's future growth
management plans and how they
will impact the City.

The Collier County Growth
Management Plan must have


elements relating to
residential, industrial and
commercial growth. Time
frames must be established,
bearing in mind the State
mandate regarding the
availability of public
facilities and services. This
will require the County to pay
strict attention to the
Capital Improvements Program.

Methods to implement the
County's Growth Management
Plan must be viewed both in
the short and long term. In
the near future, there is
concern that before the
Collier County Plan is
approved by the State, there
may be a rush by developers to
"beat the deadline". This may
have disastrous consequences
for the County's long range
growth management goals and
policies. As a result, it is
recommended that the County
give consideration to the
enactment of a limited land
use moratorium which will
enable the County to proceed
with the drafting and
enactment of its new growth
management plan without undue
pressure from developers.

In the long term, the County's
Growth Management Plan must,
as mandated by State law, be
tied to the availability of
public services and
improvements. Although
municipalities throughout the
United States have attempted
numerous growth control
techniques such as minimum lot
sizes, population caps, and
building permit quotas, we
recommend continuation of the
concept of the point rating
system as the primary
mechanism for the
implementation of the County's
Growth Management Plan.

However, the existing point
rating system as described in
the present Collier County
Master Plan and as set forth
in the Collier County Zoning
Ordinance should be scrapped
in favor of a new point
rating system in full
conformity with the 1985 State
Legislation, in which the new
point rating system also takes
into account the
recommendations set forth
elsewhere in this report.

Mention must be made of the
availability of annexation as
a tool by which the City of
Naples may control growth
outside its borders. However,
we believe that an aggressive
annexation policy by the City
will lead to needless friction
between the City and County
and may ultimately result in a
drastic change in the
character of the City, a goal
which we believe is not
desired by the majority of the
City residents.

Collier County and the City of
Naples are faced with a number
of challenges in regard to
future growth management. One
issue relates to future
applications for smaller
residential subdivisions. The
sentiment has been repeatedly
expressed that the smaller
subdivisions have in the past
caused more serious land use
problems than some of the
larger ones that were
subjected to more intense

The issue of vested
subdivisions is also
troubling. There are
significant amounts of acreage
within the urban area of the
County which have "vested" as
far as the zoning is

1 4

concerned, but have never been
developed. Any development
within these areas must be
undertaken in accordance with
new subdivision and PUD

In this regard, the County
must carefully review and
revise its subdivision and PUD
requirements. Future
developments should be
reviewed not only from the
perspective of the
availability of public
services and improvements, but
also how they relate to
environmental concerns such as
water quality, flooding,
drainage as well as ecological
preservation. These
environmental considerations
need to be embodied in the
land use regulations of the

The PUD regulations should be
revised so as to require the
developer to submit proposed
guidelines for physical
development of the PUD. These
criteria should be reviewed
and modified as necessary by
the County.

Both PUDs and subdivisions
should be so located and
designed so as to form
important linkages with parks,
open space areas and the
transportation facilities
within the County.

Future subdivisions and PUDs
must be evaluated
qualitatively as well as
quantitatively. Such criteria
as conformance with the
Comprehensive Plan,
availability of
transportation, water, sewer,
drainage, solid waste disposal
and parks are mandated.
However, there are other

subjective criteria which are
qualitative in nature. These
criteria include such items as
overall design of the
subdivision, scale and design
of buildings and use of
quality construction
materials. Quality
development can not be
mandated, but it must be

Lastly, a growth management
plan for Collier County must
be implemented so as to
encourage the types and
locations of future
development that will be
necessary to attract a mix of
new residents to the County to
achieve the diversity of
population which is so
important to the future of
both the County and the City
of Naples.

1 5


The City of Naples has evolved over
100 years into a quiet discreet
gulfside community. Naples'
distinctive charm emerges from its
proximity to the gulf beaches and
to the surrounding natural
landscape. The quality of life
that originally attracted the early
settlers to Naples is the same
quality which continues to attract
people to the area.

The natural environment is the
basis for the quality of life in
Naples and Collier County. The
environment exists through complex
ecological systems. The
hydrological functions establish
the balance between the uplands,
wetlands, estuaries and the Bay.
Understanding the ecological
balances is required to maintain
the quality of the environment as
defined by the natural systems and
enjoyed by so many residents and



S / Isolated Pocket

The historical section lines were
surveyed across the natural
environment. The sections, of one
square mile each, served
historically to the present as the
basis for land ownership. The
sections create a persistent
man-made grid with no relation to
the natural patterns.


Pattern of

Transportation routes create a
further overlay on the system. The
highways and roads generally follow
section divisions. Natural
patterns affect the circulation
alignments at various points. The
physical impact of the routes in
turn both affect the natural
systems and current and future
development patterns.

Utilizing transportation routes and
land ownership patterns, new growth
is taking place largely through
Planned Unit Developments (PUDs) of
varying sizes at scattered
locations across the County. The
land uses, form and image are
largely generated by the developers
and their consultants. To develop
true "places" like Olde Naples, to
which people have a loyalty and


sense of belonging, within the
unincorporated area each PUD must
be related to all other PUDs, to
the transportation routes and to
the natural environment, in order
to form new "places."


The Environment.

Looked at from the highway, the
environment is flat with treed and
grassy uplands contrasting with the
mangrove edged estuaries and
coastline. The dynamic
hydrological system of the
Southwest Florida landscape is only
visible on closer inspection. The
hydrological factors are the life
blood of the landscape and fuel the
varied qualities of the environment
in ways essential to both
development and ecology. Three
basic hydrological factors are at
work that dramatically influence
the shape of potential man-made

1. Water Quality the
identification and
protection of existing
and proposed wellfields
is vital to sustaining
existing and anticipated
population within the
Naples area. The
establishment of new
wellfields in the Belle
Meade area for the Marco
Island community
illustrates the
importance of a quality
water supply.

2. Drainage and Flood
Control Naples and
Collier County are part
of an enormous
drainage and flowing
ground and surface water
system. All developments

must respect the
regional drainage routing
system in order to
control drainage within
development areas and to
control flooding.

3. Watershed Protection -
major flow-ways affecting
the Greater Naples Area
originate from high land
in the Immokalee area and
move south toward Naples
Bay and the estuary
system. These major
flow-ways create the
critical balance needed
for the estuarian ecology
and upland vegetation.
Too much rechannelled
water or, conversely, too
little, rapidly alters
the complex life cycles
spawned throughout the
estuaries and bay. The
basic locations of the
principal flow-ways are
mapped. Development
planning must preserve
the continuity and
interconnections of the
flow ways as well as
striking the balance with
the sensitive natural
systems determined by the
naturally regulated
amounts of water in
particular flow-ways.

A limit to the movement of growth
to the east is recommended based on
the County's mapping and evaluation
of the watershed and
environmentally sensitive areas on
a macro scale. This mapping
defines an area of predominately
agricultural development in the
Immokalee area, and a large area of
urbanizing development to the north
and east of the City of Naples.
These two areas are separated by a
principal flow-way moving southwest
from the Immokalee area, through a
portion of North Golden Gate to the

1 7

North Belle Meade area. By
preserving this flow-way, benefits
derived will include improved flood
control, quality of water supplies,
and maintenance of the natural
visual environment. The natural
balance of the local environment
will be maintained.


The coming of the railroad led to
the division of the countryside
into a grid of one square mile
sections. The sections became land
ownership boundaries. The sections
have remained the common
denominator of ownership to the
present. As such, roadway
rights-of-way as well as utility
services have followed this
pattern. Since the section grid
has effectively no relationship to
natural systems and features,
planning must carefully balance
ownership patterns and
transportation routes with natural
system boundaries.


Historically towns and cities were
formed on rivers and harbors to
facilitate trade. Railroads
expanded development in the
interior of the country. Roads and
airports are the dynamic generators
of development. Roads and the
universal acceptance of the
automobile together with an
affluent economy have permitted
development of resort and
retirement communities in
once-isolated areas where natural
amenities create a distinctive
quality of life. Naples is such a

The west coast of Florida has been
served by U.S. 41 for generations.
Towns and cities grew off the U.S.
41 spine. Specialized services and
retail businesses grew within each
city. The route between the cities

has retained here and there a
semi-rural character, while
commercial strip development has
intensified as the Trail approaches
each city. As a consequence the
roadway has been steadily widened;
a further loss of individual city
character has ensued, and the
efficiency of U.S. 41 as a regional
transportation route has been
dramatically reduced. Many years
later, Interstate 75 was built
several miles east of U.S. 41 to
provide a new regional limited
access transportation route. 1-75
is now encouraging the growth
within a substantial part of the
County. The interchanges off 1-75
at Immokalee Road, Pine Ridge Road,
and Route 951 have created access
points for growth east and west of
the Interstate. A series of open
space corridors should be created
along major arterial roads from the
interchanges off 1-75, toward

As important as preservation of the
inland environment is, the
preservation of the fragile estuary
and bay edge of Naples Bay is
equally important. Any use of the
bay requires careful analysis,


evaluation, and implementation of a
regulatory program. An example of
a potentially risky use of the bay
is the proposal currently under
consideration for an 800 boat
marina. To properly evaluate such
a massive proposal, the community
must first evaluate the current
levels of bay usage and determine
both its current recreational value
in conjunction with its ecological
sensitivity and potential stress
under current and projected use
levels. A policy should then be
established which will define
future use of the bay; the first
priority of such a policy should be
the protection of the ecological
integrity of the bay, and creating
the most beneficial use for the
community. Any bay development
should not only be sensitive to the
constraints of the natural
environment, but also maintain both
physical and visual openness of the
bay from the land.


In light of the extreme sensitivity
of the natural environment and the
potential impact of the dynamic
growth of the area, the use of
landfills for solid waste disposal
is clearly inappropriate. The
Collier County Commissioners must
address the need for an efficient
technology for an integrated
program of resource recovery and
waste disposal immediately. An
appropriate environmentally sound
system should be implemented as
soon as possible.


We estimate that roughly two thirds
of the County's lands east and
north of the City of Naples and
contained by the growth boundary

dictated by environmental
constraints have either been
developed, have been approved for
PUDs, or platted for subdivision
development. As a rule, the PUDs
have been planned as self-contained
developments with little
relationship to adjacent PUDs, or
to any overall scheme of
development. The opportunity to
appropriately develop this large
land area in a manner that will
create identifiable urban centers
cannot be achieved under the
current approval process.

Development is approved under the
assumption that what will happen
will happen. Timing or development
appears to relate only to facility
improvements by the County with
respect to roads, sewer and water.

