Title Page
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Importance and purpose of...
 Copyright basics
 Institutional policy issues
 Back Cover

Title: Campus copyright rights and responsibilities : a basic guide to policy considerations
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083677/00001
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Title: Campus copyright rights and responsibilities : a basic guide to policy considerations
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Language: English
Creator: Association of American Universities
Publisher: Association of American Universities
Publication Date: 2005
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Importance and purpose of copyright
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Copyright basics
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Institutional policy issues
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Back Cover
        Page 32
Full Text




University Presses

Copyright of the material in this booklet is held jointly by Association
of American Universities, the Association of Research Libraries, the
Association of American University Presses, and the Association of
American Publishers.

Permission is granted to reproduce and distribute copies of the work
in its entirety for nonprofit educational or library purposes, provided
that copies are distributed at or below cost, that the copyright notice
is included on each copy, and that no alterations or modifications in
the text are made.



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This document was developed by representatives of the Association of American Universities (John
Vaughn), the Association of Research Libraries (Duane Webster and Mary Case), the Association of
American University Presses (Peter Givler), and the Association of American Publishers (Allan Adler).
These organizations represent sectors which play central roles within higher education in the creation,
use, and management of copyrighted works. The principal objective of this project was to bring together
these groups, which have differing perspectives and often conflicting views on the appropriate use of
copyrighted works, to produce a document that conveys their common understanding regarding the basic
meaning and practical significance of copyright for the higher education community. The association
representatives above gratefully acknowledge the invaluable advice and drafting assistance of Professor
Laura Gasaway (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) and attorney Bruce Joseph (Wiley Rein &
Fielding LLP) in producing this document.

Copyright of the material in this booklet is held jointly by Association of American Universities, the
Association of Research Libraries, the Association of American University Presses, and the Association
of American Publishers. Permission is granted to reproduce and distribute copies of the work in its
entirety for nonprofit educational or library purposes, provided that copies are distributed at or below
cost, that the copyright notice is included on each copy, and that no alterations or modifications in the
text are made.


In tro d u ctio n ............. ............................................................................................... 1

Importance and Purpose of Copyright ................................................................... 3

Part I: Copyright B asics ......... ..... ... .......................... ...... ................................ 5

A W hat is C opyright? ............. ........ ......................... ...................5
B. How Does a Copyright Come into Being? ...............................................6
C. Duration of Copyright and the Public Domain ...................................
D Ownership of Copyright and Transfers.....................................................7
E L ic e n se s.................................. .... ... ................................... 8
F. Exceptions and Limitations on the Copyright Rights..............................
G. Exceptions and Limitations on the Copyright Rights-Fair Use ................9
H. Exceptions and Limitations on the Copyright Rights
F air U se G uidelines..................... .................................................... 11
I. Exceptions and Limitations on the Copyright Rights
Face-to-Face Instruction ...................................... ............... 12
J. Exceptions and Limitations on the Copyright Rights
Distance Education ........................ ... ................ .................... 13
K. Exceptions and Limitations on the Copyright Rights-First Sale.............15
L. Exceptions and Limitations on the Copyright Rights
Libraries and A archives .................. ..... ..5..... ....................... 15
M. Copyright Infringement and Applicable Legal Remedies .......................17
N. Limitations on Liability for Infringement-Service Provider Liability ....19
O Technological Protection M measures ................................. ............... 21
P. Special Case- State Institutions..............................................................21

P art II: Institutional P olicy Issues......................................................................... ...... 23

A W hy A dopt a Copyright Policy? ..................................... ............... ..23
B. Educational Materials about Copyright Law ...........................................23
C. The Policy Requirements of the TEACH Act............................................24
D. The Policy Requirements of the Service Provider Liability Limitation ....24
E. Other Potential Policy Issues-Faculty Ownership of Copyrights............26
F. Other Potential Policy Issues-Fair Use
and the Classroom Guidelines ........................................ .............. 27
G. Other Potential Policy Issues-Coursepacks...........................................27
H. Other Potential Policy Issues-Reserves and Electronic Reserves...........28

C o n c lu sio n .............................................................................. 3 0

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities A BASIC GUIDE TO


his document has been prepared by the
Association of American Publishers, the
Association of American Universities,
the Association of American University Presses,
and the Association of Research Libraries; and
has been endorsed by the American Council on
Education and the Authors Guild. It is intended
for the following purposes:

to present a basic explanation of
copyright law with an emphasis on its
application to colleges and universities;

to provide a discussion of current
copyright issues in the higher education
setting that reflects the concerns
and points of view of colleges and
universities and the publishing
community with which these institutions
regularly interact and collaborate;

to encourage colleges and universities
to review their institutional policies on
the use and management of copyrighted
works in light of the continuing
evolution of digital technologies and
the numerous revisions to copyright and
related laws generated in part by that
evolution; and

to provide information to colleges and
universities concerning the development
of educational materials for their
students, faculty, and staff that provide
guidance on the creation, use, and
management of copyrighted works in
this shifting legal and societal landscape.

Part I of this document provides a primer on
copyright law. Part II addresses specific issues
that may be relevant to development of an
institutional copyright policy.

Copyright law protects the author's original
expression in creative works such as writings,
music, movies, art, and images. Copyright law
should not be confused with trademark law,
which protects symbols and other designations
of the origin of a product or service, or with
patent law, which protects inventions. Although
all three are referred to generally as "intellectual
property law," the subject matter and nature of
protection in each are very different.

Why would universities and colleges find this
document useful?

Creation and use of copyrighted works
lie at the heart of the educational
and research activities of institutions
of higher learning. Colleges and
universities create and use hundreds of
copyrighted works every day.

Although the underlying principles
of copyright have not substantially
changed, the legal landscape has
changed considerably as a result of a
number of statutory amendments and
court decisions.

Developments in digital technologies
have produced new ways to create
and use copyrighted works, enhancing
their availability and utility, while

2 Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities

simultaneously increasing the potential
risks of infringement to copyright

As more copyrighted works are made
available in digital formats, efforts are
increasingly being made to control
access and use by contractual licenses,
rather than sale of a copy.

Because educational institutions have
become operators of digital networks,
they should understand laws that can
limit the risk of institutional liability
for copyright infringement by faculty,
students, and other network users,
conditioned on certain institutional
policies and actions.

This document is not intended to provide legal
advice or serve as a substitute for consultation
with competent legal counsel on matters
regarding the development and implementation
of institutional policies or compliance with
copyright law.

Every institution appropriately will have its
own approach to the formulation of institutional
policy and the development of educational
material. This document should not be read to
suggest that any one policy or set of materials
is appropriate for all institutions. Institutions
have great flexibility to shape copyright policies
and develop materials to meet their own needs.
Similarly, copyright owners are likely to
have their own views regarding uses of their
copyrighted content in particular circumstances.

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities 3


Universities and colleges are major
stakeholders in the world of copyright.
As part of the scholarship, research,
and teaching activities conducted at these
institutions, faculty and students frequently
create and exercise rights with respect to their
own copyrighted works while also making
extensive use of the copyrighted works of others.

The Constitution authorizes the enactment of
copyright laws by granting to Congress the
power to "promote the progress of science
and useful arts, by securing for limited times
to authors and inventors the exclusive right to
their respective writings and discoveries." In
practical terms, copyright law serves public
ends by providing individuals with an incentive
to pursue private ones: copyright rewards
authors for the creative exercise of their talents
through the provision of proprietary rights for
the commercial exploitation of their works,
which provides an economic incentive for them
to create new works that advance the public
welfare through the proliferation of knowledge
and ideas.

At the same time, copyright law recognizes
the public interest in ensuring the free flow of
information and ideas, and imposes important
restrictions on the scope of copyright that
are designed to facilitate this free flow
of information and ideas. Many of these
limitations on the rights of copyright owners
are particularly important in the academic
environment and several are specifically
designed for nonprofit educational institutions.

Copyright provides a basis for the publishing
operations of university presses and scholarly
societies, and makes possible the contributions
of innumerable other authors and publishers
to the educational process. In this capacity,
copyright benefits colleges and universities
economically in the form of payments from the
sale or licensing of a work, and also provides
important non-economic benefits that accrue
to faculty authors, including heightened
professional visibility and scholarly reputation,
as well as preservation of the integrity of
their creative works-all of which factor into
considerations for tenure and promotion.

