• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 Women's participation in smallholder...
 Research on women in agricultu...
 Including women farmers in rural...
 Project services to rural...
 Annex 1: Labor distribution of...
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Group Title: Women farmers in Malawi : their contributions to agriculture and participation in development projects
Title: Women farmers in Malawi
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083271/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women farmers in Malawi their contributions to agriculture and participation in development projects
Physical Description: 188 p. in various pagings : ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Spring, Anita
Smith, C
Kayuni, F
Women in Agricultural Development Project in Malawi
Publisher: Women in Agricultural Development Project, USAID, Office of Women in Development
Place of Publication: Lilongwe?
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Women farmers -- Malawi   ( lcsh )
Women in agriculture -- Malawi   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Malawi
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 33-34, first section).
Statement of Responsibility: by A. Spring, Mr. C. Smith and Miss F. Kayuni.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "April 28, 1983."
General Note: Calls itself "Part I;" "Part II" entitled: Priorities for Women's Programmes.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083271
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 17156527

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Preface
        Preface
    Women's participation in smallholder agriculture in Malawi
        Page 1
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    Research on women in agriculture
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    Including women farmers in rural development project proposals
        Page 52
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    Project services to rural women
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    Annex 1: Labor distribution of farm operations for farming systems in Malawi
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    Back Cover
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PART I. WOMEN FARMERS IN MALAWI, THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS TO
AGRICULTURE AND PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS


TABLE OF CONTENTS


PREFACE
I. WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION IN SMALLHOLDER AGRICULTURE IN MALAI . .

Summary . . . . . . .
A. Fulltime and Parttime Farmers . . . . .
B. Female Headed Households (FHHs) in Time Perspective . .
C. Comparative Labour Study....................
D. Sex Disaggregated Labour Data in Agro-Economic Survey Reports
E. Studies by the Women in Agricultural Development Project. .
1. Phalombe RDP: Married and Unmarried Households . .
2. Scheme and Non-Scheme Farmers in Karonga RDP . .
3. Cropping Patterns in Lilongwe RDP .. . ..

II. RESEARCH ON WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE . . . . .

A. Justification for a Research Component on Women in
Agriculture Adaptive Research: A Structure for Women in
Agriculture.. ..... ......... . ..... ... .
B. Farming Systems Research and Women Farmers in Malawi . .
C. Relevance of Agricultural Station Trials to Women Farmers .

III. INCLUDING HOMEN FARMERS IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT PROPOSALS .

A. National Rural Development Pror-.:.: . . . .
B. The Present Level of Addressing TWomen Farmers Needs in RDP


Progrposals . . .
C. Guidelines for RDP Proposals: .
Addressing Programmes to Rural Women.
Baseline Data on Project Services .
Development Constraints . .
Core Components of RDPs . .


IV. PROJECT SERVICES TO RURAL OMEN ... . . .

A. The Present Situation . . . . . .
General Extension Activities . . .. . .
Training . . . . . . .
Credit . . . . . . ..
B. Implementation of Project Programmes to Rural Women ..
Section and Project Programmes in the ADDs . . .
Reporting Format and Monitoring Procedures . . .
Annual Work Plans . . . . ..


ANNEXES


Labour data on Farming Systems in Malawi from Agro-Economic Surveys.
An Evaluation of Women's Programmes in LADD: How LADD Sections and
Projects Can Incorporate More Women Farmers in Their Programmes
Sex Disaggregated Extension
Activities Reporting'Formats


. Annex 1-1

. Annex 2-1


Section


Page


. . . .
. . . .
0 . . .











PREPACE


,e would like to thank the Department of Agricultural Research, the Planning
Division and the Department of Agricultural Development, Ministry of Agriculture,
for all their help and encouragement in our study of TWomen in Agriculture in
Mialawi. Dr. T. Legg and Mr. A. Standen, provided support in all of our endeavors
and in our attempts to bridge the gaps between research and extension. Mr. G.
Chirwa, the Chief Planning Officer and Dr. A. Erez of the Planning Division, were
instrumental in requesting the. Women in Agriculture Development Project prepare
a document which detailed women's participation in the smallholder sector and how
Malawi's development strategies 'imraqqtc on them. It is hoped that the informa-
tion provided here will be useful to them in planning the Fifth Phase of the
National Rural Development Programme.

The following people in the Ministry of Agriculture aided in the prepara-
tion of this report. From the Department of Agricultural Development, Mrs. Chibwana,
(Women's Programre Offbc ).,Mr. J. Mhango (Senior Extension and Training Officer),
Hr. T. Madise and Mr. Baily (Credit Officers) provided information on Women's
involvement in their programmes. From the Department of Agricultural Research
the section heads and the Officer-in-Charge at Chitedze Agricultural Researah
Station, Dr. HMwandemere, provided logistic support and information on their
programmes. The Women in Agricultural Development Project worked closely with
the Farming Systems Analysis Section at Chitedze Agricultural Research Station
in conducting research in LRDP and Phalombe. TWe are grateful for Dr. A. Hansen's
support and guidance in the Farming Systems Research Surveys that the Project
carried out.

We would particularly like to thank the people from the Programme Managers
to the field staff in the ADDs for their cooperation with our investigation. Our
special thanks is due to staff of LADD and Mr.EKanguade, the Programme Manager,
for his continual support of Women's Programmes. Others in LADD who particularly helped
in this research are Mr. G. Jere (Evaluation Officer), Mr. Mzandu (Project Officer
LRDP), and Mr. Sinumbe (Animal Husbandry Section).

The Director, Mr. S. Banda, and the staff of the Agro-Economic Survey (AES)
especially Mr. Mchikoma, helped to prepare the data section on labour collected
by AES. Others who aided were Mr. Chimponda, Officer-in-Charge of Extension Aids,
Mr. Chen (Extension Aids), Mr. F. Mbuka (Principal Colby College/Natural Resources
College), Miss J. Evans (Phalombe RDP), Miss H. Kachali, (Assistant Training
Officer, MZADD), Mr. D. Moyo,(Project Officer, Phalombe), Mr. E. Malindi (Programme
Manager, HADD formerly of KRADD), and Mr. D. ",iwonhe (Assistant Programme Manager,
LADD formerly of KRADD). Finally, our appreciation goes to Mrs. Ndacher 4W'
Mr. Nyalungwe, and Mrs. M. Gray for all their help in typing this manuscript,

Dr. A. Spring
Mr. C. Smith
Miss F. Kayuni
Chitedze Agricultural Research station
Lilongwe, Malawi










SECTION I: WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION IN 7:L.LLHFLPEP. AGRICULTURE IN MALAWI


Summary

A great number of sources, surveys and interviewing
techniques are used in this report to compile information docu-
menting the contribution of women farmers as wives and household
heads and as assistants and full time farm managers in the
smallholder sector. That women's contribution is questioned
and requires documentation is evidence that women farmers are
given little recognition. Both Malawians and consultants notice
that women are seen in the fields everywhere performing agricultural
work. Yet the documents they write fail to mention that women
are agriculturalists. When women are mentioned they are "farmers'
wives. Emphasis in training for women has been on home economics
based on a western model in which men are "bread winners" and
women are "bread bakers" rather than farmers.

The evidence presented here documents the following major
points.
Women as Full-Time, Men as Part-Time Farmers.
1. Sex ratios (the number of men per 1,000 women) of the
working population in most areas show that most areas have
more women than men.

2. In recent years women have become more important in smallholder
agriculture being the full-time farmers on the family farm
as men have become part-time or absent farmers 'Qn their own
farms because of salaried employment elsewhere largely on
estates. --

Female Headed Households (FHHs)

3. The percentage of FHHs in Malawi is 29%. Over one out of
four households are FHHs. In 14 of the 35 'areas (project or
districts) surveyed by the Natier-il Sample Survey of Agri-
cultu:re (NSSA),,-33% (one out of..three households) are FHHs.
This"type of households seems to be increasing,in Malawi.

4. In some areas FHHs become male headed households (MHHs'and
vice.:'versa because husbands leave and return for wace
.la-bour., change residences to live with other wives and
remarry. Today's married women may be. tomorrow's FHHs.

5. Being a FHHs is more likely to be associated with impoverish-
ment, labour constraints, and food deficits. Married women and
thoseon their own do not differ, significantly in the-number
of children they have.

Labour Data

6. Women spend as much time on farm work as 'on domestic
activities and they do theirdomestic activities after
working as much as men on farming activities.

7. Agricultural work increases for both men and women with
development projects.


- 1 -









8. Women work on cash crops as well as food crops doing substantial
amounts of cash crops operations such as tobacco nursery
transplanting and cotton spraying which many think are only
done by men.

9. Agro-Economic Surveys have provided sex disaggregated labour
studies. since 1968/69-; The data document women's involvement
with all types of'farming systems and cropping patterns:
from mixed cropping subsistence patterns to cash crops of
groundnuts, rice, tobacco, cotton, and smallholder coffee
and tea.

(a) In subsistence areas women have the responsibility for
food crop production and have the greatest labour input.

(b) In a groundnut area surveyed men and women put in similar
hours but have somewhat different tasks.

(c) Rice areas are variable. In some places, men are
responsible for its production while women work on the
other food crops. In other areas, the person responsible
for the household (the male female head) is the one who
takes care of the rice cash crop.

(d) Tobacco growing is largely a "male crop" in some areas
but women and children help in farm operations.

In other areas, the household head (male or female) is
responsible for the crop and in male headed households
labour on oriental tobacco is distributed evenly between
males and females.

(e) In all areas men are: in: charge of the cotton crop but
women contribute significantly to various operations.
In.some areas .the cultivation of the crop would .not be
possible without mature female labour.

(f) Inm smallholder coffee and tea production many-tasks are
shared between the sexes except that men are responsible
for pruning.

(g) Where:tasks associated with a-cash crop becomes particularly
onerous, such as cleaning groundnuts or' weeding rice,
women's participation increases.

Constraints and Sex of Household Head '

10 Married:and unmarried households differ in that the extra
male labour aids the household significantly.

(a) Unmarried households cultivate less land and their land
is more marginal.

(b) Unmarried households are food deficient and must do piece
work labour (ganyu) thereby depriving themselves of
garden labour.


- 2 -







(c) Unmarried households are constrained by labour,
especially if they have many young dependents. As
a result their cropping systems simplify and they
grow fewer crops.

(d) Distinctions can be made between two types of
: female headed households. Those who have husbands
(or children) who send regular remittances are similar
to male headed households in terms of livestock
and resources ownership. Those FHHs on their own
have fewer livestock and goods, and have less
improved housing.

(e) Women get very little extension services (training,
inputs, visits and advice) and their cultural
practices reflect this lack of agricultural education
(late planting, poor spacing, incorrect fertilizer
usage, ignorance of crop protection). The results
.of this situation are poorer yields and food deficits
for the household.

(f) Women tend to be shy and retiring when it comes to
participating in some project services. They have
come to believe that agricultural services are
intended primarily for men.

Scheme and non-scheme farmers

11. Unmarried women are active on rainfed and irrigated rice
schemes. As scheme farmers they manage their plots the
same way as men. They obtain the same yields and
extension advice on rice as men. Their production of
non-scheme crops may lag behind men's since they get
less access to inputs and advice.

(a) FHHs and married women participatein allaspects of
farming in certain areas including ox-ploughing.

(b) FHHs on schemes make farm management decisions in
terms of the hiring of labour and use of inputs.and
credit.

12. More women than men tend to be lower resources farmers
selling their labour rather than hiring labour. When
faced with labour constraints they cultivate less land
and simplify their cropping pattern.

13. It is difficult to say categorically that all women
cultivate less land than all men. Although in some
places the average are lower, some women on their own
cultivate as much more than men with severalwives. For
example, the average acreage cultivated by women at Wovwe
Rice Scheme is greater than the average acreage culti-
vated by men at Lufira.Rice Scheme..

14. Women make good use of credit and rarely default.

15. There is a reluctance to give technical advice and ;credit
to women for cotton and hybrid maize on cotton/maize
schemes whereas women's contributions o rice schemes
are well recognized.


