• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Index
 Part I. Stories of travel or, trips...
 Part II. Stories of history, discovery,...
 Part III. The lives of our...
 Part IV. Composition outlines,...
 Part V. Motion songs and exerc...
 Part VI. Elocution: Home, school...
 Part VII. Charades dialogues dramas...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Delightful stories of travel at home and abroad : a book containing charming tales about places of interest here and there upon the globe : also recitations, readings and dramas together with short sketches of the lives of our presidents
Title: Delightful stories of travel at home and abroad
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083791/00001
 Material Information
Title: Delightful stories of travel at home and abroad a book containing charming tales about places of interest here and there upon the globe : also recitations, readings and dramas together with short sketches of the lives of our presidents
Physical Description: 349, 1 p. : ill. (some col.), music ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Fowler, Allen E
World Bible House ( Publisher )
Publisher: World Bible House
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: c1895
 Subjects
Subject: Travel -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Presidents -- Biography -- Juvenile literature -- United States   ( lcsh )
Children's poetry   ( lcsh )
Children's stories   ( lcsh )
Children's poetry -- 1895   ( lcsh )
Children's stories -- 1895   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1895
Genre: Children's poetry
Children's stories
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Allen E. Fowler ; handsomely illustrated.
General Note: Includes index.
General Note: Frontispiece printed in green.
General Note: Copy imperfect: lacks circa 100 pages from various parts of text. Last numbered page is 321.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083791
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002223449
notis - ALG3698
oclc - 47217656

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Preface
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Index
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Part I. Stories of travel or, trips here and there among all nations
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
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        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Part II. Stories of history, discovery, invention, fiction and every day life
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
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        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Part III. The lives of our presidents
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
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        Page 127
        Page 128
    Part IV. Composition outlines, letter writing, memory gems, manners, things worth remembering
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
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        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Part V. Motion songs and exercises
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
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        Page 176
    Part VI. Elocution: Home, school and Sunday school--new, charming, original
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
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        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
    Part VII. Charades dialogues dramas and games
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
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        Page 331
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        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
    Back Matter
        Page 351
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text





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A GOOD CATCH.








DELIGHTFUL



STORIES oF TRAVEL
AT

HOME AND ABROAD


A BOOK CONTAINING CH APMiNGj TALES ABOUT PLACES OF INTEREST HERE AND THEPE UPON THE GLOBE


RECITATIONS, READINGS AND DRAMAS


'1 '-, E HiH.* i i f *, '1 r 1. ilI.- ,1


THE LIVES (OF


OUR PRESIDENTS


BI- PPOF. ALLEN E. FOWLER



-IAINDSOhL iLV II_ L Tr_TSTRA.TE


W':'LD ELI;LE HOiSEL,
'i-IL.DIELPiHI.\, PA.


































Copyrighted by
K. T. BOLAND.
1895.












PRE FA E





IN placing "THI5 USEFUL AND BEAUTIFUL NEW
BOOK" before the public, we can do no better than quote
the immortal words of SHAKESPEARE:

"'Tis well to be amused;
But when music does instruction bring,
'Tis better."

Since SHAKESPEARE'S time this idea has grown, until, to-day, the
thinkers, the teachers and the mothers have come to realize with wonder-
ful force, the mighty sentiment which that great -man expressed.

"FROEBEL," the great child teacher, you remember, also, used for
his motto, "Come, let us live with our children."

Think you, dear mother, that the analysis of a plant by the aid
of a microscope, or the study of Astronomy by means of a telescope,
or the solving .of a problem by Algebra, is less lasting, because taught
in a happy manner? A thousand times, No! Impressions made this
way are never forgotten., The difficult task is made easy, and yet,
stamped indelibly upon the memory.







PRE FA CE-CONTINUED.


Can you, dear teacher, think of anything sweeter or pleasanter to
the ear than the merry laugh of a happy, joyous girl or boy?
Laughter is a tonic-a medicine. The spirit needs it, as the
mind needs instruction. The earth needs showers, but if it did not catch
and hold the sunshine, where would all the brightness and beauty be?

We have come to you, dear public, many times with our publica-
tions, and receiving always a royal welcome--we have "come again "-
because we love the children. Each time we aim to give them
newer, better and nobler books.
This volume must of necessity fill a long-felt want. The aim is to
amuse and yet to instruct.

PART I contains Stories of Travel, or Trips Here and There Upon the
Globe.

PART II-Stories of History, Invention and Discovery.

PART Ill-Sketches of Early Boyhood and the Lives of Our Presidents.

PART IV- Composition Outlines, Letter Writing and Memory Gems.

PART V-Motion Songs, Exercises and Games.

PART VI-Elocution-or Recitations for All Ages.

PART VII- Charades, Dialogues and Dramas.

This book we dedicate to the dear boys and girls, believing it
will prove a profit and a delight all the year 'round.


THE PUBLISHERS.












INDEX TO CONTENTS.


PAGE
A Yearin South America..--..---. 13
Africa, The Story of............... 19
Africa, The Cities of _- --_ -..... 27
Asia, The Story of --.-------. .. 30
Adams, John .-----..---- ....---94
Adams, John Quiney---.---------. 102
Arthur, Chester Alan_ -------..-- 124
A Comical Couple, (Music)_----- 150
A Christmas Song, (Music) -.,--- 168
A TrIue Story ---------------..- 179
A Reminiscence of the Fourth---. 179
A Boy--......-.........-------... 193
A Closing Address -------------- 206
Asleep at the Switch -- ....---- 206
A Stray Sunbeam --------..---.. .. 214
A Voice from the Poor House------ 217
An Honest Rumseller's Advertisement 227
A Word ----..- ------.----- .. 245
A Young Seamstress_------------ 247
A Sermon in Rhyme ----------... 252
A- Bit of Advice---------- ....... 260
A Wise Decision--..--............ 261
A Sign Board--...- ......------- 293
A Hero....----........... ....... 300
Advice.----.. -----...-----.---..- 302
An Interview, Dialogue.... ...----343

Brooklyn Bridge------------.. --.. 74
Buchanan, James ----..-----...--. 115
Business Maxims for Boys -.------ 134
Bovs, to the..----------..-----... 140
Busy Children, (Music) ..---..- 151
Buttercups and Daisies, (Music) --- 163


PAGE
Billy's Rose --------............. 233
Beautiful Grandmamma----------.. 257

City of Paris----....---------..-- 48
Cairo, The City of --...... --- 28
Ceylon, The City of -------------- 37
Cleveland, Grover--- ------------ 125
Closing Song, (Music)----------- 174
Charlic and his Father --...---- 235
Christmas Snow-flakes .---.-----. 238
Closed f r Invoice----....------ 239
Could You........ .........---. 250
Chickens Come Home to Roost..-... 301
Choice of Occupation, Dialogue-_._- 333
Christmas Gifts, Dialogue ----.. ... 334
Children's Working Mission, Dialogue 340
Christmas Bells, Dialogue .-----. 345

Dimes and Dollars ------....---- 266
Days, Charade...- --- ......--- 324

Europe, The Story of..--...--....... 39
Europe, The Cities of ..-------... 43
Esquimaux, The_ ...-----------. 65
Exercises Composition -----.------ 130
Easter Eggs--_ -----.......--.- -- 180
Entertaining Her Big Sister's Beau 243
ElizabethZane -- ..----- -........ 278
Early Christmas Morning-......-- 305

Filmore, Millard ...........--- .-- 112
Faith in God -----..---------...... 229
For the Children--..........-.---- 233
Friday Afternoon-----.. -...---- -. 304







8 INDEX TO CONTENTS.


PAGE
Faith and Works. ------..------.. 313
Flash, the Fireman's Story-------- .314
Fruit Verses, Dialogue .----------- 339

Genoa, The City of ..------------- 47
Glacier, Story of The----.--------- 76
Garfield, James Abram -----------. 123
Grant, Ulysses S. --.------------ 120
Gems, Memory __--_------------- 134
Guessing Game, (Music) ---------- 155
Good Morning Merry Sunshine (Mu-
sic) ............---- --- -------- 166
Grandfather's Clock, (Music) -..---. 172
Grind Your Axe in the Morning _..- 181
Grandfather's Story --------------
Grandfather's Reverie .----------- 195
Going Home To-day--- -------.- 197
Good Night ...........------------ 230
Going Towards Sun-down---------- 232
Good Old Mothers---.----.------- 240
"God is Nowhere "---------.. ---- 243
Grandmother's Love Letter -------. 286
Guilty or Not Guilty -...----.----- 291
Golden Keys. -------.----------- 329


Harrison, Benjamin --..--- ------
Harrison, Wm. Henry ---..-------.
Hayes, Rutherford .......-----..
His Mother's Songs ------------
Humility _---- ----------.------
How Jane Conquest Rang the Bell..
Hannah, Jane ..----------------..
Holidays, Charades ..-------...........

Independence Hall---- -......-----
Indians, The ...-----------------.
Inasmuch.------- --------------
In School Days-----------------
Indirection..-------..----------...


126
106
122
213
274
287
216
323

54
61
183
202
210


PAGE
In The Barn.---.......... ------- -
I See The Point ---...-- ..---..--- 291
I'll Take What Father Takes ...._ 297
Investigate, Charade -----.-------- 325

Jefferson, Thomas------- ...----- 96
Jackson, Andrew ---------------- 103
Johnson, Andrew.......------------ 119

Kisses..--------...-.--. ---. .- 301

Lincoln, Abraham .------------- 116
Letter Writing, The Art of_------- 133
Little Birdies, (Music).---.------ 152
Little Ben Bule ..--.....--------- 153
Lazy Jamie, (Music) ------ ----- 156
Little Mother Hubbard, (Music) 157
Letters_--- --.---.----.-- ---- 212
Learning to Pray------------..-- 230
Little Lucy-------....... ------- 231
Love One Another,------ .. .-- 239
Little Foes of Little Boys --------- 245
Little Steenie--- -------..--- 247
Little Dora's Soliloquy-.. ..------ 251
Luck .-------------------- 265
Little Fred.---. ---.-------.--..... 267
Love and Laughter ..-----. ....-- 302

Magna Charta, The........-- ..---- 88
Madison, James-----------------.. 99
Monroe, James ---. .-------.....--- 100
Manners. ----.------------------ 135
Marching Song, (Music) ------- 152
Mother Golden Head, (Music) .---_ 158
Morning Prayer, (Music) --..---- 164
Matrimony..----..... -------- 187
Mat and Hal and I .---..-. --- 226-
My Darling's Shoes -----.... -- ... 237
My Bread on the Waters...--.....- 255







INDEX TO CONTENTS.


PAGGE
SMy Picture. ..-...... ... 252
Mary Aakl.ney's Philosophy.---- 306
Money at Interest -----..---.... 308
My Little Hero_.-_....... ..... 312

North Au-ericka, Story of .----- 51
Niagara. The Falls of ...-_.... -58
No, Thank You, Tom ---- .. -... 188
Nobo'-dy- Knows but Mother. ---- 192
Nellie's Victory---------- ----,- 216
Nobody's Child ---. ---------- 264
No. No, No -..---------... ----- 297
SNothing For Use ..-------..... 308
SNow I Lay M.- Down to Sleep _...- 319
National Holidays, Dialogue ------- 331

Our Little Folks ----.. ----------- 146
Opening Song, (Music) -----.--- 174
Only Once More ..-..--------- 216
Only a Boy--....---------------- 251
On Time ---- --- --.---------.- -262
One in Blue, One in Gray._-. 270
Oue,of the Little Ones ----------- 273
Out-done by a Boy --..-----. ...- 302
On Friendship--....-------..---- 303
Our Flag; Dialogue-......-...----- 338

Paris, City of----.. ---.-- ...----. 48
Pilgrims in England. --- ....... 78
Pilgrims in Hol\and --_ --. ------ 79
Pilgrims on the Ocean.....---------- 80
Pilgrims at Plymouth ....-...... -- 82
Printing, the Story of-..---...----- 86
Pierce. Franklin ----.........- .-- 113
Polk, James Knox-----... ----- ---- 110
Price of a Drink .----------- 178
"Put Down One and Carry One".-. 188
Popping Cort _--..-------- ... 204
Pierre La Forge's Dream-.... .., 221


PAGE
Pat's Boindsmau ..... .........-.._ 224
Poor Little Teddy -------------- 248
Poor Little Joe .---------...__ 206

Rover in Church --.--........._. 209
Retribution.---- ...----- .....-- 271
Rhymes for House Cleaning ------- 274

Success, Virtues that Bring ......- 135
Song, Motion.-..._. .......-... 144
Soi, Good Night----.......- -- 145
Song, The Meadows --..----------. 145
Song, Summer Show.-rs------------ 146
Song, Our Flag..--..----....--- .. 148
Song, Mabing...... ------------ 149
Star of the Evening, (Music) ----... 162
Song to March, (Music)---------- 170
St. Valentine's Valentine ..-...-- ---209
Saturday Night ----.. ...-...--- .. 238
Shower and Sunshine-----..-----. 245
Sharing the Vacation --------.---- 246
Somebody's Mother...-..-- .------ 249
Shirley and her Kit tens. ---....._ 262
Sir Wm. Napier..-------......... 272
Saving Mother---------........... ....... 275
Smith and Jones..-------..------ 296

Tokio, A Japanese City-----.------ 34
Tyler, John .----.. ------ -..... 108
Taylor, Zachary.-------... -----...- 101
Things Worth Remembering .--..-- 141
Thumpkin Says I'll Dance, (Music). 154
The Little Peddler, (Music)- --_.-- 159
Turn the Right Hand In, (Music) _. 163
The Birdie's Ball, (Music) --..---. 165
The New Year, (Music) -.....----- 169
The Seasons, (Music)-....---.--- 175
The Easter Story...-- ....-----.... 180
The Telegram ------------------. 182







INDEX TO CONTENTS.


PAGE


Tommy's Good Deed ...---------
The Bobolink.. --- ..----- ------
The Blind Basket Weaver. ..-..-_ -
The Old Clock Against the Wall.--
The Stone Cutter's Six Wishes-....
The Old Forsaken School House ---
The First Settler's Story -..-------
The Pride of Battery B-----------
The Whistler--------------
The Bootblack --- ... -------
The Fast Mail and the Stage ------
The Newsboy's Death --.--..---
Taste it Not --------------------
The Crippled Boy's Story...-......
The Two Glasses--.------. ----...
The Lips That Touch Liquor, etc. _
Two Fortunes -----------------
There'll Be Room in Heaven -----..
The Children's Telegram --..-..
Total Annihilation --------------
Time Enough .---.--------.
There Comes the Boys -------,
"The Penny Ye Meant to Gi'e"---..
The Hal Axle _.----------------
TheMiller Dee ----------................---
The Crow's Children ------------
True Source of Contentment --......---
The Blind Man and His Candle ----
The Rabbit on the Wall ---_ ..-----
The Kaiser and the Maid. ..--.....
The Stylish Church --....-----...
Thanksgiving in Ye Olden Times -- -
The Bird's Bath. ----- ...-
The Children-- ......-...._.--
The Dead Dolly-----.......--- ----.
The Enchanted Shirt ...........
The Baby and the Soldiers ...-...--


189
190
190
192
193
196
198
203
207
208
208
210
214
218
220
220
225
236
242
24(;
250
254
254
258
259
261
268
272
276
278
279
280
281
281
283
286
286


PAGE
The Little Scholar- ..--...-------.. 289
Two Surprises..-----------------290
The Water That Has Passed -------- 292
Two Portraits- ...- ----- ----- 294
The Wife's Story----------------- 295
The Triple Pledge --------- ------ 296
The Drunkard's Dream -------- 298
True in the Struggle ----------- 304
The Two Dimes .----.----------- 306
The Two Words.. -.---....---- 12
The Fairy's Gift..- ---- ------- 315
The Way of the World. ..- ----- 319
The Five Senses, Dialogue -.--- 329
The Assessor, Dialogue ---.....--- 335

Voyage, The...... --:--- 16
Voyage, The------------------16
Venice, The City of_--------- 45
Vikings, The Land of the --------- 70
Van Buren, Martin .---------- -- 105
Vacation Song, (Music) ---------. 161
Vacation Song--------------- ---277
Visiting the Dentist, Dialogue.--- 327

Washington, The City of....----- 55
Washington George. ----------- 92
Welcome Robin, (Musi.-) ...------- 160
Weaver John, (Music) ---------- .173
Who Knows?------- ------------. 189
What the Temperance Cause has done 228
Words of Welcome -------------- 250
Whistling in Heaven.------------ 252
Weaving the Web--. ----------- 256
Washington's Childhood -------- 23)5
When Santa Claus Comes.-------- 268
What a Little Boy can do, Dialogue 330
What can the Reasonbe? Dialogue-- 332
Ways of Saying Yes, Dialogue --- 342




~ai=i iP T I.