In sum, copyright law supports a fundamental
mission of colleges and universities to
create and disseminate new knowledge and
understanding through teaching, research, and
scholarship in two basic ways: (1) by providing
incentives for the creation of new works through
the provision of proprietary rights to copyright
owners, and (2) by providing limitations on
those rights in order to facilitate public access to
and use of creative works.


Copyright is a doctrine of federal law
that invests the "author" of a creative
work of original "expression" with
certain exclusive rights, enforceable by law,
for a limited period of time, and subject to
defined limitations. U.S. copyright law is found
in the Copyright Act, Title 17 of the United
States Code. Unless otherwise noted, statutory
references in this document are to the Copyright
Act and Title 17.

These exclusive rights, set forth in Section
106 of Title 17, include the rights to do, and to
authorize others to do, the following:

reproduce copies of the work;
distribute copies of the work to the
create derivative works based on the
perform the work publicly (in the case of
certain types of works) and, in the case
of sound recordings, to do so by digital
transmission; and
display the work publicly (in the case of
certain types of works).

Violation of any of these rights, by engaging
in the activity without authority from the
copyright owner or a relevant statutory
exception or limitation on the right at issue,
is called "infringement" and is subject to
potentially significant civil liability and, in
certain cases, criminal liability. Infringement
and the legal remedies for infringement are
discussed in Part I.M.

Copyright can apply to a wide array of different
types of works, including those identified in
Sections 102(a) and 103:

literary works (including novels, articles,
texts, poems, and computer programs);
musical works (the notes and lyrics
written by songwriters);
dramatic works (such as plays);
pantomimes and choreographic works;
pictorial, graphic and sculptural works
(including photographs and drawings);
motion pictures and other audiovisual
works (including television programs
and home movies);
sound recordings (the sounds made
by the performing artist and record
architectural works; and
compilations and databases of the
foregoing and of other material (to the
extent they reflect original "authorship"
in the selection or arrangement of

Copyright cannot apply to the following (even
if they are contained within works of the types
identified above) (see Section 102(b)):

processes or procedures
systems or methods of operation

Copyright does not apply to works created by
an officer or employee of the United States
Government, acting within the scope of his or
her official duties. There is no similar exception
with respect to works created by state or local
government officials or employees. See Sections
105, 101.

In the United States, copyright is governed
exclusively by federal law, which generally
preempts state laws addressing the same rights.

6 Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities

The federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction
to interpret, apply, and enforce the copyright
statutes enacted by Congress, which means that
state courts generally cannot consider copyright
cases. See Section 301 (preemption) and 28
U.S.C. 1338 (exclusive jurisdiction).

It is important to distinguish the copyright in a
work from the ownership of a particular copy
of a work. For example, ownership of a copy
of a book does not include ownership of any of
the copyright rights, such as the right to make
copies of the content of that book. See Section
202. There are, however, specific exceptions and
limitations on the copyright rights that allow
the owner of a copy of a work to take certain
actions with respect to that work that do not
violate the exclusive rights of the copyright
holder. See Parts I.F-L.


A copyrightable original work of creative
expression is protected by copyright
automatically, from the moment it is
fixed in any "tangible medium of expression"
(such as paper, film, or a computer disk or
memory) from which it can be perceived,
reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either
directly or with the aid of a machine or device.
For example, copyright attaches to a literary
work such as an article or a novel as soon as
the author writes it on paper or types it onto a
computer hard drive. No other act or process
need take place.

Although registration of a work with the U.S.
Copyright Office is not necessary to obtain
copyright protection, there are significant
benefits to the copyright owner from registration
if the owner must go to court to enforce a
copyright against an alleged infringer. See
discussion of remedies in Part I.M.

A work is protected by copyright even if it does
not contain a formal copyright notice (the word
"copyright," abbreviation "copr.," or symbol
"" with the year of first publication and
name of the copyright owner), although works
first published before March 1, 1989, without
notice, may have entered the public domain (see
discussion of the public domain in Part I.C).


Copyrights may last for a long time.
Determination of the precise term is
complex and, in the United States,
depends on when the work was first created and

As a general rule, works first published
before January 1, 1978, are protected
for 95 years from the date of first
publication, or 120 years from the date
of creation, whichever is longer, but
there are numerous exceptions.

Works by named authors first published
after January 1, 1978, are protected for
the life of the author plus 70 years.

"Works made for hire" (see Part I.D),
anonymous works and pseudonymous
works are protected for the 95- or 120-
year term described above.

As a result of the way copyright terms
are calculated, and as a result of a
20-year extension of copyright terms
enacted in 1998, a good rule of thumb is
that works first published in the United
States in 1922 and before are in the
public domain.

A work whose term of copyright protection
has expired, or a work that was not subject

to copyright protection (e.g., a work of the
U.S. Government), is said to be "in the public
domain." Such a work may freely be copied,
distributed, performed, displayed, or otherwise
used in ways unrestricted by copyright rights.

International copyright is quite complex and is
beyond the scope of this brochure. Copyright is
territorial, but the U.S. has copyright agreements
with the vast majority of countries of the world.
A general rule of thumb is that works by authors
of those countries or works first published in
those countries are protected in the U.S. as if
they were U.S. works, with some exceptions and

Copyright notice was required to be placed on
published works prior to 1989. Works published
under the authority of the copyright owner
without copyright notice prior to March 1, 1989,
are likely to be in the public domain, but their
status should be checked.


A s noted, the initial owner of the
copyright in a work is the "author"
of the work. A surprising number of
issues can arise relating to identification of the

Normally, the author of a work created by an
individual is the individual.

A "joint work" is defined as a work created
jointly by two or more authors with the
intention that their contributions be merged into
inseparable parts of a single work. Each author
owns an undivided interest in a joint work,
and may freely use and exploit the rights in the
work, subject to a duty to share the profits from
such exploitation with the other joint authorss.

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities 7

The "author" of a work created by an
employee acting within the scope of his or her
employment is the employer, which may be a
person or an entity, such as a corporation. This
is the so-called "work made for hire" doctrine.
There are certain complexities:

The status of a person as an employee
is typically analyzed under the common
law applicable to the employee-employer
relationship, not a special copyright
rule. The courts have identified relevant
factors to be considered in making this

An independent contractor is not
an employee. However, there is a
special rule by which the work of an
independent contractor also may be
a "work made for hire." Specifically,
the work must fall within one of
nine enumerated categories (notably
including instructional texts, translations,
tests, answer materials for tests,
compilations, and audiovisual works, but
not computer programs) and the parties
must agree in writing that the work is a
"work made for hire."

The ownership of copyright in course
materials and writings created by
university and college faculty acting
within the scope of their employment,
particularly new forms of digital course
materials, raises a complex set of issues.
For a more detailed discussion, see Part

Ownership of all or any part of any right under a
copyright may be shared or transferred, in whole
or in part, by the author. This is often the case
when a work is to be published, as publishers
often seek ownership of the copyright, or at
least of the exclusive right to distribute copies
of the work within the United States and certain
other rights.

8 Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities

Transfer of ownership of all or any part of a
copyright must be accomplished in writing
signed by the transferor. A transfer of the entire
copyright is often referred to as an "assignment."

Each of the copyright rights is divisible across
numerous parameters (for example, by time
period, geographical area, medium, etc.) and
transfers may be for all or any such division of
one or more of the rights. Examples of partial
transfers include: transfers of all or some of the
exclusive rights for a limited period of time;
transfers of certain rights limited by territory;
transfer of rights (e.g., distribution) in certain
forms, or by certain media.

Only the "owner" of a relevant right under the
copyright may bring an infringement action.


A license is a grant of rights to a third
party to exercise all or part of one or
more of the copyright rights. Again, the
rights are divisible across numerous parameters
for purpose of licensing.

Licenses may be "exclusive" or "non-
exclusive." Exclusive licenses grant the right
to exercise all or part of the copyright rights to
a single person or entity. Exclusive licenses are
treated under the law as transfers of ownership
of the licensed rights. Thus, they must be in
writing and they include the right to sue for

A licensee under a non-exclusive license
typically is not the only person or entity granted
the right to do the specified actions. An example
would be the license to use Windows 2000,
which all users receive.