The R/UDAT study recommends a new
strategy for Planned Unit
Development in the County. We
recommend that three or four urban
centers be created within the
unincorporated area, for which the
goal would be to provide a wide
variety of services and activities,
and to create a sense of place
within their surroundings.
Residents of the surrounding areas
would come to identify with the new
town center, much as Naples
currently retains the loyalty and
affection of its residents. The
urban centers would create a
variety of opportunities for
employment and for social
interaction, around employment
centers, retail and commercial
facilities, restaurants,
recreational amenities, and mixed
housing types. We anticipate that
one center would be located in each
of the eastern, central, and
southern parts of the area, along
major arterials, well to the west
of 1-75 and Route 951.


Developable Area

Currently, PUDs have been approved
at densities generally in the area
of four units per acre, through an
evaluation based on a point system
established and administered by the
County Planning Department. The
team recommends that the County
establish a new approach, based on
a transfer of development rights
concept overlaying both approved
PUDs and unplanned lands. Each of
the urban centers would be the
center of a series of irregular
circles or gradients defining areas
of declining density surrounding
the center, and constituting
together an urban district:

^to/ VO

t. fLAHl 6A
AN $t VwEn.,

-r MANf


Urban center 1/2 mile
radius, mixed use/housing at
12 units per acre, recreation

Mixed housing 1 mile radius,
7 units per acre

Housing/retail convenience 2
mile radius, 4 units per acre,
recreation facilities

Housing 3 mile radius, 1
unit per acre, cluster
development, open space

Approved PUDs within circles of
density higher than the current
approved density would be able to
increase their density to the
permitted maximum by buying
development rights from a PUD with
a reduced density. PUDs in circles
lower than their current approved
density would receive marketable
development rights for the
difference between the two density
standards. In addition, areas in
which a mixed use was required
would have minimum requirements for
non-residential uses as well as
minimum standards for a variety of
housing types. Areas located in
circles of two different densities,
resulting from overlapping circles
of two separate urban districts,
would receive the higher density
designation of the two. In areas
not yet planned, the density would
be established by the gradient

densities would be to maximize the
diversity of housing types and

facilitate preservation of open

space, lessen the pressure and
impact of development on
environmentally sensitive land, and
create a zone of contrast between
different urban centers.


The County should develop overall
architectural, urban design and
landscaping guidelines for PUDs, as
well as other development above
certain minimum limits and sizes.
Based on these guidelines,
developers would be required to
furnish, at the time of submitting
a new or revised PUD, detailed
development site standards defining
the landscaping, grading, road
sections, recreational amenities,
lighting, signage and architectural
profiles for the PUD. Using these
guidelines, the County can then
evaluate the site concepts of each
PUD in order to create a shared
image and sense of identity for
each district, which can then vary
within each PUD.

"Multiple Center"

Development Pattern



Transportation facilities play
two roles:

1. Transportation moves
people and goods. This is the
most commonly defined role.

2. Transportation can be
used as a physical tool to
direct and shape urban and
suburban development. This
role is not widely recognized,
but should be. With the large
projected growth in Collier
County (an additional 92,000
by the year 2005 using the
medium projection prepared by
the Collier County Planning
Department), this role should
be an important part of the
effort to create the desirable
land use arrangements
necessary to create a high
quality of living.


Streets carry out different
functions in the total
network. When a given street
is asked to function in a
different manner than
originally intended, problems
are created.

A freeway is a high-speed,
high capacity route with
complete access control.
Interstate 75 is an example.
No driveway cuts are permitted
and all intersections are

An arterial street carries
both through and local
traffic. Arterials connect
communities and major traffic

generators (shopping centers,
medical centers, and
government complexes) by
providing a high
traffic-carrying capacity.
Arterials should form a
continuous, unbroken
alignment. Examples of
arterial streets include
Goodlette, Pine Ridge, Golden
Gate, Davis Boulevard, and
Airport Road.

A collector connects local
streets to the arterial
network. Local residential
streets feed into collectors,
which in turn connect to the
arterial streets.

A local street provides direct
access to adjacent property.

A functional classification of
streets sets the framework for
both traffic control and land
uses. It allows residents,
business people, and public
agencies to make decisions

The following table summarizes
the roles that each type of
street is intended to play.
Freeways and major arterials
are designed for movement
while local streets are
designed for access to
adjacent property. Arterials
are the links to major land
uses. Interstate 75 and the
arterials help shape
development more effectively
than collectors and local



Service Function
Movement Primary
Access None
Trip Length > 3 miles

Land Uses



3-5 miles

> 1 mile


1-2 miles

Potential to Shape Development
Significant Significant

Transportation facilities frame
provide accessibility in two class
ways. The first is closeness is pc
to central locations which are requi
those areas where the maximum land
number of activities seek inter
sites. High land values are provi
the result. Not all land
activities can afford central The f
locations so they locate in illus
other areas, accepting requi
transportation and other land
interaction costs to overcome
distance and separation.

< 1 mile


1/2 mile


< 1/2 mile



an accessibility
work and the functional
ification of streets, it
issible to specify the
rements for different
uses. The key is the
sections, because they
.de better access for all
uses except residential.
following table
trates the accessibility
rements for different





Land Use Categories
Residential Commercial

High Density

Medium &
Low Density

Low Density











Note that the above table
considers transportation and
land use together. This has
strong management implications
because transportation and
land use professionals in this
area (and most areas in the
country) work for different
agencies. The management
problem is further compounded
by the active roles played by
federal, state, regional,
county, and local agencies.
We are not suggesting one
comprehensive agency and we
are well-aware of the
coordination efforts that take
place. We are stressing the
importance of effective
management coordination
because of the large growth
projected in some areas and
the vital need to shape this

Historically, transportation
and development decisions have
influenced the form and
quality of life in Naples.
There is every reason to
believe that this will be true
in the future.

The following table contains
suggested design standards for
arterial, collector, and local



"5-w ^^^ : ^-^^4


/10: _
1 ol,9,IJA[J'l




Right-of-Way Width
Pavement Width
Median Width
Type of Curb
Width of Sidewalks
Sidewalk to Curb Face
Minimum Sight Distance
Design Speed
Curb Cut Spacing

100 to 120 feet
2 @ 24 ft. or 2 @ 36 feet
0 to 18 feet
vertical face
5 to 15 feet
0 to 10 feet
240 to 275 feet
40 to 45 MPH
Note #1
Note #2

NOTE #1: To preserve the arterial function of
outlying roads in the County (such as Highway-951),
we suggest 1,000 feet. Closer-in arterials should
have curb cuts spaced at least 500 feet. For
arterials with existing development adjacent to
them, we suggest reducing the total number and
discouraging curb cuts to the extent possible.

NOTE #2: For outlying roads in the County, we
suggest setbacks of 100 feet to allow for frontage
roads, landscaping, and building yards. For
closer-in arterials, we suggest 50 foot setbacks.


Right-of-Way Width
Pavement Width
Type of Curb
Sidewalk Width
Sidewalk to Curb Face
Minimum Sight Distance
Design Speed

86 feet
39 feet
vertical face
5 feet
10 feet
200 feet
25 to 30 MPH


Right-of-Way Width 60 to 66 feet
Pavement Width 28 to 34 feet
Sidewalk Width 5 feet
Sidewalk to Curb Face 6 to 10 feet
Minimum Sight Distance 150 feet
Maximum Cul-de-Sac Length 1,000 feet
Minimum Cul-de-Sac Radius (pavement) 30 feet
Design Speed 25 MPH



Arterial streets, especially
in the County, are generally
spaced one to two miles apart
and the right-of-way is wide
enough to accommodate
expansion. We commend the
County for recognizing the
transportation problems,
anticipating growth, and
making strong efforts to stay
on top of the needs.

The major actions necessary to
meet future needs are:

widen pavement widths
as needed (usually four to six
lanes within existing
acquire limited new
rights-of-way to allow
construction of a viable
network (primarily Livingston
and Logan).
preserve the
traffic-carrying capacity of
arterials by enforcement of
the design standards.
change signal timing
patterns and improve the
capacity of selected
intersections by means of
turning lanes.
encourage through
traffic to use 1-75.
resolve the problems
associated with the proposed
Gordon River crossing because
of the impact that this
proposal has on the East Trail
and the Naples central area.

Making sure that the arterial
street network is used
properly should be a high
priority. Arterials should
continue to be designed to
carry heavy volumes of
traffic. Curb cuts, which
provide access to adjacent
properties should be kept to a
minimum and subdivision

approvals granted with this in
mind. One important result of
this policy will be a
reduction in the number of
drivers seeking informal
bypass routes through
residential neighborhoods.

One person told us that there
are "significant and difficult
bottlenecks." Another said:
"people don't want to fight
commuting problems". In
looking at the traffic count
information, it is clear that
Naples is a small city with
big city traffic movements on
a few roads. Several
intersections have heavy
turning movements which
require separate turning
lanes. Since the major
direction of traffic is
one-way in the morning peak
and another way in the
afternoon peak, the number and
use of traffic lanes must
reflect this. The proposed
computer traffic system to tie
28 intersections together will

Some arterial streets will
have to be upgraded to meet
the traffic demand. Some
residents will object to
improving the arterials by
adding traffic lanes, but we
think improvements will be
necessary. Since
right-of-way already exists,
additional land purchases will
not be necessary. Residents
and businesses will not have
to be relocated. Improving
the arterial streets means
that major through and local
traffic will be on the
arterials rather than on the
collectors and local streets.
This will help preserve
residential neighborhoods. It
is consistent with the
sentiment expressed by one


resident who said: "We are
very protective of residential
in this town".

Properly designed arterial
streets will help promote
desirable land use patterns.
Commercial, institutional, and
industrial activities will
benefit by locating in areas
with good access. Residents
will benefit by living in
quiet, low traffic volume
residential areas, but still
have good access to
non-residential activities.

One phenomenon worth
commenting on is the change in
travel patterns among some
local residents during season
and off-season months.
Residents say they avoid using
the Trail during the season,
avoid making major purchases
during the season, and avoid
the restaurants during the
season. However, avoiding the
Trail means using collector
streets as arterials, and this
causes extra traffic in
undesirable locations on
collector streets.

The difference in peak hours
is also worth noting because
of its impact on
transportation planning. The
typical rush hour morning and
afternoon periods is common in
the County outside of Naples.
The City of Naples tends to
have a late morning to early
afternoon peak period in
addition to the commuting


Far and away the most
frequently-mentioned traffic
problems were locations along
the Trail. The shift from 6
lanes to 4 lanes north of

Solana, the East Trail, the
heavy turning movements at
some intersections, arterial
streets that don't always
cross the Trail directly (they
have a jog which causes both
Trail traffic and cross
traffic to use the same
section of street along the
Trail), the number and size of
the commercial activities (and
related curb cuts), the season
peaks, and the number of
tourists are all causes of the
congestion problems. To avoid
traffic, local residents who
know alternate routes tend to
use them, causing traffic flow
problems on some of these
alternate routes.