Stories of Travel


Trips Herg and Therg


Abb NATIONS.




















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GOOD-BYE HARRY, GOOD-BYE CHUM.
NEXT TIME, "WAIT," TILL SCHOOL IS DONE.

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i-












A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA.


\ ." fOW our young hearts jumped for
S joy, when papa suddenly announced
one day at dinner, that his
business called him to South America, and
that we mut. all be ready to start in two
weeks' time. Poor mamma dreaded the
trip, and the long absence from home and
friends, but Tom and I could see nothing
but one long holiday ahead. Anxious to
know something of the country which we


were to visit, we got our geographies and
when all were seated for the evening, we
made known our wants to papa.
"Turn to the map of South America,"
said he, "and we will see what we can find
there." Then with our map before us we
noted the great triangular continent
stretching its enormous length of 4700
miles'from Pt. Gallinas on the ndrth to
Cape Horn on the south. Its greatest


MOUTH OF THE AMAZON RIVER.
(13)







A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA.


- breadth is 3200 miles, and we found were
we to sail along its coast, we should travel
a distance of two-thirds of the circum-
ference of the world. Reaching from the
extreme north to the southern most limits,
the Andes mountains raise their huge
crests, rough, rocky and precipitous until
the tropic suns are all too feeble to melt the


snows which envelope them throughout
the year. Highest of all Mt. Aconcagua
stands a solitary sentinel almost 24,000
feet above the sea, while from its summit
to its base one can experience all the cli-
mates found from polar frosts to tropic
suns. Three great rivers drain its vast
territory of which the mighty Amazon is


HUTS IN THE FOREST-PATAGONIA.


chief, the largest river in the world, though
not the longest. For nearly 3,000 miles
this river flows from the base of the Andes,
whose eternal snows furnish never failing
source of supply, gathering in volumes by
the addition of streams so vast that most
rivers are but rivulets in comparison, until


it pours its floods into the vast Atlantic
through a mouth 180 miles wide.
Vast forests line,its banks with a lux-
uriant growth of shrub and trees unknown
to temperate climes. In their de[ptlls
are found strange beasts, chattering apes
and monkeys, vast reptiles which lie in








A YEAR IN SO UTH AMERICA.


/
wait for prey from some overhanging
bough, and birds whose rich plumage puts
to shame the. colors of the rainbow.
East of the Andes you will find one vast
,lain sloping to the sea. The treeless
plains abounding in the richest pasturage
are the homes of countless herds of wild
horses and still wilder cattle. There it
was, we remembered the principal exports
of some countries, here are hides, horns
and tallow.
To our surprise we learned the people
there in all except Brazil and Guiana elect
their rulers and are as devoted to the idea
of self government as are our own.
"But what of our relations with this
continent," said papa. "What do we buy
and sell there, and how much ?" "With
Brazil we exchange manufactured articles
such as cloth, farming tools, iron, etc., for
coffee, ,leather, hides, tallow and fruits,"
said Tom, who had learned this in school.
" We buy from Brazil, fifty-eight million
dollars worth, and sell her a. little over
seven millions. From the Argentine Re-
public we buy seven million dollars worth
of manufactured articles and sell her six
millions. Our trade with Columbia is a
little over five million and that with Chili,
three." "You will find many strange
things there," said papa as he closed the
book, "but nothing more so than _the
people and their customs."
"Do nothing to-day that can be put off


until to-morrow, seems to be their motto.
Ignorant, lazy and inveterate gamblers.
they care but little for progress, as we
know the word, and allow the magnificent
opportunities of that country to be im-
proved by foreigners."
In the extreme south of this continent,
the people are almost savage like in man-
ner and as the country is warm, they wear
little or no clothing. Still, steam and
electricity-are proving great civilizers
among them. When the first railroad was
built the people could not understand that
trains were to run on schedule time, so at,
first they came from a few minutes to a
few hours late to see it off. They soon
learned, however, that trains wait for no
man, and learned thereby the necessity of
punctuality. Buenos Ayres is perhaps
more like an American city than any other.
found there. Street cars, electric lights
and modern paved streets are found, but
there is not the bustle and hurry which
mark our northern cities. Business is
done in the early hours of the day, for
when the sun is at its height but few care
to venture out. As evening approaches
the people crowd upon the streets to walk,
visit, gamble or amuse themselves as fancy
suggests. One occupation the natives
enjoy possibly more than all else and that
is to catch and, break the wild horses that
roam over the prairies. These horses at
first are unmanageable, but with a lasso







A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA.


they catch them by the neck, and taking
another lasso they throw it around their
legs and in a short space of time they
manage to ride them without fear.
"But this is enough for to-night," said
papa, learn what you can of this country
and be ready to sail in a short time. On
board the ship we will pursue our studies
further."


THE VOYAGE.
Of our voyage to Rio de Janeiro, the
city near which we were to live for the
next twelve months little need be. said.
We arrived in due time anxious and ex-,
pectant, yet unprepared for the surprises
in store for us. The people looked so dif-
ferently, acted so differently and, worked so
differently from those we were accustomed


-"-


THE CORRAL--ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.
THE CORRAL-ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.


16






A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERIICA.


to see. The means of tiransportatiou were
such as we were uii.ihused to, the games and
sports-and pets of the clhlilreni so queer
and amusing.
Shortly after our arrival we rose early
one morning to see the men load the mules
Sand start for market. We went to the
fi roi/ markets soon and there found the
mules with great baskets itra',ppl-ed on each
side patiently awaiting their loads. Into
these baskets the men piled inm-in:se
Bunches of bananas, bushels of golden
i: 'ang-., huge pineapples bursting with
ripeness. When loaded the mules started
off Indian fashion, one behind the other,
the leader wearing a tinkling bell to which
we listened nit il its soft tones were lost in
the distance.
S (C':. picking afforded us much amuse-
ment. It seemed so easy for the natives
to pick coffee that we wanted to help,
Sth:.gL we should have thought it hard
Si..r had we been obliged to do it. We
went into the hill.;, where the coffee trees
grow, with bags tied in front of us in which
to place the berries. The trees were
covered with long sprays of berries and
Green leaves almost as pretty as when
wreathed with white star like blossoms
which made all the air fragrant. The
branches hung almost to the ground and
when our loads got heavy we poured them
into bt lo:ad h allow baskets which were taken
to the coffee house and poured into a little
I '. *v :'.. *'


mill which cut the pulp and out dropped
two grains, white and juicy, that had lain
there, the two flat sides together. 'These
were spread into the terrane (a square
yard covered with slate or brick) to dry.
After lying here several days it must go
through another mill or be pounded in
a mortar to free the thick dry chaff
from the grain and make it ready for
market.
Farina making always gave us a good
time. Farina is the bread of Brazil and is
made from a root called mandioca. This
root is ground in a mill turned by mules
and dried in a shallow: pan. It makes
nice mush or bread. We enjoyed sugar
boiling as well and especially the testing
of syrup and sugar and candy pulling. It
was a jubilee we shall not soon forget.
Our pets were legion Guinea pigs which
we fed with our own hauds. dear little,
soft, bright eyed creatures; bright. queer
colored parrots whose attempts at talking
were highly amusing; funny little monkeys
found, nowThere els-. timid yet lovable that
often went to sleep in our pockets; and
lizards nearly two feet long, covered with
bright scales of black and white, though
not admired by every one, are gentle,
tirm], es c. r.attu ire :.
Of the many strange birds the Toncan
was the most noticeable with his yellow
plumage, sharp bill and eyes that make him
look as though he wore goggles. He is








18 A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA.


called the "barber bird" because he cuts
the web from the stem of his tail feathers
using his beak like a pair of scissors.
Wishing to visit some friends, one day
we rode in sedan chairs as there were
neither street cars nor carriages. The
chairs were carried by four black men
who sing as they travel. Such fun as it
was, to peep out as we rode. When
we reached the home of our friend we
did not rap or ring, but clapped our
hands as hard as we could. Our friends
came to the door and said, "enter and
welcome, the house and its contents are
yours." We went into the parlor where
coffee was served in tiny cups as we chatted.


On our ride home we saw priests in their
black gowns, water carriers with large red
jars on their heads, black men carrying
great -bags of sugar or coffee and other
sights equally strange. Another ride we
had, was in a musical cart. This is a cart
with solid wheels and axles so that they
both turn together as the cart moves.
It is intended that the cart should' c"li:d.
and it does. You can not hear yourself
talk when it moves. The bottom of the
cart was spread with bright colored mats
on which we sat. The cart is drawn by
oxen that hurry not at all because of the
uncanny sounds behind them. Yet we
thought it great fun.











THE STORY OF AFRICA.


SjFTER our return home from South
SAmerica Tom and I were so
pleased with the many new things we had
learned, that we decided to give some time
to the study of each of the Continents and
with a map before us, we asked Papa one


evening to tell us something of this
ancient yet unknown land. "Well," said
Papa as we looked at the map, we see
Africa resembles South America in its
general form, being somewhat triangular
in shape. Like South America, Africa is


ISLAND OF RODA-IN THE NILE,
(19)








20 THE STORY OF AFRICA.


a vast isthmus, joined to the main conti-
nent by a narrow neck which seems all too
weak to hold this vast country to Asia.
Vast as this continent is, its mountain
ranges are insignificant when compared
with those of other countries. The Snow
Mountains in the East rise only to the
height of 7000 feet, while in the West the
Kong Mountains reach the same altitude.
In the North the Atlas Mountains manage


to climb 11,000 feet before they culminate
in the highi-t peak. But in the great
interior the highest point of the continent
is found in Mount Kilima Njaro which
reaches a height of 20,000 feet.
Here, too, three great rivers drain the
continent. The Nile is th., longest river
in the world, yet the Congo pours a greater
volume of w-ater into the Oe:-.au. being
second only to the Amazon. The Nile is


PYRAMIDS.








THE STORY OF AFRICA. 21


the i'ost interestin-g riv,-r in the w.-.rll li
many wnys. Along its banks are found
ruins so old that modern, ivilizati:on pales
before them. The Pyr ui i .1: raise their
bare heads high in the air, a silent testi-
mony, to d:sl:otir power, for sublime as
they ar, t1 hey were built by slaves under
the master's lash, an u.ii,-iilli offering to


thi swway .of Kings. Here too, the Sphinx
is fouid half buried by the sands of time,
as silent as the grave, Could it but speak,
what a talte of sorrow, of suffering, of the
miseries of the old civilization it would
tell.
For 12i00i miles in its lower course the
Nile receives not a single afluient aiid here


A FELLAH PLOUGHING-EGYPT.


-- -- -- ..

Z'


F -.0~ii








22 THE STORY OF AFRICA.


thi ,!.,i. wait in anxious expectation for
its :, fit.," for in this region no
main :1- .uiL the .:1 .'of t1i? mighty
stream is -..1-!-. .-p, to fit the rich
soil t.', :.l:ii, .ii,. not only watering it,
but t. .iiidiig it as well.
In the pi'.-i-,ii- you will see one of the
-,ii-., :,.i'._ H e cares little ihli.i
team 1-:. uses for work so long as it in
some fashion meets his purpose.


These people are peculiar in their habits
and while they care very little for forms
of agriculture or m-th.-l.s of work, yet
they are strict in their religious (_-t.:,i-
The women wear a covering over the lower
part of their faces, and are seldom seen
without it. Even in eating they wear these
masks.
The section which we have been telling
you of belongs mainly to the plains of the


FELLAHEEN AT MEALS.








TIlT STORY -OF AFRICA.


Nile, or the section of Africa which is
pretty well known. Now we, come to the
new and unknown part to which the Congo
liv\,r is closely linked. On its banks has
been formed the Congo Free State, for the
purpose of developing trade, carrying
civilization to Africa and suppressing the
slave trade.' This river is navigable for
many hundred miles and around its falls,


railroads have been built thus establishing
trade with the remote interior. To these
points we send clothes, beads, cutlery,
trinkets, some agricultural implements,
and to our shame be it said, rum in ex-
change for ivory, gold dust, gums and
rare woods,
On the South Eastern part are the
largest diamond fields in the world. You


VILLAGE OF CONDE-CENTRAL AFRICA.



















































































-T--___ca~--


-4--e







. THIE 8TORY OF AIFRICA. 25


will irnmeml-ier tli exhibit of this kind we
saw at the World's Fair a year ago.
No other ..i-.tUiitiLnt. can coui.par,'.- with
Afr'i:-. in tli- iLze of its aaiuwils. tb wealth
of its f.-le t fil th- v i -t : f ift- d .ft rtr .


nor does any other continent l."-''-..- as
g,:-.od possibilities in the way of ft'u rlisihig
sustenance for a great population.as does
thlis. .
In many Sct:-ii,:ns O:f Afri':-,: the co,:,Iutrv







THE STORY OF AFRICA.


is 1-., .u'iui'. The trees are laden with
fruit. The Oactus and Oleander run riot
S blossom and the delicious perfumes
r ..r, unexpected gardens is always a
..- .'' dui. Just above the central
part, -. ... :- the Great Desert of Sahara,
dull A* P:. .rtt:t-t to the fertile banks of the
[:,j-:> ",ri ,,i';-.n:. It {tuiL- d cay. t,'_ ',:ur:,s it
M I') It tral i1s fill'1 i
..-.i. :i [-,~ :".: w",e.Ii;v. t i,:lus an-I alno:,.t
I': .:-'LL. i-LL- | i.ii.- t,:i trav l. nit u bly I'eca:lls.
i" : -- c i U i I:.I I'. : in'1 ,ilr ,lttt w ith


*: ,.i V Li:-h i..reu:lntly occur and last a
wLe,.,- \- t h
,' i .--.z lb,- iAt hl t"n ',:.t tu,'v. t im -.,
l :- -' .i r,-Vi, hiihci U l ia lite have beei
..... *i,.-U t.:, 1.-arn mire of thi- l n Iii,,wti
_,,', .-.- I-. ..._r, the history ',,t A t Ki.:,

1'.]-i .-= ..-w itr;n. 'tSti riiot- fii t iii thie --ail-
sxv ,1 hb-ro".-_ i' ho have rte e:iviliztdi,:,u
" .i-- '_ i v_ l _l i h,_ t li, in', --.- .'' ta ilef
-<-A.I Li'"[t, s:,.,,_*.


One achievement we must notice and
that is the Suez canal, connecting the
waters of the Mediterranean with those of
the Red Sea. This was built under the
direction of a French Engineer, Dr.
Luseps, but is now owned principally by
the English. The importance of this




kniow that -







*t i.. Ihi. n -- -. -

-- --


is tl' r ~6y 6t
w atr -ay


L *- Li KS


LIGHTHOUSE AT ALEXANDRIA.







THE STORY OF AFRICA. 27

across the Isthmus.. Six hundred years furnish 25,000 Coolies to labor upon it.
before Christ a water way was opened but One of the sights of Algiers, is the
after about 1400 years it was allowed to cemetery where the women go to pray and
fall into disuse. Two facts should be wail in true Eastern style over departed
remembered about this canal. One is, that relatives. Tlhyv :ftln pray to trees and in
the company building it should have all many places these trees are so well-known
the land the canal might irrigate ; the as to be called sacred trees. But let us to
other that the Viceroy of Egypt was to the cities of Africa for our next lesson."



THE CITIES OF AFRICA.

"Tmagine if you can," said papa, "that city became the seat of learning as well as
you are approaching the city of Alexan- of commerce. Here were gathered the
dria from the sea. Not a single hill breaks manuscripts that made the Alexandrian
the monotony of the low, flat coast, yet as Library the largest of its day and what
one approaches, he will be stirred at the was lost by its burning the world will
thought that this is the land of the Pha- never know.
raohs, that.out of this land Moses led the Magnificent public buildings, temples
Israelites, guided by a cloud by day and and houses marked its two principal streets,
a pillar of fire by night, that here Jacob when the city was in its glory, but now
came and Joseph welcomed his brethren. have fallen aily in decay.
But our reveries are broken as we approach Modern Alexandria stands partly on
the shore, for crowds of Arabs, Turks and what was the isle of Pharos, but mostly on
natives surrounds us in their boats each the isthmus which joins it to the mainland.
one anxious to carry off a passenger or This isthmus, by the way, was once but a
two, and they besiege us in a way that narrow dyke built for easy access to the
makes the methods of our own hackmen island, but by constant accumulations it
seem tame has become a site for the greater part of
Old Alexandria was founded by Alex- the new city.
ander The Great, about 322 B. C., and In the Turkish quarter the streets are:
contained the Jewis-.h, the Egyptian and narrow, filthy and irregular and the houses
(he (rieek quarters. Here was gathered meanand poorly built. The European
the learned men of an early day and the quarter; however appears quite like a







28 THE STORY OF AFRICA.


modern city with its paved streets, well
built shops, its water and its gas. The
business portion is built around the Grand
Square, provided with trees, seats, walks
and a fine fountain at each end. In the
suburbs are handsome villas surrounded
by beautiful gardens.
But few relies of old Alexandria remain.