A non-exclusive license need not be in writing;
it may be oral. Written licenses, however,

are more likely to avoid subsequent disputes
between publishers and institutions regarding
what rights have actually been licensed.

A license may be implied by the parties'
reasonable expectations or conduct. For
example, if one hires a contractor to create
materials for a Web site, even though the
contractor may retain ownership of the
copyright in the materials, the expectation of
the parties could well lead to an implied non-
exclusive license to include the materials on the
Web site.

Licenses are contracts. As contracts, they create
rights and obligations for both publishers
and institutions as parties to those contracts.
Institutions may wish to consider ways to
communicate information about contractual
rights and obligations to those within the
institution who are bound by them or can benefit
from them.

Licenses typically are governed by state
contract law rather than by federal copyright
law. Depending on the circumstances,
violation of the terms of a license relating to
a copyrighted work may give rise to a claim
for breach of contract under state law or for
copyright infringement under federal law, or
to both types of claims. License terms may be
negotiable or non-negotiable (as they often are
for works available in standard form in the mass
market). Some non-negotiable licenses may be
unenforceable under the laws of certain states.

Licensing has become common for digital forms
of works. There continues to be disagreement
about the advantages and disadvantages of
licensing and certain license restrictions.

Some argue that the licensing of digital media
permits more options for control and use of a
work and more variety and choice in arranging
pricing and other terms of use.

Others counter that licensing is often used in
an effort to curtail the statutory limitations on
copyright, including certain actions available to
the owner of a copy of a work. For this reason,
there is an ongoing debate as to whether all such
licenses concerning the use of a copyrighted
work are, and should be, enforceable contracts
apart from copyright law, or whether there are
circumstances in which, as a matter of law
and public policy, the statutory limitations on
copyright rights (discussed in the next section)
can, and should, pre-empt license terms that
narrow or eliminate the ability to engage in
uses of a copyrighted work that are otherwise
permitted under copyright law.

This debate, and the limitations on copyright
rights, should be kept in mind when negotiating
licenses or acquiring copies of copyrighted
works that are subject to licenses.

Copyright owners are free to forego the
assertion of any of their rights and may,
likewise, shorten the term of their copyright.
Some copyright owners are choosing to
accomplish this by the way in which they
structure their licenses. One example is
the range of online agreements available
through the Creative Commons (http://www.


Copyright is limited to a bundle of
expressly stated rights, as described
in Part I.A. For example, a copyright
owner does not gain exclusive rights to control
the reading of a work, private performance or
display, or other uses that are not enumerated in
Section 106.

In addition to these inherent limitations, the
Copyright Act contains numerous express

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities 9

statutory limitations on rights granted to the
copyright owner. Several are particularly
relevant to institutions of higher learning. Most
of the exceptions and limitations are found in
Sections 107 through 122 of the Act.

The exceptions and limitations include:

fair use-Section 107;
performances and displays in face-to-
face teaching-Section 110(1);
distance learning-Sections 110(2) and
first sale-Section 109;
reproduction by libraries and archives-
Section 108; and
limitations on liability for digital
network service providers-Section 512.

Another important exception has already been
mentioned in Part I.A: the rule that copyright
protection does not extend to any fact, idea,
system, process, or method of operation. See
Section 102(b).


he "fair use" doctrine is one of the
important safety valves of U.S.
copyright law. The doctrine arises
under a statutory provision (Section 107) which
provides that certain uses of a copyrighted work
that might otherwise violate an exclusive right
of the copyright owner are not infringement.

The doctrine is flexible, but its application
often is uncertain, as it generally requires
consideration of all of the facts and
circumstances surrounding the particular use
of the copyrighted work at issue. As a result,
the fair use doctrine has been the subject of
numerous court cases.

10 Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities

Section 107 includes a non-exhaustive,
illustrative list of uses that may qualify as fair
use: "[T]he fair use of a copyrighted work,
including such use... for purposes such as
criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching
(including multiple copying for classroom use),
scholarship, or research, is not an infringement
of copyright."

Section 107 then lists four non-exclusive factors
that a court must consider when assessing
whether a particular use is fair use. The four
factors are weighed against each other; no one is
determinative in every case:

the purpose and character of the use,
including whether such use is of a
commercial nature or is for nonprofit
educational purposes;
the nature of the copyrighted work;
the amount and substantiality of
the portion used in relation to the
copyrighted work as a whole; and
the effect of the use on the potential
market for or value of the copyrighted

In evaluating the purpose and character of the
use, nonprofit uses and educational uses are
generally favored and more likely to be deemed
fair use than commercial uses. However, not
all nonprofit educational uses are fair use; and
not all commercial uses fail to qualify as fair
use. Transformative uses of a work (those that
add something new, with a further purpose
or different character, altering the first with
new expression, meaning, or message) rather
than those that merely reproduce the work, are
generally favored in considering this factor in
fair use determinations.

The nature of the copyrighted work focuses on
the work itself. The legislative history and case
law suggest that certain types of works are more
susceptible to fair use than others; for example,
scientific articles that are factual in nature may

be more subject to fair use than creative works
such as musical compositions, novels and
motion pictures. Some works are less likely to
support fair use, such as standardized tests and
work booklets that by their nature are meant to
be "consumable."

The amount and substantiality of the portion
used considers how much of the copyrighted
work is used in comparison to the copyrighted
work as a whole. Generally, the smaller the
amount used, the more likely the use will be
considered to be a fair use. Conversely, the
larger the portion of a work used, the less likely
it is to be fair use, although in appropriate
circumstances (e.g., research, classroom display
or distribution, parody) use of an entire work
(e.g., an article, a short poem, musical work
or photograph) may be a fair use. There is no
bright line for determining whether a certain
percentage, number of words or bars of music
used qualifies as a fair use. The "amount and
substantiality of the portion used" also is a
qualitative test; even though one reproduces
only a small portion of a work, that portion
still may be too much if what is reproduced is
deemed to be the "heart of the work."

The effect on the potential market for or value
of the work factor calls for consideration
of the extent to which the use is likely to
cause economic harm to the owner due to
the displacement of opportunities to sell the
work or license its use. Courts have typically
limited this inquiry to markets that have been
or are likely to be developed by the copyright
owner. Even if the loss an owner incurs from
a particular use is not substantial, courts have
held that, in appropriate cases, this factor
requires consideration of whether there would
be substantial harm to the market for the work,
or derivative works based on the work, if the use
were to become widespread.

Because fair use requires a case-by-case
assessment, efforts have been made
over the years to develop guidelines
in order to reduce some of the uncertainties for
institutions in making such assessments.

During the course of the debates leading up to
the Copyright Act of 1976, representatives of
a number of publishers, authors, and education
associations developed the "Classroom
Guidelines" (see Agreement on Guidelines
for Classroom Copying in Not-For-Profit
Educational Institutions, H.R. Rep. No. 94-
1476 at 68-70, reprinted in 1976 U.S. Code
Cong. & Ad. News 5681-83), which were
intended to provide greater clarity concerning
the application of fair use to the reproduction
of certain copyrighted works by teachers in
nonprofit educational institutions for research or
instructional purposes. Several important points
should be considered when relying upon the
Classroom Guidelines:

The Guidelines provide a safe harbor
for teachers who make single copies of
works for their own scholarly research
or for their use in teaching or preparation
for teaching.

The Guidelines also define the scope of
a "safe harbor" for teachers who wish to
distribute multiple copies of copyrighted
works to their students without seeking
permission or paying royalties.

As a safe harbor, the Guidelines
represent minimum and not maximum
allowances. By definition, therefore,
there will be instances in which actions
that fall outside the Guidelines are still
fair use.

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities 11

The Classroom Guidelines are not
law or regulation. However, they
were published in the House Report
that accompanied the 1976 Copyright
Act, and were specifically cited in the
Conference Report to the 1976 Act "as
part of [the legislators'] understanding
of fair use." The Guidelines also were
endorsed by the American Council on
Education and have been cited with
approval by some courts. See H.R. Rep.
No. 94-1733, at 70-71, reprinted in 1976
U.S. Code Cong. & Ad. News 5811-12.