The use of bypass routes has
been suggested to us as a
possible solution. We don't
see the need for a brand new
bypass right-of-way.
Goodlette, Airport, and
Highway-951 are all major
north-south arterials which
can handle large volumes of
traffic. Interstate 75 should
handle as much through traffic
as possible. Basic traffic
engineering improvements, such
as signal timing, intersection
improvements, and limiting the
curb cuts and medians will
also help. Most drivers on an
arterial street are not
driving a long distance. This
means that a bypass will
intercept the through traffic,
which is only a small
percentage of the total.


There are three interchanges
on 1-75 now -- at Immokalee
Rd. (Highway-846), Pine Ridge,
and Highway-951. An
additional interchange at
Golden Gate Parkway
(Highway-886) has been


proposed and we were told that
planning funds are included in
the 1988-89 budget. We think
that an additional interchange
is likely to be a good idea,
because it will provide better
access, provide a major new
gateway into Naples, and will
increase development
opportunities. Accounting for
the drainage ditch east of
1-75 in the design and
engineering is clearly

The potential impacts of 1-75
are substantial, despite
initial impressions to the
contrary. The volume of
traffic on the interstate and
the arterial street crossings
will be sufficient to attract
developer interest over the
long-term even though it is
presently beyond the water and
sewer service districts.


We were specifically asked to
look at the traffic flow
problems on Crayton Road,
which is a collector street
that runs north-south,
parallel to the Trail. It is
a good example of a collector
that is functioning as a
bypass to the Trail when
congestion levels get high.
If the Trail could handle the
heavy traffic volumes at a
good level of service (LOS C
or better), drivers would not
seek an alternate route.
Since the Trail becomes
congested, Crayton is used.
One real estate businessman
said: "It is tough to sell a
house on Crayton because of
the traffic". A neighborhood
representative came to a
workshop for the sole purpose
of calling our attention to
the problem. The proper role
for Crayton is as a collector

as specified in the
transportation plan. Its
misuse as a minor arterial is
causing the complaints and
problems. An aggravating
condition is the length of
Crayton (from Seagate Road to
Banyan Boulevard, a distance
of about 3.3 miles). If it
were shorter, it would not be
as tempting to so many

Limiting the search for a
solution to Crayton Road is
not appropriate. A better
approach is to make the Trail
function better, then look at
making Crayton less desirable
as a through street, perhaps
by the construction of loops
or diverters to reduce the
total distance that it runs.


There is a proposal to
construct an additional bridge
across the Gordon River. The
intent is to provide
additional east-west access
and relieve congestion on the
East Trail, and help control
area circulation. Two
locations have been mentioned
-- (1) Central Avenue
connecting to the southern
edge of the Airport and then
linking to Radio Road and (2)
7th Avenue North connecting to
the northern edge of the
Airport and then linking to
Radio Road.

Despite the merits of the
proposal, several problems
have to be resolved. Both
locations are expensive and
neither is included in any
federal or state funding
program. Both locations would
intersect Airport Road in
T-intersections which would
force both north-south and


east-west traffic to use a
short segment of Airport Road
(because of the jog), and
there are environmental
impacts which would have to be

We cannot make a clear-cut
recommendation to either build
or not build this proposed
bridge until the implications
of resolving the problems are
clear. The traffic impacts
are positive, but the
environmental impacts and cost
are negatives.

to the shopping center). The
formal name for these
alternatives is "paratransit"
and there are thousands of
examples across the country.
We were informed that there
are several elderly and
disabled paratransit providers
that meet some of the need for
these two markets, but do not
have sufficient information to
comment on them.

We need to convey our
enthusiasm for the Dolly
Trolley. It seems to work
well and help create part of
the image that is Naples.


Complete reliance on the
private automobile is not
desirable. Children, some
elderly, and disabled people
cannot drive but have a need
(and a right) to make trips.
There is a need for other
forms of transportation
besides the private
automobile. Having said this,
our impression is that the
densities necessary to support
a regular fixed- route bus
route system are not present
in Naples. To our knowledge,
no public transit system in
the country makes a profit or
breaks even. All are
subsidized. With the low
densities that are
characteristic of Naples, our
feeling is that a public
transit system is not

However, there are
alternatives worth
considering, including car and
van pools, employer shuttles,
and the informal arrangements
people make to satisfy their
transportation needs (I'll
baby sit for you twice a week
in return for transportation


We understand that the
question of whether to
relocate the Airport is
resolved. It will remain
where it is. The cost and time
to build a new airport is
high, and the Southwest
Regional Airport is 27 miles

One participant at the
Transportation Workshop has
done extensive amounts of work
on the impacts of the Airport.
He raises the issues of noise,
air-ground safety in the
approach zones, property
values, public health, and
commitments made to bond
holders and the public prior
to the construction of the
Southwest Regional Airport. We
are very sympathetic to impact
issues, which are common to
many airports across the

The resolution lies in
realistic compromises. Air


traffic is important to the
economy of Naples, but airport
impacts need to be recognized
and mitigated. There is also
a management aspect to the
issue. A participatory
process seems to be slow,
time-consuming, and
unproductive at times, but the
Airport authority, residents,
and business people need to
recognize that each has
legitimate concerns even
though each group weighs them
differently. It is tough to
disagree with people
frequently and still work with
them over the long-term, but
it is better than the
alternatives of confrontation
and litigation.



Corridors & Arterial
Approaches to Naples

The City of Naples has estab-
lished a high standard of
landscaping along most of its
residential streets. The
landscape along avenues and
streets are clean, mature and
well maintained. The regional
routes within the City and
corridor approaches into
Naples from the County lack
the same sensitivity and
density of landscaping. With
the pressures of development
in the County and the quality
demands of the development
market, a vigorous landscape
policy is needed in the County
together with a responsibility
of the city to add a new
dimension for landscaping and
general imaging on its more
"public" thoroughfares.

The corridor and arterial
approaches, Pine Ridge Road
and Golden Gate Parkway (a new
corridor), require a strong
non-residential approach to
the streetscape. Trees of
matching variety and hedging
require mass planting in
multiple rows. Simplicity and
boldness is more appropriate
than gardenesque and timidity.
If palms are used, royal palms
or washingtonia or regularly
planted rows of sabal palms
are more appropriate than
queen palms or coconut. On
corridors, back plantings of
oak, mahogany, ficus or pine
would give strength and
dimension. Double or triple

rows of trees allow the
location of bike routes and
walking paths to be set back
from the vehicular roadways.
The ground plain should be
grass with grading that
appears natural.

Together with the strength and
simplicity of the landscaping,
signage should be direct with
clean graphics and support.
The lighting should be
obviously safe but discreet in
foot candles and design. The
Florida Power and Light


Company might be convinced to
introduce an alternative to
their standard fixture. The
new streetscape policy both in
the County and within the City
is strongly recommended to
initiate buried wiring for
public safety as well as
aesthetic appropriateness.

Signature Streets

Signature streets, defined on
accompanying plans, should
each be defined with a
specific image. A palm lined
road with oleander medians or
an arching tunnel created by
ficus trees are possible

The section of Route 41
between Golden Gate Parkway
and the Four Corners is
recommended to receive a
signature landscaping. That
section of Route 41 should
exhibit the "Pride of Place"
that residents present on
their own neighbor streets.
The street tree planting
should be distinctive, simple
regularity of planting with
hedging in the right-of-way.
Distinctive even lighting
would be appropriate. The
lines in this section should
be buried and signalization
pole mounted. Median planting
of low-flowering shrubs in
mass non-residential installa-
tion or grass and palms would
be appropriate.

Golden Gate Parkway




Special boldly planted gateway
planting at the highway
interchanges is recommended.
Multiple rows of mature palm,
pine, or leaf tree would
retain the entrance image at a
highway scale.

At the intersection of
corridor streets, including
Fifth Avenue and Route 41, an
entry statement of date palms
would be bold and effective.


\- LwA +4 -5 N Y-C

Intersection 41/Golden Gate Parkway


i-r '
1 j

Improving Existing Strip
Retail Development:

The strip development has
grown by rezoning and uncoor-
dinated individualism. The
textbook applications of curb
cut consolidation and tree
planting is necessary.
Parking lots visible from the
road should have one tree per
ten cars. The trees can be
planted between four cars
without loss of space but
resulting in a greatly
enhanced environment. With
car views at approximately
four feet, visibility to
controlled signage would not
be impaired.

New buildings should conform
to street wall elevations of
no more than three stories.
At key intersections the
building developers should be
encouraged to create focus
buildings with additional
stories and intensity of use.
The roof sections could rise
higher if stepped back from
the three story "street wall"
fitting within a sixty (60)
degree angle measured from the
center of the nearest
travelled lane, but in no case
should it exceed 50 feet.

Additional strip development
should be prohibited. Strip
retail should be alternatively
clustered in well landscaped
"courts" and discreet signage.


15c f.O-
I ew i(l A8a NoileS)







The existing patterns of open space
in the City of Naples are
non-cohesive, but there are ways to
improve and expand them. The
natural environment is rich and
diverse providing many
opportunities. The scale of Naples
makes walking, jogging,and biking
enjoyable. Nevertheless, pathways
and parks are limited, which affect
not only the way Naples looks, but
also the way it functions.

Open space and recreation are
vitally important to the urban
areas of Naples. Urban open space
provides an organizing framework,
within the City; particularly for
the pedestrian. Open space can be
a sidewalk, a water body, a beach
or a landscaped streetscape which
penetrates the urban fabric. Most
importantly, with increasing
visitors and County residents
coming to Olde Naples, a planned
open space system can direct and
focus people's activities away from
quiet, more private neighborhoods.
Additionally, varied types of open
space will create a wide diversity
of activities. A bold plan for
open space can attract and direct
new development. The function of
open space also becomes a visual,
functional, and activity organizer
and connector. An open space
system in the County should take
advantage of natural preserves,
lakes, golf courses, landscaped
transportation corridors and
sensitive environmental areas.


Open Space Framework Diagram

City Wide Opportunities

There are two goals of an open
space system in Naples: to create
a sense of place and to help join
the various sections of the City to
its natural amenities.