The Necropolis, Pompeys Pillar, the
Catacombs, the old ligihtih.iuste, and one of
Cleopatras Needles still attest the great-
ness of the ancients. The city has a fine
harbor and is connected with Cairo and the
cotton districts by short railways.
On its streets we hear strange tongue,
and see every race Liuow-n to the world."


THE CITY OF CAIRO.


"A ride, of one hundred and fifty miles
by rail, takes us from Alexandria to Cairo,
the capital of Egypt. Built partly upon
the plain and partly on the lower slopes of
the nldja,.:iit mountains, we stop at the
latter and from the ramparts of the citadel
obtain our first view of .this ancient city.
Standing on the walls of the fortress two
hundred feet above the city, the sight is
one of magnificence and beauty. Below
us stand out the strongly built walls and
towers, the gardens and squares, the
palaces and mosques, the domes and min-
arets with their delicate carvings and fan-
tastic tracery. The broad river studded
with islands and the valley of- the Nile
dotted with groves form an artistic back-
ground, while in the north the pyramids
raise their heads in silent majesty and on
the east there are barren cliffs backed by
an ocean of sand.


Formerly, Cairo was little better than a
labyrinth of winding lanes, low, ill built
houses and iai ro.w unpaved streets swept
by .:.!i-tfanit clouds of ldu-t blown from
huge mounds of rubbish outside the walls,
but modern idl.as -have made tlj.Imseeles
felt, and new streets have been cut til, r ugh,
along which are shops and houses quite in
keeping with our own cities. In IL. ..:en-
ter,. what was once a wild: waste has been
transformed into Ith. principal square of
the citf y.-ith trees and walks and a lovely
lake in the center. The houses of fie city
form a striking contrast. The. poorer
classes live in miserable mire hovels' with
filthy courts, dilapidated windows and
tattered awnings, while those of the wealthy
are built tastefully with windows shaded
by projecting cornices and o: lamented
with stained glass. A winding passage
leads through an ornamented passage to







THE STORY OF AFRICA. 29


an lcenu I-ou:t with a fountain in its midst
shaded by palm trees. Above the center
of the t-ountair hangs a decorated lantern
which sheds a soft light on the surround-
ings. The sides are inlaid with rare
cabinets and riM-1 ly stained windows, while
in a recess near by is a low cushioned
seat running around the sides on which to
sit. The upper story contains the harem
into which we can not pent-lrat,:a. Cairo
is a city of mosques, these being nearly
four hundred old and. new, thl:.iioul many
are now but ruins of. former splendor.
Some of the m1i osqu1- in uiise date back to
the ninth century, and you may imagine
the r nr.bite.t ire is ancient.
It has a varied commerce but mainly of
gou:d in transit such as ivory, hides, gum,


ostrich feathers for the interior, cotton and
sugar from upper Egypt, indigo and
shawls from Persia, sheep and tobacco
from Asiatic Turkey, and manufactured
articles from Euripe. Cairo ias a ,iuimbt-r
of factories of its own iunluding a paper
mill, cotton factories, sugar refineries, gun
powder, leather and silk factories.
The climate is hot, the mortality high,
and strange, to relate the greatest number
of deaths is from consumption. You will
both remember our day on Midway Plais-
ance at the World's Fair and. ur visit to
' Thl. Streets in Cairo" where we saw the
people as they are at home. Put your
experience there with what I have told
you and you will have the foundation for
a fair knowledge of this old city."











T'E STORY OF ASIA.


(ccf ET your geography again, 1l.i- l
I> ren," said papa one evening after
dinner, "and let see what
there is of interest in the largest of the
continents." Tom ran for the geography
and bringing it we turned to the map of


Asia. "Here," said papa, "we have the
largest of the grand divisions of the earth;
of the 51 millions of square miles of land
on the earth's surface, Asia alone, occupies
one third.
In Asia nature seems to have done


VALLEY OF TISTAN--HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS.
(30)








THE STORY OF ASIA. 3:


everything on a large scale. The largest
table-lands and the highest mountains are
here, while the rivers vie in size with the
Amazon and the Nile.
The Himalaya Mountains raise in rug-
ged grandeur until snow capped peaks
2,000 feet in i.-iglit are-but common place
affairs, while the cuiliiiiing peak, is
reached in Mount Everest, 29,000 feet
above the level,of the sea.


This great table-land of Thibet, which
you see here has an elevation of 15,000
feet, and as a result the climate is too cold
for the best development. Here the peo-
ple live mostly in huts. From this table-
land the country slopes in each direction
to the sea, N. tih, East and South. Mighty
rivers drain these vast tracts, finding a
never failing source in the snow capped
mountains of the interior, then flowing


'1; ~-~;
"C Ilr~r;~ur
i' 'I
~i-L" ; _,----- i-~L3~_3
i-
-r-?---~
"' c.
---- -
;.--~ -- I--i.;-
~=;------ T-~
--;-r-
-~C
;;~-


TENTS OF CHIEFS OF LASSA-THIBET.


-2--i -~-~-



s /-h







32 THE STORY OF ASIA.


into the Arctic, three into the Indian, and
two into the Pacific Ocean.
In Asia is every climate known to man,
while all the plants of temperate zones
grow in profusion. Its animals embrace
a greater variety than any other continent,
while the birds of India include almost
every known species. Were we able to
take in all Asia at a glance, what reflect-
ions would arise. Here in China we find


a people whose history is lost in the dim
past. For 4,000 years their history is
written. Here, 500 years before Christ,
Confucius lived and taught a religion
whose devotees to-day outnumber those of
any other faith.
Here was the great wall that shut out
marauding h:,o'ri s and here the people live
to-day as they did 2,000 years ago. A
penny,a day will support a man and the


j ; -:-'- __ __~,~
-4-.'- ________ ____
-r 7------~ .-


PLANTING RICE-CHINA.
happy possessor of $200 can retire from jaws of cro.,i: il.-d to: appsea thle wrath of


work and live a life of ease and luxury.
The architecture is different from that
of any other country. Is usually very-
gaudy and quite imposing. In the picture
you will notice the merchant's club. Here
the business men hold their councils, dis-
cuss topics of the day and enjoy their
banquets in great pomp, even as we do in
our own country.
Here, in the South, is India, where
,mothers cast their infant babes into the


Go,-.. Here the. power of caste is felt and
every s-..n must be what his father before
him has been.
And here is Palestine. What holy
thoughts arise. Here the shepherds wel-
comed the manger-born baby at Bethlehem.
Here lived the g*-tle, th:ouahtfi.il Christ
child who grew to manhood and gave a
new commandment, love oneI another.' to
mankind. Galilee and Gethsemane,-p-pe-
cious names. Then we see the trial before







THE STORY OF ASIA. 33


Pilate and hear the Jews cry 'crucify him,
crucify him.' and the life of a Christ goes
out that men may live. From this spot
have gone forth influences that yet shall
bring the world to God.
Babylon and Ninevah, Tyre and Sidon
tell us of empires rent asunder, of dynas-


MERCHANT'S
Bedouin roams in search of pastures for
his flock or lies in wait for some pa-s;i;,
caravan that will give him gold and plun-
der for his insatiate thirst for spoil.
The inhabitants of Corea are very much
like the Japanese, and their children in
like iij aner are taught to labor and act


ties crumbled into dust. And here in the
far north is Siberia, the living tomb of
these who incur the ill will of the Czar of
Russia. He who enters here an exile,
endures horrors incredible, privations,
and trials that imagination cannot paint.
And here in Arabia the fierce untamed


CLUB-CHINA.
as beasts of burden in carrying loads.
The picture on the following page is takein
from life and you will notice how young
these children are taught to labor.
A passing glance is all that we can
obtain of this vast continent, so let us.on
to one of its cities ere the evening closes,"







34 THE STORY OF ASIA.



TOKIO, A JAPANESE CITY.

"Fancy yourself in a Japanese city if their little nurses. Little tots of two years
you can. Out in the harbor lazily foat have dolls slung upon their shoulders in
merchantmen and men of war from France, imitation of their elders. Yonder comes
England and America, looking strangely a man carrying a queer looking outfit. He
out of place with the queer junks of the is the griddle cake man and the children
natives and the Japanese gunboats. The run to meet him. He carries a stove and a
streets are well paved and inviting, yet we jar of butter. The children dip the butter
W --- --
see no drays : on the griddle
or carriages ..-cake and eat it,
drawn by horses give him a
as we pass along. penny and he
Everything is passes on. Then
carried by cool- we see the boil-
ies; they are the ed sugar mah.
beasts of burden He carries a jar
Their heavy of boiling syrup
loads, their sad an u endless lit-
stupid faces, tle molds of
their hopeless mice, birds,
air awaken pity; dolls, cats, kit.es
their splendid and horses.
physique, their These he
swelling mus- molds as the
cles, their easy children want
carriage arouses them and drives
admiration. JAPANESE CHILDREN. a busy trade
As we pass up the street we see little as long as the, pennies last. The children
Jap girls at play. Their baby brothers and wear wooden shoes and make a great clat-
sisters strapped on their backs laugh- ter as they play upon the streets. On enter
ing or cooing in high glee or sleeping ing a-house they remove the shoes and we
quietly in spite of the boisterous play of see their stocking have a compartment for








TEE STORY OF ASIA. 6


the great toe like the thumb to a mitten.
This gives them the use of that toe, and
the use which the Japs make of their feet
in handling tools is surprising.
Passing along the street a shop-keeper
invites us to enter his rooms. Here are
work buoxs -f unique design, costly rugs,
delicate pottery and ivory. In the rear,
cut off by movable screens, are the living
rooms of the family. The good wife
greefs us kindly, motions us to seats, then
crouches at our feet and shows pictures
and other work- of art. Next we enter a
restaurant, seat ourselves at a small table
on which are dainty cups of finest porce-
lain. The proprietor bustles about to
serve us, filling our cups again and again
till we can drink no more. We pay him
five cents for thirty cups and depart.


When tired of walking we can not take
a street car or a hack but call a Jinrikisha,
a queer, two-wheeled cart drawn by a
Jap. .We get in and the Jap trots off with
us like a real horse. What if our steed
should run away! But no fear of that.
The Japs urge the men along with shouts
and cries if he does not move fast enough
to suit them, for the Jinrikisha man is
treated like a horse. These little carts are
quite thick upon the streets and are patro-
nized freely.
Here also in Japan is located the vol-
cano of Fujyama called the sacred moun-
tain of Japan.
We leave the city at last more grate-
ful than ever that our lot is cast among
American cities.


OF FUJYAMA--JAPAN.









36 TIE STO R Y OF ASIA.


1e; ,- I I .


K'I 'C


GATHERING DATES-CEYLON.








THE STORE Y OF ASIA. 31


THE CITY OF CEYLON.


Notice .on your map what a small
island Ceylon looks to be-it is not as
small as it looks.
Not-ie in the picture where the natives
are gatheri;g- dates from the date palm,
tree. Thli woMu.u do much of the work.
They wiar but little, ctl:,tfli.. and need but
little, as the country is very i\wri. These
people have co-isi. l-i i tj Ibg r..: and
while they'have-a crude -li-; 1,1 il-..-y are
slowly mi...kn'.; litlM i -, lway in tl e way
of civilization."


"At the World's Fair," said Tom,
"fthle- people hliw.'Id great originality
and thb ir ;bukiiing was one of the nicest
there, although not the most expensive. It
was simply made, but very neat." "Yes,"
said papa, and at the, World's Congress
of Religions, these people took an active
part. In fact, their r:pr .es itiitiJ.'e was a
ir ih t. intelligent thinker and ,altlhl:,u.h
blacker than our negroes of the S.ut h,
was considered by all one of the finest
men there."


l-I -I1


I :


b.01BO0 BUILDINGi.




















Nr 7





















VzONT LNATO-CELM

k lit










THE STORY OF EUROPE.


l(( ET'S have a night in Europe, Papa,"
Said Tom after we had studied
/ Asia and had learned so many
interesting things ablut. it. "With pleas-
ure," said Papa. "I am glad to have my
children so anxious to know what they can
of other countries. Here is the map, and


by observing it very carefully we can see
that it differs from the others in many
respects. It is the smallest of the Conti-
nents, being but little larger than the
United States and only one-fifth the size
of Asia. Though the smallest of the
continents it is the second in importance.


THE MATTERHORN-ALPS MOUNTAINS.
(39)







40 THE STORY OF EUROPE.


On its soil have occurred changes fraught
with momentous results to the human race.
Fierce wars for supremacy have been
waged here. Here the Greeks beat back


the Persian hli-st and st-iv,:d Europe from
civilization of the Orient. Later the
Roman Legions invaded Gaul and all the
countries bordering on the Mediterranean


.1


TROJAN'S COLUMN-ROME.






THE STORY OF EUROPE.


and forced them to acknowledge Rome as
the Mistress .,f the World." And they in
turn dizzy with succeies fell an easy prey
to their own exc:e--,>s and the savage Huns
and Goths who swept down from the
North with relentless fury. Here too was
waged the battle between the Moor and
Christian, the Crescent and the Cross3
which ended only when the battle of Tours
had left the Mi.-slin- hordes crushed and
almost annihilated. Here too Charle-


magne was crowned on the eventful Christ-
mas, 898, and gave the first strong impulse
to modern Europe; here William the Con-
queror won the battle of Hastings and
changed the destiny of nations; Here the
barons forced wicked King John to sign
Magna Charta and laid the foundations of
liberty and law in America. Here Luther
defied the honor of Popes, and here
Napoleon sought to found one universal
Empuir with headquarters in France.


ACROPOLIS- ATHENS.







12 THE STORY OF EUROPE.


The land of Chaucer and of Spencer,
of Pope and of Shakespeare, of Milton and
of Burns, of Scott and of Byron, of
Tennyson and of Dickens, its history is-
the history of Eastern civilization. No
land will better repay careful study.
In the South we see the Alps towering
high in air and trending east until they
join the Asiatic ranges of which they are
a part. The highest peak is Mt. Blanc,
some 15,700 feet in height. while its com-
panion Mt. Rosa reaches nearly the same
altitude. Here we find the noted Matter-
horn-the place of resort.
To ascend the peaks is' the aspiration
of every Alpine traveler. South of the
Alps the warm winds from the tropics
give us a climate mild and healthful while
the blue skies of Italy are the finest in the
world. In the far North conditions change
for here King Winter reigns supreme and
the greater part of the year covers the
land with snow and ice. 'In Russia, too,
the winters are-severe, but elsewhere the
climate in the lowland is milder than our
own in Illinois.
Closely connected with European His-
tory. is the once noted. City of Athens.
More than any other people that ever lived
the Athenians loved music, poetry, elo-
quence and all the arts of expression.
The Acropolis, built in her greatness is an
imposing structure and shows an Athenian
Citadel of glory.


In commerce, Europe leads the world.
The iron, steel, cottons and woolens of
England, the wines and silks of France,
the furs and wheat of Russia and the
fruits of the South, easily place it first in
this respect. Its dense population with
its enexhaustible supplies of coal and iron
fit it for manufacturing, but sad to say,
the working people are poorly paid in
comparison with our own.
From Spain comes the greater part of
the cork used so freely everywhere. Cork
as you may know is the bark of a species
of evergreen oak found in Spain and north-
ern Africa. The tree grows only thirty
feet high. The first cutting occurs when
the tree is about twenty years old.- Two
cuts are made around the tree, one at the
ground, the other just below the main
branches. Between these, three or four
icisioii,.s are made and the cork carefully.
removed. The first stripping is of no
value except for tanning, the second. is
used for floats, but after that the cork can
be used. for various purposes, growing bet-
ter with succeeding cuttings. The trees
are stripped once in eight or ten years and
live and thrive for about 150 years under
this process. After scraping anid cleaning
it is heated and flattened and is then ready
for use. But let us to the cities of
Europe, and see what items of interest we
can find there. First, we will g6 to Lpn-
don.






THiE STORY OF EUROPE. 43



THE CITIES OF EUROPE.