As is often the case with such guidelines, the
Classroom Guidelines are regarded by many
to embody a trade-off between certainty and
flexibility. Some instructors keep their copying
of copyrighted materials for classroom use
within the limits defined by the Guidelines
in order to take advantage of the safe harbor
they provide. However, not all members
of the academic community support such
guidelines; concerns have been expressed that
guidelines, by their nature, will be construed as
limiting the flexibility of fair use, rather than
establishing minimum safe harbors. Indeed,
some institutions, in their own policies, have
mistakenly treated the guidelines as defining the
extent of fair use. They do not.

The Guidelines identify considerations relating
to the reproduction and distribution of multiple
copies for students: brevity, spontaneity, and
cumulative effect. Additionally, the students
may not be charged more than the cost of
making the copies, and each copy must contain
a notice of copyright.

The brevity factor sets forth word and
portion limitations.

Spontaneity means that the copying is
done at the instigation of the individual
teacher and that the decision to
reproduce the work is made so close in

12 Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities

time to the moment the faculty member
wants to use the work that it would be
unreasonable to expect timely reply to
a request to the copyright owner for

SThe cumulative effect factor limits the
copying of particular material to one
course and places limitations on what
may be copied. For example, the safe
harbor generally is limited to one article
or two excerpts per author or three per
periodical volume or other collective
work during the class term.

The safe harbor provided by the Guidelines:

does not include copies of the same item
made by the same teacher from term to

will not apply to the reproduction and
distribution of more than nine instances
of multiple copying for one course
during the class term.

There are two other Guidelines developed in
1976 and endorsed by Congress that deserve
attention-the "Guidelines on the Educational
Uses of Music" and the "Guidelines on
Photocopying-Interlibrary Arrangements." The
former Guidelines appear immediately after the
Classroom Guidelines, in H.R. Rep. No. 94-
1476 at 70-71, 1976 U.S. Code Cong. & Ad.
News 5684-85; and the latter Guidelines may be
found in H.R. Rep. No. 94-1733 at 72-3, 1976
U.S. Code Cong. & Ad. News 5813-14.

In the mid-1990s, the U.S. Patent and
Trademark Office sponsored a series of
discussions, known as the Conference on
Fair Use (CONFU), which sought to develop
consensus among representatives of education
and library groups, publishers, and copyright
owners, on guidelines for fair use of digital
works. Although the conference fostered
useful exchanges among the groups on the

opportunities and challenges confronting
copyrighted works in the digital environment,
none of the proposed fair use guidelines was
formally adopted.


S section 110(1) provides that the
performance or display of a copyrighted
work by instructors or pupils in the
course of face-to-face teaching activities of
a nonprofit educational institution are not
infringement of copyright, notwithstanding the
rights of the copyright owner. There are certain

The performance or display must be in
a classroom or similar place devoted to

A performance or display of a motion
picture or other audiovisual work or
an image from such a work must be
from a lawfully made copy (or one that
the person making the performance or
display had no reason to believe was
unlawfully made). A copy made pursuant
to permission or an applicable exception
or limitation on the copyright rights
(e.g., fair use) would be considered
"lawfully made."

The exception applies to any type of
copyrighted work. Thus, for example, it is
permissible to perform a play or a motion
picture, or to display a photograph or a poem in
the classroom.

Like the other specific exceptions and
limitations to the copyright rights, uses that
do not meet the specific limitations of Section
110(1) may still qualify as fair use.

There is a separate, related exception to the
copyright rights that is not specifically directed
to educational settings but that is relevant to
face-to-face teaching. Under Section 109(c),
the owner of a particular lawfully made copy,
or any person authorized by such owner, may
display that copy publicly, either directly or by
projection of no more than one image at a time,
to viewers present at the place where the copy
is located. Unlike Section 110(1), this exception
applies only to the owner of a copy or someone
authorized by the owner, not to a person who
acquired the copy through rental, lease, or loan.
This exception, however, is not subject to some
of the Section 110(1) limitations.


In 2002, Congress enacted the Technology,
Education and Copyright Harmonization
Act-or TEACH Act-which expanded the
scope of the copyright exception applicable to
distance education transmissions (e.g., over the air
or over the Internet), as well as to the use of online
materials in the context of face-to-face teaching.

The TEACH Act revises Section 110(2) in an
effort to permit the use of copyrighted materials
in real time and asynchronous digital distance
education on much the same terms as in live
face-to-face teaching.

The exception applies to any copyrighted
work other than a work produced or marketed
primarily for performance or display as part of
"mediated instructional activities" using digital
networking (i.e., materials expressly created for
use during online distance education classes),
subject to certain limitations:

The exception for performances applies
only to "limited portions" of works other
than non-dramatic literary or musical works.

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities 13

The exception for displays applies only
to the display of amounts comparable
to that which is typically displayed in
the course of an in-person classroom

The exception does not apply to the
performance or display of a work if
given from a copy that was not lawfully
made and the institution making the
performance knew or had reason to
believe it was not lawfully made.

The exception applies only to
performances or displays that (1) are
made by, at the direction of, or under
the supervision of, an instructor (e.g., by
the instructor or a student) as an integral
part of the distance education analog of
a "class session" offered as a regular part
of the systematic "mediated instructional
activities" of a nonprofit educational
institution or governmental body, and
(2) are directly related and of material
assistance to the teaching content of the

The exception applies only if the
transmission is made solely for, and-to
the extent technologically feasible-
reception is limited to students enrolled
in the course (e.g., by password access).

The exception is available to an institution only
if it has instituted policies regarding copyright,
provided informational materials to faculty,
students, and relevant staff members that
describe and promote compliance with U.S.
copyright law, and provides notice to students
that materials used in connection with the
course may be subject to copyright protection.
These institutional policy issues are discussed in
greater detail in Part II.C.

The exception is available in connection with
a digital transmission (e.g., an Internet-based

14 Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities

course) only if the institution has applied
technological measures that reasonably
prevent retention of the work in accessible
form by the recipients (i.e., on the recipients'
computers) for longer than a comparable in-
person class session, and reasonably prevent
further unauthorized dissemination of the work.
In addition, the institution must not interfere
with technological measures used by copyright
owners to prevent such retention and further

The legislative history of the TEACH Act makes
clear that the limitation on retention refers to
retention by the students and does not limit the
length of time the work may be made available
on the institution's server.

Technologies available today to prevent
retention and further dissemination include
various digital rights management (DRM)
technologies, and streaming technologies that
prevent retention on the receiving computer.

The legislative history, in the Conference
Report, describes a class session as generally
"that period during which a student is logged
on to the server of the institution" making the
display or performance. It is "likely to vary with
the needs of the student and with the design
of the particular course." A particular class
session is not the entire semester or term, but the
materials can remain on the institution's server
for the duration of its use in one or more courses
(e.g., the entire semester or term). The materials
"may be accessed by a student each time the
student logs on to participate in the particular
class session of the course in which the display
or performance is made." See H.R. Rep. No.
107-685 at 231, reprinted in 2002 U.S. Code
Cong. & Ad. News 1183-84.

The "mediated instructional activities" to which
the TEACH Act applies are those that use a
work as an integral part of the class experience,
controlled or supervised by or under the

direction of the instructor and analogous to the
type of performance or display that would take
place in a live classroom setting; the instructor
need not be online at the time of the student
transaction. Mediated instructional activities
do not include other uses of copyrighted works
in the course of digital distance education,
including student use of supplemental or
research materials in digital form, such as
electronic reserves and other digital library
resources. Moreover, even within the context
of the mediated class experience, the TEACH
Act exception does not apply to the use of
such works as textbooks, coursepacks, or
other material, copies of which are typically
purchased or acquired by students in higher
education for their independent use and
retention in connection with the class.

The TEACH Act also amended Section 112 of
the Copyright Act, which allows institutions to
store material on their servers to enable distance
education transmissions.

This provision applies primarily to digital
versions of copyrighted works.

However, an institution may digitize those
portions of an analog version of a work to be
displayed or performed under Section 110(2)
if no digital version of the work is available, or
if the digital version is subject to technological
protection measures that prevent its use.