Access to Naples Bay


Naples Core Area Framework Diagram

x 0 0

In order to establish an open space
system in Naples, this plan
proposes to recognize those unique
characteristics of the City and
physically or visually tie them




3rd Street South

.*K<-;<<:<<<<<<<<0:-:.--.-<.-.-.-.----- -------- -----*- -- - -- - f -
Naples Core Area Framework Illustration


Existing access to the beach within
the city needs to be retained. The
County has a responsibility to both
its residents and visitors to
provide increased opportunities for
beach access outside of the City of
Naples. Parking areas need to be
provided where possible at least to
the same extent as in the City. If
adequate parking directly at the
beach is not feasible, remote
parking areas should be provided
augmented by a shuttle service
during peak use periods. The
Wiggins Pass area should be
considered a candidate for
additional beach access.

Efforts should be made to acquire
additional lands for public beaches
and adjacent parking lots as well
as public access points to beaches
located in developed areas.
Inland, attention should be given
to developing sites for alternative
forms of recreation.

Collier County : Open Space/Urbanized Area/Natural Overlay





County Wide Opportunities

The roadways connecting Naples to
1-75 and the County will create
opportunities for open space
corridor development. Other open
space corridors should connect
isolated "urban preserves" with the
macro watershed.

A major opportunity within the
County would be a large
recreational park. A potential
location has been identified
at 1-75 and 951, which could be
developed after the current quarry
operations are phased out. This
park could become an alternative to
Naples' beach and the associated
inner City park system.

?-' ...
~ ''
:~ .~ i.-
'~. ;-' _-~=..cts /
i ~ i
~: -i..=

..7. .

....,,, .-) .: -'"" :...
;:.-:,/ -,.-. -.

7. ....:

.,: "" ... "
" ,./ \ ,, -_." .

. .

Collier County Open Space Framework Diagram






u A,& p-
#114lo /17


The visit of the R/UDAT team to the
City of Naples and Collier County
has convinced us that policies
should be implemented by both
levels of government with regard to
the acquisition and preservation of
open space and recreational lands.
This is probably the most important
heritage which the residents of
Naples and Collier County can leave
to their children.

Both the City and the County must
diligently care for and maintain
existing public open spaces and
recreational areas. As the County
population continues to grow, there
will be more pressures exerted on
existing open space areas and
recreational facilities within the

The County should adopt an Open
Space and Recreation Map,
identifying all current sites and
targeting other sites for future
recreational and open space

Among the methods that may be
utilized by the County to acquire
new recreation lands are outright
purchase or even condemnation. The
County may also be able to persuade
property owners to donate land to
the County or convey open space or
recreational easements over their

property. These methods would
result in certain tax benefits to
the property owner. Similar tax
benefits would be achieved by land
donations to non-profit
organizations such as the Nature

In regard to new subdivisions and
PUDs, provisions for public or
private open space and recreational
areas are legitimate subjects for
discussion. The legality of
requiring open space and
recreational land dedications from
developers as a condition of their
approvals should be further

Alternatively, the developer could
be given a choice of making a
payment to the County in lieu of
land. Such payments could be
accumulated in a fund which would
be utilized to acquire and develop
new recreational sites within the

Finally, the zoning ordinances and
subdivision regulations could be
revised so as to incorporate
density bonuses for developers who
are willing to donate park or
recreational land to the local
government or allow bike paths,
walking trails or the like to
transverse their property.






The central downtown core of
Naples, an area that includes the
Third Street South and Fifth Avenue
shopping and business areas, the
area around Naples Community
Hospital, extending up the Tamiami
Trail from the Four Corners, is a
diverse and complex area in an
unmistakable state of transition
and change. It demonstrates both
the vitality of major capital
investment and market activity, as
well as the debilitating effects of
land misuse and increasing traffic
congestion. More and more of the
area is used for land-consuming
parking lots, while both sides of
the congested Route 41 are occupied
by commercial uses inconsistent
with the traditional character of
the community.

No single area within the
boundaries of the City of Naples
combines both the opportunity for
heightening the quality of the
experience offered by the
community, for both residents and
visitors, as well as for
significant private investment in
the community; at the same time, no
other area carries with it a
greater risk of undermining, even
destroying, the unique character of
the community. Come what may, the
status quo in this area cannot be
maintained; major expansion and
development is already being
planned for downtown Naples, while
regional growth is changing the
traditional economic basis of the
area. A perception that existing
growth patterns will sustain the
quality of this area in the long
run will, in all probability,
accomplish the opposite.

The Fifth Avenue commercial area is
in danger of losing its preeminence
as one of the County's principal


business district. Parking and
traffic congestion are a major
concern and a constant irritant for
both residents and visitors,
particularly during the winter
months. In other parts of the
area, undistinguished, block-like
condominiums, which are replacing
older single family homes, are
damaging the character of the area
without meaningfully enhancing its
economic base. While the success
of the south Third street resort
commercial area is a justifiable
source of pride to the residents of
the community, its success can have
negative side effects unless
carefully anticipated: traffic
pressures could affect residential
values along heavily travelled
routes between this area and Four
Corners. Even more seriously, its
success has spawned expansion of
the commercial activity in the area
which, unless carefully controlled,
could lead to the loss of the
distinctive character that has made
it a success. In other words, too
much of the same will kill the
proverbial "goose that laid
the golden egg".

Institutional and civic facilities,
commercial and retail buildings,
parking lots and parks occur
seemingly randomly within the area.
Scattered among residential land
uses, they act as isolated
facilities rather than as an
integrated system; they interrupt
the continuous sweep of residential
land use, rather than enhancing the
fabric of the community. Along
Tamiami Trail, the expansion of
Naples Hospital will create a major
land use only a few blocks to the
north of Four Corners. The area
between the hospital and Fifth
Avenue, however, is characterized
by low intensity, scattered
commercial uses. This area, rather
than enhancing the community,
visibly detracts from it. As an
entrance to the center of Naples,

it is both an economic and
aesthetic failure.



What do we see as the features of
the central core of Olde Naples?

A dramatic vitalization
of the commercial core;

A definition of an
enhanced civic and
institutional area;

S Reorganization of needed
parking through
construction of carefully
sited and designed
multilevel parking decks
and reduction of amount
of land area utilized for
parking purposes;

Recognition of the
significance of certain
special streets, such as
Broad Avenue, or Sixth
and Seventh Streets north
of Fifth Avenue, and
Fifth Avenue, itself.

Enhancement of a more
efficient less congested
traffic flow through the

Creation of a continuous


open space and parkway
system through the core
of the city;

Creation of diverse new
housing types and
attraction of new housing
markets into the central
area, emerging from the
pedestrian scale and
convenient location to
shopping, recreation,
employment and services.
This can include both
more expensive housing
designed to attract
"empty nesters", singles
and young couples, and
affordable housing in the
direction of the
hospital, oriented to
people working in retail
and service employment.

Creating an atmosphere
attractive to investment
consistent with enhancing
the character of the

Attracting visitors
without extending the
boundaries of existing
mixed-use areas, and
without negative impact
on existing homogenous
single family residential

Confirming the continued
vitality of the center of
Naples as the regional
center for special
commercial, financial,
health, education, and
resort-serving land uses;

Permitting greater
separation to be
maintained between the
activities of permanent
residents and those of
transient visitors;

Creating new pride in
Naples as the center of
key activities in a
growing region, rather
than fostering an
introverted or
protectionist attitude to
the rest of the area;
maintain the special
character of a place that
emerges from its dynamic
role within the region.

Addition of diverse
entertainment, and
lodging facilities
serving both visitors and
residents, including
facilities for community
gatherings, as a part of
the fabric of the central

The preservation of
historic structures,
which may require
mixed-use alternatives
providing these
alternatives are
consistent with other
neighborhood uses.


Creation of a special planning and
zoning district for the downtown
area, should have clearly defined
boundaries for the core area and
exhibit flexibility within land use
and subdivision standards under
clearly defined guidelines. A
detailed plan for the special
zoning district should be developed

S outlines the specific
uses and combinations of
uses appropriate to each
part of the district.
This plan should limit
the growth of the Third
Street shopping area to


prevent overdevelopment.
This may have the
peripheral benefit of
stimulating retail growth
in the Fifth Avenue area;
the plan should extend
the commercial boundaries
of the Fifth Avenue area
North between 6th and the
Trail and South between
Eighth and 10th to Eighth
Avenue. Institutional
and public facility uses
should be encouraged
between Cambier Park and
the hospital along Eighth
Street. Residential uses
of higher densities
should be encouraged
along the proposed, new
pathway and open space
systems in mixed use
areas and along the more
heavily travelled
streets. Lower
residential densities
should be encouraged in
other areas. No change
in height limitation is
recommended except in the
area between the hospital
and Fifth Avenue and
Eighth Street and the
Trail, in which case 50
feet is recommended.

sets forth the scope and
structure of the open
space, recreation, and
pedestrian circulation
systems within the

establishes a functional
use plan for the street
network within the
district so that the
traffic impacts on
neighboring streets of
single family character
is minimized.

establishes architectural

and urban design
guidelines for the
appearance of structures
and for relationships
between structures within
the district and provides
flexibility for design

establishes landscape
architectural standards
to provide a cohesive
landscape treatment for
plant material, signage,
lighting and street

While the entire area presented
would be a single special zoning
district, and would be covered by
an overall master plan, it should
be clear that there would be
different standards and objectives
to govern different areas within
the district. In particular, the
area within the proposed district
north of Fifth Avenue would be more
oriented toward institutional and
community-serving uses than the
more intensively commercial areas
to the south. Even within the area
north of Fifth Avenue, the area
fronting along Tamiami Trail would
be treated differently than the
area to the rear. In other words,
the plan would have to be sensitive
to the many significant
distinctions among the different
subareas some a little more than
a block in area within the

Establishment of a mix of
development incentives and impact
fees, as appropriate, to generate

parking structures

open space dedication or

pedestrian linkages -
walks and pathways


?.&srwi4UiL.L i _____________Lit


landscaping improvements

provision of street

The provision of these public
amenities both in the positive
sense in terms of open space and
pedestrian routes, and negative in
terms of removal of single-level
surface parking areas, is essential
to the success of the scheme.

Application of diverse financial
resources for capital improvements

S incentives to developers
to finance capital

impact fees linked to
measurable impacts of
specific developments,
such as parking off site.

creation of special
taxing district and/or
tax increment financing

S incentives to encourage
location of businesses
which contribute to
overall economic
development goals of

S utilization of parking

creation of new municipal
revenue sources,
including accommodation
tax, additional sales
tax, real estate transfer
tax (within special

assessments through
possible creation of
property owners
association to handle
common problems, such as

litter, parking abuse,
etc., affecting the
entire area;

incentives to developers
to incorporate parking
and open space network
effectively into project
master plan. Such
incentives might include
some form of TDR
(Transferable Development
Right) within specific
areas of the zone;

donation of land to
charitable corporation,
as discussed below.