( YOONDON," said papa, "is a great The City occupies a County, in itself,
city of unusual interest to all lov- and is governed by a Lord Mayor, twenty-
i ers of travel. It is not only six Aldermen and two hundred and six
the metropolis of England and the chief Councilmen.
town of th'; British Empire, but it is the London is the home of Queen Victoria,
metropolis of theworld. Situated as it is, and here, too, are located the great Houses
on both banks of the river Thames, and at of Parliament. There are twelve bridges
the head of the greatest Empire of the besides the railroad bridges that cross the
world, it is not only a large commercial, Thames from one part of the City to the
but a great jnancial centre. other.


iBUCKINGHAM PA E. I


]UCKINGHAM PALACE.






44 THE STORY OF EUROPE.


The City is said to have the finest Parks
in the world-St. James, which is the
result of accident, rather than intention,
occupies eighty acres and has been trans-
formed from a swamp into a romantic and
beautiful deer park. It has a bowling
green, tennis courts and all kinds of pleas-
ure grounds. It is upon this Park that
"Buckingham Palace," the town home of
Queen Victoria fronts.
The most beautiful park in the world is
Hyde Park. It has nine principal gate-
ways, fine expensive grass, bright flower
beds, noble old trees, and a beautiful lake,
called the serpentine. It has broad drives,
filled with equipages, walks lined with
thousands of loungers, and it has what is
called the Rot.ten Row, a street alive with
equestrians. In the height of season,
Hyde Park presents a scene which has a
brilliancy without a parallel. For drama,
Loundon has thirty theatre.; for music, a
greater number of eminent prt'feu-ss'ors thai'
any other city on the globe; for painting.
sculpture and art-the Royal Academy of
Fine Arts is most influential. In churches
London stands at the head. St. Paul's
Cathedral, known all over the world, was
forty years in building, and is said to be
large enough to contain the 'utmost con-
ceivable multitude of worshippers.'
Westminister Abbey, on account of its
having the coronation court of the Sov-
ereigns, from the time of Harold down to


the present daay, and because of its prox-
imity to the English Government, has ac-
quired a fame and importance that will
outlive even St. Paul's. The Royal Pal-
ace, and the Government Building, are
among the wonders of London. Bucking-
ham Palace, the town residence of Queen
Victoria, was erected 1825. It contains
many beautiful rooms, among them the
ball room, and a picture gallery said to be
the finest in the world. The Houses of
Parliament cover an area of eight acres.
Here in London Shakespeare livedat
the close of Queen Elizabeth's reign, and
introduced her streets and people,into his
plays.
One could remain in this great city
an unlimited time and still ,not feel that
justice had been done to its places. But
it is almost bed time and I will simply add
that in the evening this city presents a
nimost -strikin appearance. At the close of
each day the Londoners make a grand
rush from the business center to the out-
sL:irts of the city, there to enjoy the re-
freshment, rest and retirement the country
affords, and partake of the beauties of na-
ture. These suburbs of the i ity are among
the most beautiful in the world. There
has just been'completed a new underground.
electric railway which is the only one of
its kind in the world and it is a great help
to the working people in getting out to
their homes."







THE STORY OF EUROPE 45



THE CITY OF VENICE.

"London is the largest, but Venice the to place, are obliged to depend upon the
most beautiful city in the world," said boats. This makes the place picturesque
papa. "Here the streets are not of gravel, and beautiful beyond description. There
as you might imagine, but shining water, are all styles of boats, all sizes and..all
and the people, in going about from place prices. Processions, parades, and in fact,


THE RIALTO-VENICE.






46 TEfE STORY OF EU1OP29.


all life is carried on by this means of
transportation. "Gondola" is the name
applied to the favorite passenger boat. It
is long, narrow, and fancy; is paddled over
the water by men dressed .in true foreign
'sailor fashion. The freight vessels are
brought direct to the warehouse, at which
place the people unload their merchandise
as easily as though they were wagons
drawn by horses. The mirth, noise and
music of the city is re-echoed time and


again, back and forth, on the beautiful
waters. The sunlight, moonlight, life, act-
ivity and shadows are reflected as in a
mirror. The hotels are constantly filled
with tourists who come and come again to
view this enchanted spot. Some day we
must all visit this wonderful city and then
my children will be glad of the study we
have given this place," said papa, for it is
one of the charmed spots of the earth and
will live in ones memory forever


VIEW OF THE ITALIAN COAST.






THEE STORY OF EUROPE. 47


THE CITY OF GENOA,


--Tell us about Genoa, papa," said Tom,
who had been to the World's Fair and had
taken a deep interest in the old convent of
La Rebida, because it was the home of
Columbus." "I shall never forget," said
papa, "my first sight of Genoa. As we
approached the city, late one bright after-
noon, superb Genoa lifted her hundred
sun-crowned domes and spires high above
the -blue sea. As we neared the coast the
whole seemed one blaze of glory. As the


sun went down the splendor slowly faded.
Genoa is a city of churches, and massive
buildings; relics of the days when her ships
filled the Mediterranean and enriched
with all the treasures of the East.
The streets are narrow, poorly kept, full
of bad smells and thronged with idlers
and beggars.
On the whole, Genoa is disappointing to
the visitor, suggesting only a past great-
ness with no hope for the future."

A ..


STRR.Pr TNT O-ENOA,


---;
:---1
--
"'"~~








48 THE STORY OF EUROPE



CITY OF PARIS.

"From Genoa to Paris is something of and has a population of two millions,,so
a jump," said papa, "but there are so you will see that it ranks among the first
many beautiful things to be seen there cities of the globe. Through it flows the
that we will take a hurried run through Seine like a silver thread. Twenty-eight
this, the most beautiful city of the world. bridges span this river, making passage
Paris covers an area of thirty square miles from side to side easy. Its parks, boule-


J ., ...

t 7


CITY OF PARIS.








THE STORY OF EUROPE. 49


yards and squares are the finest in the
world and in the turbulent history of
France have played important parts. The
Place De La Concorde is regarded as the
most l:iaiitiful of all. In the center rises


the obelisk of Luxor, a single block of
reddish granite, 76 feet high, presented
to Louis Phillippe by Mohammed All.
Here the guillotine did its bloody work
during the French Revolution and here


NOTE DAME-PARIS.
foreign troops have ni.-: mpd when Paris eliie to the Bastile. The Madeline is a
was in their power. The great boulevards famous church plann.-d by Louis XV. in
are a splendid line of streets on the north 1764. The revolution found it unfinished
side of the Seine, reaching front the Mad-. and Napoleon ordered it to be completed








50 THE STORY OF EUROPE.


as Temple of Glory. Napoleon fell and
Louis XVIII returned to the old plan of
making it a church. It was finally finished
in 1824 at an expense of $2,500,000. It
stands on a basement, surrounded by mass-
ive Corinthian columns. It is built wholly
of stone, is destitute of windows and lighted
by skylights in the roof.
Among its finest buildings are the Opera
House, covering nearly three acres, costing
$10,000,000, and to which all Europe con-
tributed from its quarries. The Royal
Palace, built by. Richelieu in 1634; the
Cathedral of Notre Dame, completed in
the 13th century; the Palace of Justice,
given by Charles the VIII, in 1431, .to the
Parliament, and the Louvre Buildings, con-
taining the finest collection of paintings,
sculpture, bronzes and antiquities known.
But do not think that these old buildings
lack in beauty or finish, for such is not the
case.
The Holte Des Invalides was built for
aged veterans in 1670, by, Louis XIV, and
covers thirty-one acres. Attached to this
is a church surmounted by the famous
gilded dome, Des Invalides, 240 feet high,
which can be seen at a great distance.
The July Column, erected in honor of
the heroes who fell in the Revolution of
1830, rises to the height of 154 feet and
is much noted. The Vendome Column,
142 feet high and surmounted by a statue


of Napoleon 1st, was built by him to com-
memorate his victories. It is decorated
with figures to represent memorable scenes
in his wars with Russia and Austria. The
metal from which it was made was obtain-
ed by melting 12,000 Russian, and Aus-
trian cannons. But rising high above
everything else in Paris is the famous Eif-
fel Tower. This has tLhte platforms; the
first with its cafes and rS-t-iurants; the
second 376 feet from the ground, and the
third, 863 feet. The total height is 985
feet, making it the highest tower in the
world. We might spend weeks in the
beautiful city and then see but a part of
its wonderful sights. Paris of to-day is
one of the most modern cities in every re-
spect. The government of the city is very
different from most of ours, for there
everything is done for the improvement of
the city. All the municipal works are
built and run on the most improved plans,
and we might well copy some: of their
iahij .:..:is with a great advantage to our-
selves. The police and fire systems are
examples, and you know that the under-
ground sewer system of Paris is noted.the
world over as standing at the head of any-
thing of the kind for its completeness and
magnificence. Paris is also noted for its
famous cafes that line the principal boule-
vards. But let us defer until another time
our study of Paris.












STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.


OW that we have learned some-
J thing of each of the other con-
tinents, let us spend a little time with our
own," said papa one half holiday. "We
can't do much but perhaps we can get a
few glimpses that will help us in our stu-
dies. Where shall we begin?" "Tell us
of the Puritans and Independence Hall,"
said Tom, who was just beginning to
study History.


"The Puritans," said papa, "must not
be confounded with the Pilgrims. The
Puritans were members of the Church of
England; they had not separated them-
selves from it as had the Pilgrims, but
rather had separated themselves from the


LANDING OF PURITANS.
(51)







52 THE STORY OF NORTH AMIERICA.


corruption which had crept into it. The
persecutions of the bishops were such that
they desired to emigrate, and in 1628 King
Charles gave them a grant extending from
three miles north of the. Merrimac River
to three miles south of the Charles, and.
westward to the 'South Sea,' wherever
that might be. In June, of that year,
John Endicott with one hundred colonists,
set sail in the ship Abagail,' and landed
at Salem, so called because it was so safe
and peaceful. They brought with them
cattle, garden seed and fruit trees, and
only a few years ago one of the pear trees
set out by John Endicot was still living.
In 1630, eleven vessels were fitted out to
carry seven hundred colonists, men,women
and chil.lr.n-i, across the Atlantic.
John Winutli'r.p, a well-to-do man, was
elected by the London company Governor
to succeed Endicott. Thli. landed at Glou-
cester, and you may be sure the women
and children were glad to get on land once
more, pick wild strawberries and sit be-
neath the shade of the trees. MAiliv of
these Puritans had pl--ty in Eugl id and
the change was hard to bear. So many
new arrivals made sad inroads upon the
scanty store of food provided by the colo-
ny at Salem, and the first winter was one
of great suffering. Governor Winthrop
saw that food would be scarce and prompt-
ly sent a ship to England for a supply but


she did not return until February 5th,
1631, at a time when there was scarcely
any food left. A day of thlaialsgivi;i was
appointed to mark their deliverance from
famine. During the first winter more
than two hundred of the colonists perished
from the rigors of the winter and the
scarcity of food. But those who -u'-iv.-d
were brave men and to their industry, fru-
gality, integrity, and faith in God, we owe
the New Enl-i-lnd of to-day. We have
little idea wrril it was and mein-.it to start
a new home in a place as wild as our coun-
try at that time. Besides the uIitiril dif-
ficulty of clearing the land for planting,
and forming pastures for the (< ,itt.:, there
was one other li th iitl v, and that was
the Indians. We might, perhaps, call this
tlhe hardest one of all. But it was by
:ver,--::numill- these hardships that Ameritic
produced the men and women that have
made the country what it is to-day, and
has given it its standing in the world.
While the Puritans were stru Il.in ~ia iL with
the new countryin the i:ri.l! there'were
others t driving to) effect the same results in
the south. Virginia and South Carolina
were, settled soon after, but by an entirely
different class of people. The King gave
the land here to some of the soldiery and
court followers. From these p]ecr.il'e sCi nr,
the courtly and dignified southern gentle-
men."







THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA. 53


HOUSE AT PHILADELPHIA IN WHICH THE FIRST CONGRESSES WERE HELD,







THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.


INDEPENDENCE HALL.


+ \OW, tell us of Independence Hall,"
S saidTom, as papa finished about
the Puritans. "Old Independence Hall,"
said papa, "is one of the many old, historic
buildings which carry us back to the days
when the struggle for liberty was at its
height. The building itself is not at all
striking in appearance, and indeed, to-day,
seems sadly out of place, surrounded, as it
is by more modern and more pretentious
structures. Yet it is guarded with jealous
care, for within its walls have occurred
some of the most stirring debates in which
human minds have engaged. It is a plain
two-story, brick building, fronting on
Chestnut street, in Philadelphia. It is
surmounted by a square tower or belfry,
from which the old Liberty Bell rang out
the death-knell to monarchy, and rang in
equality of men in the new world. The
main building is devoted to relies of the
Continental Congress and colonial times.
Quaint old portraits look down from the
walls, and as we gaze upon their strong,
earnest, closely shaven faces, we cannot
wonder at the devotion and patriotism
these men showed. Franklin, Jefferson,
the Adamses, Rutledge, Hancock and a
score of others well-known in our early
history, are there with LaFayette and
other eminent patriots who came from for-


eign shores to aid in the struggle for lib-
erty. Here, too, are many of the old
leather covered chairs which these men
occupied, some owned by, and some loaned
to the society.
On the opposite side of the hall is a
room, fitted up with glass cabinets, in
which are placed relics of colonial times;
slippers with peaked toe and dainty wood-
en heel, dresses of silk and gowns of cot-
ton, made in the garb of two hundred
years ago, dress stays which but faintly
suggest the modern corset; ware that
could scarcely find a place on a table of
to-day, and hundreds of other things to
interest the women. One huge waistcoat
is shown that looks as though none but a
giant could have worn it, while hats, shoe-
buckles, knee pants and other articles of
wearing apparel, will attract the men.
Old manuscripts, books and papers form
an interesting group. Autograph letters,
military orders, public documents, deeds
and Indian treaties are seen, as are some
prints that show how little known was the
art of illustration in that day. Guns and
swords that did service in the Revolution;
cannon balls picked up from fields of bat-
tle; drums that sounded to arms a century
ago, and camp furniture used by Wash-
ington, himself, are there-mementoes of


54L







YTIE STlORY OF NOR i7 AJIIEP-ICA. 55


the heroic past. But time forbids further
mention of these relics.
The one feature, which draws more at-
tention than any other, is the old Liberty
Bell, now suspended from the ceiling.
The old frame, which held it for so many
years, is sacredly preserved, and is kept
out of reach to prevent visitors from car-
rying it away piecemeal.


One almost fancies, as he gazes that he
can see the old man in the belfry, his hand
on the rope, awaiting with anxious heart the
tidings from the Continental Congress, and
when, at last, the joyful cry rang out from
those young lips, 'Ring, grandpa, ring, Oh,
ring for Liberty!' how well did the old bell
fulfill the inscription upon it, and did pro-
claim liberty throughout the land."


THE CITY OF WASHINGTON.

THE HOME OF OUR GOVERNMENT.


+ OW tell us about Washington,"
J \ said Alice, after papa had fin-
ished his story of Independence Hall.
"Washington," said,, papa, "has been
called the city of magnificent distances,
because, when it was first built the public
buildings were far apart and the inter-
vening space not built up. Now, however,
the city is as compactly built as one could
wish and no longer deserves its old title.
The.city was laid out in the latter part of
the last century. The Capitol and the
White House are one mile apart connected
by Pennsylvania Avenue, which is now
one of the most busy thoroughfares of the
city. The Capitol serves as a center from
which all the streets radiate. The princi-
pal streets, or avenues, as they are called,
are named after several States. Millions
have been spent in improving these ave-
nues until to-day, Washington is pro-


nounced the handsomest city in the Union
and possibly in the world. Were we to
go there on a visit, we would find much to
interest us. The White House, famous as
the home of the presidents, with its quaint
architecture, high ceilings, rich furniture
and well-kept lawns would afford us a
pleasant hour. This house is furnished
by the Nation, and large sums are given
to keep it in repair.' The Capitol, too,
would come in for a visit. Here is where
Congress meets.
The Senate Chamber is in one wing and
the House of Representatives in the other.
In these the chairs and desks are arranged
in semi-circles, all facing the speakers'
desk., Sometimes, these, chambers are the
scenes of exciting debates. The manner of
conducting their daily business would be
interesting, but cannot be told now. We
must not forget to go up into the dome of

























r

*k:


Fj ~:




.s< -


I


II.



i- !:'
'!' -


NATIONAL CEMETERY, "ARLITNGOTON HEIGHTS."
(56)


Ii.,


--'46~F~C~3~i
I
'''


~T~p







THE STOR OF NORTH AMERICA. 57


SENATE
the Capitol while here. It is a long,
weary climb, but the sight will more than
repay us. The city lies at our feet, the
great public buildings standing out only
a little more prominently than the lesser
ones. In the distance is Washington's
monument, standing like a great white
sentinel to warn the city of approaching
danger. The Potomac looks like a band
of silver as the sun shines upon it, while
the craft upon its waters seem but little
specks. Beyond we see Arlington Heights
once the home of Gen. Robert E. Lee, but


CHAMBER.
now the last resting place of many of our
brave soldiers.
We must also visit the Patent Office and
see the thousands of curious and useful
things there. Here are models of every-
thing known to us-machines for making
pins and machines for making steel rails,
machines for making thread and machines
for making carpets. Here one can trace
the development of any industry through
its various patents. The Treasury De-
partment, the Postoffice Department, the
Smithsonian Institute and tho Corcoran







58 THE STORY OF NORTB AMERICA.


Art Gallery, all deserve a visit. Nor must
we forget the statue of Lincoln in the
park facing the Capitol This is in bronze
and represents Lincoln breaking the fetters
from the black man. The money was given
entirely by negroes, and the way some of
them saved and toiled to get money for this
purpose forms a story full of pathos.
In the winter, when Congress is in ses-
sion, Washington life and society is at its


height. It is becoming a city of homes for
the wealthy, and so fascinating is it that
those who have once resided there seem
discontented elsewhere. It is a slow city,
compared with New York and Chicago, for
there is little business except what is tran-
sacted by the Government, and a visitor
often gets the idea that the people do the
least amount of work in the greatest length
of time of any city on the globe."