Like the other specific exceptions and
limitations to the copyright rights, uses that
do not meet the specific limitations of Section
110(2) may still qualify as fair use.


As a general rule, and subject to certain
limitations and exceptions, one who
has acquired ownership of a lawfully
made copy of a copyrighted work may dispose
of possession of that copy by sale, gift, loan,
rental, or any other means of transfer, without
running afoul of the copyright owner's right
of public distribution. This doctrine is codified
in Section 109(a) and is generally known as
the "first sale" doctrine because once a copy
is sold, the copyright owner loses his or her
right to control further distribution of that copy.
The first sale doctrine is the basis of significant
economic activity, such as stores that purchase
copies of videos and DVDs and then rent the
copies, second-hand bookstores that sell copies
of books they have purchased, book owners who
donate those books to libraries, and libraries that
lend copies of materials that they own. The first
sale doctrine has some limitations:

Section 109(d) provides that the first sale
doctrine does not apply to copies that
are obtained by rental, lease, or loan,
without acquiring ownership.

Notwithstanding the first sale doctrine,
the Act specifically prohibits the rental,
lease, lending, or similar temporary
disposal of possession of a phonorecord
or a copy of a computer program for
direct or indirect commercial advantage.
However, this prohibition does not apply
to nonprofit educational institutions or
nonprofit libraries under certain defined
circumstances. Specifically, the rental,
lease, or lending of a phonorecord
for nonprofit purposes by a nonprofit
library or educational institution is
not prohibited by Section 109(b). The
transfer of possession of a lawfully
made copy of a computer program by

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities 15

a nonprofit educational institution to
another nonprofit educational institution
or to faculty, staff, and students is not
prohibited by Section 109(b). There also
is a specific exception for the lending of
computer programs by nonprofit libraries
under certain conditions.

The first sale doctrine applies to all forms
of copies of works that can be physically
transferred, including copies embedded in such
digital formats as CDs and DVDs. The Copyright
Office has expressed the view that digital
transmissions of copies are not subject to the
first sale doctrine, although the appropriateness
of application of a first sale doctrine to such
transmissions remains the subject of debate. The
principal arguments against including a digital
transmission within the first sale doctrine are that
such an exception would allow reproduction as
well as distribution of the work and, in contrast
to physical copies such as a book, digital copies
can be easily and flawlessly duplicated, thereby
creating the risk that the transmission of a single
copy becomes the redistribution of limitless
copies. However, if and when technological
management systems support the reliable
transmission of a single copy together with the
destruction of the sender's copy, the current
reservations about digital transmission under the
first sale doctrine would seem to be eliminated,
and some form of first sale doctrine could then
be implemented for the distribution of a copy of a
copyrighted work via digital transmission.


t the request of libraries and archives,
Congress enacted a series of specific
exceptions to copyright owners'
exclusive rights, as well as a general protection
from liability for unsupervised copying by library

16 Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities

users on library premises. See Section 108.
These specific exceptions are safe harbors, and
do not preclude the right of fair use. Depending
on the circumstances, the general right of fair
use under Section 107 may allow more or less
copying and distribution of copyrighted works
than the specific rights extended by Section 108.
The Section 108 exceptions do not supersede
contractual obligations that may be assumed by
a library when it obtains a copy of a work. The
Section 108 exceptions are of two types:

SCopyingfor library users

One of the most important provisions
of Section 108 is the right of libraries
or archives to make for a user
"single copies" of an article or other
contribution to a copyrighted collection
or periodical, or a copy of a small part
of any other copyrighted work, where
the copy becomes the property of the
user and the library has no notice that
it will be used for a purpose other than
private study, scholarship, or research.
This right applies to copies made from
journals or other works in the library's
own collection, or copies obtained from
another library by "interlibrary loan."

An additional right to make a copy of
an entire work, or a substantial part of a
work, for a user is extended to libraries
and archives, provided the library has
determined that a copy of the work
cannot be obtained at a fair price, the
copy becomes the property of the user,
and the copy will be used for private
study, scholarship, or research.

These rights extend to the isolated and
unrelated reproduction and distribution
of single copies, but not to "related or
concerted" reproduction of multiple
copies of the same material or the
"systematic reproduction or distribution"

of single copies of journal articles or
other parts of collective works.

The provision makes clear, however,
that these limitations do not prevent a
library or archive from participating
in interlibrary loan arrangements, so
long as those arrangements do not have
as their purpose or effect the receipt
of copies by the requesting library in
aggregate quantities that substitute for a
subscription to or purchase of the work.

The Conference Report on the 1976
Act notes that the National Commission
on New Technological Uses of
Copyrighted Works (CONTU), after
consulting with interested parties,
developed guidelines that allow a
library to receive up to five articles
in any year from the same journal or
other collective work published in the
past five years. The guidelines do not
address works more than five years old.
Guidelines on Photocopying-Interlibrary
Arrangements, H.R. Rep. No. 94-1733
at 70-73, reprinted in 1976 U.S. Code
Cong. & Ad. News 5811-14.

Copyingfor the library collection

In addition, Section 108 extends
specific rights to make three copies of
unpublished works for preservation
purposes, and three copies of published
works to replace deteriorated, damaged,
lost, or stolen copies, or if the existing
format in which the work is stored has
become obsolete. The copies may be
digital, provided that they are not made
available to the public in that format
outside the premises of the library or

Another provision of Section
108 allows a library or archive to

exercise substantially broader rights
of reproduction and distribution of
copyrighted works in the last 20 years
of their copyright terms, provided
the works concerned do not continue
to be subject to normal commercial

Section 108 establishes conditions that the
library must satisfy in order to qualify for the
exemptions, as well as establishing certain
exclusions from the exemptions:

In order to qualify for the "single copy"
authorization, a library or archive must
display a warning of copyright at the
place where copy orders are taken and
on its order form, and the copy of the
work should contain an appropriate
copyright notice.

Except for the preservation right and
the right to replace copies that are lost,
stolen, damaged, etc., these rights do
not apply to a musical work, a pictorial,
graphic, or sculptural work, or a motion
picture or other audiovisual work
(except for illustrations or other adjuncts
to works whose copying and distribution
is otherwise permitted by Section 108).

Section 108 makes clear that it is not intended to
impose liability on libraries or their employees
for the unsupervised use of reproducing
equipment on the library's premises, provided
that the equipment displays a notice that
the making of a copy may be subject to the
copyright law. However, this limitation on
library liability does not extend to a person
who makes copies, or requests for copies, in
excess of what is permitted under the fair use
provisions of Section 107.

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities 17


A violation, or infringement, of a right
of a copyright owner occurs when a
protected work is used in a manner
that constitutes the exercise of any exclusive
right of the copyright owner (e.g., reproduction
or distribution), but such use is neither (1)
authorized by the copyright owner, nor (2)
within the scope of one of the limitations
applying to the copyright owner's assertion of
that exclusive right.

Generally, violation of the copyright owner's
exclusive right requires that the amount of the
protected work that is taken (e.g., copied) is
"substantial." However, substantiality generally
is tested both in terms of the quantity and
quality of what is taken, and the standard used
by courts is often quite low-that is, a relatively
small amount, measured quantitatively or
qualitatively, may be judged to be substantial.
Copying need not be verbatim; substantial
similarity to expression in the copied work
can constitute infringement. However, where
the similarity involves expression that is not
original to the author of the copied work, there
is no infringement.

The issue of whether what is taken is substantial
should not be confused with the third factor
of the fair use doctrine, which requires
consideration of the amount and substantiality
of the portion used. The considerations are
different, and fair use typically permits a greater
quantity of taking than the underlying question
of whether the amount taken is "substantial"
enough to constitute infringement. Thus, if the
taking is not substantial enough to qualify as
infringement in the first place, then the issue
of fair use would not arise; if the amount taken
is substantial enough to constitute possible
infringement, then a fair use analysis may

18 Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities

conclude that the taking was not infringement
based on the greater substantiality permitted by
the third factor of the fair use doctrine.