A major element of the plan for the
district would be creation of a
capital improvement program and a
budget for realization of the plan.
Depending on the magnitude of this
budget, the municipality should
explore available sources of
financing, not excluding the city's
own bonding capability, for the

Once the planning and
implementation is in place, and the
first evidence of the
implementation is visible, it is
highly likely that significant
increases in property values within
the district, leading to increased
ad valorem tax revenues, will
occur. As a result, it is not
unreasonable to think of municipal
investment in this project as a
form of "seed money".

Establish a nonprofit charitable
corporation, which could be called
the "Historic Naples Development
Commission," to coordinate
planning, fund raising, marketing,
and ongoing maintenance and
administration of the district.
This corporation should be a
broadly based organization which
might include, for example,
representatives from groups such as


the Collier County Historic
Society, the Olde Naples
Association, Naples Civic
Association, Hospital Board,
Chamber of Commerce, and the Third
Street South and Fifth Avenue
business associations. In addition
to its general responsibilities,
the Corporation could sponsor
activities to increase awareness of
planning and design issues,
including design competitions,
awards, etc.

In conclusion, we believe that
execution of this project would
create a new focus for the people
of Naples and their community.
Instead of turning their back on
the development taking place all
around them, the project would
recognize and respond to the growth
pressures taking place not in a
way that would destroy the unique
and special character of the
community, but in a way that would
build on that character and enhance
it, while at the same time
enhancing the quality of life for
all its residents.



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As Naples and Collier County have
developed in recent years and have
become more and more attractive to
the affluent whether as year-
round or seasonal residents the
price of housing in the area has
increased. As housing has become
more expensive, a parallel trend
has increased the demand for less
expensive housing the dramatic
increase in the number of low wage
service jobs triggered by the
expansion in the area's resort and
service economy.

Between 1981 and 1984, employment
in services and retail trade in
Collier County (including the City
of Naples) increased by over 4,000
jobs. Since 1984, some 1,500-2,000
jobs have been added to that total
by the opening of the Ritz-Carlton
and Registry resort hotels alone.
The great majority of these jobs
are low wage jobs, often enabling a
worker to earn no more than $10,000
to $12,000 a year even in a full-
time year-round job.

When one looks at the greater
Naples area as a whole, it is clear
that a wide variety housing is
available. Although housing prices
in the city proper are generally
very high with limited exceptions
- in many of the outlying develop-
ments in the unincorporated area,
housing is found for sale at prices
beginning in the low to mid $50's,
including both modest single family
houses and condominiums. Although
less new rental housing is being
built, apartments are available
with prices typically in the
vicinity of $400 per month for one
bedroom units and $500 per month
for two bedroom units. The
majority of middle income as well
as more affluent persons seeking

housing in the area are able to
find housing appropriate to their
needs, at prices that they can

There are, however, many households
in the Naples area which do not
share in the housing choices and
opportunities available to the
majority. Through discussions with
a variety of local officials and
residents, three distinct groups
are identified as having unmet
housing needs:

Low income families living in
substandard housing conditions:
There are a substantial number of
low income families, many of them
black and Hispanic, living in
substandard housing conditions both
within the City of Naples and in
the county. An important group,
comprised of predominantly black
residents, are located in the River
Park area where housing conditions
are particularly bad and household
incomes low.

Low wage service employee
households: A service job in the
Naples area, even if full-time and
year-round, is not enough to enable
a family to obtain sound decent
housing. While a family with two
full-time year-round workers may be
able to scrape enough together to
buy a modest house or condominium
in an outlying part of the area, a
household where only one member has
a year-round job cannot. Many of
these families are those headed by
single women with children, others
are young single persons and
couples with small children. Many
of these residents were born and
raised in the local area.

The significance of the unmet
housing needs of this population
extends beyond the housing issue.
Many service and retail employers
in the Naples area are experiencing
great difficulty in finding


employees to fill the jobs that
have been created as a result of
the population and economic growth
in the area. More than one business
and community leader has informed
us that unless more affordable
housing can be provided, the
economic growth of the greater
Naples area and indeed maintain-
ing its present vitality could be
significantly impaired.

Senior citizens: Contrary to the
image many hold of the Naples area,
there are many elderly and retired
residents who are not affluent and
who are living on limited fixed
incomes, often no more than their
Social Security. Many of these
families are living in small single
family houses, many of which are
substandard, and which they cannot
maintain. The needs of lower
income senior citizens are likely
to include not only affordable
apartments, but also transitional
or congregate living facilities at
affordable prices, and nursing care

The Issue

A housing policy: The upgrading of
existing housing conditions and the
provision of affordable housing for
those in need is a fundamental part
of preserving and enhancing the
quality of life in the Naples area.
Provision of affordable housing is
not only necessary to meet the
needs of a substantial part of the
community including many long
time residents but is also
central to the economic vitality of
the area. For this reason, we
believe that both the City of
Naples and Collier County should
develop and adopt strong forthright
policies designed to lead to the
upgrading of substandard housing,
and the provision of decent housing
at affordable prices, to the
extent feasible, for all those

unable to share in the variety of
housing offered in the area to the
majority of its residents.
While the impetus for this recom-
mendation emerges from the
character of the Naples community,
it is also mandated by State law,
as a result of the 1985 Growth
Management Act. The criteria
adopted by the State Department of
Community Affairs to implement the
act require every city and county
to adopt a housing element which
must provide for:

1. Adequate and affordable
housing for both existing and
anticipated population, and
households with special
housing needs, including
rural and farmworker housing.

2. The elimination of
substandard housing
conditions, and the structural
and aesthetic improvement of
existing housing;

3. Adequate sites for
housing for low and moderate
income families, and for
mobile homes.
[Sec. 9J5.010(3)(b)]

Thus, this recommendation, coming
as it does at a point where both
the City of Naples and Collier
County are preparing comprehensive
plans in conformity with the State
mandate, is timely and appropriate.

As will be discussed further below,
this is a concern shared by both
City and County, and which should
be addressed forthrightly by both
City and County. While the
dimensions of the issue will vary
from City to County, and the extent
to which it can realistically be
addressed, it is still a shared
issue. Both governments can
contribute to meeting the afford-
able housing needs of the greater
Naples area.


Addressing substandard housing
conditions: Both the City and
County should address the existing
substandard housing conditions
within their respective jurisdic-
tions. The City of Naples is in a
particularly fortunate position in
this respect since the number of
persons living in deteriorated
housing is modest. The City is
potentially in a position to
assemble the necessary resources to
eliminate substandard conditions
and provide decent affordable
housing for all current city
residents. We believe that the
City of Naples should establish a
policy designed to lead, within the
immediate future, to that end.

The magnitude of the County's
problems is far greater and extends
well beyond the Naples area. The
housing problems in Immokalee alone
are vast and will require alloca-
tion of substantial resources
during the coming years. The
County has already begun the
process of exploring potential
resources to address the problem of
substandard housing; this is an
activity that should be extended
and expanded during the coming

Providing for low wage households
and senior citizens: Both the City
and County should adopt policies to
ensure that, as population growth
and housing construction takes
place, a reasonable percentage of
all new units will be affordable to
low wage households and/or senior
citizens. This should be in
reasonable relationship to the
distribution of different household
types in need. Such housing should
reflect not only the distribution
between young households and the
elderly, but also the distribution
of need among households of
different size, including small and
large families.

Realistically, this is a goal that
may have far more potential with
respect to the County than to the
City, at least while the City is
contained by its present
boundaries. It is not expected
that massive residential develop-
ment will take place within the
City of Naples in the future. To
the extent that such development
does take place, however, we
believe that this goal should be
embodied in the process by which
that development is reviewed and

What is affordable housing?

The term "affordable housing" means
different things to different
people. In a recent issue of the
Naples Daily News, a housing
development, selling for prices
starting at $169,000, was headlined
"luxurious yet affordable". When
we talk about the families
described above, we are talking
about something very different.

County officials have estimated the
average wage in Collier County at
$230 per week. Assuming that a
worker earning the average wage
works 50 weeks per year, he or she
will earn $11,500 per year. A
general rule of thumb is that a
family should spend no more than
30% of its gross income for rent.
On that basis, that family should
be able to find an apartment
renting for no more than $288 per
month. That should include
utilities. Assuming that the same
family, if it tried to buy a house,
could buy a house costing 2.5 times
gross income, or a house costing
roughly $29,000.

We believe that the income in the
above example is typical of many of
the households which are left out
of housing opportunity in the
Naples area today. For example,


the median household income in the
River Park section of Naples in
1980 was $9,476; increasing that by
20%, we would estimate the current
median income in that area at about
$11,400, or roughly the same as the
above example. Some low wage
households, particularly where
there is a second wage earner, earn
more, perhaps between $15,000 and
$18,000. Such families might be
able to afford to buy a house
costing between $35,000 and
$50,000, if they can come up with
the necessary down payment and
closing costs. Conversely, many
elderly persons on Social Security,
living by themselves, may earn no
more than $5,000 per year.


Tools for the creation of housing
opportunities for the household
groups we have identified above
fall into two general categories -
financial resources and regulatory
approaches. In some cases, as we
will see, it is the regulatory
mechanism that creates the
financial resources that in turn
make the affordable housing happen.
Finally, once the financial and
regulatory tools are in place, some
entity is needed to put it all
together to provide the "glue"
for implementing the program.

In this section, we will describe
briefly some of the tools available
to Naples and Collier County. In a
following section, we will look in
more detail at the particular
concerns of the River Park neigh-
borhood in Naples.

Inclusionary zoning: An
inclusionary zoning program is one
under which a developer is granted
a density bonus to produce lower
income housing, or alternatively,
the developer is required to
provide a certain percentage of

lower income housing as a condition
of approval of his development.

Inclusionary zoning has been used
to generate affordable housing in
many parts of the United States,
most widely in New Jersey and
California, but also in states such
as Massachusetts, Maryland and
Colorado. Developers have found
that their developments can accom-
modate as many as 20% of the units
as affordable housing without
noticeably impairing the market-
ability of the more expensive units
or potential profitability of the
project as a whole.

We believe that, under the
authority provided by the 1985
Comprehensive Planning Statute, the
County can impose reasonable
inclusionary requirements on
already approved PUDs, where
approval has not yet led to con-
struction. The affordability
standards for the units to be
required, as well as the number or
percentage of the total to be
required, should be based on a
careful assessment of needs and of
the economic impact on the various

Housing trust funds: Many
communities, including Miami/Dade
County, have established housing
trust funds to finance local
efforts to produce affordable
housing. The Florida State Legis-
lature passed enabling legislation
which permitted Miami and certain
other municipalities to impose a
surcharge on the real estate
transfer tax with the proceeds
dedicated to affordable housing
programs. Miami has used this
money to enable low income home-
owners to rehabilitate their homes,
to enable lower income earners to
become homeowners, and to assist in
the production of affordable rental
housing. The Naples and Collier
County delegation in the State


Legislature could work to broaden
the scope of this existing legis-
lation, so that it could be applied
to this area.