- 3 -









16. Women on their own have family responsibilities (food,
shelter, clothing, school fees, etc.) which they must
finance from farming.

17. Many women are desirous of learning agricultural
information, although they mostly receive home economics
training.


A. FULL TIME AND PART TIUE FARMERS*

In the colonial past, women's contribution to Malawi's
agricultural production was great because of the large number
of men who were working in other countries. The Malawi
Population Census of 1966 documented that 52.6% of the Malawian
resident population were women. Sex ratios (number of men per
100 women) were particularly low during the main working
years (15-44 years of age) as shown by Table I (abbreviated
from Malawi Population Census 1966 Final Report: viii).


.TA3LE-1: SEX RATIOS BY AGE AND REGION


Age Group All Regions Northern Central Southern

All Ages 90.0- 85.3 88.3 92.4
15-19 91.4 90.0 93.3 90.4
20-24 76, 2 74.5 72.5 79.5
25-29 -73.3 70.4 69.5 : 76.9
30-34 76.6 69.8 77.2- 77.7
40-44 81.7 67.1 78.1 87.6



The importance of women farmers did not end with the
end of large-scale male emigration to work in other countries.
In fact, since independence women have become more important
in smallholder agriculture as men have increasingly become
involved in wage and salaried employment (largely in estates)
within Malawi. Many rural women are unmarried (including
those who are widowed, divorced and separated from their
husbands) and, therefore, in charge of their own farming.
In addition, an analysis of Malawian Government data point
out a growth of part -year employment by men on their own
holdings. This leaves the wives of these men as the full
time farmers, especially since the part of the year that the
men are working elsewhere is usually the cropping season.
The "predominance of female labour in own holding agriculture
has been e informed" as shown in Table 2 (Kydd and:Christiansen
1981:14)

The Malawian Population Census of 1977 calculates that
57% of Malawi's subsistence smallholderr) farmers (alimi,
singular mlimi) are women (Final Report Volume II: xiv), but
Table 2 takes the analysis further by splitting this into
full-year and part-year farmers. Almost 70% of the full-year

*This section appeared in A. vansen, "Farming Systems and Women in
Malawi" in A. Sorina (ed.) Proceedings and Materials from the National
Workshop on omen.-in. Agricultural Develcp'hent, Seopember, 1982
2pp. 35-~36.








Table II


INDIVIDUALS WORKING ON THEIR OWN HOLDINGS', 1966 TO 1977


SOURCE: Calculated from Ma~sai Population Census Final Report, 1956
on Mala i Populaticn Census Final Report, 1977. (Kydd and


(Tables 21 and 22) and authors' estimates based
Christiansen, 1981.a,.Tables 2 and 3).


NOTE: 1. This refers to the estimated number of 'economically active' individuals working on their own holding.
This does not include employees nn Daeasan.t f arms.


196 197AVERAGE ANNUAL
1966 1977
EMPLOYMENT GROWTH RATES
GROUP Female Male Females Female Male Females Female Male Total
('000) ('000) As % of ('000) ('000) As % of
Employment Employment
Group Group

Full-year 1178.5 716.0 62.2 1423.6 631.6 69.3 2.1% -1.4 0.9
(10-12 months)

Part-year 9.3 .103.7 8.2 84.6 266.2 24.1 27.8 11.0 11.9
(1-9 months)

STOTAL 1187.8 819.7 59.2 1508.2 897.8 62.7 2.7 1.0 2.0









TABLE 3 PRELIMINARY REPORT NSSA 198u/81 NATIONAL
HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS


SAMPLE SURVEY OF AGRICULTURE


CHITIPA
KARONGA
KARONGA ADD


X FEMALE
HH HEADS

13.2
17.7
15.8


MEAN DE FACT
HH SIZE

5.1
4.5
4.8


MEAN AREA
CULTIVATED
(HECTARES)
1.07
0.88
0.96


SAMPLE NC
HOUSEHOLDS

100
120
220


RUMPHI-COFFEE
HENGA-KASITtU
HENGA-KASITU EXT
RUKURl-KASITU
WEST M21MBA
SOUTHWEST NZIMBA
NKHATA BAY
MZUZU ADD

KASUNGU NORTH
RUSA
NTCHISI
DOWA WEST
DOWA HILLS
MCHINJI SOUTH
KASUHGU ADO

NKHOTAK-KOTA
SALINA NORTH
SALINA SOUTH
SALIMA ADD

LILONGWE
LILONGWE EAST
THIWI-LIFIDZI
DEOZA HILLS
NTCHEU
LILONGWE ADD

MANGOCHI
NAMWERA
SBALAKA
KAUINGA
70eBA
LIWONE ADD

SHIRE HIGHLANDS
SLANTYRE
MWANZA
PHALOMBE
MULANJE
PLANTYRE ADD

CHIKWAyA
NSANJE
NGABU ADD

PALAWI


22.7
27.7
17.1
17.4
16.1
33.1
24.0
21.9

12.0
9.3
12.0
14.9
16.1
16.4
14.1

25.6
27.0
30.4
28.4

20.4
20.0
32.8
38.5
38.2
27.4

33.2
42.3
42.3
31.2
*36.9
36.s

33.6
37.9
30.9
34.7
33.0
34.3

23.?
24.5
24.0

28.8


Taken from NSSA 1982 Table 1, page 2.


-6-


6.1
4.6
5.1
4.7
4.8
3.9
5.4
4.8

4.8
5.7
4.5
5.3
4.4
4.7
4.9

S.1
4.3
'4.1
4.3

4.4
4.'
4.2
4.6
4.6
4.4

4.0
3.9
4.3
3.9
4.0
4.0

4.7
A.S
4.P.
4.3
4.6
4.6

4.4
4.5
4.4

4.5


0.77
1.14
1.79
1.57
1.72
1.42
0.88
1.39

2.26
2.36
2.10
2.06
1.64
2.04
2.06

0.71
1.01
1.11
1.02

1 .72
1.16
1.36
0.99
1.08
1.38

0.79
0.97
1.01
0.94
0.77
0.87

0.75
0.77
1.27
0.89
0.67
0.80

1.46
1.18
1.36

1.16


220
1C-
100
220
120
180
940

80
220
200
500

540
219
180
160
219
1318

240
160
220
260
480
13,0

660
220
120
259
320
1579

240
140
380

6877








farmers are women, according to Kydd and Christiansen. The
majority of these women farmers are married but many are heads
of their households. More than one of every four (29%) of rural
households are headed by women (NSSA 1982). These households
heads include unmarried women and wives whose husbands return
home "less frequently than once a month" (NSSA 1980/81 Enumerators'
Fielf Manual for Household Composition). In 14 of the 35 NS S
survey areas (projects and districts),one third or more of tbhf
households are headed by women**.

The statistics quoted in Tables 1 and 2 demonstrate the
importance of women in Malawi's agricultural production. Women
contribute the majority of the labour in smallholder agriculture,
and women are the ones making agricultural decisions in many
smallholder households.


B. FEMALE HEADED HOUSEHOLDS (FHHs) IN TIME PERSPetTIVE

A general notion exists that female headed households (FHHs)
are stable social entities that change very little with the
passing of time. One advantage of a longitudinal study is tha
ability to measure the change of the household head over time.

Kydd (1982) found that the percentage of female headedness
increased from 11% to 28% between the 1958/69 and 1978/79 surveys
in Lilongwe Rural Development Project (LRDP). The analysis
*here concerns households in a longitudinal survey of LRDP
carried out by WIADP and the Farming Systems Analysis Section
at Chitedze. In 198C/81, 22% of the sample of 267 households
were FHI while in 1981/82 23% were PHIs. This could be assumed
to imply that only 1% of the sample has a change in household
head during this year.

A more detailed investigation of the stability of female
headed households is shown in Table 4. Of the 58 FHHs in 1980/81
12% changed tc MHHs in 1981/82. Of the 61 households headed
by women in 1981/82, a total of 15% were headed by men during
the survey of 198/811 The fact that one out of eight FHHs
acquired a male head in one year's time is proof of the flexibi-
lity of this situation. Only 12% of the women in FHHs in 1980/81
were monogamously married (Table 5) and some of their husbands
working outside the village returned by the next year. Some of
the 26% polygynously* married FHHs household heads spent more
time with that wife in 1981/82 and were counted as the household
head there. Some of the 62% of FHHs who were not married in
1980/81 were married by the next year.

The opposite changes also occurred for the 16% of FHHs
1981/82 who were MHSs in 1980/81. Some of the 79% monogamously
married male heads left their village for outside employment
in 1981/82, leaving their wives to the household head. Some
of the 1980/81 MUHs went to live with a second wife because they
became polygynously* married in 1981/82 or already had an existing

**Table 3 has been added here.
*The technical term for recognized marriage to more.than one wife is polygyny.
Polygamy is the general term for recognized marriage to-more than one
spouse (husband or wife).














CHANGE OF TIHE SEX Of THE hCU~',LD HEiD FROM 1980-81 TO 1981-82


------------ EY SAMP:LES-----------S
LSLH i'P FUi
ONE YEAR 1980-81 1980-81 1981-82
CHANGE (n=267) (n=58) (n61'


-% Households-------


MHH Change to 4
FHH
FHH Change to 3
MHil


No L '.-.r.;: 94 88 84

TOTAL 101 100 100


TABLE 5 MARITAL SiJIrS OF


HOUSEHOLD r-::


MAR ITAL
STATUS


ar r.iage:

Pol uL:.u
Mars.2tiSge
Sepa atedi
Divorced
Widowed
Never carriedd
Uther


NSSA LSLH
(n=520) ( =101)


6 64


1 8 19


'-HH MHH
(n=58) (n=80)


26 18

17 1


U 0


99 100


10U 100


NSS.A = Nation:al Sample Surve'y of Agricultur
L -SLH i..Lo;i.dinal Study of Lilon Hou .hoId Saimple
FlH!i eialC. Headed Houiseh, d dianip.
', .. ?',Hceaded" Houtseahold Sapie


TOTAL g


------?o6 Household Hegd;--z


L~.~U-~l^~..?,~.,,~,~-~LU)-~UMU-


TABLE 4 '


-- --." : .'.Y SAPLE~1--- ----
EI S 'liU -


-S-. .









wife. Some of the monogamous marriages in 1900/81 broke up leaving the wife
as household head in 1981/82.

The instability of the household head over the years
is affected by changes in marital and employment status. The
increase in the male wage labour and off-farm activities means
that' more men will leave their families in the rural areas with
women acting as .household heads. Some of these men do not
return. Changes in marital status will also cause the sex of
the household head to fluctuate from male to female to male
again. This flux implies that households should not be discoura-
ged -from 'obtaining agricultural services because they are
headed by women for a given period of time. Married women will
require agricultural services because their husbands may
depart or they may become heads of households subsequently.


C. COMPARATIVE LABOUR STUDY

Clark (1975) compared data collected by the early
Agro-Economic Surveys which covered 5 sites (Karonga, Mzimba,
Thyolo, Lake Chilwa and Ngabu). The sample number of households
broken down into MHIIs and FHHs wives is as follows:


SMHH FHH WIVES TOTAL.HOUSEHOLDS

Karonga 47' 2 74 49
Mzimba 39 11 44 50
Thyolo 60 9 51 60
Ngabu 48 1 63 49
Lake Chilwa 28 11 28 39


Table 6 provides information on the ways in which women
over 15 years spend their time. The figures .:suggest that
women in general spend as much time in farm :work (2'0%) as in
domestic activities (23%). Women in Ngabu spent twice as long
on crop work as women in Karonga and Mzimba. Clark notes
that this is because Ngabu is a cotton development area and
both sexes worked more hours in farm work.