THE FALLS OF NIAGARA.


S MONG the many beautiful and
wonderful sights of nature to be
found in our country, I recall two," said
papa one night when Tom and Alice had
asked for their accustomed story, "which
will always remain with me. The one
is Niagara, with its swift, turbulent
waters, its high banks, tumultuous roar,
and magnificent falls. The other is a river
in the Rocky Mountains, beside which a
friend and I stopped .one day to eat our
lunch when out prospecting for gold.
This stream, where we struck it, is quiet,
with slow current and high peaks on either
side, and fills one with a sense of rest.
But to give you a better idea of each, I
will have to take them one at a time.
Niagara, as you know is one of the
largest waterfalls on the globe. There are
higher falls, those with as great a volume


of water, but none which equal these in
both respects. Here the waters of the
great lakes find their way through a com-
paratively narrow channel, and after lash-
ing themselves into fury by their swift
descent through the rapids as they are
called, fall precipitately one hundred and
sixty feet into the abyss below. The roar
of the waters is almost deafening as you
can well imagine.
No boat can live in the waters above
the falls. The current is not only too
swift, but rocks abound and any craft
afloat is sure to be dashed in pieces by
striking against them. Many a poor soul
has dared the rapids only to meet with a
terrible death. Repeated attempts have
been made to send boats over the falls, but
in every case only the shattered fragments
have been found.







11IL HISTORY OP NORTH AMERICA. 9


The falls are visited by large numbers
of tourists, and an array of guides and
hackmen make their living off of them.
The prices charged for the simplest ser-
vices are very high, and the only safe way
is to make your bargain for services in ad-
vance. The guides show you the most
noted points and if you desire take you


underneath the falls. The sight is a beau-
tiful one, but the trip is an exceedingly
damp one at best.
Below the falls floats a small steamer on
which visitors can take trips if desired.
The falls are in the shape of a bend and
in the middle, dividing the American from
the Canadian side, is Goat Island, which


NIAGARA FALLS.
seems in imminent danger of being wash- which I spoke earlier in my story is alto-
ed over the falls. For a long time these gether different. When we first saw this
falls were considered one of the most not- stream we had traveled many miles through
able sights in the scenery of America, but a rough, wild country and were wearied
now they can only share the honors with with our long journey. As we traced our
many points in the west, as in the Yellow- way through a narrow defile and came sud-
and Yosemite valleys. The impression denly upon this river as we rounded a high
they leave on one's mind is one of sub- peak the sight was a fine one. The river
limity, grandeur and power. The river of flowed silently on as if afraid to disturb








60 MilE SI'OPiY OF NORTk7I AiZ:fl'1(JA


the unbroken solitude which surrounded
us, reflecting the rays of the noon-day sun
from its glassy surface like some huge
mirror. On either side great peaks lifted
their summits until they reached a region
of perpetual snow.
Yet to us it was a welcome sight. The
waters passed us by without a murmur,
yet we know how soon rocks and shallows,
gorge and cataract would rouse them into
madness, and in their descent to become
quiet, at least, in some peaceful meadow


before losing themselves in the sea. How
refreshing were its cool waters, and what
a relief to quench our thirst. We ate our
lunch, filled our pipes, and for three hours
we sat on its banks trying to gaze our fill
upon its restful beauty. As we sat there we
contrasted its tranquil 1uri.t-:.- and peace-
ful repose with the turmoil and rush of
Niagara, and both concluded that the river
in the Rocky Mountains was more worthy
of a high place in the works of 'Nature
than the great falls themselves."


*1



If

, QI U, A r

.4e_





LL
... ~il i' -,.,


RIVER IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS.







TEE STORY OF IORTH AMERICA. 61


THE INDIANS-HOW THEY LIVE.


'ELL us something about the strange
People you have seen, papa," said
Tom, after he had listened to the story
of Niagara. "What people," said papa.
"Shall it be of the Indians on the plains,
the Esquimaux in the north, or the hard-
working fisherman of whom we read this


morning?" "All of them," said Alice,
never wearied of her papa's stories.
Papa smiled at his little girl's earnest-
ness, but began his story. "It has been
my good fortune," said he, "to see all
these people in their simple homes, and
there is much to learn from them in the


INDIAN VILLAGE-IDAHO.







62 TILE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.


way of knowing how little man really
needs to maintain lfe. The Indian, when
in his savage state, thinks little of shelter
until the frosts of autumn warn him of
the coming winter.
Then his squaw bends a few small sap-
lings, if she can find them conveniently
arranged, or, if not, drives them into the
ground, ties their tops together and covers
them with bark or skins, leaving only an
opening at the top for smoke to escape,
and another at the bottom to serve as a
door, an open space is left at the center
for a fire-place, and around this are
thrown skins, implements of war and the
chase, and such- scanty food as has been
gathered. Vermin abound and a short
stay answers for one who has enjoyed the
comforts of a well furnished house.
The smoke almost blinds one and it is
said that weak eyes are common among
these people. No lamps, no chairs, no
beds, no tables are found here.
The women spend the day in gathering
wood and preparing food. The men sit
around the fire apparently unconscious of
their cheerless abode. And yet I fancy
they would be as uncomfortable in our
homes as we would be in theirs.
Little or nothing is known of the his-
tory of American Indians previous, to the
discovery of America. Their vague tra-
ditions are of little value, consequently
our story must begin at the date of the


arrival of the European to our shores. It
is unfortunate that the early voyagers
were hard hearted and cruel men, and
that they were ignorant of the proper
method of managing a savage nature. In
almost every instance violence was com-
mitted by the invaders, and if they did
not kill the Indians, they enticed them
aboard their ships and took them back to
Europe, to prove to the old world, with
living specimens, what they had found.
Captain John Smith had a sorry time
with these Indians. He was captured and
nearly lost his life; was saved from death
only by Pocahontas, a beautiful daughter
of Powhatan, an Indian. At this time,
she was only about ten years of age and
is said to have been a most fascinating
girl. Pocahontas afterward married a
young Englishman, John Rolfe, and they
sailed for Europe. This excited great
attention every where, even at court, and
Captain John Smith made a speech about
her before the Queen: This interesting
little woman died in 1617 as she was
about to re-visit America. She' left one
child, Thomas Rolfe, who afterwards lived
in Virginia, and to him many old Virginia
families still trace their origin. From
this time on there were many wars be-
tween the Colonists and the, Indians.
Gradiiully th.- Red Man was driven farther
and farther west. Many cruel massacres
were the result and many hot pursuits.s

























,. L, 1-v 1





II






L:: .t
i. =_.-_ _"
















A N OF








LANDING OF COLUMBUS-FROM STORY OF COLUMBUS.







64 THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.

The Indians, before taking any decided gust. of the year 1835, before their de-
action, make it their custom to indulge in parture to their new home beyond the
what they call the "war dance." In Au- Missouri, they indulged in a large war


DANCE.







THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA. 65


dance at Chicago, then an infant city, and
were dressed in very much the same style
you sec them in the picture.
The census to-day shows that the In-
dian population is less than one-quarter of
a million; of these, nearly one-half are
self supporting. There are about 32,000
on reservations which have rations given
them by the government. It is this class,
which being idle, are no doubt the hostile
ones. They make more noise than those
who support themselves; they insist that
the government shall feed them, and when
their rations are slightly reduced, they
daub on the paint and start out on the war
path. They are usually strong, able-bod-
ied men, and should be taught to work.
The children can be taught and trained,
and this is the task' the government and
the religious classes have for several years


been doing. It is thought a work full of
difficulties, because the instruction must
be simple and in a language different from
our own. In Carlyle, Pa., the experi-
ment has been made a success. In Santa
Fe, New Mexico, great progress has been
made, and in many other places, both in
Arizona and New Mexico, great strides
are beingmade that must eventually bring
great good.
In these schools the Indian lads learn
blacksmithing, broom-making, farming,
fruit planting, harness making, printing,
tailoring and shoe making. .The girls are
instructed in the various duties of house-
keeping. Let us hope that this good
work will go on and that eventually we
shall see the Red Man with higher aspira-
tions and nobler purposes than we in oui
wildest dreams dare picture to-day."


THE ESQUIMAUX.
HOW THEY LIVE.


SHE Esquimaux are considerable
Higher in the scale of civilization
than the Indians. Living in a clime where
existence is a constant struggle, they have
developed higher qualities than their red
brothers. Til ,ir huts are simple, yet, they
contain many comforts. The hut is built
of cakes of ice, which, when frozen s..lidil
together and covered with snow, are quite


warm. These contain rude chairs, tables,
beds and other articles of furniture. No
stoves are used, but in their place great
lamps in which is burned the oil and.
blubber from whales and walruses. These
lamps give both light and heat, but send
forth an intolerable smell and soon cover
everything in the hut with a coat of
grimy soot.







THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.


Women and men dress much alike and,
owing to the severe cold, are obliged to
wear garments of fur; the seal, the silver
fox, the polar bear, and other animals with
valuable fur contributing to their ward-
robes.


Their food is mostly meat; the fat of the
animal being deemed a great luxury. In
fact, a tallow candle is as great a treat to
the Esquimaux class as is a bon bon to an
American girl, while a brimming cup of
oil is sweeter to the Esquimaux boy than


ESQUIMAUX ARRIVAL AT FT. FOULKE.


is champagne to his American brother. ,
Their home life is pleasant and affec-
tionate. The women are treated with con-
siderable respect, though they cheerfully
bear their part of the household burden.
Their time is spent in hunting such game
as the polar bear, the walrus, with now and


then a chase after a whale which wanders
into their waters. They are a quiet in-
offensive people, with many good traits.
You will remember their village at the
World's Fair where, perhaps, no other
strange people attracted more attention
than did they.








THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA. 61


Among all the fishermen, perhaps, none
have a drearier, harder life than the lob-
ster fishers of Labrador. While lobster
fishing cannot rank as an industry with
cod, herring or mackerel fishing, it fur-
nishes employment to many. But it is of
their homes, rather than their work, that
we would deal.
Our illustration shows the character of
their home. A fairly comfortable wooden
structure, usually built of hewed logs, with
the living room, kitchen, dining room and
parlor all in one on the first floor, and
sleeping rooms above, is the customary
type. The furniture is rude and scanty


but suffices for the wants of these simple
men. A shed is built near by to store
their fishing tackle and the results of their
toil. Exposed to storms and cold these
hardy men endure fatigue, bear privation,
and even risk their lives, that we more
favored ones may enjoy the luxuries fo
life. Their lives are cheerless, dreary; al-
most hopeless. Their fare is scanty, even
though they supply us with dainties. And
yet they toil on in their humble sphere
patiently and contentedly, teaching us how
little men really need, and that 'he who
does his best, no matter where hi lot is,
does well.'"


HOME OF LOBSTER FISHERS.












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GOOD CHARLEY BROWN THE BALL DOES CATCH,
IE KNOWS JUST HOW, NO DOUBT OF THAT.
(68)


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AI=R' "r II.


fistorn, Discovery

Invention, Fiction

EVER DaAy LIFE.












FIVE YEARS OF TRAVEL


THE LAND OF THE VIKINGS.


OME, Tom, tell us of your visit to
+ Norway last summer," said Sarah,
as the children sat around the
table at Grandfather Locke's, one cold,
rainy evening. "Yes," said grandpa, "the
night is cold and dreary enough, and a de-
scription of the land of the Vikings, the
home of Hans Anderson, and of Ole Bull,
would certainly give pleasure to us all."
"Well," said Tom, with some hesitation,
"if my recollections of a pleasant summer
in Norway can help you to spend an even-
ing, I will tell you as best I can. The
trip I liked best was from Christiana to
North Cape and return, though the time
spent in Christiana was full of pleasant
surprises." "Tell us something of that
city, Paul," said grandpa; "we would like
to know whether it is like the cities in our
own land." "Yes," chimed in Sarah, I
have read much about it and would like to
know from some one who has seen it if
what I have read is true." "I cannot tell
what you have read," replied Tom, but
there is much to interest one there. The
city is not unlike an American city; the
streets are broad and well kept, the houses
not so tall, perhaps, as we see them here,


and the people seem to enjoy life. While
I was there it was always light. From
eleven until twelve at night was the dark-
est hour, and even then one could distin-
guish objects as easily as in our own twi-
light. After twelve it began to grow
lighter, and almost all hours of the night
the streets were full of people.
One point of interest is the saeter, where
the cows are kept, and where the peasant
girls go to take care of them and to make
cheese. A friend and I drove up there
one afternoon and passed through a dozen
or more gates, at each of which was a lit-
tle boy or girl ready to open it, and ready
also to pocket the ore which we gave him.
The ore is the smallest coin used, and is
one-fourth of a cent in our money. The
saeter is a collection of houses such as the
peasants build, only much more comfort-
able. A bed is built in one corner of the
house and, of course cannot be moved.
Near by is the storehouse or granary.
The whole is set on posts ard iq a quaint
affair to look upon.
"But I must hurry if I get to North
Cape to-night," said.Tom. In going to
North Cape our party went by rail from







FIVE YEARS OF TRA VEL.


Christiana to Throndhjem, a distance of
350 miles. This railroad, by the way, is
the only one of any length in Norway, the
country being too mountainous to permit
of them. The stops are long and frequent
and twenty-four hours were spent in going
this distance. The cars are much like
those of England, and our party filled one
compartment very nicely. We stopped at
a little town for supper and hardly knew
what to do at first. The table was set with
plates, knives, forks and napkins, while on
smaller tables, at the sides, were bountiful
supplies of fish, meats, vegetables, bread
and coffee. There being no waiters, each
one had to help himself, so, filling our
plates with what we wanted, we ate our
suppers, stepped to the counter and paid
for what we had eaten, the attendant taking
our word for what we had had without a
murmur.
The night on the train was not alto-
gether comfortable, but we made the best
of it. At no time during the night was
it so dark but that we could see the
time by our watches. The country through
which we passed the last day was much
like our own. The soil was poor and the
farms bore an air of poverty. I could
easily understand why the Norwegians are
so prosperous in America when I saw the
soil they tilled in their native land. From
time to time we passed a substantial-look-
ing farm-house, but most of them had


turf roofs, and the house could not be
told from a stable, and several times we
saw bushes growing from the turf on the
roofs of houses.
While waiting for the steamer I wan-
dered around the town to see the people.
An elderly fisherwoman became quite
talkative when she found that I was from
America, and seemed quite disappointed
because I had not met her son, who was
somewhere in Minnesota.,
The boats which run from Christiana to
North Cape and back carry freight as well
as passengers, and it was not a rare occur-
rence for the captain to find a telegram at
some little town telling him to hold his
boat for a cargo from some hamlet in the
interior. The telegraph runs everywhere
and is used freely by the people. The
boat we were on was loaded with salt, flour
and provisions on her up trip, and with
fish and lumber back. Our captain could
speak English quite well and, as he was a
good-natured soul, freely answered our
many questions. He told us that on many
trips the mist was so dense that nothing
could be seen, but fortunately, we had clear
weather and made the most of it.
"At one place we stopped on Sunday
morning," continued Tom, "a Lapp came
down to the boat, He was a short, thick-
man, wearing an odd-shaped woolen frock,
leather leggins, reindeer-skin shoes, and a
peaked woolen cap. He spoke to the cap-






FIVE YEARS OF TRA VEL.


tain, who asked us if we wanted to go to
church. Of course we wanted to go, and
we followed the Lapp some distance to the
church. This was a large, eight-sided
building, and as we came near we notic-
ed men, women and boys on the outside,
some talking, some whittling, and some
asleep. The women wore handkerchiefs
on, their heads and the men heavy
woolen mufflers around their throats,
though the day was hot. These articles
seemed to constitute the main part of their
Sunday clothes. Upon trying to enter the
church we found it crowded, the men and
wonmen in the seats, the boys standing on


one side of the aisle and the girls on the
other. An old clergyman, dressed in a
black robe with white ruffles at the neck and
wrists and wearing a skull cap, was slowly
coming down the aisle catechizing the chil-
dren. We did not wait for him to finish,
but got out of doors and back to the ship.
After we had got on board the ship the
captain said he thought we could see the
sun at midnight if we cared to. Just at
twelve we all gathered on the deck and
there was the sun on the edge of a bank
of cloud, '-hiniig brightly, and I saw what
has always seemed strange to me-the
midnight sun.