Other communities, most notably
Boston and San Francisco, have
imposed impact fee requirements on
the developers of non-residential
developments, office buildings,
hotels, and the like, keyed to the
number of employees added and the
increased need for affordable
housing created as a result. These
funds, too, can go into a housing
trust fund. In addition, the City
and/or County may want to consider
allowing some developers of resi-
dential property, subject to
inclusionary requirements, to make
a payment into the trust fund in
lieu of producing the housing units
directly. For a developer building
particularly expensive housing,
this may be an attractive

Trust fund money can be used for a
variety of purposes:

rehabilitation loans and
grants to lower income
homeowners, and to
landlords of inexpensive
rental housing;

acquisition of land for
construction of lower
income housing, as well
as site preparation, soft
costs, etc.;

low interest financing of
homeownership for low
and moderate income

rent subsidies to enable
lower income families to
live in more expensive
apartments than they can
afford through their own

loan guarantees, to
enable developers of
affordable housing to
obtain conventional
financing at reasonable

acquisition of sub-
standard buildings for
conveyance to a nonprofit
corporation or housing
authority for rehabili-
tation and operation as
affordable housing;

seed money, to facilitate
preparing applications
for federal grants under
existing housing

While there are relatively few
existing federal programs to assist
in provision of affordable housing,
there are some, including Section
202, which provide financing for
housing for low income senior
citizens; and the Community Devel-
opment Block Grant program, which
provides multipurpose funds for
improving conditions of lower
income people, including housing.
In the final analysis, use of such
funds is limited only by the
creativity and imagination of the
community, and the skills and
energy of the housing professionals
and community leaders involved in
the affordable housing program.

Nonprofit development corporation:
Resources do not spend themselves,
nor do regulations enforce them-
selves. Every successful local
affordable housing program in the
country has relied either on a
nonprofit corporation, a housing
authority, or some other public or
private entity to make the effort a
success. We recommend creation of
a nonprofit development corporation
made up of a combination of repre-
sentatives of development,
business, government and lower


income households to act as the
catalyst to carry out the lower
income housing programs of both
City and County.

This organization should be ready
to undertake a wide variety of
activity. It should be able to make
rehabilitation loans to lower
income homeowners, act as a non-
profit developer of new affordable
housing, buy and rehabilitate
existing housing, and work with
developers subject to inclusionary
ordinances to ensure that the units
are provided to families who need
them, and that they remain
affordable over time.

River Park

The conditions of the River Park
area in Naples should be addressed
as an area of particular concern.
In this area, located generally
along 10th Street North, between
the Trail and Goodlette Road,
between 1st Avenue North and 5th
Avenue North, live a substantial
majority of the City's black
population. Nearly all the remain-
ing black households in the City
live immediately on the other side
of Goodlette Road.

While 70 of the roughly 400 house-
holds that live in this area are
well housed in the Carver
Apartments, a development
constructed with assistance from
the federal government under the
Section 236 program, and many are
homeowners, roughly 200 live in two
severely deteriorated and poorly
maintained privately-owned housing

In addition to the severely sub-
standard housing conditions, the
neighborhood is adversely impacted
by a variety of light industrial
and warehousing operations which

nearly surround it, as well as a
Florida Power & Light substation.
On the other hand, the neighborhood
is conveniently located in close
proximity to employment and
shopping. The City has made a
substantial investment in community
and recreation facilities in the

One major issue is whether the
housing needed by this community
should be provided within this area
or elsewhere. There is no question
that provision of housing in the
area would only serve to maintain a
highly concentrated pattern of
racial segregation. In 1980, 96%
of all black residents of Naples
resided in the small River Park
census tract; 94% of all of the
residents of that tract were black.
It would certainly be desirable to
create opportunities for enhancing
racial integration in the
community. At the same time, we
must recognize that the limited
availability of land within the
City represents a significant
constraint; it would not be desir-
able to disperse a settled
community, particularly if that
resulted in families being located
in remote areas without adequate
access to jobs and community
services. At the same time,
minority families from the area
seeking to live in other parts of
Naples should have that

The first priority should be
rehabilitation of the existing
apartments. We believe, based on a
preliminary assessment, that it
would be more economical to
rehabilitate these units than to
demolish them and build new housing
on the sites. We recommend that:

The nonprofit corporation
mentioned above be
charged with the
acquisition and


The City of Naples
finance acquisition and
rehabilitation with a
general obligation bond
issue. Although the
project will be able to
repay the obligation, by
making these G.O. bonds,
they will be readily
marketable at a modest
interest rate below 7%.

The project should be
structured in a way that
will enable those house-
holds who can to become
owners of their units.
The City would take back
a mortgage on the
property from the non-
profit corporation and
would be repaid from a
combination of rent
receipts and lump-sum
payments when individual
units were sold (either
as a cooperative or a
condominium) to
individual families.

Once the rehabilitation of the
apartments has been ensured, the
City and the nonprofit corporation
should embark on two additional

A rehabilitation loan
program for low and
moderate income
homeowners in the
neighborhood, to enable
them to improve their
properties without
financial hardship; and

A program to acquire
adjacent vacant and/or
industrial land in order
to create sites for
construction of
additional affordable
housing for neighborhood
residents. In the event
that owners are not

willing to sell at fair
market value, the City
should use its condem-
nation powers to buy the
land, and convey it to
the nonprofit corporation
or to a housing authority
for development of lower
income housing.

In the final analysis, we
anticipate that most of the funds
that would be initially provided by
the City would be repaid. If not,
however, the number of households
in need is modest, and the dollar
amount required of the City would
be equally modest. The program
would be well within the financial
means of the City and would be a
particularly valuable undertaking.
Many of the residents of the River
Park community are among the
longer-term residents of the City;
they have helped to build the City
and should share in its resources
and opportunities.



A community's vitality can, in
the opinion of many, be
measured by the quality of its
higher education and cultural
arts programs. It is argued
that the integration of
diverse commercial,
educational, and cultural uses
enhances the character and
quality of a community and
increases its attractiveness
for potential high quality
economic development.

Availability of quality
museums, libraries, cultural
arts facilities, adds value to
a community.

Many cities including Dallas,
Texas; Washington, D.C.;
Minneapolis, Minnesota; and
Portland, Oregon; among
others, have instituted the
development of a "cultural
arts master plan" as an
element in its comprehensive
planning process. The
planning activities are
carried out differently in
each city, but they generally
present an opportunity for
broad based community
involvement and participation.
In Dallas, the Department of
Cultural Affairs appointed a
Blue Ribbon Panel on the Arts
and Economic Development to do
the job; and in Portland,
Oregon, its the City Arts

In each case, the publically
appointed body was charged to
conduct a planning process

through public involvement to
produce a plan that would
become part of the city's
comprehensive plan and would
provide guidelines for
coordinating the development
of arts in the city. This
planning model can work
equally well for a variety of
educational institutions and
activities, which could
potentially improve their own
effectiveness by combining

A comprehensively planned
approach is never easy since
the audience for cultural arts
events is fragile; many art
facilities of all types have
experienced the indignity of
empty houses and, as in the
case of Eugene, Oregon, ended
up closing a major award
winning building because of
the inability to cover costs.

Vision is needed and can be
provided by a joint
City/County commission on the
arts. We recommend that a
group be appointed jointly by
the Mayor of Naples and the
Chairman of the County Board
of Commissioners to
investigate and make
recommendations to their
respective governing bodies on
the formation of such an arts
agency. Consultation can be
sought from the National
Assembly of Local Arts
Agencies, the Florida
Commission on the Arts, and
the National Endowment for the
Arts-Local Arts Initiative.
Such programs have been
studied and implemented in
this fashion most recently in
Phoenix, Arizona. Such a
commission would help
consolidate efforts to produce
quality arts programs and
eliminate unnecessary


duplication of effort between
the City and County.

Similarly, a joint committee
should be appointed to enhance
any efforts to establish a
full two-year college in the
area. Given the need to
retain young adults in the
area, the need for employee
training, and the additional
potential market for its
services from the retirement
community, having this
facility in the community
would be highly desirable.

6 1


During the preceding sections we
have described a wide variety of
issues affecting the future of
Naples and Collier County -
population growth, transportation,
environmental protection, housing,
and many others. While each of
these issues, and our
recommendations on how they can
best be addressed in the coming
years, can be dealt with
separately, they all relate to one
another as elements in the future
growth and direction of the Greater
Naples Area. In this section we
have framed four different
scenarios, each of which summarizes
a different but broad direction by
which the City and County can seek
to address that growth.


This scenario reflects the
sentiments of many community
residents, based on discussions
with the R/UDAT group. It reflects
the deep-seated desire to keep
Naples essentially as it is, as a
community with a small-town flavor,
and to protect it from development
occurring in the County. As the
County would develop, Naples would
become a smaller and smaller part
of the County, not only in terms of
population, but also in terms of
economic activity, and social and
political influence.

More and more of the major economic
activities office, retail,
industry as well as the major
institutions, both public and
private, would be located outside
the City. Within the City,
economic activity would become more
and more oriented to tourism. In
the final analysis, a "no growth"
strategy will not maintain the
admittedly attractive status quo,
but will result in a deterioration
of the level and character of
economic activity taking place.

As a result of good planning and
environmental protection by the
County, the overall quality of life
in the area will remain high.
Attractive centers created around
major arterial intersections,
supported by public and private
investment, will attract economic
activity, and eventually foster a
more diversified regional economic
base. At the same time, sound
residential development planning,
coupled with the creation of an


i I

,,i~ +e
C c--


attractive open space network and
the greater affordability of
housing in the County, will make
the unincorporated areas more
attractive to energetic young
households. Except for certain
areas which will continue to
attract a more diverse population
by virtue of their particular
charm, the City of Naples will
continue to become more and more a
city of retirees, with the more
diverse population living in the
unincorporated areas.

M =- Y q p


This scenario reflects a different
perspective, but one also widely
held by Naples residents; namely,
that the City has a substantial
stake in the way in which the
unincorporated areas outside the
City are planned and developed, and
that the City should act
aggressively to protect that stake.
When we refer to "aggressive"
annexation, we are referring to an
annexation policy that is intended
to extend beyond the limit of
current city utility services and,
indeed, is designed eventually to
encompass all areas of
urban-oriented development now
within the County.