There are three types of infringement: direct
infringement, contributory infringement, and
vicarious liability for infringement. They are
subject to different requirements:

Direct infringement is the doctrine that
applies to the party that actually carried
out the act that violates the copyright
owner's exclusive rights. Often, this
doctrine has been extended to apply
to acts of employees acting within the
scope of their employment. The doctrine
is based on "strict liability," meaning
one will be liable whether or not one
knew that the work was copyrighted
and whether or not one intended to
infringe or knew that one's conduct was

Contributory infringement is the
doctrine that applies to a party
that, with knowledge of an act of
infringement, induced, caused, or
materially contributed to the act of
infringement. Courts have held that
providing significant facilities used
for infringement can count as material
contribution. Different courts have
construed the requisite "knowledge"
differently, with some requiring actual
knowledge and others finding liability if
the alleged contributory infringer knew
or should have known that the infringing
act was occurring.

Vicarious liability may be imposed on
one who obtains a financial benefit from
an act of infringement and has the right
and ability to control the infringing
conduct. Again, courts vary on the nature
of financial benefit and the level of
control that may give rise to liability.

The U.S. Supreme Court's decision in the
Grokster case recently held that the concept
of intentional "inducement" could give rise to
liability for one who distributes a product that
is capable of both lawful and unlawful uses.
The Court, in a case concerning distributors
of free software products that allow computer
users to share electronic files through peer-to-
peer networks, ruled that "one who distributes
a device with the object of promoting its use to
infringe copyright, as shown by clear expression
or other affirmative steps taken to foster
infringement, is liable for the resulting acts of
infringement by third parties." Although the
Court's decision provided some examples of the
kinds of "expression or other affirmative steps"
that could provide evidence supporting one
person's liability for inducing infringing acts by
others, a clear picture of the scope and nature
of this basis for liability will require further
development by the federal courts in future

The Copyright Act provides numerous remedies
against the infringer, including the possibility of
substantial monetary liability:

In any case of infringement, the
copyright owner may seek temporary
and permanent injunctions against
continued infringement.

In any case of infringement, the
copyright owner may obtain "actual
damages" from the defendant in the
amount of financial losses suffered by
the copyright owner as a result of the
infringement, as well as any profits
made by the defendant as a result of the
infringement (to the extent that such
profits are not already taken into account
in calculating the losses suffered by the
copyright owner).

The copyright owner may seek an order
impounding articles involved in the

* If the copyright was registered before the
infringement (or within three months of
publication in the case of infringement
of a published work), the copyright
owner may obtain reasonable costs and
attorneys' fees in the discretion of the
court. Note that a prevailing defendant
may also seek attorneys' fees that may
be awarded in the discretion of the court.

* If the copyright was registered before the
infringement (or within three months of
publication in the case of infringement
of a published work), the copyright
owner, in lieu of actual damages,
may seek statutory damages within
a specified range in an amount to be
determined by the finder of fact (i.e., the
jury in a jury trial or the judge if there
is no jury). The range is between $750
and $30,000 per infringed work (not
per infringing act). The amount may be
increased to up to $150,000 per infringed
work in a case of willful infringement, or
reduced to not less than $200 per work if
the infringement was truly innocent.

* There is a special rule for nonprofit
educational institutions and libraries
which provides for elimination of
statutory damages if the infringing
reproduction was undertaken with
reasonable grounds for believing that the
infringement was a fair use. See Section

* The Copyright Act provides for criminal
liability in cases of willful infringement
for commercial advantage or private
financial gain, or in cases of willful
electronic distribution or reproduction of
works with a total retail value of more
than $1,000. See Section 506.

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities 19


Section 512, added by the Digital
Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
in 1998, provides certain limitations
on the potential copyright liability of colleges
and universities that provide Internet access
and other digital network services to students,
faculty, and other third party users of the

The section precludes any monetary remedies
and limits the scope of injunctive relief against
a service provider if certain conditions are met,
and the service provider would otherwise be
found liable for copyright infringement as a
result of the conduct of a third-party user of the
service provider's system or network, to the
extent that the service provider:

serves as a conduit for the
communication (e.g., where the user is
browsing the World Wide Web, receiving
or sending email, or engaging in peer-to-
peer file sharing of material on the user's
own computer);

automatically caches material on its own
servers to facilitate its users' access to
off-network materials;

hosts material that third parties cause to
reside on the service provider's system
or network (e.g., providing Web page
hosting services); or

provides directories, links, or other
information location tools that may lead
to infringing material.

The conditions that apply to each of the
foregoing activities vary, with protection for the
conduit function being essentially unconditional,

20 Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities

and protection for hosting and linking
depending on a carefully negotiated "notice and
takedown" procedure. The notice and takedown
procedure conditions the liability limitation
on the service provider removing or disabling
access to allegedly infringing material upon (1)
the receipt of a compliant "takedown" notice;
(2) the acquisition of "actual knowledge" that
the material is infringing; or (3) awareness of
facts and circumstances from which infringing
activity is "apparent."

Certain copyright owners have been serving
"takedown" notices in connection with peer-
to-peer file sharing and other examples of the
service provider conduit function. An institution
may choose voluntarily to respond to such
notices. However, the liability limitations of
Section 512 do not require such response.

The Section 512 service provider liability
limitations apply to the transmission, storage,
and caching of material on the institution's
system as a result of the conduct of third
parties. They do not apply when the institution
itself is acting as the content provider (e.g., on
departmental home pages or other official pages
of the institution's Web site).

However, Section 512 also includes a subsection
that addresses the relationship between a
nonprofit institution of higher education and
its faculty and graduate students. See Section
512(e). Specifically, the knowledge or actions
of a faculty member or graduate student who
is performing a teaching or research function
will not be attributed to the institution if certain
conditions are met. See Part II.D.

Section 512 also protects a service provider
from liability claims by users for removing
allegedly infringing material if the service
provider takes appropriate steps to notify the
affected user.

Section 512 makes clear that a service provider
is not obligated to monitor the material on its
system or network.

The section also includes an expedited subpoena
process that allows a copyright owner to seek
the identity of an alleged infringer who has been
the subject of a takedown notice. There is an
ongoing dispute about whether the subpoena
process applies only to material residing on
the service provider's system or extends to the
conduit function. The two federal appellate
courts that have considered the issue have held
that the expedited DMCA subpoena provision
does not apply to the conduit function.

Certain of the liability limitations in Section 512
are subject to institutional requirements, which
are discussed in greater detail in Part II.D.

To qualify for any protection of Section
512, a service provider (including
a library or an institution of higher
learning) must adopt, reasonably
implement, and inform subscribers
about a policy that provides for the
termination in appropriate circumstances
of subscribers and account holders who
are repeat copyright infringers.

To qualify for protection against liability
for material residing on the system
or network, a service provider must
designate an agent to receive takedown
notices, must post information about that
agent on its Web site, and must provide
the same information to the Copyright

To qualify for the special non-attribution
rules applicable to institutions of higher
education in Section 512(e), the institution
must provide its users with materials
that accurately describe and promote
compliance with U.S. copyright law.

Section 512 only applies if a service provider,
under the applicable circumstances, would be
found liable as an infringer absent the liability
limitations. The section explicitly preserves
other defenses to the claim of infringement (e.g.,
fair use).


Copyright law was expanded in 1998
by the DMCA to include a number
of prohibitions on the circumvention
of technological protection measures that are
applied by copyright owners to protect their
works. These prohibitions, and the remedies
for their violation, are different from those
applicable to copyright infringement.

Specifically, the law prohibits the act of
circumventing a technological protection
measure (e.g., encryption) that effectively
controls access to a copyrighted work.

The law also prohibits the manufacture, sale
or trafficking in devices, services, software,
or components that are primarily designed to
circumvent a technological protection measure
that either (1) controls access to a copyrighted
work, or (2) protects a right of a copyright

The scope of these prohibitions, and their
relationship to fair use and other copyright
exceptions, has been a continuing source of
controversy and concern.

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities 21


There is currently substantial doubt
as to whether public universities, as
state entities, are subject to liability
for damages under federal copyright, patent,
and trademark law because of the doctrine
of sovereign immunity under the Eleventh
Amendment to the Constitution. They are,
however, subject to injunctive remedies for

Congress has considered but not enacted
legislation to require states to waive their
sovereign immunity as a condition for being
able to use federal intellectual property law
to protect their own intellectual property.
The constitutional questions are exceedingly
intricate and complicated. Public universities
may wish to consult with their counsel and their
state governments concerning these issues.