KING WILLIAM'S LAND.







Fl VE YEARS, OF TRA VEL.


The next forenoon found us at Ham-
merfest, the most northern town in the
world. It is a quaint little town, lying at
the foot of a steep, high hill, close to the
water's edge. It has a fine harbor, though,
and this was filled with ships. As we
rambled through the town we noticed the
door key hanging upon a nail outside the
door at almost every house. The people
are honest and seem to have no thought of
danger from this source.
Leaving there we went on and reached
North Cape in the early evening and after
supper made the ascent, and from the rough
rocky point once more saw the strange
spectacle of the sun shining at midnight.
"Our trip back was uneventful," said
Tom. It was interesting to see the sailors
load fish. At every stopping place were
barrels and barrels of herring waiting to be
taken on. These were loaded with a large
derrick, and it seemed to me no market
could be found for the quantity we had.
You know that the fisheries are the main
support of these people.
At one town at which we stopped I
noticed a sheaf of grain mounted on a high
pole and asked the captain what it meant.
He said the Norwegians have a pretty cus-
tom of fastening a sheaf of grain near
their barns for the birds to feed upon
at Christmas time. The sheaf we saw
was stripped of grain but had not been'
taken down. At Christmas time the farm-


ers sell these sheaves in the towns for this
purpose, just as Christmas wreaths are sold
with us. It is a pretty notion and speaks
volumes for the kind hearts of these sim-
ple people.
In addition to the trait of prudence, I
think that everyone here in America, that
has had any dealings with these people,
will find them living in the same honest
way that is indicated by their hanging
their door-keys on the outside. They are
all of the better class of settlers that we
have, and, strange as it may seem, the
larger part of them have gone to the
Western States. Minnesota, perhaps, will
have more of them than any other single
State. Also, I wonder if you have noticed
that all of the people that we meet in the
far north countries are almost always
strong and robust in regard to the body,
and at the same time are honest-minded
and of noble characters. It, is the living
in the same way here that makes the
people so much honored by us.
But it is bed time now, and I fear if I
get back to Christiana to-night grandma
will have no one to help eat those waffles
which she promised us for breakfast in the
morning, so I think I had better say as the
stories do, 'to be continued.'"
Well, Tom, you have given us a pleas-
ant evening," said grandpa, "and have
proved,.too, that a boy can get a good deal
out of a trip to the land of the Vikings."











BROOKLYN BRIDGE.

LARGEST BRIDGE IN THE WORLD.


( ELL us of some big bridge to-night,
Spapa," said Tom, as they sat upon
the porch one evening. "Well," said papa,
"the largest bridge in America, if not in
the world, is Brooklyn suspension bridge,
connecting New York with Brooklyn.
This bridge stands to-day, not only as the
greatest triumph of engineering skill in
its line, but is an undying monument to
the memory of John A. Roebling, the
Chief Engineer, who superintended its
early construction, and who lost his life
there, as well as to his son, who proved a
worthy successor to his noble father, and
carried the great work to completion. As
one views it by day from the gates of the
sea, many miles away, it looks like a shin-
ing silver thread sparkling in the sunlight;
viewed, by night, from afar, one almost
fancies it some splendid constellation in
the heavens, as it flashes with brilliant,
many colored lights which stretch from
shore to shore, like some great wall of
flame. As one approaches it, its gigantic
size becomes apparent, and its majesty and
magnitude are overwhelming. In every
detail, the length of the approaches, the
height of the towers, the length of the
span, the diameter of the cables, the


weight of the anchorages, all impress one
with theirimmensity. Figures failto convey
an adequate idea of it. The approach on
the New York side is 2,492 feet, or near-
ly one-half -mile; that on the Brooklyn
side is 1,901 feet, and the span between
the towers 1,595 feet, making a total
leng th of 5,989 feet or over one and one-
eighth miles. The towers from which the
bridge is suspended rise 277 feet above
high water mark and sink below to bed
rock, the New York tower being 78 feet
below and the Brooklyn a little less.
The great cables which support the
bridge are nearly sixteen inchesin diame-
ter and are formed of steel wires, almost
6,000 twisted together, and capable of
holding a load of nearly 50,000 tons, or
80 trains of 20 cars each, each car weigh-
ing 30 tons, could pass over the bridge
safely at one time.
The center of the bridge is so high
that the largest ships can pass under it
without difficulty. The bridge is 85 feet
wide and five tracks cross it, the two outer
ones for wagons, the two inner ones for
cars, and one above these for foot passen-
gers. From this last, a beautiful view of
the river can be had. At each end the


(74)







FIVE YEARS OF TRA VEL.


cables are made fast in great masses of
masonry weighing 60,000 tons. Five
years were spent in preparing for it, and
over thirteen years were required to build
it. Its cost was about $15,000,000.


It is, indeed, an inspiring sight to watch
the throngs of people on this bridge as
the shops and factories close for the day.
At such an hour we all pay an unconscious
tribute to the man who constructed it.


BROOKLYN BRIDGE.


There is one more thing about the
bridge that is worth calling attention to.
You all remember about the old-style
bridges that you used to have to pay to
cross. Well, you do on this bridge also.
Brooklyn bridge is the largest toll bridge


in the world now, I think. If, you walk
over it they will charge you one cent and
in riding it is three cents. It seems
strange that they should do this now, but
they claim that this small charge keeps
it in repair."


-~-~---


'ig











STORY OF THE GLACIER.

EW of us, perhaps, have seen the the North and the frigid zones, how many
Mighty glacier and as we have read of us have given a thought to their growth
of them in the Alps, in the mountains of and structure? As "little drops of water


TYNDALL'S GLACIER IN WHALES SOUND.
make the mighty ocean," so little flakes of vated regions form, layer upon layer, until
snow, falling silently one upon another, they become a frozen mass, sometimes
partly melted by the rays of the sun and covering miles in area, and the result is a
then frozen by the cold nights of North- glacier.
ern zones, or the low temperature of ele- In the Alps of Switzerland these gieaL
(76)







FIVE YEARS OF TRA VEL. 7


bodies have been studied and measured
carefully, and we find that the glacier,
instead of being a solid, immovable mass,
is, in reality, a river of ice, with a motion
and current of its own. By driving stakes,
one on each side and others in line with
them, it has been found that a short time
suffices to throw these stakes into an
irregular, broken line, the ones in the
center moving faster than those near the
edges. In this way their rate of speed is
determined, sometimes one foot per day,
sometimes more, sometimes less.
The glaciers always move down the slope
either toward the valley or toward the
ocean. In the Alps the glacier, as it moves
down into the valley, is melted by the
warmer temperature until the rate of melt-
ing equals the rate of speed of the glacier,
and from its base a stream of pure water
flows. In the frigid zones, as in Green-
land, :iL glaciers move toward the ocean
and, as they reach the shore, the great
weight of the body behind pushes it on
into the ocean. Here it finally floats until
a great mass, broken off by its own weight,
floats off as an iceberg. These float into
warmer climes until melted and then, again,
after evaporation, they are carried by the
winds into the colder regions and fall
again as snow to form a never-ending
series.
A great many travellers take trips over
these Placiers, accompanied by guides that


are used to doing such work. It is a very
dangerous undertaking anyway, for some-
times where the ice looks solid it is really
very weak. The experienced guide ean
tell a great deal by the looks. When a
party start out they each have a long,
stout stick with an iron point, and a rope
is tied from the guide around each person
in line. This is done so that if one of the
party should slip, he or she will be held
by the rest. For, if any one should fall
there, and start to slide, it would probably
be fatal. The ice often has large open
cracks, many feet deep, and to slide into
one of these would be almost instant
death. The countries where this climbing
is done most, are those in the region of
the Alps. Here large numbers of travel-
lers meet and the guides do nothing else
but take parties out. These trips may
be of great good to us for it gives a
chance for us to see the wonders and
forces of our world which are made and
controlled by a higher hand than ours.
Among the most noted of these immense
bodies is Tyndall's Glacier in Whale
Sound, Greenland, a cut of which we show.
Far as the eye can reach, it stretches a
field of ice, yet it moves and, day after
day, it pushes farther out into ocean until
broken into pieces, it floats off as we have
stated. What a lesson it teaches as it
moves silently on and what a witness to
the wisdom of Him who rules the World?











STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.

IN ENGLAND.


T is 1590. In the old Manor House at
Scrooby, lives one of Queen Eliza-
beth's postmasters. He lives a quiet,
peaceful lfie, but is a thinking man and be-
lieves that neither Bishop, Pope, King nor
Queen should control men in religious mat-
ters. His name is William Brewster. He
wants a purer worship, objects to finery in
the garments of the Bishops, hates mum-
mery, believes that men should not was te
time in di ikilg. dancing and idleness.
For this reason his followers are nicknamed
Puritans. The Queen and the Bishops.
say that everyone must attend the Estab.
lished Church on Sunday, or suffer im-
prisonment.
It is these things that make William
Brewster and his followers sad. Brewster
invites his friends to the Old Manor House
on Sunday. They claimed that any body
of Christian believers may form a church
and choose their own minister without aid
from Pope or Bishop.
Soon these churches multiply and Par-
liament passes a law imprisoning for three
months all who do not conform to the'
Queen's church. Many of the new church-
es are broken up by this law; some of the
numbers are banished and some seek safety
in Holland. But the postmaster at Scroo-


by is so far away that he is not molested
and the meetings go on. In 1603, Queen
Bess dies and King James comes to the
throne. He says, "I will have one doce
trine, one religion, and all must conform.
I will banish or hang all who do not."
This is sad news to Brewster and his
friends. They value life, they love their
country; but principle is worth more than
country. What shall they do? They
think of the New World, but they cannot
go without a license and til. the King will
not grant. Then they decide to sell their
lands and go to Holland where men can
think for, themselves, but the King will
not even permit this, Then they resolve
to go secretly. They sell their lands, pack
their goods, and make their way to the
coast. They board a ship for Amsterdam,
but the captain tells the constable and
they are marched off to the magistrate, who
puts them in prison. There they remain
for many weeks, but at last-are set free.
After six months Brewster tries again. He
bargains with a Dutch captain to take him-
self and friends. One by one they make
their way to the appointed spot to board
the ship. They spend the night without
shelter, but in the morning the boat ap-
pears and the men begin to load their







THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS. 7,


goods. While at work on board the ship
a troop of armed men rush upon them and
seize the women who are on land. The
captain is frightened and sails away. It is
a sad hour. Husbands and wives are sep-
arated; families are broken up. Who knows
if they shall ever meet again ?
The ship is caught in a storm and car-


ried far out of her course, but after being
driven about for fourteen days reaches
Holland and the men disembark. But
what of the women? The officers dare not
imprison them for going with their hus-
bands and fathers, and after many days
they set them free and allow them to get
to Holland as best they can.


THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.
IN HOLLAND.


\ HEN these poor people reached
SHolland they were in a sad
plight. Their property was gone; they
could, not speak a word of Dutch, yet they
do not despair. Brewster learns to set
type; Bradford becomes a weaver; one
learns to lay brick, another is a carpenter,
and so they keep the wolf from the door.
On Sunday they gather to hear John
Robinson preach, and after church all eat
dinner together. They call themselves
"Pilgrims in Holland."
As the years go by they are troubled
about their children, There are no Eng-
lish schools and they are too poor to estab-
lish one of their own and so they resolve
to find a home beyond the sea, where they
can teach their children to love and rever-
ence the principles so dear to them. They
send two of their number back to London
to enlist some merchants in forming a col-
ony in the New World. The merchants


obtain permission from the King, but he
says the colonists mnust conform to the
Church of England. Will they do this ?
Having left England for the sake of prin-
ciple, will they now surrender? Not they.
Two more years pass with the exiles in
Holland. They have, by hard work, suc-
ceeded somewhat in bettering their condi-
tion, but still desire a home in that'far off
land. One day a London merchant comes
and tells them Earls and Lords have form-
ed a new company for speculation. These
nobles have persuaded King James to give
them all the land which Captain John
Smith called New England. They call
themselves the Plymouth Company. They
desire to send out a colony and Brewster
and two others go to London to make
terms. Of course Brewster insists that his
people shall not be molested in their relig-
ion. The company is powerful enough to
secure this promise from King James.







80 THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.


An agreement is made and a company
'formed. The shares in the company are
$50 each. Every colonist over sixteen
years shall be equal to one share. Every
one who furnishes an outfit worth $50
shall have an additional share. These
Pilgrims agree to work for seven years
during which time all their labor shall go
to one common fund and their support shall
come from the same. These are the con-


ditionsthe Plymouth Company make; tht
put their dollars against life, labor, health.
The Pilgrims must endure hardships, en-
counter dangers, suffer privation, and for
seven long years cannot claim a penny of
their earnings. The terms are hard,but the
Pilgrims accept. Surely men who do as
these men have done will come out victor-
ious. Let us see! God generally helps
those who help themselves.


THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.
ON THE OCEAN.


S1T last all is ready. These brave
men who fled from old England
to Holland, who have endeared themselves
to the people by their honest, industrious
ways, are once more to embark for a new
world where religious liberty awaits them.
They know but little of this far-off land,
yet they are eager to make it their home,
for there they can worship God. The prin-
ciples for which they have so long con-
tended shall triumph. 'Tis ever so. Trith,
justice, liberty, must ever succeed. The
giver of all good has so decreed and others
shall find it so as did these lowly Pilgrims.
On July 21st two ships lay at anchor-
the M :.. '.., and the Speedwell. Before
starting they meet once more. They spend
the morning in fasting and prayer, listen
to a solemn sermon, partake of a frugal
meal and sing once more. The night is


spent in conversation, and when morning
comes, they crowd on board. A last prayer,
from the pastor they love so well, and then,
with aching hearts and tear-stained cheeks,
they bid a last farewell. The anchor is
raised, the wind fills the sails and, with a
parting salute, they set sail.
When under way, they chose a governor
for each ship. These governors were not
appointed by the king, but were elected
by the votes of the Pilgrims. This is a
new order of things. John Carver, the
governor of the Milyt H..- is elected by
the people. Hardly are they under way
ere,the Speedwell springs a leak and they
put into Dartmn.:.i-fl for repairs,
Two weeks pass and aggin they start.
Again the Speedwell is d.;- ,1..,-1. declared
unfit for the ,..:, _..- and they sail into
Plymouth Harbor. Some .have lost heart,








THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS. 81


but those who will go are crowded into the
Mayflower, with such goods as they can
carry, and on September 16th, the vessel
starts on her long journey freighted with
102 souls-aye with more: with the des-
tiny of a nation, for from this ship shall
be sown the seed from which shall spring
justice, liberty, progress. They know not
what is before them, but they put their
trust in God, knowing "He doeth all
things well," and press on.
Raging storms dispute their passage,
ferce winds toss the frail ship about and the
angry waves threaten to engulf them. The
main beam is torn away and the ship.is in
danger of going to pieces. But one of the
Pilgrims brings out a great iron screw,
forces the beam in place, and they are
saved. Why it was brought he does not
know, but suffice it to say that the hand
of Providence was at the helm.
One poor fellow falls overboard and is
lost, and for days his agonizing cries ring
in their ears. A child is born on the voy-
age and they name him Oceanus. So for
two months and three days they press on
when, on November 19th, the glad cry of
"Land," "Land," thrills all on board.
With eager eyes, they gaze upon the long
stretch of sandy beach with forests on the
hills beyond. They sail south along the
shore to find a landing place, and finally,
on November 21st, they find themselves in
the calm waters of Cape Cod Bay.