Work done by male heads female head/wives in terms
of total hours per annum and per day are compared in Tables
7-9. Women work longer hours per day than men on the family's
crops in Karonga, Thyolo, and Lake Chilwa. In Ngabu men and
women spend the same amount of time (3.3 hours/day) on the
family's crops (Table 9) and this amount is higher than
elsewhere. 0 nly in Mzimba do men spend more time than women.
Men have more leisure time than women everywhere except at
Lake Chilwa where fishing presumably cuts into leisure
activities. In Ngabu women do domestic activities after working
as much as men on the agricultural ones. The hours per day
spent in productive activities shows a variation from 3.9 to
7.0 (Table 10). Women average more hours than men. The figures
are highest (7.0) for women in th- cotton cash crop area of
Ngabu and men at Lake Chilwa because of fishing.












Clark noted that it is widely admitted that Malawian
women do alot of garden work, but it is not realized that
they'do more than men in most places. Even where women's
contribution is acknowledged, there is the view that they only
work on subsistence crops or if they help with cash crops,
it is with harvesting and post-harvest operations. The
proportions of work done by men and women on a traditional
crop (maize Table 11) and three cash crops (turkiSh.tobacco
Table 12; sprayed cotton Table 13, and unsprayed cotton Table
14) are compared. The tables show that women did more total
work than men on every crop, although.the gap was widest in.
the case of maize (women did 54% of the work compared with 25%
for men). On cash crops, women did other operations as well
as harvesting and grading. Women were involved in nursery
planting, weeding, thinning, spraying.cotton, curing tobacco,
shelling and marketing. A substantial part (39%) of the
tobacco nursery planting work in Mzimba (Table12 ) was done
by women. Relatively skilled operations such as cotton
spraying were undertaken more frequently by women heads and
wives than by male household head (women did 36% of the work
versus 32% for the male head, Table13).

Clark's paper provides excellent comparative data on
women's and men's farm work in terms of number of hours and farm
operations by type of crop. She argued that women ought to
have more opportunity to learn agricultural techniques for
food and cash crops and more access to extension services.
She concluded by asking if Halawian women received enough
agricultural training given their involvement in agricultural
production in the country.


-10-




ADAPTED FROM BARBARA CLARK, "THE;WI3K DONE BY RURAL WOMEN IN MALAWX",
EASTERN AFRICAN 30URNAL OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT, 8.:280v91 ('?75)

Toblo 61 Occupations of Rural Woman in M~a!3.ai


KA RMONGA -THYOLO 1 ,' iZ It. j LAKEl. AU TOTi L
Hrs. pr Of r por % of Hrs pa. I of Hrs. par of Heo. f" pd'
IV L!~ of
um ntodtal ann .otal anum total annum t a to t.a -

Fiold and crop 65,359 16 64,125 18 43,853 15 42,845 21 114,223 29 33.,405 20
work on family
holding
MiSc. farm work
on family hold- 7,229 2 5,975 2 6,593 2 33, 21 2 14,275 4 37,393 2
ing (1)
Unpoid faIrm
work olsuwhoro 5,297 1 2,972 1 8,183 3 P,079 3 11,693 x 23,224 1
Othor work 2,703 1 3,921 1 6,898 2 6,568 3 6,381 2 26,471. 2
SMaking boor and
homocraft 12,973 3 3,597 1 (2) 1,073 1 5,217 1 22,860 1
Domestic activfi.
tios ,' 89,281 21 96,306 27 77,531 26 41,858 21 82,634 21 387,610 25
aoing ill and 41,801 10 22,872 6 24,012 8 16,301 8 24,481 6 129,467 8
tending sick
Attending 7,766 2 3,601 1 3,574 1 911 x 67 x 116,529 1
school
Social oblioa- 31,351 7 12,865 4 13,870 5 8,073 4 5,059 1 71,218 4
tion (3)
R3oroation and
rrstin, 155,763 37 145,068 40 117,446 39 76,256 38 143,268 36 638,801 38
Total 419,523 100 301,960 101 202,285 101 200,285 101 397,900 100 1,683,978 10o
* -_ 3/ iir --rr M --- ^-h"*r tq-TN~"irr t^.i-i^~-^ m i^ iin~ir ar -~~-i~~ii~--ir-ui -o-i-jij^ii ~^ --^i-cic-f"0inri i~tniiBr itM-ii cii -- r ---rT -- .--... ..- I. n sw ^sH~~i ^'ti ~ ~ pra^tat aitt^ tM tti-^N iet~~ftf~~'iBac^ ^


x = loss ihan .05 hours par day.


No~toa ;


1) Xi rudG'3 v'ry few hours on the carol of livuatock
2) In' tho hour epont making bor, and homocrufts
other kinds-of romunarativue work.
3) Mostly attendance at weddings and funeral.


woro procossod togothor with


i









A CO PFRISON OF TKE WOpK DONE BY 2:'LE HEAC AND FEgALE-HEADS/IIU1S IN 49 HOU.;IOLDS
KA RONGA


IotI nrs.a
o- r annun


Houls par
head/day


76 FEMALE HEADSj/-:IVES


51 MALE HEADS


IN KARONGAAID T'THYOLO
THYOLO .
60.FEMALCE AHE C3AIVES


, I -~. -- -- n ---- --"r~-mrr~Z--- r- -


-fotoa nra. pe
annum


n por
Hoad/day


iaf nnum pui
annum


naur/ par
Hoad/day


_____________ -- .-" t ~ 1" T I T I


Field and crop work
son family holding
Care of livestock
*1 .. farm work on
family holding
Unpaid farm work olse-
wyhCro
Domestic activitics(1)
Ojthar urork (2)
..'king boar and
homocrqfts
"- in ill, standing
exck
., Ationding school,
Social obligations (3)
Recreation and rostiocg


Total


20,343

7,916
4,158

6,077

2,690
14,912
556

9,193

625
13,461
113,309


201,242


1.7

0.5
0.2


0,2
0.9
x

3.5

x
0.0
6.6


11.u


54,223

86
6,214

4,221

74,560
1,050
10,954

S35,406

196

115,427


331,215


2.0

x
0.2

0.2

2.7
0.1
0.5

1.3

x
1.0
4.2


12.2


36,972

159
3,952

1,780

31,301
29,029
5,260

9,937


0,572
92,902


220,752


2.1


0.2

0.1

1.7
1.6
0.3

G.5
0-5


5.0
5.0


12.0


poe annrs.
per annum


51,492

S 4
4,577

2,308

72,605
1,692
2,909

17,166

117
10,006
96,097


259,053


-;rs, par Cr
por day


2.4

x
0.2

0.1

3.3

0.1

0.4

x
0.5
4.4


11.9


x = lss than .05 hours, par day.


NOTES : (1 )

S :;(3)


Including house building andi.mJintance..
Includes paid work and fishing.
Mostly attendance -t woddingqaand funerals.


TABLE. 7
f


a~nc~r~rra IPIfiT~1---~ ~7_~*~l~L1-111111Il~IILI~lll~-~-ii~


~---"~----`


S47 mi'VLL n'-


I------


rr^l---;--------4----~n"lol-r~lll-- r-Cc*~-r~ll"m~-~--xl-__--- --a


~(n~---~-~-------`*-~----


"










HEADlA4IVES IN 49 HOUSEHOLDS IN MZIMA A NDO-LAKE CHILWA
LAKE CHILNA .


39 MALE -.ADS 5 FEMALE H ADS /WIVES 23 MALE HEADS 39 FEMALE HEADS/WIVES
A Total H. ulrTot als -s j ir P*or To 1FTdyj' o per to Huur8


/onnum hbad/rday


i. OftU !i


i i ______________________ &I ..--. P C


f (ld and crop. wok on
family holding
Carol of livoatock
*Mins. farm rtork on
family holding
Unpaid farm work elso-

fornoeustc activitioa (1)
i her Work (2)
SoiQ ill and .tonding sic
kt tending scholU
,od cdiobligations (3)
pacroation and rasi.L
Making boar and -honmo-
cnafrt


To tal


23,304

6,9001
10,451


7,075

17,024
0,507
0,492

12,626
63,107


162,646


2.0

0.5
0.7

0.5

1.2

0.6
L 6


0.9
4.1


11.4


36,102

660
5,030

7,435

61,100
4,666
20,314
637
13,765
01,760


H, diJ/day


1.0

x
0.2

0.4

3.0
0.2
1.1
x
0.7
4.0
-


11.3


per sniumn


25,411

259
4,200

11,011 |


14,716
11,403
5,192
5,492

36,077
5,192


121,504


H:iad pjr


2,5

x
0,.4


1.1
1.4
1.1
0.5
0.5
0 5
3.5
0.5


P3ar nnum


30,405

5
3,123

4.441

36,091
4,760
065
14,094
07
59,315
065


pJr day


x
0.2

0.3

2.0
0.3,
0.1
1.0
0
4.2
0.1


-, -' ~T;pn~n.rr CI~I. -_- I~n'Iti~'% (~(


i .0


170,229


11.9


Notes a8 on othor pagos


TABLE 8


A COMPARISON OF THE WORK DONE BY MALE HZADS AND FEMALE


hf~l, ,-**------.- I .--.l.. A ____________________ I '-----I-


E


rcr~rcrPI--rra~nrrrZ~PaPlrranr~lplp-~rr


IrP-i.ni-rr-~-rarrmrr*~( ------


rrrrrrrc~-~-~nr~l~oon~r~r~rrrr~nwarrr ~a~,,anrFmrrmrui,~crrr~_r~-iomrrcmc~






TABLE 9


A COMPARISON OF THE WORK DONE BY MALE HEADS AND FEMALE HEADSAIIVES

IN 49 HOUSEHOLDS IN NGABU


49 MAN HEADS 64 FEMALE HEADS/WIVES

Total hours Hours per Total hours Hours per
rr ;~nnum head per pur annum head per


Fiold and crop work on family 57,353 3.3 77,905 3.3
holding
Caor of livestockk 296 x 1,194 0.1
MiLc, farm work on 16,635 0.9 9,550 0.4.
family holding (1)
Unpaid fq.m work also- 2,233 0.1 1,202 0.1
wharo
Domestic activities 11,322 0.6 64,163 2.7
Othar work (2) 9,703 U.6 4,322 0.2
Making-boar and homocrafts 2,590 0.1 '4,570 0.2
Boing ill and tending sick 11,363 0.6 17,307 0.7
Attending school, studying 40 x 353 x
Social obligations (3) 5,030 0.3 3,501 0.1.
Recreation and resting 09,752 5.1 91,254 3.9

Total 207,219 11.6 2?5,401 11.7


TABLE 10
HOURS PER DAY SPENT IN PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITY


Mala Heads Famala Hoads/Wivos


Karanoa 3.9 5.7
Thyolo 6.0 6.2
Mzimba 5.5 5.6
Laka Chilwa 7.0 6.2
:.;sb', 5.6 7.0

Moon 5.6 6.1
_, ,, Ir__


x = Lass than
NOTES; 1)
2)

3)


.05 hours par day
Inctudos very fuw hours on tho carol of livestock
In '' a the hours spunt making boar and homccrafts weor processed
together with other kinds of ramunerative work.
Mostly attendance at waddings and funeral.


- 14-






TABLE I

THE PfROP'- TOf' I OF WORKt DONrC ,/ MEN i,"U .U':, j" PURE STAND MAIZE

IN CHAP.0CiD';''; AND M;I. ~'.DC V'[ L: LX.F.l (IGA U DISTRICT)



SPLA. rJ WEDINaG -,'wL SP--LTr' I TLLI N -R^i TOTAL

r ur:. ;.Ja % Hotur I-.Lur- % Hours % Hours

Af3 32 3fJ2 21 -32 ---a *-*
it 4,0e4, 32 3,032 21 3,319 2.7 133 16 37 33 ,5696 25
Womon 2,925 50 7,200 51 7,323 60 564 6 331 29 10,423 54

and h;'e.6 1,053 10 3,834 27 1,597 13 152 10 419 37 7,055 21
Lobour


Total 5,G12 100 14,146s 99 2,239 I )' 24 100 ,123 99 34, 174 100



T., I.L 1
THE .r..L'TO '. Or F ., :' JLO" BY t.v- 'ftD 'W Lt'r. ON T P '- .:,- TO~3.CCO

.TM .:Z, yL ',:- ''.'"TMBA DISTRICT)



F i EDING H ,F- F.'H, Ir.4t1 "11H6 'it ,IR TI. N; TOTAL

SJoHours 7 rA s


Man


Children
and Hired
Lsabour


40.
407


34 3


i~243


0 44

? 39


3 17



: L tG


02 12


1 154



1 t


60
32
-


'1003


2,102

2, 490


670 13


5, 262 100


.: 100 3 ,;-' 100
re.