By controlling development
throughout the growing area, the
City may be able to ensure that the
development that takes place is
more oriented toward the commercial
and other centers within the
current City limits, and may to
some extent be able to slow or
limit the extent of overall growth
in the area. In view of existing
PUD approvals and subdivisions, the
extent to which this last goal

This scenario would, at least in
the short run, represent a "low
budget" alternative for the City,
since it would not have to extend
infrastructure, or make more than
modest ongoing maintenance and
repair expenditures within the
existing municipal boundaries. As
with any other growth alternative,
the County will have to make major
expenditures to provide
infrastructure and facilities
during the next two decades.


could be accomplished is likely to
be modest. In addition, it should
be stressed that annexation would
have to take place well in advance
of actual development in order for
it to have more than a nominal
effect on the course of that

The City would have to spend
substantial resources, however, in
terms of the bonding needed to
extend infrastructure to the
annexed areas beyond current
utility lines, as well as
substantial expansion of the City's
administrative and operating
capacity; it is likely that new
facilities, ranging from sewage
treatment plants to police
substations, as well as an extended
network would be required. It
should be noted, however, that the
City would be realizing additional
revenues from the areas annexed;
extensive analysis would be
required before the actual fiscal
impact and tax consequences of such
annexation on the City's citizens
can be predicted. In addition, as
the population of the new larger
City of Naples grew as it would
inevitably political power, and
control over financial matters, may
well shift from the existing
leadership toward the new center of
the City's population.

Collier County, with the greater
part of its growth area removed,
would be likely to revert over time
to something resembling its
historic rural character, and
County government would become a
less significant factor in
development decision-making within
the growth areas of the County.




This scenario reflects some of the
considerations in both of the
previous scenarios. As in the
first scenario, it assumes that
Collier County will adopt a sound
planning and environmental
protection approach to guide the
future development of the
unincorporated areas. As a result,
quality of life in the greater
Naples area will remain high. The
urban area of the County will be
characterized by the presence of
multifunctional centers organized
at the intersections of major
arterial highways, a strong
economic base and attractive and
diverse residential areas linked by
an open space network.

In addition to development in the
unincorporated area, the City of
Naples would carry out a major
effort to take advantage of its
particular strengths and unique
character to enhance the variety
and level of activities taking
place within its central area,
including the Third Street South
and Fifth Avenue shopping
districts, much of Olde Naples, and
other areas including the Tamiami
Trail immediately north of Four
Corners up to the area of the
hospital. The City will seek to
maintain a strong economic role as
one of the major centers of
activity within the greater Naples
area, and as a major social and
political factor in the development
of the area. Increasing diversity
in the business and cultural life
of the City, coupled with
increasing variety and choice of
housing, attracting a diverse
population of all ages, is likely
to maintain the City as an
economically and socially vital


I _- -v rS 6>?~~r

This scenario will require more
expenditures by the City than the
first scenario, but fewer than the
second. In order to trigger the
vitalization activities sought, the
City will have to initiate a
variety of activities, including
planning, possible land
acquisition, creation of public
amenities pedestrian systems,
open space, parking decks to
attract investment. It is likely,
however, that much or all of the
initial expenditures can be
recovered through a variety of
mechanisms, including impact fees,
incentives, user fees, and
increasing municipal revenues from
added development.


The final scenario represents an
extension of present development
trends into the future, without any
conscious redirection of those
trends. Within Naples, the trend
growth scenario is much like the
first "no growth" scenario; little
development will take place within
the City, except for scattered
intensification, including
replacement of single family homes
by condominiums in multifamily
residential zones, and increased
development capitalizing on the
success of the Third Street South
shopping district.

Massive growth will take place
outside the City, but without
overall planning in terms either of
creating centers of activity or
integrating residential
developments with non-residential

The role of the County government
is largely the same under this
scenario as under the first. The
major population growth will take
place in the unincorporated areas
for which the county will have to
provide infrastructure and
services. Although some additional
housing units are likely to be
created in the City of Naples under
this scenario, their number is not
likely to be enough to divert any
substantial part of the population
growth from the County. Since the
total level of regional investment
may not change drastically at least
some of the economic activity that
may move to the County under the
first scenario will be retained
within the City, or attracted to

development, with open space
networks, or with one another. As
a result, economic development will
be less effective and economic
activities will be scattered
between the City and County in
strip development along major
arteries and in a large number of
modest concentrations at

The quality of life in the area may
deteriorate as inefficient travel
patterns coupled with the increase
in population will result in
greater traffic congestion and
increased air pollution. As in the
"no growth" scenario, the economy
of the City will become more


tourist oriented and more congested
both during the high season and off
season, and its population
proportionately more and more made
up of elderly retirees and seasonal
residents. While the absence of
strong regional centers may enable
the city to retain a greater share
of total economic activity than
under the no growth scenario, it
will be accompanied by more
congestion and more negative impact
on City residents and their quality
of life. Although the County
population will be more diverse,
housing opportunities for low wage
earners and their families will be
limited and economic growth will
suffer from the shortage of

While the City will continue to
maintain a financially sound
position and will not, at least in
the short run, have to incur any
major new expenditures, the County
will experience substantial
financial strain providing
extensive infrastructure for its
growing population, expenditures
that may or may not balance out in
the long run by the increasing
revenues derived from that

The future is in the hands of the
people of Naples and Collier
County, and their political, civic,
and business leadership. It is not
too late to make decisions that
will fundamentally determine the
course of growth in the Greater
Naples Area and the quality of life
for the Area's residents and

1b e

* ,



Charles B. Zucker, AIA, Team

Charlie Zucker is Senior
Program Director for
Professional Programs at the
American Institute of
Architects in Washington. He
is a graduate of Princeton
University, Master in
Architecture and the
University of Illinois,
Bachelor of Architecture.

Mr. Zucker was formerly Deputy
Director of Design Arts
Program of National Endowment
for the Arts, Washington,
D.C., and prior to that was a
principal of an architectural
firm in Baltimore, Maryland.
He has particular expertise in
residential planning, design
research and participatory

He has taught at the Graduate
School of Urban Planning and


Policy Development, Rutgers
University, New Brunswick, New
Jersey; he taught
architectural design and
planning at the City College
of New York School of
Architecture and at Princeton
University. Mr. Zucker has
co-authorized the "Planning
and Design Workbook for
Community Participation." He
has worked with community
planning groups in Long
Island, New York City and New

Mr. Zucker was Chairman of
R/UDAT teams in the
Springfield Neighborhood,
Jacksonville, Florida; and
Portland, Oregon; and served
as a team member on two other

Alan Mallach, AICP

Alan Mallach is an independent
consultant based in Roosevelt,
New Jersey, providing
professional services in
housing, planning, economic
analysis and land development.

His expertise includes housing
market and economic
feasibility studies, land use
planning and zoning, social
research, development of
affordable housing,
preparation of neighborhood
revitalization and
redevelopment plans, designing
and models for regional
planning. He was graduated
cum laude from Yale University
in 1966.

Mr. Mallach's experience in
social/economic planning and
public administration,
especially as it relates to
housing and land use planning,
is extensive and impressive.
As Executive Director of the
Atlantic County Improvement
Authority, he was engaged in
development of lower income
housing, public facilities,
transportation facilities and
a convention center for the
Atlantic City area. Serving
as Research Director for the
New Jersey Government Study
Commission, a commission of
the New Jersey legislature, he
supervised research studies of
fiscal and social impacts of
multi-family developments,
planned unit developments,
neighborhood preservation, and
regional approaches to
providing public safety and
social services. From 1971 to
1973, he was Assistant Dean of
Livingston College of Rutgers
University, and prior to that,
held a number of positions in
the New Jersey Department of
Community Affairs and with the
City of New Haven,
Connecticut. He has been an
Adjunct Professor/
Lecturer at New Jersey School
of Architecture, Antioch
Graduate Center, Rutgers
University and Fairleigh
Dickinson University. He has

lectured at Harvard Graduate
School of Design, Woodrow
Wilson School at Princeton,
Loyola Law School and
elsewhere. Among his credits
are numerous publications on
affordable housing and zoning

R/UDATS are not a new
experience for Mr. Mallach -
this is his fifth!

Joel H. Sachs

Joel H. Sachs is a practicing
attorney and a partner in the
law firm of Plunkett & Jaffe,
P.C. located in White Plains,
N.Y., a suburb of New York
City. He specializes in
municipal land use and
environmental law. Mr. Sachs

also serves as an Adjunct
Professor of Law at Pace
University Law School in White
Plains New York, teaching
courses in municipal, land use
and environmental law.


Mr. Sachs received his
Bachelor of Arts degree from
Cornell University. He has a
Doctor of Jurisprudence Degree
from the University of
Pennsylvania Law School and a
Master's Degree from New York
University of Law.

Mr. Sachs previously served as
a law clerk to a Federal Judge
in New York City. He is a
former Assistant Attorney
General of the State of New
York where he served as Deputy
Clerk of the Bureau of
Environmental Protection.
Prior to entering private law
practice, Mr. Sachs served as
the full-time Town Attorney
for the largest town in
Westchester County, New York.

In Mr. Sachs' present
position, he represents both
municipal government as
special counsel and private
land use developers. He has
lectured extensively
throughout the United States
on land use and environmental
matters for various
organizations such as the
American Bar Association, the
Practicing Law Institute, the
American Planning Association
and the New York State Bar
Association. Mr. Sachs
recently received the Henry W.
Heissenbuttel Award from the
New York State Planning
Federation for his
contributions to the local
government in the area of
planning, zoning and land use.
He has also received an award
from the New York State Bar
Association for his efforts in
continuing legal education in
the field of environmental

This is Mr. Sachs' second
R/UDAT team. He previously
served on a R/UDAT team which
examined Carlsbad, New Mexico.

Eric L. Ernstberger, ASLA

Eric Ernstberger is a
principal in the
architectural firm of Rundell,
Ernstberger and Associates
located in Muncie, Indiana.
He is a graduate of Ball State
University in Landscape
Architecture and Environmental
Design. He is currently on
the faculty of the College of
Architecture and Planning.

Mr. Ernstberger is responsible
for management and
coordination of design and
graphics at REA. Significant
projects include the
waterfronts for Evansville and
Jeffersonville, Indiana, and
corporate developments for
Magnavox, Borg Warner and Ball
Corporation. He was the
principal designer for the
"Commons" at New Indianapolis
Zoo. Currently he is
landscape architectural
consultant for the Indiana
State Capitol Complex in


Mr. Ernstberger was on the
R/UDAT teams in San Francisco
and Niagara Falls. He is a
registered landscape architect
in Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio.

- C.