The Pilgrims are law abiding men and
in the cabin of the ship they sign a sol-
emn agreement as follows: In the name
of God, Amen. We whose names are un-
derwritten, by these presents, solemnly
and mutually, in the presence of God and
one another, covenant and combine our-
selves together into a civil body politic,
for our better ordering and preservation,
and furthermore of the ends aforesaid, and
by virtue hereof to enact, constitute and
form, such just and equal laws, ordinances,
acts, constitutions and offices, from time to
time as shall be thought most meet and
convenient for the general good of the
colony, unto which we promise all due sub-
mission and obedience." This paper is not
a compact or agreement between two part-
ies, but is a constitution deriving its power
from only one party, thepeople.
Now that the Pilgrims have a govern-
ment with a written constitution, they pro-
ceed to organize an army. There ate only
sixteen in this army, but brave Miles
Standish, who has fought against the Span-
iards, is chosen captain. The army goes
ashore and march into the forest, but at
night return to the ship. Early Monday
morning all are astir. The men carry
kettles ashore and the women great bun-
dles of dirty clothes, for it is washing day.
While the women wash, Captain Standish
and his army stand guard. On Wednes-
day, the army while marching, come upon







82 THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.


a party of Indians who flee swiftly. They
find a quantity of corn and carry away all
that they can, promising to pay the owners
if they can find them,
On Wednesday, December 18, men em-
bark in the large boat which the carpenter
has fitted up, and start out to find a better
landing place. They sail across the bay
and at night land. The next day half of
the men march through the woods. While
eating their breakfast arrows fall around
them and they hear strange yells. The
army grasp their guns and fire at the foe.
An Indian falls wounded but his comrades
carry him off. The army follow them a
little way, give a parting volley, and re-
turn. They pick up the arrows, thinking
their friends in England would like to see
these curious weapons. Then they em-
bark; a storm arises; the rudder breaks;
the mast is torn away and death threatens


them; the tide carries them into a cave
where they cannot land. They take the
oars and when night comes find themselves
in smooth water where they can land.
They are chilled, drenched, weak and weary
when morning comes, and they decide to
rest through the day and prepare for the
Sabbath.
On Monday they pull to the main land
where they find fresh water and corn fields.
They climb a hill, look the ground over,
spend some time on their explorations and
decide to make this their home. They re-
turn to the ship, announce their decision,
and the Mayflower bears across the bay to
establish a new state. They take a vote to
decide where they shall build and the ma-
jority decide, and that which men lha\-
fought and died for is now an accomplish-
ed fact, the right of the people to rule,
self-government.


THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.
AT PLYIIOUTH, AMERICA.
ECEMBER 21, 1620, is a cheer- them in exile and directed them across the
less day on the coast where the deep; they picture a future where they
Pilgrims make their landing. shall be free to worship that God, but lit-
Cold winds blow; snow-capped hills, ice- tle know they what shall come of their
blocked shores, dense forests, savage foes venture. Even we who read their story
are before them. Homes, friends and almost three centuries later have not seen
kindred are behind them. Yet there the beginning of the end.
is no thought of turning back. Their First of all they must have shelter, so
trust is in that God who has protected while Captain Standish and a few soldiers







THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.


explore the surrounding country, the rest
set about building a common house where
their goods will be safe. Then they fell
trees and build houses of logs, covering
them with thatch. The long boat .carries
many loads of boxes, bundles and bales,
chests and chairs, pots and kettles from
the ship to the shore. Meanwhile Captain
Standish and his .men find wigwams and
corn but no Indians, and they almost hope
to see none till spring comes.
On New Year's Day, 1621, occurs the
first death. Degory Priest is the man, and
the Pilgrims lay him to rest with great
sorrow. Death seems near when one is
taken from so small a number. On Jan-
uary 29, Rose Standish, wife of the the cap-
tain, worn with hardship and weakened
from exposure, is called to her last home.
With aching hearts and swimming eyes,
they lay her away on top of the hill.
Their journal records this solemn entry:
"January 29th Dies Rose, wife of Capt.
Standish." But death does not stop here.
When spring comes with its birds and
flowers, and cheerful sun, forty-six of the
one hundred and one lie beneath the hill,
with leveled mounds, that the Indians may
not k now how few are left. Though
their hearts are torn they toil bravely on.
William Brewster preaches to them, ex-
horts them, prays with them. He is their
religious teacher, using the gifts God has
given him. No bishop has licensed him


to preach. He has no authority over his
people save such as comes from their
respect and love. The members decide
all questions by vote. Old England has
never seen such a church before. Here
all men are equal.
At last comes the day when the May-
flower sails for England, rending the last
tie that bound them to the motherland.
They watch her as she fades in the dis-
tance, and now realize that they are
indeed in a strange land. All winter the
Mayflower has ridden at anchor in the
bay and every morning has seemed to say,
"despair not, I'll carry you back to the
old home." But now that hope is gone.
The die is cast; they must remain-they
cannot get away.
Then comes a sad blow; Governor Car-
ver, wise, prudent, courageous, righteous
dies. The loss is great. He is laid away
without pomp and mockery, as are the
rulers of the Old World, but with simple
ceremony and sincere grief.
Though the governor is dead, shall she
state die? The people are the state. So
long as there is one man left, the state
shall live. The people elected John Car-
ver and now they elect William Bradford.
No throngs witness his advent to power;
he assumes his duties without ceremony.
Again the Old World wonders. A ruler
from the people, elected by the people.
This is a hard blow for kings and emper-







84 THIE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.


ors, but from it shall come a revolution in
government-an empire in which the king
is the subject and every subject a king-
for here all men shall be equal. There
are only fifty souls in this little state, yet
they assemble and make their own laws.
Even John Billington finds this state has
power to enforce its laws, for he speaks
disrespectfully of the new governor and
the people say "tie him neck and heels
and feed him on bread and water until he
asks pardon." It is done, and John Bill-
ington learns that which we all should
heed, the law must be obeyed.
But what of the Indians? We must go
back. On January 31st, two Indians are
seen, but they escape. On March 16th
an Indian marches boldly into camp and
astonishes them by saying "Welcome
Englishmen." His name is Samoset. He
has mingled with the English fishers on
the coast of Maine and has learned a little
English. The Pilgrims treat him kindly,
for they want to be at -peace with their
dusky neighbors. He goes away, but
returns with an Indian named Squanto
who was one of twenty seized by a cruel
sailor named Hunt and carried to Spain
some years before. Squanto has been in
London and can speak English. Three
other Indians accompany them and offer
furs for sale. Squanto tells them that
their big chief, Massasoit, is close at hand
and, while they are talking, the chief, with


sixty Indians, comes in sight on top of
the hill. Squanto goes to meet them and
returns saying Massasoit wants to treat
with them. Mr. Edward Winslow is sent
to meet them and say that the governor
will see them. Then the chief leaves
Mr. Winslow with his followers and with
twenty Indians enters the colony but, to
disarm suspicion, they leave their bows
and arrows behind them. Captain Stan-
dish with six soldiers go out to meet them,
conduct them to a house and seat them
on a green rug and several cushions.
The governor enters attended w ithl drum,
trumpet and soldiers. They kissed- each
other's hands and then all sat and, after
some refreshments, concluded an agree-
ment of friendship. This agreement was
never broken.
Afterward, Governor Bradford remem-'
bered that the Indians had never been
paid for the corn the Pilgrims had taken.
So he sent two men, with Squanto for a
guide, to the home of Massasoit with a
red coat trimmed with lace and a copper
chain for his neck. This pleased Massasoit
greatly and he rewewed his agreement of
friendship by smoking the pipe of peace
and giving the men some corn to plant,
The men were glad to leave the home of
Massasoit for he lived in a'wigwam or hut
of bark, alive with fleas, and had very
little to eat.
Squanto showed the Pilgrims how to







THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.


plant corn and to fertilize it by putting a
herring in each hill. During the first
summer the Pilgrims had plenty to eat
for fish were abundant, ducks and geese
abounded and the woods were filled with
deer and wild turkeys. Their corn and
barley ripened nicely and game was dried
and preparations made for winter.
One morning Massasoit and ninety In-
dians arrived. They went into the woods
and killed five deer; the Pilgrims gave
bread and corn and for three days they
feasted and thanked God for his mercies-
the first Thanksgiving in the New World.
Soon after a sail was seen and the ship
Fortune anchored in the bay. She had
come from the London merchants with
some of the Pilgrims from Holland and
some men who had come as mere adven-
turers. The ship had come for furs, which
the Pilgrims had secured by trapping and
barter with the Indians. When Christmas
came the Pilgrims continued at work, for
they associated this day with the church
which had persecuted them. The adven-
turers who had come refused to work
that day saying, "It is against our con-
science." "Very well," said the governor,
"if it is against your conscience I will
excuse you." When the Pilgrims returned
from their labor at noon, they found these
engaged at play. The governor said, "If
it is against your conscience to work to-
day it is against my conscience to allow


you to play while others work." So these
men learned that these simple people'
whom' they despised, were a state and
the state must be obeyed. From the will
of the people there was no appeal. We
are not through learning that lesson yet
though the beginning is so old.
In their houses these people hung these
rules: "Profane no Divine ordinance.
Touch no state matters. Pick no quar-
rels. Encourage no vice. Maintain no ill
opinions. Make no long meals. Lay no
wagers." Shall we wonder that such a
people laid well the foundations of a
nation wherein liberty, justice, equality
are the watchwords?
You will find some of the events of this
early settlement told in beautiful language
by Longfellow in "Miles Standish." It,
of course, is mainly about Standish him-
self, but shows, in addition, a pretty pic-
ture of the home-life of people which we
all like to see. It is more acceptable
because we always hear so much about
the hard, stern life of the early pilgrims
and it is pleasant to know that there was
some of the home-life there which appeals
to all of our natures. The story tells of
the courtship of Standish and the sailing
back' to England at just the same time
of the Mayflower. Everyone should read
this short poem. We owe more for the
solid, substantial institutions of our coun-
try to the early workers than to anyone else.












THE STORY OF PRINTING.


SAKRE care of the pence and the
Sounds will take care of them-
selves," is an old saw dinned into the
ears of old and young ever since Poor
Richard" gave it to the world. Take care
of the minutes and the hours' will take
care of themselves, is but a variation of the
same thought. How important this is can
be seen by tracing the development of
great industries of to-day from the crude
ideas which have come to men, who wasted
no time, but gave their leisure moments to
thinking and studying topics interesting
'to them.
Our readers, perhaps, take up this book
with little thought from whence came the
idea that -has made books and papers
multiply until from expensive luxuries,
afforded by the very wealthy, they have
become common necessities, found in the
humblest homes.
Almost five hundred years ago, in the
Netherlands, a low, flat country, unbroken
by hill or dale, yet dotted with green pas-
tures, waving meadows, well-tilled fields,
prosperous cities, thriving hamlets, and
pleasant homes, with a people simple,
cleanly, honest, industrious, where patient
men toil all the day in the fields, where
tender-eyed women with snowy kerchiefs


around their heads, till the gardens and
scrub the floors to snowy whiteness, where
sturdy, rosy-cheeked maidens drive dogs
to market with loads of butter, cheese and
vegetables, where chubby babes are found
everywhere-upon the floor, upon the
grass, upon the pavement-there lived in
the sleepy old town of Harlem a simple
Dutchman, Lawrence Coster.
A patient, plodding, painstaking man
was he, respected by his neighbors, yet
none, for a moment, thought there was
budding in his brain an idea which would
revolutionize the world. One day he took
his children into the country to breathe
the fresh air, to sit beneath the tree and
to hear the birds sing. While the children
are at play, he whiles away the time by
carving their names upon the bark of the
tree beneath which he sits. Suddenly an
idea comes to him. Why not carve the
letters of the alphabet upon separate
blocks, tie them together to make words,
ink them and stamp any word in the lan-
guage. So anxious is he to try it that he
calls his children, hastens home and sets
to work. With patient care he carves his
blocks, ties them together and prints-not
a few words but a pamphlet. But what
of this? Hitherto books have been writ.







THE STORY OF PRINTING. 87


ten with a pen, letter by letter, word by
word; the pages have been traced until
the volume is complete. How slow! Men
have spent months, years, aye, have begun
when young, have toiled early and late,
and have died with the book-unfinished.
True, the Chinese and the Egyptians have
carved letters on blocks, have printed
from these blocks, but our simple Dutch-
man from Harlem is the first to tie letters
into words and print from them.
Carter is astounded at his success. The
.sleepy old town awakens and clamors for
more pamphlets and so Carter employs
John Guttenberg to help him. Together
they toil and study to make printing
easier. How shall it be done? The blocks
of wood wear out quickly, too much time
is needed to replace them. Something
else must be found. Lawrence Coster
dies, but his secret lives in the breast
of the sturdy man who has helped him.
Guttenberg toils on, and now that Coster
is gone, more the need of letters that will
endure. "Make them of metal," say Gut-
tenberg, but alas, to carve the metal is too
tedious, too expensive. "What shall I
do?" says Guttenberg. "Ah, now I have
it," and, he carves a letter in the block,
fills it with molten metal, lets it cool, takes
it out and has what' he and Coster have so
long sought.
To trace the whole growth of printing
from the early stages down to to-day is


beyond the limits of this story. But we
can note briefly what the main steps have
been and what great influences have
changed the world, all due directly to
printing. The next step was the hand
printing press, with the inking roller.
Then, as books were more and more in
demand, the type wore out too fast. It
was found possible to make an exact copy
of the type by the aid of electricity and
this copy is called an electrotype. This pro-
cess is in common use now for nearly
all kinds of printing. Without doubt, the
most powerful and far-reaching influence
has been the printing of the Bible. We
might almost say that the press has done
more to Christianize and civilize the world
than any other thing. With this increase
of books and knowledge, the fear and su-
perstition that prevailed in olden times dis-
appeared and the people read and thought
for themselves. To-day all can enjoy the
privilege of reading, and fbr those that
cannot buy books can have the free use of
magnificent libraries.
And what shall come of this? With
printed books comes knowledge; men read
and think, and with thinking comes the end
of kings and emperors and in their place
stands Liberty, with its priceless heritage.
Centuries have passed since Lawrence Cos-
ter carved his children' names on the tree
near Harlem, but his idea is growing yet.
What shall come of it?









THE MAGNA CHARTA.


* SLMOST seven centuries ago there
ruled in England a cruel king.
The Barons called him John Luckland,'
because his father willed him no land
when he died. John's brother, Richard
Coeur-de-Lion, he of crusader fame, died
and John seized his plate and jewels and
claimed that Richard had willed him all.
John's nephew, Prince Arthur, was the
real heir to the throne, but John threw
him into prison and ordered his eyes to
be burned out with hot irons. Cruel man,
yet he and many others thought, in that
day, that the king could do no wrong.
When King John wanted money he took
it. He seized some rich Jew in London
and said, "Give up your money or I will
have yourteeth pulled." One brave man
resisted. Pull a t,.,tl." said the King.
It was done. "Will you give up your
money?" No."- "Pull another," said
the King. This was done. "Now will
you give up your money?" said John.
Still the man refused. "Pull them all
out," said the King, in a rage, and out
they came. "Now then, will you comply
with my demands?" said John, "No."
"Then I will take it all," said the Kin.,.
and so the brave fellow lost his teeth and
his money too.