~-YPIY-";YYII'~'~"UmYllsl~CUlllblll~-PI


1 ~._I~~ _____ll.-L-ll^


i


1


unr~r,~aur~wu~-~lrb~r~,xua~,~


-1U*UI'"-wUn~s


dua*uarnura*uaurr~-Laau*rrra~-urwraruroa


:7~







TABLE. E 3

F-r.pliT j1 OrF ORK D E BY ?iN Ar I~0 .-':I "'~ L' (SP-- YED) :A0'YO; i (flCH I:].' A ND


S, I _. -I -.. L


T" NG PN
127 32 1150 2 692 36 10,909 36 17,2 42 40,241 37




TALE 14
p. DONE SY :' '. ;2I 1 3.'Tr'T9 4 .- 32L E2 .r;J -

WE -i --E-- .. .

SQHo f," H ou 1-r a Hours t / Houa 'a | HSoursa Houts


MHn ,'J ?0 u 266 94 720 90 242 27 334 33 1,230 46
* Qomran 90 24 17 6 15 .10 545 61 592 ,58 1,.--/ 47
Ch.1ldron 22 6 100 11n 90 9 9 212 8
a.nd HirA h'j
Labo u r 7
Totl 72 1 203 10 143 1 007 99 2,316 10 il 2,701 t1C) I
I~9 1 .,, I








D. SEX DISAGGREGATED LABOUR DATA IN AGRO-ECONOMIC SURVEY REPORTS*

Although sex disaggregated data has been collected by
the Agro-Economic Survey since 1968/69 little has been done
with it. The following is an attempt to'synthesize the data
in order to have a nation wide picture of women's participation
in various cropping systems. Of the 51 Agro-Economic Surveys
that have been produced so far, sex disaggregated data of
various types are found in 20 of them (numbers 1-9, 11, 15, 13,
19, 21, 22, 25, 26, 31, 33, and 34). These surveys are
examined here to ascertain women's' roles in Malawi's agricultural
production. The following is a summary of the survey s.
Fuller descriptions and the' tables are found in Annex 1. ..

The farming systems/cropping patterns involved are
subsistence (Masambanjati, Nkhota-kota, Namwera), groundnuts
(Nsanje South), rice (Hara, Karonga North, Lake Chilwa),
tobacco (Chisasa, Mbawa), cotton' (Ngabu, Henga Valley ,Kasu.e)'.
cotton/tobacco (Bwanje Valley), smallholder coffee (Northern Region)
and smallholder.tea (Mulanje).

Subsi'stence :

S The most striking aspect of those farmers engaged in
subsistence farming was the low male/female ratio. In the
areas survey-ed, there was little opportunity for wage labour
and cash'; crops' were only slightly grown:- (s'oe rice in Nkhota-
kota was produced, for example). Even where men were present,
they spent their time on other, non-agricultural activities.
Women, therefore, held the responsibility for food crop
production in these areas and consequently, had the greatest
labour input.

Farmers in Masambanjati practiced intensive intercropping
(maize--based intercropped with legumes, bananas, groundnuts,
cassava, millet and other fruits). Due to the different degree
of complexity of the cropping systems, the labour requirements
for the: various farm operations varied greatly. The percentage
of female headed households (FHHs) was small (15%). Women
performed most of the work connected: with crop production
doing 38% of the field work and 41'% of the after harvest work
with males and children over 12 years doing 20-28% of this
work. The greatest proportion of men's time was spent
marketing the produce. The; data: shows that there are not
solely male tasks or female tasks.' However, males did more':
of the land preparation and fertilizing while women did most
of the planting, weeding and harvesting.

In Nkhota-kota holding 'size was small and many men
were away. The percentage of FHHs was high (57%). Women did
the majority of the field work (56%), after harvest work (75%),
and marketing (40%). When men were present they participated
primarily.in marketing (34%) or field work (27%). Children
and hired labour cared for livestock. Cassava, rice and maize
were the principal crops grown. Women did over half the work
in all categories of rice production and benefitted from small,
sales. They also managed cassava production M.en did the
most work on maize garden preparation (64%), while women
planted (63%) and harvested (74%). Very little fertilizing

*Tables and a synopsis of each AES report containing sex disaggregated data
is given in Annex 1.
-17--











was done and this was a male task only. With far fewer males
present the average even for this area, females assumed most of
the agricultural tasks.

Namwera farmers grew maize, maize/pulses and maize/
groundnuts on small holding size. Between 30% of the holdings
were small in size. The work women did was assumed to count less
than men's work and this is reflected in the labour data calcula-
tions. Nevertheless, even accounting for the fact women worked 5.0
hours and male heads worked 5.7 hours per day. Most of the
agricultural labour was done by hired men and women. The report
did not detail the various cropping systems, but males did the
-*' more physically demanding tasks while females participated more
in harvesting and marketing. Many men also did off-farm agri-
cultural work (mostly on estates).

Groundnuts

In Nsanje South, there again was a low male/female ratio
but for this farming system (Malimba groundnut growers), males'
and females' participation in agricultural,work was similar in
terms of hours. There was a sexual division of labour in so faras
tasks undertaken,. i... m-,les did most of the harvesting; females
did the planting, tra!splitiing and marketing. The only crops
considered women's province were millet and sorghum.

Rice

Rice production in Malawi can be irrigated, non-irrigated
or both, as in Hara where one crop is grown under rain-fed
conditions, the second crop under irrigation. Three .areas of
rice growing were surveyed: Hara, Karonga North and Lake Chilwa.
In Hara and Karonga North, men were the ones responsible for
rice production while females took care of the food crops.
However, in Karonga North, women put in more hours on the crop.
In Hara, labour was a severe constraint to rice production but
in Karonga North, the average working day was only 2.7 hours.
At Lake Chilwa, rice was grown on the edge of the lacustrine
plain. Long hours typified the working day 6.3 hours for
females, 5.8 hours for males. Agricultural production, including
rice, depended largely on those people responsible for the
household, the male or female head. Both sexes took care of
the cash crop and men also helped with. the food crops.

At Hara rice is double cropped being rain-fed from
December to June and irrigated from July to November. Males
did the majority of field work (especially land preparation ,
seed bed activities, fertilizing and weeding) while females did
mcst of the after harvest work such as threshing and cleaning
grain. However, women were also significant ir' crop activities.
For the non-rice crops, cassava production was used as an;
example for labour distribution. Although hired labour was used
to clear the land for planting, women did the majority of other
labour (planting, weeding and harvesting). I.t should be noted
that hours for each category of worker were calculated in man
equivalents. An hour of work by a woman was only counted as
.7 an hour compared to an hour of work by a man which counted
as 1.0 hour.


-18-









By contrast, in Karonga North women worked longer at
agricultural work :than men. Males and females spent most of
their hours on field work but men were usually responsible
for marketing while females are responsible for after harvest
work. W omen did more work than men on rice, groundnuts, maize
:and millet.. Men did more work than women only on cassava and
Cotton. :-In rice women did more weeding, harvesting, threshing
and .-transporting, while men clear, plough, plant and market.
-W'omen didmot .of the work on maize other- than -land clearing,
ploughing and .:tilling. Women did the bulk of the labour
on :food crops and greatly exceeded the hours spent on rice
production (for which they also put in more hours) th a). men.

In Lake Chilwa, female heads and wives worked slightly
longer working days than male heads..: About 26% of the households
:'were female headed. Women did most of the cash crop work. For
rice men and women participated equally in planting but other
tasks wUe':performed to a greater extent.by women. Women and the
majority of work on nmaize :and cas'ava a's well. 'The pattern
of men being more responsible for the rice cash crop did not
hold here since women did the majority of work including
marketing. Men helped with the production of food crops.


Tob-acco :

Oriental, tobacco growers were' studied! in two areas -
Chisasa and .Mbawa. In Chisasa, 3834 hours per acre were' spent
on .tobacco .while only 1238 hours were- spent in Mbawa. In
Chisasa during.:peak periods women worked as many hours as-
men on agricultural tasks but men were 'odcupied all year round.
Females were :in .charge of the food crops -but these did not occupy
many..hour's.' Children in. Chisasa were used extensively for
some tobacco related operations and h'ited labour was also
used frequently. In Mbawa, household heads (male or female)
were responsible;,for all crops including tobacco. Children
and hired labour were used only slightly.
























-19-








In Chisasa 57% of the household were FHHs. All the
tobacco growing households in the households surveyed were
MHIHs. Both sexes participate in all crop operations, but
mendid most of the land. clearing (63%), nursery work (59%),
and marketing. (65%). They also fertilize the crop (49%),
harvest (18t%), string and cure (25%), and weed (44%). Women
di-jmost of the weeding (556), but also didnursery work (38%),
fertilizing (36%), harvesting (24%) and marketing (27%).
Children did most of the stringing and curing (50%). Women
tended to take care of the food crops which occupy fewer
hours than tobacco-nevertheless, women worked longerdays than
men.

By contrast in Mbawa labour on oriental tobacco was
distributed daily evenly between males and females. Men
and women didsimilar amounts of nursery work and markcting.:.Men
di1somewhat more on planting and women didmore in fertilizing,
weeding, harvesting, and curing. Women also didmore work
on the groundnut, maize and millet gardens.

Cotton

Ngabu, Henga Valley and Kasupe were the areas where
cotton growers were surveyed. In all areas, males were
considered to be in charge of the cotton crop, whether It was
sprayed or unsprayed. Hired labour was used a great deal
for work on sprayed cotton in Ngabu. In Henga Valley and
Kasupe there was little utilization of hired labour. Females
in both locations did much of the grading. In both locations
also, women were responsible for food crop production.
Interestingly enough, in Henga Valley, although men were
in charge of the cotton crop, cotton production would not
have been possible (and is, in fact, constrained) if females
had not been available for field work.

In Ngabu women made significant contributions to
sprayed ar.n unsprayed cotton. For sprayed cotton female
heads d.i-d the majority of planting, thinning, spraying,
harvesting and grading. Hired male labour did most of the
weeding, marketing, and uprooting. In unsprayed cotton plots,
male heads did much of the planting and weeding while female
heads and wives performed the majority of other tasks. Unlike
sprayed cotton, males (heads and hired labour) were responsible
for 45% of the time spent grading cotton. Additionally, maize
and millet gardens occupied much of women's time.

In Henga Valley women's participation in cotton
growing wassignficant and cotton growers had twice as much
avail i'~- mature female labour for farming needs as non-
cotton growers. The majority of men's time on crops-aes devoted
to cotton rather than other crops whereas women apportioned
their time among food crops and cotton but spent more time
on maize, millet and groundnuts than any other category of
worker.

In Kasupe men spent most of their time on the cotton
crop, but women participated in all operations to some extent.
Women did much more work on the food crops (maize, pulses,
sweet potatoes and maize/millet).


- 20 -









Cotton and Tobacco


Bwanje Valley is a rare farming system for Malawi
in that both cotton and tobacco are grown there. Labour
data was available only for tobacco and mele heads appeared
to have the rasponsibility"for production of this crop. Women &
children part: cipated in all operations but not to the same extent
as men. Tobacco and cotton growers were male-headed households.
The report on Bwanje Valley stated that females were expected
to-~ork on the foodcrops.