As both users and producers of
copyrighted works, colleges and
universities rely on copyright and have
an interest in fostering respect for copyright
and in promoting the availability and use of
copyrighted works for research and education.

Two provisions of the Copyright Act are
expressly conditioned on the existence of a
copyright policy:

under the service provider liability
limitation discussed in Part I.N, a
service provider must adopt, reasonably
implement, and inform subscribers
about a policy that provides for the
termination in appropriate circumstances
of subscribers and account holders who
are repeat infringers; and

the distance education exception
discussed in Part I.J, is available to
an institution only if it has instituted
policies regarding copyright.

Copyright law increasingly is becoming the
focus of significant attention in society, and
consequently, institutions may wish to provide
information about copyright law as part of their
educational activities.

Copyright infringement is unlawful, and the
adoption of a copyright policy affords an
opportunity to make this point clear to students,
faculty, and staff.

Fair use is one of the ways in which copyright
law accommodates First Amendment
protections, and higher education institutions
have an interest in developing copyright policies
that encourage the full exercise of fair use.

The following sections raise issues that
institutions may wish to consider in developing
or updating their copyright policies; these
sections provide suggestions only and are not
intended to be construed as model elements of
an institutional copyright policy.


The distance education exception and
one aspect of the service provider
liability limitations also are expressly
conditioned on an institution developing and
providing its students and faculty members
with information that accurately describes and
promotes compliance with copyright law.

To qualify for the distance education
(TEACH Act) exception discussed in
Part I.J, an institution must provide
informational materials about copyright
law to faculty, students, and relevant
staff members.

Under the service provider liability
limitation discussed in Part I.N, an
institution of higher education must
provide all users of its system or network
with materials that accurately describe
and promote compliance with U.S.
copyright law in order to qualify for the
special non-attribution rules of Section

The material provided in Part I of this document
easily may be adapted and used as the basis for
those educational materials.

24 Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities

T he TEACH Act states only that a
condition of the exemption is that the
institution "institutes policies regarding
copyright." The legislative history adds little,
stating that the requirement, together with the
requirement to provide information, is intended
to promote an environment of compliance with
the law. The lack of specificity suggests that
an institution has substantial flexibility in the
development of a copyright policy to meet the
condition of the TEACH Act. The institution
should consider developing policies that address
the issues discussed in this document as the
institution believes appropriate.

Among the issues that an institution may want
to include in a policy directed to the TEACH
Act are means of complying with the various
conditions imposed by the TEACH Act itself.
Thus, the policy may include guidelines or rules:

limiting the type and, for works other
than nondramatic literary or musical
works, the amount of works that may
be placed on a server for distance
education (absent a determination
that a given use is, independently,
fair use). For example, the institution
may want to provide that instructors
should not, without permission, (1) use
works produced primarily for digital
"classroom" use or works that otherwise
would typically be purchased as a
textbook or part of a coursepack for that
class; (2) for other than nondramatic
literary or musical works, use more
than the appropriate portions of works
covered by the exemption; (3) digitize
analog versions of works unless the
conditions for such digitization are
satisfied; or (4) use source material
other than lawfully made copies;

providing that performances or displays
should (absent a determination that a
given use is, independently, fair use)
be limited to those made by, at the
direction of, or under the supervision of
an instructor as an integral part of the
analog of a "class session";

addressing how instructors or the
institution will limit, to the extent
feasible, access to enrolled students;
the legislative history makes clear that
this is not intended to impose a general
requirement of network security, and
identifies systems such as "password
access or other similar measures";

addressing how the institution will
apply technological measures that
reasonably prevent retention or further
dissemination of the performed work;
the legislative history recognizes
that flexibility with respect to these
requirements is necessary to accomplish
the pedagogical goals of distance
education; and

addressing whether, to what extent, and
in what manner, if at all, the institution
will exercise control over the decisions
of faculty in selecting materials for use
in distance education.


section 512 specifically requires a service
provider that wishes to rely on the liability
limitation extended by that section's
provisions to adopt, reasonably implement, and
inform subscribers about a policy that provides
for the termination in appropriate circumstances
of subscribers and account holders who are
repeat copyright infringers.

The legislative history to the DMCA, which
embodied the full agreement among the parties
that negotiated Section 512, makes clear that
Congress contemplated substantial flexibility in
the design of such a policy.

The Senate Report recognizes that "there
are different degrees of online copyright
infringement, from the inadvertent to [sic] the
noncommercial, to the willful and commercial."
See S. Rep. No. 105-190 at 52.

Further, the Report makes clear that the
provision is not intended to suggest that a
service provider "must investigate possible
infringements, monitor its service, or make
difficult judgments as to whether conduct is or
is not infringing." As discussed in connection
with exceptions and limitations, there are many
unauthorized uses of copyrighted works that are
not infringing.

In short, it would be reasonable to adopt a policy
directed to actual repeated infringement (not
merely a copyright owner's allegations), where
appropriate circumstances (e.g., particularly
harm or willfulness) exist to justify termination.

The legislative history indicates that in
determining-for purposes of making a decision
about terminating a subscriber or account
holder-whether infringement has occurred,
it would be reasonable for an institution to
conclude that the requirement is limited to
adjudicated or other clear cases of infringement
that have been subjected to full internal review.

Such a policy may include provisions regarding:

the showing that is needed before a
person will be deemed an infringer or
a repeat infringer (e.g., adjudication of
liability, unrebutted takedown notices);

the notifications and opportunity for
response that will be provided to a
person deemed to be a repeat infringer;

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities 25

the factors that will be taken into
account in determining what sanctions
are appropriate under the circumstances
(e.g., whether the infringement was
undertaken for commercial or malicious
purposes, the number of times the
person infringed, whether the person
has previously been warned under the
institution's policy); and

the process that will be invoked to make
the foregoing determinations.

In order to ensure that the non-attribution
provisions of Section 512(e) are available, the
institution may want to include policies:

that instruct a faculty member or
graduate student not to provide online
access (other than as authorized by
the TEACH Act or the copyright
owner, or permitted as a fair use) to
instructional materials that were required
or recommended reading for a course
taught at the institution by the faculty
member or graduate student within the
prior three-year period; and

that address circumstances where the
institution has received more than two
valid takedown notices pertaining to
a graduate student or faculty member
during the preceding three-year period.

In addition to the required policy, an institution
may consider it advisable to adopt a policy to
address additional service provider liability
issues raised by Section 512, such as:

*who will serve as "designated agent" for
the institution, and what system will be
in place to provide the name, address,
telephone number, and email address of
the agent to the Copyright Office and to
post that information on the institution's
Web site;

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities

* how a designated agent should respond
to takedown notices, including both
notices for which takedown is necessary
to preserve the liability limitation (e.g.,
for compliant notices relating to material
residing on Web pages hosted on the
institution's servers) and for those where
it is not (e.g., for conduit activities, such
as peer-to-peer file sharing by users);

* when an institution should consider itself
to have "actual knowledge" or awareness
of facts and circumstances from which
infringing activity is apparent;

* what systems the institution will have
in place promptly to provide notice to
a user when it responds to a takedown
notice from a copyright owner by
removing material residing on its system
or network placed by that user, and what
systems the institution will have in place
to respond to "counter notices" asking
for the material to be replaced and notice
to be given to the copyright owner that
the material was lawfully on the system
or network;

* how a designated agent should respond to
non-compliant takedown notices (e.g., in
the case where the notice contains some
of the required information and Section
512 withholds liability limitations unless
the service provider contacts the person
providing the notice); and

* how the institution should respond
to subpoenas issued pursuant to the
expedited, exparte process in Section
512(h) (including the institution's
position on the scope of the Section
512(h) subpoena authority).