Redevelopment Plan,
Comprehensive Plan, Downtown
Plan, Gateway District, and
boulevards and neighborhoods.
He has organized and led
numerous public planning
workshops. His work as a
private planning and
architectural consultant, has
resulted in three AIA Urban
Design Awards. In addition to
public urban design positions,
Mr. Sehnert has worked in
several architectural offices
and landscape architectural
offices in Denver and

Mr. Sehnert is a registered
Architect in Ohio and has
National Council of
Architectural Registration
Board Certificate.

Paul David Sehnert, AIA

Paul Sehnert is an
Architect/Urban Designer with
the Denver Planning Office.
He was graduated magna cum
laude from the University of
Cincinnati with a Bachelor of
Architecture Degree.

Mr. Sehnert is an experienced
urban designer. In Denver he
has had major responsibility
for overall planning,
preparation of urban design
frameworks, detailed site
plans and development
guidelines related to the
City's Central Platte Valley

David W. Ames

David Ames is a principal of
both Amesco, Inc. and

7 1

Development Associates, Inc.
in Hilton Head Island, South
Carolina. He was graduated
from the University of
Pennsylvania with a Masters
Degree of Architecture and
Princeton University with a
Bachelor of Arts degree.

As a developer, Mr. Ames has
developed a number of
successful residential
communities of varying
densities on Hilton Head
Island and along other
locations on the South
Carolina coast. Long Cove
Club on Hilton Head Island, an
award winning project,
comprises 660 acres and has
generated sales of
$50,000,000. He is also
developing a 300 acre planned
residential development
outside Charleston, South
Carolina. As Vice President
of Sea Pines Company, his
responsibilities included
community planning for 34,000
acres of developed land
containing 28,000 dwelling

Mr. Ames is currently Chairman
of the Hilton Head Island
Economic Diversification,
Vice-Chairman of the Chamber
of Commerce, one of the
founding members of Hilton
Head Island Civic Association,
and a member of the Island's
Comprehensive Plan Action
Committee. Mr. Ames served on
the Bethel Island, California,

Albert Rick Lamb III, ASLA

Rick Lamb is an accomplished
landscape architect,
practicing as a principal of
The SWA Group in Boston. He
holds a Master's degree in
Landscape Architectures from
the University of Michigan and
Bachelor's degree from the
Rhode Island School of Design.

He currently is a lecturer at
the Center for Real Estate
Development at M.I.T., and in
1980-1981 served as Visiting
Critic in Landscape
Architecture at Harvard's
Graduate School of Design.
From 1968-1970 Mr. Lamb was a
Rome Prize Fellow at the
American Academy in Rome.

Mr. Lamb has significant
experience in resort planning
and as a designer and project
manager of residential
communities and mixed-use
developments. Prior to his
association with The SWA
Group, he was principal of his


own consulting practice, and
prior to that senior designer
for Dan Kiley and Partners in
charge of the Paris, France
office. He has collaborated
on award winning projects,
including Faneuil Hall Market
Place in Boston, Harbor Place
in Baltimore, Alaska State
Capital Competition, three
Intercontinental hotels in the
Middle East, and Project Le
Defense in Paris.

Mr. Lamb is a Registered
Landscape Architect in
Massachusetts and Maryland,
and a member of the American
Society of Landscape

transportation planning, city
planning, public policy
analysis, and computer
modeling. He has a Master's
Degree in City Planning from
M.I.T. and a Bachelor of Arts
in Political Science from the
University of Pennsylvania.

As a private consultant, Mr.
Kuner has carried out
assignments in more than 50
communities in 21 states.
Prior to founding New
Alternatives in 1975, he was
Senior Associate for a
transportation planning firm
in Chicago and a Chief
Transportation Planner at the
Boston Redevelopment
Authority. He has worked
extensively on traffic flow
problems, parking in downtown
areas, and related
environmental impacts. Many
of his papers on corridor
analysis, transportation
centers, transit facilities
and computer models have been
published in professional

Mr. Kuner is an Adjunct
Professor in the Masters of
Public Administration program
at Illinois Institute of
Technology. He has previously
taught at Loyola University,
and lectured at Boston
University, Brandeis, Harvard,
Tufts, and the University of
Illinois at Chicago.

This is Mr. Kuner's fourth

Rick Kuner, AICP

Rick Kuner is President of New
Alternatives, Inc., a
Chicago-based private
consulting firm offering
services in the areas of


Jeffrey Wright, Student

Jeff is a second-year student
at the University of Miami
majoring in both Architecture
and Motion Pictures.
Previously from Ft.
Lauderdale, Florida, he
resides with his wife in North
Miami. His experience at this
date includes employment with
the City of Miami Planning
Dept.; Jung-Brannen
Architects, Boston, Mass.;
Drummey, Rosane, & Anderson
Architects, Newton Center,
Mass. Most recently, Jeffrey
participated on a team that
received an Honorable Mention
as entrants in the University
of Miami Masterplan

Dana Little

Dana Little is a lifetime
resident of Miami, Florida and
is currently in his third year
at the University of Miami
School of Architecture.
Dana's interest in
architecture began at an early
age through his father's
influence and eventually
escalated into various
drafting and design jobs
throughout high school and
college years. Dana is a
lifeguard and teaches adult
swimming lessons throughout
the school year at the
University and spends his
summers training parents and
instructors in swimming safety
and technique.

Odalys Leonor Martinez

Odalys Martinez is a student
at the University of Miami,
presently completing her
fourth year in the School of
Architecture. She has worked
with architects since 1984 and
is presently working on CAD
intergraph systems.

Odalys is now living in Miami
and intends to practice
architecture there.

Felix Pereira

Mr. Pereira is a fourth year
student at the University of
Miami School of Architecture.
Felix's architectural
interests center around his
desire to further develop
municipal zoning codes. After
graduation Felix plans to
enter airport safety planning.

Elizabeth A. Piotrowski

Elizabeth A. Piotrowski is a
first-year architecture
student at the University of
Miami. Being a transfer
student from Buffalo, New
York, she feels the locational
change has been a positive
aspect with regard to her
education. Her future plans
include pursuing an
architectural career in
Florida. Presently, she is
employed at the School of
Architecture and is the
student representative for the
University Alumni Association.


Christopher J. Taylor

Christopher J. Taylor is a
graduating senior studying
architecture at the University
of Florida. In the summer of
1986, he studied in Vicenza,
Italy, concentrating on
sketching as a means for
analysis of the urban form.
After graduation in May, he
plans to work until the fall
of 1988 when he will begin
study at Harvard University in
the Graduate School of Design.

Christopher is a resident of
Naples, son of John and Ann


Michael Watkins
Anthony Ridgway
John Larson
Allan L. McLeod, Jr.
James Dziewik
Joan Tobin
Roger Lacy
Dennis Lynch
Ben Wood
Robert Wallace
Charles Dwight
Thomas Peek
John Conroy
Byron Koste
Clifford Barksdale
Scott Lutgert
David Bennett
Allan Slaff
Edward McMahon
Scott Foster
Alden Rudd Crawford
William I. Brickman
Toivo Tammerk
Mark Benedict
Stanley Hole
Chris Busk
Herbert Anderson
Chris Holley
Jon Staiger

Franklin Adams
Michael Arnold
Hubert Howard
George Archibald
Lyle Richardson
John Graver
Franklin C. Jones
Ann Walker
Trish Thompson
Steve Ball
Robert Tiffany
Fritz Hediger
Jeff Perry
Betty Gulacsik
Willie Anthony
Brad Estes
Herbert Cambridge
Charles Mohlke
Bruce Hayhoe
John Passidomo
Lodge McKee
Harry Cunningham
Almeida Evans
Robert C. Demarest
Donald E. Flock
Davud Pettrow
Charles Gauthier
Missy McKim
Jane Fitzpatrick
Wanda Jones


Brad Estes
Bob Schroer
Dudley Goodlette
Lodge McKee
Al French
David Humphrey
Andrea C. Brown
Allyn French
Elise Sechrist
George Orban
Frederick Sweitland
Pat Flock
Don Flock
Charlie Andrews
Lee Robbins
W. T. Doar


Mitchell Rubin
Trish Thompson
Ann Walker
Steve Ball
Aggie Dement
Nadya Nick
Ruth K. W. Fisher
Myra J. Daniels
C. M. Long
Mabel Laughlin
Rev. Robert Laughlin
Mr. & Mrs. George Rippers
Marty Bonvechio
Jan Jones
Jeanne Bloodgood
Pat Tompkins
Marjorie Hemmer
Michael J. Botes, Sr.
Frank L. DelleLese
Dick Faricy
Almeida Evans
Harry Cunningham
Herbert Cambridge
Brenda Hawkins
Richard DeGette
Willie Anthony
David J. Pettrow
Chuck Mohlke
Toivo Tammerk
Bob Tiffany
David Eagleson
Charlotte Westman
Marion deForest
Judith deF. Taves
Chuck Neal
Woody Campbell
Barb MacMichael



Edwin J. Putzell, Jr.

Naples City Council

Kim Anderson-McDonald
William E. Barnett
William F. Bledsoe
Alden'R. Crawford, Jr.
John T. Graver
Lyle S. Richardson

City of Naples, Planning Advisory

C. Lodge McKee II, Chairman
Hubert Howard
John Passidomo

City Staff

Franklin C. Jones, City Manager
Roger Barry, Community Development
David W. Rynders, City Attorney
Gerald Gronvold, City Engineer
Jon C. Staiger, Ph.D., Natural
Resources Manager
Christopher Holley, Community
Services Director
Ann Walker, Planner I
Trish Thompson, Planner II
Steve Ball, Chief Planner

Collier County Commission

Max Hasse, Chairman
John Pistor

Collier County, Planning Commission

Edward J. Oates, Jr., Chairman

County Staff

George Archibald, County Engineer
Mike Arnold, Utility Department
Jane Fitzpatrick, Growth Management
Wanda Jones, Director of Housing


Charles Gauthier, Chief of Long
Range Planning
David Pettrow, Community
Development Director
Missy McKim, Zoning and Planning

Metropolitan Planning Organization

Jeffory Perry, MPO Staff Planner

Southwest Florida Regional Planning

Wayne Daltry, Executive Director

Airport Authority

Robert Tiffany


Alfred W. French III, Co-Chair
C. Lodge McKee II, Co-Chair
Edward J. Oates, Jr., Co-Chair
Willie Anthony
David S. Bennett
Brad Estes
Marcia Flinn
J. Dudley Goodlette
Toivo Tammerk
Henry Watkins, Jr.

Roger J. Barry
David J. Pettrow
Robert Schroer



The Naples R/UDAT has been
generously supported by funds given
by the City of Naples, Collier
County, numerous organizations and

Susan L. Grippin
Shirley D. Mann
Jodie M. O'Driscoll
Patricia L. Rambosk


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