Coffee

Coffee is the only cash crop grown in the area
where the s.urvey- was done and is therefoi6-important to
farmers there. The farming systems there could be considered-
subsistence were it not for the presenceof the 'coffee cash
crop. For all agricultural production tasks, there was not
a clear division of labour nor were there male and female
crops oth sexes did all operations and worked on all crops.
The only exception to this was tiat nursery work, fertilizing
and pruning the coffee were considered to be in the male
domain. Women participated so~mehat in every operation .except
pruning.

Tea

In tea growing areas, pruning of tea was also considered
to be a man's job. Other agricultural tasks related to the
production were shared equally with all activities being
performed by both sexes. Males spent most of their time
on the tea crop, females spent most of their time on the food
crops, especially maize. Women spent more, total time on
(1) land clearing ard uprooting, (2) planting, transplanting
and supplying and as much as men on (1) tilling, ridging, and
leveling and (2) harvesting. Men and women spent similar
amounts of time on weeding.


S U M M A P. Y

With a variety of farming systems represented, i-t is
truly difficult to make generalizations concerning labour use
for all systems. Women seem to always work as many hours
(if not more) as men on fie'd operations. In some farming
systems, women work in both cash and food crops; in other
systems, women work mostly on food. crops. Rarely do women
have the sole responsibility for a cash crop. However, in
sone areas, such as Lake Chilwa, tha household head, be it
male or female, is responsible for agricultural production.

If women raise the food, then men must do Other
things around the area.or elsewheree, This.means either
migration or cash cropping. The. effect of male migration
on families is well recognized and the government has made,
and is making, efforts to increase the frequency and feasibility
of cash cropping in many areas so that men do not have to leave.


-21-








When a new crop is introduced into an area, training must
occur and the question to be asked is, who -receives the-
training? If the indications given by the reports on coffee
and, ta production are realistic, it is .en who receive the
training in pruning, for example. Where :tasks associated
with a cash crop become particularly onerous, such as cleaning
groundnuts or weeding rice, women's participation increases.


E. STUDIES BY THE WOMEN IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

Selected-studies of farming patterns and farmers'
attitudes and use of extension services have been carried out
by WIADP in each Region using various methods and surveys
(see WIADP List of Reports p.35 ). Some of studies and their
findings are reviewed here.

1. Phalombo RDP

Married and unmarried farmers
Maize Trials farmers
NSSA data

2. Karonga RDP

Irrigated and rain fed rice scheme farmers
Cotton and maize scheme farmers
Off scheme farmers

3. Lilongwe RDP

Cropping patterns of the longitudinal study of
households
Credit, extension and stallfeeder programmes
are considered in Section II


1. Phalombe RDP: Married and Unmarried Households

A comparison of married and unmarried households based
on data collected by Evans (1981a, b, c), the Evaluaton
Unit of BLADD (see BLADD reports), Hansen (1982), and
WIADP's own studies has been prepared in WIADP Reports
No. 19 "Agricultural Constraints Facing Women Farmers in
Phalombe Rural Development Project". A synopsis of the
report is given here.

Unmarried women cultivate less land which is more
marginal in quality than married households according to
Evans. Smaller holding size and area'cultivated is also
noted for FHHs compared with MHHs. The NSSA data shows
that some of the FHHs have lower maize yields, most likely
because fewer FHHs than MHHs use fertilizer. However,
FHHs have higher groundnut yields than MHHs. Unmarried
households are food deficient according to Evans and WTADP
and the women make up for this by working piece work (ganyu)
.'for others, thereby being labour deficient on their own
Sfarms s


-22-








Because of the scarcity of land and high population
density in Phalombe (121 people per square kilometre), much
of the land is intercropped. Gardens contain a staple crop
interplanted with relish and some market oriented crops.
Households studied planted local maize with cowpeas intercropped
or scattered as well as other crops such as pigeon peas,
sunflower, pumpkins, green grams, and dolichus; sometimes cassava
and sorghum were interplanted as well to sustain the family in
case of failure of the maize crop. Evans found little difference
between married and unmarried households in terms of cropping
patterns. A small percentage (8% married and 7% unmarried)
planted maize pure stand. WIADP found that FHHs have all their
fieldsin mixtures with groundnuts being the only crop that
is monocropped. MHHs nonocrop cassava, groundnuts, tobacco,
cotton, sweet potatoes, and green grams. Evans found that
unmarried households own fewer livestock, but the NSSA Livestock
Study shows that there is a difference between married and un-
married female heads. Married female heads are similar to
'HIi,; in terms of livestock ownership, farm equipment, housing
and household items. This is accounted for by husbands sending
remittances or obtaining these items before leaving. All studies
show that unmarried FHHs have fewer resources than the MHHs
and married FHHs.

Considering cultural practices, there were differences
in time of planting, spacing and weeding in the married and
unmarried households, with the unmarried ones planting later,
spacing incorrectly and weeding only once (Figures 1 and 2).
Women in general made little use of fertilizer and even those
who used it, usually applied it incorrectly. WIADP's study
confirms that fertilizer use is linked to attendance at agri-
cultural courses, yet few women received agricultural training.
Women on their own,-whether married or not, make the farm
decisions and act us farm managers. Women are constrained by
the available labour and the number of dependents. Both young and
old women have few dependents while women in the 20-40 year
category whether married or unmarried have about the same
number of children with them. If there is' a husband to. de farm
'ory rt'"- ..faily is not. likely to be food deficient; however
women- without husbanA.d 'rj out- of m;ife. M?-grly. In Phalombe the
B~9~e i~s h a r l mz r1Fjure 3 on rreas of higher rainfall,
The NSSA data shows that 35% of households are female
headed in Phalombe but that the highest number of FHHs (46%)
are found in rain deficient areas. It appear that men leave
areas with poor agricultural potential (Figure 4). They leave
behind wives and children to subsist on these lands, often
without inputs and with little agricultural training. All income
and expenditure studies show that gifts, and remittances, when
they occur, are very important for these households.

Women have less education and agricultural training
compared to men. Few knew the answers to sim",le questions on
fertilizers, spacing and diseases which WIADP asked them. All
studies show that extension contacts to women were also less
than for men, (see section on Extension Services in Part 2).

Finally, the division of labour demonstrates that perhaps
in the past men were responsible for the heavy work of clearing


-23-





Figure 1


. *.*', *I ~ MZa c'efd Hiouseh'ld
nmarri1>J r


No. of
house-
ho ls


SAusit epi.

e i--Ct./(,-c-v
/-.


Aug/Scpt


-Th


.A tly/Au,,.
4 .t~u/ses1


Tlime,-s o_ ,' .--,r --.--n^ preparation
*7.
,.Ls5n.R and Bjnk.in Figure 2

"eid/oank Ix


2" ~i

IieIii,


i "



2


N'.~1 -r 02 ^.,- wearp,. -- ,
J*.:I -- I ,. i ::.. : *J .** ---q
*Taken from Evans 19) 'age 4 e
**"Taken from Evans 1i;:i, *pae 45,

-24-


Q~f/NN


I.: ',ch ': e.
* "-kh






Figure 3 *


.'FOi AVA LASB.LL IT


Ox- I t- a. o '0on
Cr i'UCd


L7 7
[^3 ,~ ^na' ts


F-o C) ,- 198 91-8.2


Fi gure 4 **
___ -.. ,.-





.0 *,,^ F r r"'-^A--^- MJ/7


uct UJ


SMJ/'s in order of increasing rain :

*Taken .from .Evans 1981b, page '; i
**Taken from E.van 1981b, page 51


N')C


?I~~c '~

45(
Lri







and preparing the land. Now there is very little land being
cleared and the sexual division of labour is minimal or non-
existent. Men and women do similar operations in married
households and women in unmarried households do all the opera-
tions. There are, of course various patterns of children
helping, especially daughters of unmarried women helping their
mothers. When asked about labour participation on various
operations, men tend to minimize their wives' labour contribu-
tions.

WIADP study considered the maize trial cooperators
of the Farming Systems Analysis Section. FSA specially requested
that women be selected as trial farmers. The ones who were
selected tendpe to be older and widowed and their yields
fell behind the younger and more progressive males selected
who had their wives to help them. Nevertheless, the women were
able to carry out the trials successfully.

-2. Scheme and Non-Scheme Farmers in Karonga RDP

SBrief diagnostic surveys of farming systems in irrigated
and rain-fed rice schemes, maize and cotton schemes, and off-
scheme areas were carried out by WIADP (Spring, Kayuni and
Smith 1982; Spring 1982). Karonga RDP has a lower percentage
of FHH (18%) than the average for Malawi (29%). The main
findings of the study are the follows.

Women are significant to production in Karonga and
their production contributes to KRADD Project yields. Between
9% and 13% of the farmers producing cash sales of rice and
cotton are unmarried women taking credit in their own names.
Married women's contributions cannot be exactly specified as
they are embedded in total household sales and credit in the
husband's name. Women grow cash crops that are sold to ADMARC
(Blue Bonnet and Faya rice, and cotton) as well as food crops
that are used for home consumption (local varieties or rice,
maize, cassava, groundnuts, various beans and pulses, and local
vegetable) and local cash sales (maize, cassava add groundnuts).
There was no difference in maize yields probably because men
get more fertilizers than women (Table 17).

Women are involved in all aspects of farming, even some
that are generally associated with men. There were no crop
operations that were.exclusively the domain of men or women,
but there are some operations that are mostly done by one sex.
For rice cultivation, ploughing and levelling with oxen is
considered men's work but some women do these operations
regularly alon- or help their husbands or male relatives. When
levelling is done by hand, women often do it. Both sexes plant,
apply fertilizer and weed. Harvesting and threshing is mostly
done by women, but men help at times. Both sexes carry rice
back to sheds or villages. Husbands in married families usually
market the rice but women also do this.

The general attitude of project personnel is the women
do not own cattle and therefore, they do not need information
about cattle production. WIADP found that some women own work
oxen (Table 15), bulls and cows. These tended to be women on
schemes who have bought cattle with money earned there or those
getting oxen on credit. Some women own ploughs as well. The
number of women who use ox-ploughs either alone or with their
husbands is high.






It should be noted that the percentages of women farmers
taking cotton credit packages are similar to the percentages
of women taking rice credit packages (e.g., Mpata 9%, Vua -
11%, and Lupembe 13% versus Wovwe 9% and Lufira 12%).
Women's cotton acreages are smaller than their rice acreages.
Cotton is seen as A man's crop, but in reality men do not grow
the crop alone.- omen are involved in all operations, but men
tend to plough :;nd ridge. In spraying operations, wives bring
water and husbands mix the chemicals and spray. However, WIADP
found women on their own and those whose husbands or fathers
were sick doing the spraying. All family members participate
in harvesting'and grading (but women may do more of these
operations). Men and FHHs sell cotton as credit is mostly in
their names.

In terms of hiring labour and making farm farm management
decisions,-women on their own and also some married women make
decisions as to when and where to plant, cultural practices,
and use of improved seed and fertitilizer. They also decide,
about employing labour, hiring machinery, and amounts to sell.
One major difference between high and low resource farmers
is that high resource :farmers hire and manage workers. High
resource women farmers do this just as high resource men farmers,
although there are fewer women high-resource farmers than
-men. On the other hand, low resource farmers (FHHs off-schemes)
may have to sell their labour, thereby reducing labour from
their own gardens. More men than women hire ganyu and more women
than'men do ganyu labour (Table 17).

Some women on their own are constrained by labour.
FHHs on schemes tend to cultivate slightly less acreage than
MHHs. It should be remembered that FPHs have only one adult
whereas- MHHs have at least one wife, and therefore more
available labour. The amount of land that women on their own
cultivate is determined by a number of factors such as household
dependents who can help (particularly children and whether or
not they attend school), cash to hire ganyu labourer's ,and the
.women's own strength and age. Many women who become widowed
or divorced have to grow.fewer crops on smaller acreages because
they have 'less land and'labour. Some maintain their diversified
farming systems and acreage while other 'diversify and even add
new enterprises. It is difficult to say categorically that all
women cultivate less land than men (Table 16). One good example
from the data is that the average acreage women cultivate
at '?ovwe Rice Scheme i greater than the average acreage that
men cultivate at Lufira Rice Scheme (Table 15). It may be
that farmers are constrained in land size at Lufira and that
some -women have a smaller amount of land than they would like.