King John wanted food for his soldiers
and ordered the countrymen to drive their
cattle into camp to be killed. The Wl.-h
refused to obey and John seized twenty-
eight sons of the chief -families and put
them in prison. The Welshmen flew to
arms. John put the young men to death,
hoping to frighten the Barons into sub-
mission. The Barons answer by declar-.
ing they will no longer submit to such
tyranny and form themselve-s into "The
Army of God." Then they send to the
King and state their demands. John is
furious and answers with terrible oaths;
"I will not grant you liberties which will-
make me a slave." The Barons prepare
to attack the King and, despite his bluster
and his oaths, coward that he is, he sends
word to the Barons that he will meet
them at Runnymede and treaty with them.
It is the 15th of June, 1215, and "The
Army of God" is encamped at Runny-
mede. All the Barons and Lords and
owners of castles are there, wearing coats
of mail and swords, bearing lances and
riding noble horses. Tents dot the fresh
grass, banners wave in the summer air,,
yet there will be no clashing of arms this
day. John rides down from his castle with
a troop of followers. He passes through







THE STORY OF THE MAGNA CoARTA. 89


Windsor forest where the deer feed and
the pheasants build their nests, but sees
nothing of these beauties because of fright.
He meets the Barons on an island and,
without question, signs their demands. A
great piece of beeswax, as large as a sau-
cer and an inch in thickness, is attached
to the pr'.cl-meiit. stamped with the King's
seal. The Barons shout for joy, but John
rides back silent and gloomy. Once inside
his castle walls, he raves like a madman;
he gnashes his teeth, curses savagely, bites
sticks, chews straws and swears revenge.
But what is this parchment that makes
the Barons joyful and John so angry? It
says that hereafter there shall be a Great
Council of Barons, Earls and Archbishops,
whom the King must summon from time
to time and that lesser Barons are to
be summoned by the sheriffs of the coun-
ties. These will be the Parliament. Here-
after the King shall not levy taxes and trib-
ute as he pleases, Parliament will do this.
No man shall be punished at the whim
of the King, but shall have a fair trial
by his equals. No wonder the King raves
as he sees his power disappear. And what
shall come of this? Out of this charter
has come English liberty and the freedom
and equality which form the corner-stone
of our own government to-day.
"The Army of God" waged a bloodless
battle on that June afternoon so long ago,
but out of it have come liberty, justice,


equality, to all English-speaking people.
The old parchment, with its great seal, has
crumpled, worn and yellow with age in a
glass case in the British Museum to-day,
of little account in itself, but out of it
have come blessings of infinite value,
the beginning of the liberty we enjoy to-
day.
A good idea of life-the life of the peo-
ple at the time of John's reign-may be
gained from Sir Walter Scott's splendid
story Ivanhoe. Here is depicted the char-
acter of John in true life, the reckless, ex-
travagant mode of living. His overbear-
ing and haughty way with his subjects and
the thoughts and life of the people are
shown in a way that only Scott had. But
this chart was only the first step for the
freedom and bettering of the people. For
a long while only the lords and nobility
were helped by parliament, but soon the
time came when the common people de-
manded of the lords what they had pre-
viously demanded from King John. Then
followed a series of laws on the land, the
corn laws and several others that were of
incalculable value to the poor class, So
we see the final far-reaching effect of the
rebellion of the barons and lords against
John coming down through the years and
the never ending struggle of man against
oppression. We have this same rebellion
to-day, but we settle these questions dif-
ferently now than then.










































































































UNITED STATES CAPITOL.

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EPAP T T III.

T I---i_ LI.TES


OUR PRESIDENTS


WHITE HOUSE.











GEORGE WASHINGTON.

OUR FIRST PRESIDENT.


S AtSHINGTON was born in Vir-
V ginia, February 22, 1732. Little
did the parents think as they bore this
babe to the Baptismal Font, and called
him George Washington, that the name
was to become one of the most memor-
able in the annals of history. Explain
it as we may, there is seldom a great













GEORGE WASHINGTON.
1732-1799. Two Terms, 1789-1797.
and good man who has not a good mother.
In this respect George Washington was
highly blessed. From early childhood
he developed a noble character. He had
a vigorous constitution, a fine form and
bodily strength. In his childhood he
was noted for frankness, fearlessness and'


moral courage.


Right here we must not


omitthe story, though the world has it by
heart, of his cutting the cherry tree. His
father was indignant over the outrage and
asked George why he did it. "Father, I
cannot tell a lie; I cut the tree." "Come
to my heart," said his father, and his eyes
filled with tears. "I had rather lose a
thousand trees than find a falsehood in my
son."
At sixteen he was a man of character
and almost one in size. A good student
and especially good in mathematics. When
seventeen the State of Virginia employed
him as public surveyor. At the age of
nineteen he was one of the prominent men
of Virginia. At this time civilization was
rapidly supplanting barbarism and the In-
dians were becoming alarmed. They kin-
dled their consul fires; they pondered the
question of encroachment, of industry, ed-
ucation and wealth, and resolved to sweep
every vestige of civilization from the land.
The military force of Virginia was called
into action to meet this foe and Washing-
ton, then nineteen years of age, became
one of their majors.
While the war was raging between the
Indians and whites the Indians shrewdly


sent a message to the Governor of Vir-


(92)







PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES.


ginia inquiring what portion of the coun-
try belonged to them, since England, as
they expressed it, demanded all l1 !,. land
on one side of the river and France all upon
the other. Now the trouble of war was let
loose. France and England both took
active part and went into the field. Just
before the hostilities commenced the Gov-
ernor of VYililia desired to send a com-
missioner to remonstrate with the French
against establishing their military posts
along the waters of the Ohio. To carry
this message to the garrisons it was
necessary that they travel a wilderness of
a distance of nearly 600 miles, where there
was no path but the trail of the Indian, and
no abode but the wigwam of the savage.
There'were two objects in view; one was
to present the remonstrance, but the real
one was to ascertain the number, strength
and position of the French garrison. It
was a perilous enterprise. There was
danger flourishing in the wilderness, there
was danger from the tomahawk of the sav-
age and there was danger that the French
might not allow the commissioner to return.
No suitable person could be found to run
these risks until George Washington vol-
unteered his services. We need not tell
you what he endured. Several times he
was at death's door. However, he did his
work and returned in safety to the Legis-
lature of Virginia. Modestly and uncon-
sciously, so as not to attract attention, he


went into the gallery on his return. The
speaker chanced to see him and proposed
that 'the thanks of the House be given to
Major Washington who now sits in the
gallery for the gallant manner in which he
executed the trust reposed in him by the
Governor." Every member of the House
rose to his feet and Washington was
greeted with a burst of applause.
When Washington was twenty-six years
of age the beautiful estate of Mount Ver-
non had descended to him by inheritance.
On the 6th of January, 1759, he married
Mrs. Martha Curtis, a lady of great wealth
and beauty. After these marvelous scenes
of his youth he retired with his bride and
her two children to the lovely home of
Mount Vernon, where he spent fifteen
years of unbroken happiness. While at
Mount Vernon his occupation was that of
a planter, raising wheat and tobacco. Dur-
ing these years of peace and prosperity an
appalling storm was gathering which soon
burst with destruction over all the colo-
nies. The British Ministry insisted upon
imposing taxes on the colonies while with-
holding the right of representation. All
American scorn was at its height. They
called a Congress and chose George Wash-
ington as Commander-in-Chief. The
whole population of the United States did
not exceed three million. England was
undisputed mistress of the sea. The little
handful of Americans who stepped forth







94 PRESIDENTS OF THE- UNITED STATES.


to meet this giant had neither fleet, army,
military resources or supplies. Sublimely
Washington stepped forward from his
home of domestic joy and took up the re-
sponsibility. Battle after battle was fought;
defeat crowded rapidly upon defeat; vic-
tory upon victory, and as you no doubt all
know, victory was the result. God does
not always help the heavy battalions."
Thousands had perished; thousands had
been beggared and thousands had been
left widows and orphans. It was a fearful
price that America paid for independence.
It is said that Washington was the Saviour
of this country.
Soon the great problem which engrossed
all minds was the consolidation of the thir-
teen States of America,which should secure
them the right of administration. A con-
vention was called at Philadelphia in 1787.


Washington was, by a unanimous vote,
placed in the President's chair. The re-
sult was the present constitution of the
United States. Upon the adoption of the
constitution all eyes were turned to Wash-
ington as Chief Magistrate, and by a unan-
imous voice he was chosen first President
of the United States. He was inaugurated
April 30, 1789. He remained in the Pres-
ident's chair two terms of four years each.
Aft.=-r 1h retired again to Mount Vernon,
where he spent many years in peace, pros-
perity and happiness. In December, 1799,
he took a cold, from which he never re-
covered, and died in the sixty-eighth-year of
his age.. His remains were interred in the
tomb at Mount Vernon, where they now
repose. He is gone, but his fame will for-
ever fill the world, and his life prove an
example to all of America's sons.


JOHN ADAMS.
SECOND PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.


OHN ADAMS was born October
30, 1735, at Quincy, Mass. His
father was a farmer, worthy and
industrious, toiling early and late for the
support of his family. Like many boys,
John Adams was not fond of books. In
the bright, sunny morning of his boy-
hood, with the sunlight sleeping upon the
meadow, the sparkling brook alive with


trout and the ocean rolling before him,
out-door life seemed far more attractive
than the monotony of school life.
But at the age of fourteen, however, he
took up books in earnest. At sixteen, he
entered Harvard College. At twenty, he
finished college, began teaching school and
studied law. It appears that he almost
made up, or did make up, for what he lost







PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 95


in early boyhood. He was much opposed
to wasting time, and wrote on one occa-
sion, "What pleasure can a young gentle-
man, who is capable of thinking, take in
playing cards?, It gratifies none of the
senses; it can entertain the mind only by
hushing its clamors."
When his father died he returned home
and there opened a law office, living with
his mother and brother upon the farm.
In 1761, he married Miss Abigail Smith,
a lady of rare endowments and great force
of character. John Adams rapidly rose
in the estimation of the people, filled dif-
ferent offices and was sent to Congress to
represent his State. It is said that he and
Thomas Jefferson, were the most intimate
of friends and worked together for the
good of their country.
John Adams was an eloquent speaker,
in fact, stands at -the head as one of the
greatest orators this country has ever
known. Mr. Jefferson was able with his
pen, but had little skill in debating and
was not a public speaker. When Adams
and Jefferson drew up the Declaration of
Independence, each urged the other to
make the draft. Mr. Adams closed the
friendly contention by saying, I will not
do it; you must. There are three reasons
why you should: First, you are a Vir-
ginian; second, I am unpopular, and third,
you can write ten times better than I can."
"Well," Jefferson replied, "if you insist


upon it, I will do it as well as I can."
Fourth of July, 1776, the Declaration of
Independence was adopted by Congress
and signed by each of its members. Of
the fifty-five who signed that declaration,
there was probably not a more eloquent
defender than John Adams. He was an
earnest, methodical business man. Be-
cause of his policy, his eloquence, his
gentlemanly bearing, he was, at different
times, chosen as ambassador and minister
to effect peace with foreign countries.


JOHN ADAMS.
1735-1826. One Term, 1797-1801.


He deserves much glory for his success
in this. Time rolled on. The 4th of
March, 1797, at Philadelphia, he was in-
augurated President of the United States.
These were stormy days, and it required
great wisdom to navigate the Ship of
State. Mr. Adams' administration was
conscientious, patriotic and earnest, but
never truly popular. He was a man of








96 PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES.


decision and would say what he thought,
even though it won him enemies.
After four years of worry and care,
which were, no doubt, the least happy of
his life, he was mortified by losing the re-
election. His chagrin was so great as to
lead him to make the lamentable mistake
of refusing to remain in Philadelphia to
witness the inauguration of his successful
rival, Thomas Jefferson. This caused a
breach of friendship which lasted thirteen
years. But there was never a more pu: e
and conscientious administration and pos
terity has given its verdict in approval of
nearly all his measurers.
He lived to see his own son, John
Quii oy Adams, elected President of the


United States. At the age of ninety
years, on the 4th of July, 12,, hi breath.
ed his last. Just before dying, when told
that it was the 4th of July, he said, "God
bless it; God bless you all; it is a great
and glorious day."
Although cold of manner, he had a
powerful intellect and integrity. His one
defect in character was'that he lacked that
genial sympathy which binds man to man.
He commanded respect- but seldom won
love. However, it is hard to find any man
to whom America is more indebted for
those constitutions which comprise the
glory and power of our country, than to
John Adams. He firmly believed that
"truth crushed to earth would rise again."


THOMAS JEFFERSON.
THIRD PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.


O HOMAS JEFFERSON was born in
SVirginia, April 2, 1743. His boy-
hood was one of wealth, luxury and cul-
ture. He'entered college at the age of
seventeen and there lived expensively,keep-
ing fine horses, and was much caressed by
gay society. Still he was devoted to his
studies and irreproachable in his. morals.
Strange that he was not ruined, but in the
second year of his college course some im-
pulse caused him to discard his horses
and society. He now devotes fifteen hours
a day to his books. He entered a law


office at the age of twenty-one; was a great
reader and a great writer, but was never
distinguished as a public speaker. Shortly
after he was admitted to the bar he was
chosen to a seat in the legislature of Vir-
ginia. In 1770 his house was burned and
his valuable library, constituting over 2000
volumes, was burned in the place. He
was absent from home. A slave came to
him with the dreadful news. "Were none
of my books saved?" asked Mr. Jefferson.
"None," was the reply, and then the face
of the music-loving negro grew radiant as







PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 97


he added: "But, massa, we saved the fid-
dle." In after years, when the grief of
his loss was somewhat lessened, Mr. Jef-
ferson used to relate this anecdote with
merriment.
In 1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skel-
ton, a very beautiful, wealthy and highly
educated young widow. She brought him
forty thousand acres of land and one hun-
dred and* thirty-five slaves. He thus be-
came one of the largest slave-holders in
Virginia, and yet he labored with all his
energies for the abolition of slavery, de-
claring the institution to be a curse to the
master, a curse to the slave, and an offense
in the sight of God.
Successes followed closely upon the life
of Mr. Jefferson, and in 1775 he took his
seat in the Colonial Congress at Philadel-
phia. These were dark days for our coun-
try, and perplexing questions were con-
stantly coming up, which took thought,
work and action. It is said that in every life
there come days that are "cold, dark and
dreary." Jefferson was sensitive to re-
proach. Labor hard as he might, ene-
mies would now and then appear. They
tried to drive him from office and crush
his reputation. He was too proud to en-
ter upon a defense of himself. His wife,
the most lovely of Christian women, was
sinking in a lingering death The double
calamity of a storm of politics without and
a dying wife within so affected his spirits


that he resolved to retire from public life.
It was, indeed, a gloomy day that now set-
tled down upon him. Much of his prop-
erty had been destroyed. Many of his
slaves had perished and he was suffering
from severe injuries caused by a fall. The
poison of skepticism had been early in-
stilled into his nature, and in these days of
earthly gloom, without hope and without
faith, it was hard to bear. Upon the death
of his wife his distress was so great that


THOMAS JEFFERSON.,
1743-1826. Two Terms, 1801-1809.
he was led from the room in a state of in-
sensibility. But time passed on. "Truth
crushed to earth will rise again.", Thomas
Jefferson later became an embassador. He
once wrote to his daughter, who wished to
incur some slight debt: "Never buy any-
thing which you have not the money in
your pocket to pay for. Be assured that
it gives much more pain to the mind to be
in debt than to be without any article
whatever you may seem to want." Martha







PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES.


once said: "Never did I witness a par-
ticle of injustice in my father. Never
have I heard him say a word or do an act
which I regret. We venerated him as
something wiser and better than any other
man." To Maria, he wrote, when she was
about twelve years of age: "Tell me
whether you see the sun rise every day?
How many chapters a day you read in Don
Quixote? Whether you repeat a gram-
mar lesson every day ? How many hours
a day you sew? Whether you know how
to make a pudding or cut out a beef steak ?-
To sow spinach, or to set a hen? Be good,
my dear, as I have always found you.
Never be angry with anybody, never speak
hard of them, try to let everybody's faults
be forgotten, as you wish yours to be;
take more pleasure in giving what is best
to another than in having it yourself, and
then all the world will love you and I more
than all the world. If your sister is with
you, kiss her, and tell her how much I love
her also."
In 1800, he was elected President of
the United States. At this time Congress
moved from Philadelphia to Washington.
The news of his election was received
with demonstrations of joy. Jefferson was
exceedingly simple in his dress, having a
dislike to anything that catered to Euro-
pean styles. It is said that Washington
rode to Congress drawn by six cream-col-
ored horses. For some unexplained reason,


Jefferson, on the morning of his inaugura-
tion, rode on horse-back to the Capitol in
a dress of plain black cloth, without guard
or without slave. Dismounting, without
assistance, he fastened the bridle of his
horse to the fence. Right here, we want
to relate a little act on the part of Mr.
Jefferson while he was President of the
United States. One day he and his son,
Thomas, were out riding. They met a
slave, who respectfully took off his hat
and bowed. The President, according to
his custom, returned the salutation by
raising his hat. The younger man paid
no attention to the negro's act of civility.
Mr. Jefferson, after a few moments pause,
turned a reproachful eye to his son and
said, "Thomas, do you permit a slave to
be more of a gentleman than yourself?"
He held office two terms and was sixty-
two years of age when he retired. He
returned to his family and his books. At
this time his fortune was on the decline.
Friends, from all over the country, appre-
ciated the priceless value of Thomas Jef-
erson's services to the nation and now
sent him tokens of their love. These
testimonies, like sun-shine, dispelled the
gloom which had been gathering upon his
declining days. This, though, did not
allay old age, his feebleness continued,
and on July 4, 1826, the mysterious sepa-
ration of the soul from the body took
place. Strange that Thomas Jefferson and




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