Under the "work made for hire"
doctrine, copyrighted works created by
an employee acting within the scope
of his or her employment are owned by the
employer. However, institutions typically take
the position-as a matter of academic tradition,
institutional policy, or both-that a faculty
member owns the copyright in textbooks,
journal articles, and other scholarly works
he or she writes for publication. New digital
media present a new set of ownership issues
distinct from the cases of faculty ownership
of traditional scholarly publications and
institutional ownership of unambiguous works
for hire. Increasingly, new digital media involve
significant investments of intellectual, financial,
and physical resources from both faculty
members and the institution. In such cases,
many institutions are establishing policies that
decide issues of ownership and revenue based
on considerations of academic mission and the
relative contributions of the parties.

Institutions should consider how to resolve these
potentially conflicting strains and to address
issues such as rights in new media, the effect of
institution support for the work, and the status
of work done specifically at the request of the

In the traditional publication process, faculty
members usually sign contracts that transfer
some or all of the exclusive rights to their work
to publishers. Electronic communication and the
Internet provide new opportunities for faster,
broader, and more economical dissemination
of research and scholarship; and authors,
publishers, and universities are exploring
new arrangements that substantially improve
scholarly communication. To facilitate these
developments, some universities are discussing
with faculty and publishers ways to retain


the rights to use faculty members' own work
in the classroom, in their research, in future
publications, and to post their work on publicly
accessible Web sites.


As discussed in Part I.G, determination
of whether a given use is fair use
depends on a careful consideration
of four factors. Faculty members making the
decision to use copyrighted materials may not
always have all of the relevant information.
At the same time, the law provides substantial
protection (e.g., remission of statutory damages)
in favor of faculty members who believe and
have reasonable grounds for believing that their
conduct is fair use. An institution may wish
to consider whether it is best to leave fair use
decisions up to individual faculty members or
whether it is possible to provide centralized
guidance or advice regarding fair use issues.

Alternatively, an institution may decide it is
appropriate to identify certain activities that it
concludes would clearly not qualify as fair use.
As fair use requires consideration of complex
factors, the institution may wish to obtain
legal advice from counsel that specializes in
copyright law.

Similarly, an institution may wish to adopt
policies related to the Classroom Guidelines
discussed in Part I.H. Such policies might advise
faculty members of conduct permitted under
the guidelines or might provide procedures for
evaluating conduct that exceeds the guidelines.

Universities may wish to develop fair use policies
that accommodate the inherent ambiguity and
situation-specific nature of fair use.

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities 27


Coursepacks have evolved over time,
from essentially ad hoc collections of
short readings designed to supplement
the assigned text to pre-planned collections of
book chapters, articles, exercises, and other
copyrighted and instructor-created materials
that form the core assigned reading for a class.
When does the reproduction and distribution of
such material constitute fair use? When does it
require permission for the use of the material?

Two court cases have held that the unauthorized
production and sale of coursepacks containing
copyrighted works by commercial photocopy
services constitutes copyright infringement and
not fair use. In these cases, the coursepacks
were pre-planned collections of substantial
portions of copyrighted works constituting
assigned reading. In one case, the packs formed
"an entire semester's resources." One important
factor in these decisions was the commercial
nature of the copy service. No court has yet
considered the extent to which the institution
may be liable for the copying of coursepacks
by commercial centers, or whether possible
institutional liability would be affected if the
copying is done by an arm of the institution
rather than a commercial entity.

Some argue that the reproduction and
distribution of a coursepack cannot be fair
use when the selections are pre-planned and
constitute the primary assigned reading.
Although ad hoc supplemental selections are
more likely to be considered fair use, others
believe analysis of the four fair use factors could
still lead to a finding of fair use even for primary
assigned readings.

Similarly, no court has yet addressed the issue
of "electronic coursepacks." Some argue
that electronic distribution of material as

28 Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities

assigned readings creates a greater risk to the
market for a work in light of the possibility
of further electronic dissemination. However,
institutions may have procedures to limit
the distribution of electronic coursepacks
through password-controlled access or other
technological mechanisms. To the extent that
such mechanisms offset the potential risks, the
pedagogical benefits of electronic coursepacks
should argue for their use, consistent with
existing requirements for managing traditional

A related practice is the posting by faculty
of assigned materials for a course, either on
faculty-generated Web sites or using course
management software. The posted content
often is not monitored or controlled by the
institution, but may create liability for the
institution. Although making such material
available without permission is not necessarily
infringement, the considerations relevant to
coursepacks and electronic coursepacks are
likely to apply. Some concerns may be reduced
by encouraging faculty members to work
through the institution's library, which may have
established or can establish authorized access
to assigned course materials, or by encouraging
faculty members to post links to copyrighted
material on the copyright owner's Web site or
other Web sites authorized by the copyright
owner. The discussion of service provider
liability limitations in Part I.N, also may be
relevant to the issue of the institution's risk.

An institution may conclude that it is
appropriate to establish policies relating to
coursepacks and faculty posting of assigned
material, to minimize potential risk and to
provide norms for copyright compliance.
Factors that an institution may wish to address
in such a policy could include the amount of
material to be copied and how it relates to
the source work as a whole, who is to do the
copying, whether permissions are practical to
obtain, the period of time for which materials

are to be made available, whether the institution
has a license to the electronic full-text of the
material, and whether it is possible to apply
technological protections to materials that are to
be distributed electronically.


R reserve operations in libraries developed
as a means for faculty to provide
students with material intended as
supplemental reading, or with access to
important materials not included in the textbook
but of such limited extent that purchase of
the entire additional work was not warranted.
Print reserves usually include one or a few
copies of books (which may include a copy of
the textbook or coursepack used in the class
as a backup) and one or a few photocopies of
articles, along with copies of previous exams,
syllabi, and other materials. In general, materials
reproduced for reserve are owned by the library
or the faculty member. Students are allowed to
use materials for a limited period of time and
often photocopy the material for later reading.

Most academic libraries have developed
local policies for reserves. Some academic
libraries follow the 1982 American Library
Association Model Policy Concerning College
and University Photocopyingfor Classroom,
Research and Library Reserve Use. This policy
treats reserves as an extension of classroom
use and is based on the Classroom Guidelines.
Although the policy was neither negotiated nor
agreed upon by publishers, libraries have used
it for over twenty years to guide their reserve
operations. Other academic libraries, however,
base their reserve policies on a direct analysis
of the four fair use factors rather than on the
Classroom Guidelines' generic interpretation of
the fair use exemption. An institution may wish

Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities 29

to consider including a discussion of library
reserve policies in its copyright policy.

Many libraries now also offer electronic
reserves, based on fair use principles,
adaptations of the 1982 ALAModel Policy, or
other policies or guidelines. The development of
electronic reserve systems offers the opportunity
to provide access to course materials in a
more effective way, but also creates some
additional risk of unauthorized reproduction
and distribution. Materials that are digitized for
electronic reserve typically are owned by the
library or faculty member. Students may access
electronic reserve materials from anywhere
they have Internet access and often are able to
download and print copies for later use.

Many libraries limit access to electronic reserve
materials through the use of Internet Protocol
(IP) or password authentication.

Libraries may also link to licensed electronic
works where such activity is not prohibited by
the license.

There is disagreement over the definition and
appropriate use of electronic reserves. To the
extent that electronic reserves are extensions
of traditional print reserves, providing
access to important excerpted materials or
supplementary material, their use should be
compliant with copyright law and not raise
concerns, particularly if distribution is limited
through password-controlled access or other
technological mechanisms. However, to the
extent that electronic reserves exceed the
purpose and scope of print reserves and have
functionally become electronic coursepacks,
they are likely to raise all of the issues and
concerns discussed in Part II.G.

30 Campus Copyright Rights and Responsibilities


T he groups that produced this document

have sought to describe their common
understanding of the basic aspects of
copyright law and its application to academic
practice. They do not agree on all issues and
have tried in those cases to convey the differing
perspectives that institutions might take into
consideration in developing or refining their
own policies. Inevitably, disagreements will
arise concerning the use of copyrighted works,
but if institutions make concerted efforts to
incorporate the principles of copyright law into
their campus policies, and affirmatively educate
their faculty, students, and staff about copyright
rights and responsibilities as defined by those
policies, such disagreements will likely be
minimized and can be resolved through good-
faith discussions. We hope that this document
will assist institutions in such efforts to develop
or refine their copyright policies.

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