:Some FHHs on schemes have bedn: taking credit for a
long time. There seems to be less of a problem issuing credit
packages to women on rice schemes than on cotton'-and maize
schemes. It was surprising
that no MH-12 seed or 20:20:0 fertilizer and very little CCA
seed were extended to women (see Table on credit in Section
II). Some women who grow cotton on their own have to have
male relatives obtain the packages for there Yet all extension
personnel, management and farmers themselves agreed that
women are very faithful at repaying credit and perhaps default
less than men.


-27-










Women on their own have more opportunity for gaining
cash incomes on rice than on cotton/maize schemes. Although
the number of FHH on rice schemes is not large (9-12%), there
is the perception by management, extension workers and farmers
themselves that women are capable rice growers. On the other
hand, even though a similar percentage of cotton growers are
women, there is the notion that women do not grow cotton and-
they are not encouraged-'4 to do so. Women seemed to have better
access to land and technical information on rice than on
cotton schemes.

Women on their own have family responsibilities which
they must finance from farming. MHHs and FHHs have responsi-
bilities of the same kind and magnitude in relation to their
families (food, shelter, clothing, school fees). Some married
women must also take on these responsibilities because their
husbands help very little. Both FHHs and MHHs need cash to
carry out these tasks and the most common way to obtain cash
is from.agriculture. Many FHHs interviewed preferred not to
remarry so they could use their income to provide good houses
and school fees for their children.

A comparison of data from the Karonga NSSA Resources
Survey and the farmers interviewed for WIADP's survey showed
that FHHs tend to have the same type of household improvements
and households items as MHHs although MHHs have, more of these
resources. There was a general tendency for FHHs in the
present survey to have slightly higher percentage than the
NSSA sample on some items (tin roofs, latrines and radios),
and for MHHs to have them on other items (ploughs, sprayers,
glass windows, tables, chairs, beds, radios and bicycles).
This probably because scheme farmers are better off than farmers
in the random sample who are both on and off schemes.

Extension services and training courses lag in reaching
women farmers as compared to men farmers. Males have twice
as. many extension visits as women (Table 17). Similarly,
attendance.at DTCs and RTCs was twice as high for males as
females. The number of female participants probably is as
high as it is because of scheme membership.

Many of the female farmers mentioned a great desire
for learning agricultural topics rather than home economics
topics. Certainly, cooking and sewing are interesting for
those women who have the time and resources but the persistence
of home economics courses for women deprives women of needed
agricultural production information. Many women would welcome
opportunities to learn improved techniques in order to increase
their production.


-28-













TABLE 15:


FARM SIZE AND OXEN OWNERSHIP OF WOMEN FARM MANAGERS
IN TWO IRRIGATED RICE SCHEMES IN KRADD, 1980-81.


TOTAL WOMEN
No. No. %


F.'\r.: ACREAGE
I4EN WOMEN MYP


OXEN OWNERS'
TOTAL WOMEN MEN
No. No. % %


Wovwc (19'1) 319** 28 9% 1.23 0.98 1.46 24 3 12% 7%
Lufira(1980) 761 72 9% 0.91 0.72 305 12 4% 4%
Lufira(1981) 812 96 12% not available------------------------


*Figures collected from
**Of the 319 farmers, 70
1.1% of Scheme farmers.


Scheme record book
are MYPs. If they are subtracted, the women
(M1YP Malawi Young Pioneers).


constitute


TABLE 16: WOMEN MANAGERS IN FARM ACREAGE CLASSES I1 T7WO IRRIGATED
(DOUBLE CROPPED) RICE SCHEMES IN XRADD (%) 1980/81.



Scheme : .25 .5 .75 1.0 1.25 1.5 2.0-25 Total

Wovwo (1981; 64% 11% 21% 4% 100%
Lufira(1980) 7% 42% 26% 18% 4% 2% 100%

*Figures tabulated from Scheme record book


TABLE 17: GRAIN YIELDS, LAND CONSTRAINTS LABOUR MERED AND.:EXT-jjSION
CONTACTS FOR WOMEN AND MEN INTERVIEWED IN WIADP
KRADD FARMER SURVEY (1982).

----RAIN YIELDS--- -----LAND CONSTRAINTS--

!Men Women Men Women
--Bsags/acreo -% able to-


Paddy rice
Maize


Cultivated More
Acquire More


-HIRED GANYU LABOUR----

Men Women

----t-----


Hires Labour
Does Labour


--EXTENSION SERVICES-

Men Women

--% contacted or attending-


Extension Visits
Day Training Centre
Residential T. Centre
Films


-29-


SCHEME


__~U~


__ I


1"-~---~---1-~1 -


II--`-~-~---------- I ` -








3. Cropping Patterns in Lilongwe RDP


Extensive surveys of farmers in LRDP were carried out
by the WIADP .and FSA Section. Analyses of dietary patterns
and anthropometry, farm planning and Management, household
composition, status and resources, change and development,
migration and work history, maize storage and the like, are
still being carried out. A comparison of cropping patterns
by sex of household head using NSSA data as well as data from
this Longitudinal Survey of Lilongwe Households (LSLH) is
considered here. More analysis of LRDP data is given in
Section II).

Cropping Patterns in LRDP

Households are separated into categories of major
cropping patterns and are identified by counting only those
crops grown on an area of 0.1 hectares and above. Seven out
of 22 patterns are identified as being more common (found in
3% and above of the sampled households). The common patterns
were based on five crops (local maize, hybrid maize, Chalimbana
groundnuts, dark-fired tobacco and sweet potatoes). Additional
cropping patterns also include green beans, mixed beans, pasture
and synthetic/composite maize. Table 18 represents the
percentage of households producing the seven more common
cropping patterns. By far the most frequent enterprise- is
local maize plus groundnuts, accounting for 41% of the LSLH
sample. A greater proportion of PHHs (57%) than MHHs (34%)
grows this basic combination of food and cash crops. This
supports the hypothesis that families without resident adult
males suffer from severe labour shortages and therefore,
practise more simplified farming systems.

The basic food/cash combination of local maize and
Chalimbana groundnuts is also found in patterns 2,3,4 and 5
which include tobacco, hybrid maize, tobacco plus hybrid maize,
and sweet potatoes. No large differences are noted between
household types in the above patterns which comprise 19% of
FHHs and 30% of MHHs. It is apparent that fewer farms managed
by women (10%) than men (25%) have the minor remaining cropping
patterns that all contain at least one cash crop. This is
also evidence of simpler farming systems by women farm managers.
It is apparent in Table 19 that local maize and groundnuts
are the most common crops for both household types. Slightly
more-FHHs (90%) compared to MHHs (82%) grow groundnuts, which
may supportt'the traditional opinion of groundnuts being a
"women's crop". Table 19 shows that more MHHs (41%) than FHHs
(19%) cultivate tobacco. Despite a 22% difference, a fair
amount of women farm managers can surmount the problems of
tobacco being a labour intensive, tightly controlled "man's
crop". Similarly, more MHHs (26%) grow hybrid maize but some
(10%) grow sweet potatoes, which is becoming more of a cash
crop due to improved transport to town markets. Table 19
provides evidence'of a progressive sector of women farm
managers who grow the cash crops of tobacco, hybrid maize or
sweet potatoes, even though this progessive sector is larger
among men farm managers.

The total crop area cultivated by the sampled households
for the various cropping patterns is shown in Table 20. This
-30-







TABLE 18: HOUSEHOLDS


COMPONENTS


Local maize 4 (+:cunsiri tc
Local Maize + Groundnuts -
Tobacco
Local Maize + Groundnuts +
Hybrid Maize
Local Maize + Groundnuts +
Tobacco + Hybrid Maize
Local Maize + Groundnuts +
Sweet Potatoes
Local Maize
Local Maize + Hybrid Maize
Other Patterns


-------SURVEY SAMPLES---
NSSA LSLH FRH MHH
(n-519) (n=101) (n=58) (n=80)
------ households
36 41 57 34
18 14 10 18


3 6

3 4


15


10 25


TOTAL % 9 101 98 101


*Other : t ..... r less than 3% of households


NSSA *L3l.. FiUDL PD'T:., '..0~. CROPS FROM THE 1980-81
LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF LILNCNGWtiE PLAIN, 1.


---- SURVEY SAMPLES-----
CROP NSSA LSLH FHH :.H!:f
(n='519) (n=101) (n=58) (n=80)

----;---% Households-----
Local Meize 97 95 100 95
Groundnut 84 85 90 82
Tobacco 36 35 19 41
Hybrid Maize 29** 22 10 26
Sweet Potatoes 21 26 14 28
Green Bean -* 18 10 21
Pasture -* 2 2 2
Groundbean -* 10 9 8
Mixed Bean -* 2 0 2
Srn-ll.tijcm Maize -* 1 2


*Not tabulated **Includes synthetic maize

NSSA = National Sample Survey of Agriculture
LSLH Longitudinal Study of Li o.7,i' Hou.ieh.*Ld'. Sample
PiTH = Female Headed Household. Samples
::H: = Male Headed Household Samples


-31-


CROPPING
PITT r


TABLE 19-


?Di1.;'.::.-r;' MAJOR CRC;-r'T^ p/.TVEnr S






TABLE 20: HOLDING SIZE FOR HOUSEHOLDS PRODUCING MAJOR CROPPING PATTERNS


-----SURVEY SAMPLES


COMPONENTS


LSHL FuH MIH
(n=101) (n=58) (n=80)


--- Ha. per Household


Local Maize + Groundnuts
Local Maize + Groundnuts
+ Tobacco
Local Maize + Groundnuts
+ Hybrid Maize
Local Maize + Groundnuts
+ Tobacco + Hybrid Maize
Local Maize + Groundnuts
+ Sweet Potatoes
Local Maize
Local Maize + Hybrid Maize
Other Patterns*


1.37 1.13
2.27 3.28

2.06 1.90

2.90 1.75

0.95 1.16


0.95
2.42
2.03


0.75

2.28


AVERAGE HOLDING SIZE 1.72 1.52 1.84

*Other Patterns less than 3% of households


AVE!:,'.F CROP AREA FOR PRnOrl, HOUSEHOLDS


-----SURVEY SAMPLES---
LSLH FHH MHH
(n=101) (n=58) (n=o0)


Local Maize
Groundnut
Tobacco
Hybrid Maize
Sweet Potatces
Green Bean
Pasture
Ground Bean
Mixed Bean
Synthetic Maize


---Ha./Household------
0.94 0.90 0.97
0.44 0.42 0.49
0.43 0.58 0.44
1.12 1.03 0.96
0.10 0.~07 0,11
0.09 0.16 1.00
0.11 0.34 0.11
0.03 0.03 0,03
0.03 0.00 0.08
1.01 0.00 1.01


TOTAL AREA 173.37 88.96 146.77
AREA/HOUSEHOLD 1.72 1.53 1.83


Note: Derived 4y total area per crop divided by producing households


NSSA = National Sample Survey of Agriculture
LSLH Longitudinal Study of Lilongwe Households Sample
FHH = Female Headed Household Sample
MHH = Male Headed Household Sample


-32-


CROPPING
PATTERN


1.52
2*27

2.12

2.35

0.93

1.13
2.42
2.03


TABLE 21:


CROP


--LU~Ulsl~P~I~P-~~-Iu-^-.------L I1~-.I-~_ ~.__. _~_


** u I






difference of about 1/3 ha. is also nhtod for the oasic combina-
tion of local maize and groundnuts where the average holding
size for FHHs is 1.13 ha. and for MHHs is 1.52 ha.

Finally, Table 21 shows the average crop area per
household.. A simr-ilrity is apparent in the hectarage grown
by the -two household types for .local mai ie, groundnuts, hybrid
naize and sweet potatoes. The average' area of cash crops
cultivated by the progressive sector 'of female household heads
is similar to that of their male counterparts. This supports
the idea that women w.'ho adopt a -farm enterprise practice it
similarly to male adopters.




RE F.E RENCES

Blantyre Agricultural Development Division, Evaluation Unit.
1981b "Household Composition Survey, ,1.9,80/81 Season:
Phalombo R.D.P.", Ms. BLADD Evaluation Working
PaC er. 7/81., pp. T--.1,1 ,. ,

1982a Livestock Survey, Resources Survey, Extension
Survey, Crop Storage Survey:. Phalombe RDP,
1980/81 Season, BLADD Evaluation Working
Paper 1/822,. s. pI-16.

1982b "Farm Practices and P roductinn Phalombe
R.D.P,.. 1981", ris., 3LADD Evaluation Working
Paper 2/82, pp. 1-30.

1982c "Income and Expenditure Survey: Phalombe
R.D.P.: 1981", Ms., BLADD Evaluation Working
Paper 3/82, pp.1-9.


Clark, Barbara "The Work Done b\ Rural Women in Malawi",
1975 Eastern African Journal of Rural Development
8:2:80-91.


Evans, Janis
1981a "Phalombe Rural Development Project, Women's
Programmes: Progranmes Plan" mimeo 20pp.

1981b "Rural Women's Agricultural Extension Programmes
in Phalombe Rural Development Project: Report
on Baseline Survey of Phase 1 "mimeo 13 pp.
July.

1981c Condensed version of 1981b mimeo 22pp. August.


Hansen, Art, Mwango, Emmanuel and Phiri, Benson

1982 "Farming Systems Research in Phalombe Project,
Malawi: Another Approach to Smallholder Research
and Development", Paper Presented at the
Conference on Development in Malawi, Chancellor
College, Zomba. July 12-14. mimeo.pp. 34.

-3.3-











Kydd, Jonathan
1982


Measuring Peasant Differentiation for
Policy purposes: A Report on a cluster
Analysis Classification.of the Population
of the Lilongwe Land Development Programme,
Malawi for 1970 and 1979 Zomba: Government
Print.


Kydd, Jonathan and Robert Christiansen
1981 Structural Change in Malawi since Indepe-
ndence: Consequences of a Development
Strategy Based on Large Scale Agriculture
mimeo


NSSA (National Sample Survey of Agriculture)
1982 "-Preliminary Report: National Sample
Survey of Agriculture for Customary Land
1980/81 Zomba, Government Printer.


Spring, Anita
1982




epri-hg: Anita,
1982


1983


"Farmer Survey in Karonga: Considering
the Role of Women in Agriculture" WIADP.
mimeo 6pp. October.

Kayuni Frieda and ..Sit h, -Cr-a.ig
"Karonga Farmer Survey", WIADP, mimeo
28 pp. June.

"Studies of Agricultural Constraints
Facing Women Farmes in Phalombe Rural
Development Project. mimeo pp20 April.


-34-















No.
1. DR. A. SPRING


2.



3.
04. "

5.

6.



7. MISS F. KAYUNI

8.DR A. SPRING

*
9. MR. C. SMITH
10. MISS. F. KAYUNI



i) MR. C. SMITH


12.


13.



14.


DR. A. SPRING

DR. A. SPRING
MISS. F. KAYINI
MR. C. SMITH
MR. C. SMITH


1. DR. A. SPRING


16. MR. C. SMITH



10. MRS. K. UTTERBA(

18. DR. A. SPRING
19. DR. A. SPRING
MR. C. SMITH
MISS F. KAYUNI


WOMEN IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT :
P.O. BOX 158
LILONGWE, MALAWI

REPORTS

Farm Home Assistants and Agricultural Training.
September, 1981 (9 pages)

NSSA Series: KRADD A Preliminary Analysis of 3 Surveys
in terms of Male and Female Househbld Heade. October, 1981
'(10 pages)

Soyabean Production in Unit 2. December, 1981 (6 pages)
Stall Feeding in LRDP. January, 1982 (8 pages).
Adapting CIMMYT Farming Systems Survey Guidelines tothe
Malawian Situation. February, 1982 (4 pages).
Background date on women and Men Farmers in Kawinga
and Lake Chilwa, Liwonde Agricultural Development Division
March, 1982 (5 pages).
Agricultural Reference Course for LADD Female Extension
Workers. February, 1982 (10 pages).
Women in Agridultural Production in Malawi. Address to
Extension Workers. April 30, 1982 (5 pages).
Report on Unit 2 Soyabean Trials. April. 80 1982 (3 pages)
Female Extension Workers and Agriculture: Training for
Women, Addressed to Extension Workers. April 30, 1982
(3 pages).
Agronomic Report on Unit 2 Soyabean Trials. May 1982
(7 pages).
Report on Soyabean Farmers in the Thiwi-Lifidzi Project
Area. June, 1982 (4 pages).
Karonga Farmer Survey. June 1982 (28 pages).



NSSA Series: Comparisons between Female and Male-Headed
Households From the NSSA 1980 -81 Garden Survey of LRDP,
MALAWI. October, 1982 (4 pages).
-Farmer Survey in Karonga: Considering the Role of Women
in Agriculture. October, 1982 (6 pages).
NSSA Series: An Ana .ysis of the Yields foom the NSSA
Yield Survey in terms of Male and Female-Headed Households.
December, 1982 (13 pages).
CK- Appropriate Technology: Women's Responses to the Hand
Operated Chitedze Maize Sheller.(8 pages)
WIADP -Project Description. January, 1983 (9 pages).
Studies of Agricultural Constraints Facing Women Farmers
in Phalombe Rural Development Project. April, 1983.
( pages).


20. MISS. F. KAYUNI Farming Systems Research and Women Farmers in Malawi,
April, 1983 ( pages).
-35 -








SECTION II RESEARCH ON WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE


A. Justification for a Research Component on Women in Agriculture

Before a problem can be solved the constraints which cause
the problem must first be understood. The constraints faced
by women farmers are sometimes different than those of their
husbands or brothers. To help solve the problems of rural
women, research is needed to identify those constraints which
affect women more than men.

The variation of women's involvement in agriculture is
as diverse the agro-economic systems found within a given area.
When the rural community is .analyzed under the broad term of
"farmers", the differences between men and women within households
and as farm managers will he grouped into an average figure for
the entire family. In addition female headed households are
an important sector of the rural Malawian economy, ranging from
an average of 9% to 42% for the Rural Development Projects.in the
1980-81 NSSA. These households are missing the benefits of a
.resident male as the household head, and therefore sometimes
encounter different problems from those households headed by men.

At present there is a component that focuses on women
(the Women's Programmes Section) in the Department of Development.
Although this section has women as their client group, the main
emphasis is extension; they do no research. In'fact the primary
role of extension personnel is to extend to the farming community
recommendations based on research results, In contrast the main
effort of agricultural researchers should be to develop methods,
technologies or systems which lead to more appropriate and bene-
'ficial recommendations. Some extension personnel in the ,ADDs
are skilled in analyzing data which document rural life. However,
without experience in research methods, most section heads are
likely to be unfamiliar with techniques used in conducting research.
Since none of the present Women's Programmes Officer (WPOs) within
the ADDs have undergone research training, it is possble to
assume they are deficient in the skills necessary tocconduct
reliable research.

Women's Programmes Officers are heavily occupied with
supervising the extension activities of the Farm Home Assistants
in the ADDs.' WPOs are monitoring the inclusion of women in the
services provided by the ADD but this does not identify their
constraints. The Evaluation Unit conducts surveys every year which
record personal and agricultural characteristics of selected rural
families.. Other sections collect information pertaining to their
special field of interest, but not on the constraints of women
farmers.

Scientists in the Department of Agricultural Research
also concentrate on specialized abject matters. Most sections
deal with biological and physical factors, and the constraints
of farmers are seen from the viewpoint of the speciality.

For example, if there is no agronomist to deal with
minor legumes, research on these crops will not be carried out even
though they are important in the farming enterprises in Malawi*


-36-








Similarly, without qualified personnel advocating the speciality
of constraints facing women (who are the major agricultural.
labourers and crop processors in the smallholder sector), no
research will be done.. .The .investment --- -r.women in agriculture
component is minor compared with the total DAR budget and could
be important in directing the biological and social -scientists
to important factors.

The information below on how agricultural research
station trials should be dealing with the problems of women
farmers demonstrates that without research on women, it would
be difficult to advise the section heads about which trials
do carry out. And without a section of the research community
studying the problem intensively, the commodity section heads
would not be able to realize the problem on their own. :There are
suggestions for trials (of if the trials have already been carried
out, then the commodity programmes need to get the information
out to the extension staff), that would directly impact on
women in order to aid them in solving problems concerning
labour constraints, processability, storage, time of planting,
crop protection, soil fertility and farm operations by machinery.
Many commodities are affected, but examples are given for maize
groundnuts, fruits, vegetable and rice.


B. Adaptive Research: A Structure for Women in Agriculture

Adaptive Research teams are anticipated for each of
the eight ADDs under the proposed "Master Plan" for the reorgani-
zation of the Department of Agricultural Research. Wbmen in
agriculture specialists should complement the efforts of the
adaptive research teams by focusing attention on the recommendation
domains of women farmers, as they exist or in pointing out how
women fit into existing domains.

A Women in Agriculture scientist should be included
during diagnostic surveys by the adaptive research team to
alert the team to differences in the farming practices of men and
women. Based on these differences this person could provide
input to help design the on-farm trials which would be implemented
in the following growing season. During formation of extension
recommendations based on adaptive research the interests of
women farmers should be supported by a Women in Agriculture-
specialists.

Within the Adaptive Research Component a subsectio-n ;
is needed to specialize on the constraints of women farmers.
An agronomist is needed to assist the Women in Agricultural
Development specialist in collecting and analyzing data. A
permanent structure is required to institutionalize research:
on Women in Agriculture. Without researchers employed for
this purposee', investigations on the constraints of women will
not be carried out and the data will be incomplete.

The section of farming systems research (FSR) demonstrates
that without researchers who are specifically concerned with
women, FSR surveys and trials may by-pass women in these endeavors.


-37-









B, FACING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND WOMEN FARiERS IN M'ALAWI
FRIEDA KAYUNI


"Farming Systems Research (FSR) is a generic term used
to refer to any type of research which views the farm in a
holistic manner" (Dillon 1978:59) "A farming system(FS) on other
hand is the totality of production and consumption decision of
the farm household including the choice of crops, livestock and
off-farm enterprises and food consumed by the household" (Byerlee
et al 1W0:9).

The aim of a FSR programme is to help the research
department provide research recommendations that will help the
extension service address small farmers priorities" (Hansen
1981:2). PSR has- 4 stages: (1) the diagnostic stage where the
actual farming system is examined in the context of the total
environment to identify constraints farmers face and to ascertain
the potential flexibility in the farming system in terms of
timing, slack resources etc; (2) the design of alternative
technologies stage where a range of strategies are identified
that are thought to be relevant in dealing with the constraints
delineated in the diagnostic stage; (3) the testing stage;
a few promising strategies arising from the design stage
are examined and evaluated under farm conditions to ascertain
their suitability for producing desirable and acceptable changes
in the existing FS. The strategies identified and screened
during the design and testing stage are implemented.

In Malawi, diagnostic farming systems survey have been
conducted by the Farming Systems Analysis (FSA) section of
Chitedze Research Statio..from 1981-83 in Lilongwe Rural
Development Project (LRDP) and Ntcheu in the Central Region,
Phalombe and Kawinga Rural Development Projects (PRDP, KRDP) in
the Southern Region, Chitipa Rural Development Project (CRDP)
in the Northern Region and assisted in surveying the Balaka
area in the South. Research trials were designed for Lilongwe
and Phalombe RDPs, Liwonde Agricultural Development Division
(LWADD) was assisted in designing its own trials. The Women
in Agricultural Development Project (WIADP) carried out farming
systems surveys in Phalombe RDP, Lilongwe RDP and Karonga RDP
in 1982 and assisted the FSA section and LWADD in their farming
systems surveys. Dr. M. Collinson of the Eastern Africa office
of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT)
conducted a diagnostic survey of.Ntcheu RDP in 1980. -Below is
a short description of the involvement of women in Farming
Systems Surveyswhich have been done in Malawi.

DIAGNOSTIC SURVEY WORK IN NTCHEU RDP.

Collinson (1980), LADD and the Agro-Economic Survey staff
carried out a diagnostic survey in EPA 2, 4, 7 and 8 in order to
evaluate the research and development opportunities based on
the identification of the situations and problems of Ntcheu
farmers-. No mention was made on-the findings between male and
female farmers or male and female-headed households (MHHs, FHHs)


-38-









even though Ntcheu has 38% of its household headed by women (NSSA
1982). The findings followed the detailed CIMiYT guidelines,
that is, a description of the local farming systems, food supply
and preferences, cropping calendar, cash sources and uses, crop
husbandry, resources, plus constraints and hazards faced by
.,farmers.

FARMING SYSTEMS SURVEY IN KAWINGA PROJECT OF LWADD

This survey of Kawinga Plain as reported by Hansen
(1032) was done by the FSA Section from Chitedze Research Station
and staff from LWADD. The objective of the survey was to make
recommendations for the project action. According to the
description of the five. delineated farming systems, some female
headed households were involved-or included in the survey, hence
their problems and needs had been taken into consideration
when making the recommendations. However, in the trials that
followed the survey there were no female cooperators. InFS-1,
the proportion of female headedness was higher than in the
project as a whole (35% of Kawinga's households are headed by
women -NSSA 1982). Few capital resources were used in agriculture
other than the basics: land, hoes and home-grown seeds. FS-2 was
very similar to FS-1 but sulphate of ammonia fertilizer (1-2 bags)
was being purchased every year for local maize; consequently the
households had enough maize for food. FS-3 was characterized by
high capital/credit inputs. The households were usually headed
by men who often had political positions, more formal education
more cosmopolitan experience an'1 crafts or trades that provided.
good non-agricultural incomes. FS-4 was similar to FS-1 and FS-2
in having low resources and few capital inputs, but a high
proportion of their land was dambo. There might have been a
high proportion of female headed households in the dambo/lake-
shore area as a result of 7ale emigration but it needs to be
verified by census/evaluation section. The environment promotes
rice cultivation and also opportunities for fishing. Therefore
the recommendations made for FS-1 and FS-2 would benefit many
of the female farmers (FHIIs)


O1Y.2lL'S PARTICIPATION IN FARHII1G SYSTEMS SURVEY IN KAWINGA RDP.

WIADP staff participated in a farming systems research
survey of the Kawinga plain in February 1982. As a result
of their participation, women farmers were involved i.n the
interviews and the FS identified above mention them. Women in
the area:were involved in a diversity of farming practices
ranging from intercropping of maize and dry-land rice to rainfed
schemes, maize and tobacco.


FSR.IN PHIALOMHE RDP OF T3LANTYRE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT DIVISION

(BLADD)

SAccording to NSSA data 35% of thi rural bogus holds in PhalombYh-RDP
are, headed by women, as compared with 28% for rialawi as a whole.
These women do most of the farma operations and decision-making,
hence playing a significant role to help accomplish the national
agriculture policy of increasing agricultural production. This


-33--








is the same with the women in MHH, who participate in all garden
operations and marketing activities.

Accordcinq;to Hansen et. al. (1982), the FSR started with the
diagnostic survey done by FSA section, Chitedze Research Station
and BLADD staff. The purpose of the rapid diagnostic survey was
to quickly form a synthesis of the most important relationships
among resources, constraints and enterprises and to define the
highest priority targets for action by research and development
staff. There was no mention of special women's and men's agri-
cultural production needs in the findings. According to the
needs and problems identified by WIADP staff in the same area,
some recommendations from the rapid diagnostic survey addressed
women's agricultural problems and needs especially for FHHs e.g.,
a recommendation was made to provide credit package for holding
of less than 0.4 ha...Some female cooperators (divorced, widowed
and married) were included in the maize trials that followed the
survey and therefore, some of the women's production problems
and potentials were considered.


DIAGNOSTIC SURVEY ON MAIZE TRIAL FARMERS AND THEIR SPOUSES IN PHALOMBE RDP, (BLADD)

WIADP studied the farming systems and ,labour participation
for the farmers who participated in the 198:1/82 maize trials
set up by the FSA section of Chitedze Research Station. The
objectives. ;of the survey were ,to find out: (a) farming systems
of the .trial farmers; (b), whether or not 'there were farming
systems differences between MHHs and FHHs and how 'their resources
and agriultpural knowledge related to the farming systems; (c)
intra-household differences in terms of labour division and (d)
farming problems of males and females. This survey wgs carried, out in
addition to the one done by the FSA section.


FARMING SYSTEMS SURVEY OF BULAMBIA PLAINS IN CHITIPA (KARONGA ADD.)


The Survey was done in February and June 1981 by Hansen
and some KRAFF staff. The survey followed the CIMMYT's guidelines
but there was no specific focus on women farmers. The information
was collected on "farmers".

FARMING SYSTEMS SURVEYS IN KARONGA(KRDP) OF KRADD

A farming system survey was carried out in several areas of
the KRADDin June 1982 by WIADP in cooperation with KRADD
management staff. These areas were irrigated and rainfed rice
schemes, cotton and maize schemes and off-scheme areas. The
objectives were (a) to determine general patterns of farming
systems and women's participation in these systems; (b) to study
the diversity of women in terms of crops grown, availability of
resources and labour, and access to extension services and (c) to
compare female and male household heads in terms of production
and labour requirements and access to agricultural services.
Therefore, the findings and recommendations were made which
specifically focused on women farmers and crops grown.


-40-









FARMERS' SURVEY OF STALL FEEDERS IN LRDP OF LADD


WIADP in coordination with- extension personnel in the Animal
Husbandry Section of LADD interviewed men and women farmers who
did stall feeding of steers using crop residues from October to
December 1981. The study looked :at sex differences in recruitment,
operations., renumerations and the fit of the enterprise into the
farming system.

FARMING .SYSTEMS RESEARCH IN LRDP OF -LADD-

The FS survey -was dne in- LRDP in 1981 by a team led
S .by Hansen.. No mention was made of the number of men and women
farmers interviewed and the general term "farmer" was used.
Therefore it is difficult to..know whether the findings and
recommendations also covered women.. The cn-farm research trils
on the response of local maize to fertilizer in LRDP might or
might'not have included female cooperators but there is no
mention of male and female farmers involved in the trials.


*SOYABEAN RESEARCH IN LRDP AND THIWI-LIFIDZI PROJECT OF LADD

Spring (1983)"reported that in the 1981/82 cropping
season, WIADP trained women farmers in soyabean agronomy in LRDP
and conducted farmer-managed demonstrations. This programme
.came about through the project's interest in extension training
for women. In one unit of LRDP women were taught soyabean
cookery. but not soyabean agronomy. The project studied how
female. soybean growers followed the recommendations on soybean
agronomy. as well as measuring their yields. Farmers growing
soyabeans in the Thiwi-Lifidzi project area were interviewed to
discover their experience with .the crop. As a result of the
interviews and demonstrations, a technical problem concerning
the method of inoculating the seed was identified..., As a result of
this problem, on-farm, farmer-managed trials have been set up to
compare three methods of soyabean inoculation this growing
season (1982/83). The treatments are (1) seed without inoculation;
(2) inoculum mixed with seed and (3) inoculum mixed with sand
and applied in the furrow.

The soyabean programme is intended to point out that
(a) home economics training is not sufficient for women farmers
who also need agronomic information; (b) research station
recommendations may present difficulties under smallholder
condition; (c) women farmers should be included in on-farm farmer-
managed trials; and (d) research and extension need to relate
to smallholder problems.


JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUDING RURAL WOMEN IN FSR PROGRAMME

Rural women are a heterogeneous group in terms of their
agricultural production and resources (labour',.capital and
land). There taare ;low, medium and high resources women ,farmers-
There are women who are farm managers on their own; .while others
work with their husbands.


-41 -









The low-resource farmers do not have enough land, labour
and capital. The medium-resource farmers are ones with an
average amount of land, capital and labour while high-resource
farmers are those with more land, labour and capital. It requires
farming systems research to identify the different categories
of women and men and hence make recommendations which can help
to increase their production. The women in different categories
should also be included in the on-farm farmer-managed trials so
as to assess their performance, production levels and further
analyse their farming systems. The women and men in different
categories could form different recommendation domains.

So far the FSR programme has not made special focus on
women farmers in spite of the work women do in agricultural
production. The exception has been the surveys in which WIADP
has been involved. Women have been included in farming system
surveys by chance and the information collected has not been
disaggregated by sex. The findings reported, and recommendations
made, have' focused on farmers in general.. It is difficult in
this case to know whether women's s peci r-neds have also been
taken into consideration or addressed. More men than women
have been involved in farming systems programmes e.g., in LRDP,
Phalombe RDP and Kawinga RDP surveys and trials. The roles
women play in agricultural production also justfy their inclusion
in the FSR programme. If F,31 aims to help in the increase of
Agricultural production, there is no way this objective can be
achieved if the women who do 50%-70% of agricultural operations
are left out of FSR. The technologies developed need to be
usable by the specific target group of "women", as contra's:ted.
to. the general target of farmers". Suggestions or recommenda-
tions which are made to policy makers and programme planners
need to help female farmers, especially with high number of
FHHs due to the deaths, divorces a'nd the emigration to work by
husbands. Since ?daI al.-u acs as .1::,!; between farmers and
research stations, the inclusion of '?omen in FSR programme-would
enable the women's production problems to be looked into, or
worked on by technical research staff, hence facilitating
appropriate research or appropriate technology development. As
an example, changes that could be made in research methods. in
order to increase benefits to low resource women farmers are
discussed by Smith below.



RECCi li -: C IO 5 ..

1. To begin within Adaptive Research should be done in 3 ADDs, one
in each of the 3 regions, Northern, Central and S3uithern.
At national level it is difficult to do Adaptive Research in
all ADDs because of administration and staffing problems.

2. The Adaptive Research should be carried out according to its
two main components.
(a) Diagnostic stage
(i) assembling background information
(ii) informal/E: (iii) formal survey


--..4 2 --







(b) On-farn, farmer managed trials.


So far the Farming Systems Analysis Section, Chitedze ARS
has been doing the assembling of background information,
informal survey and on-farm, farmer managed trials.

3. The surveys and on-farm farmer-managed trials should include
both men and women. The women should be in both married and
unmarried households.

4. The reports on the farmer surveys and on-farm trails should
point out the findings of both sexes.

5. The Women's Programme Officer/AWPO in the ADDs should also
participate in the Surveys and monitor that women farmers
are fairly represented in the surveys and trials.

6. The on going on-farm trials which are conducted by the ADDs
under the Research and Trials/Crops Section should also include
both men and women in equal numbers and findings should be
reported :by sex of farmers.



R E F E R E N C E S

SByerlee, Derek, Michael Collinson, et.al.
1980 ."Planning technologies appropriate to farmers: Concepts
and Procedures" CIIIMYT: Mexico pp.71.

Collinson, Micheal
1980 "Evaluation of Research and Development Opportunities
from Identification of Ntcheu Farmers' Situation and
Problems. Diagnostic Survey Work Ntcheu IRDP
Area", ralawi. pp.11.

Dillon, John, Donald Plucknett, Guys, Vallaeys, et.al.
1978 "Proceedings of the Workshop on Farming Systems
Research", Nairobi, May 29-31, pp.29 Washington
DC. USA.
1980 "Farming Systems Research at the International
Agricultural Research Centres. Analysis by
the TAC Review Team of Farming Systems Research
at CIAT, IITA, ICRISAT and IRRI",pp.66.

Hansen, Art.
1982 "Kawinga Project Farming Systems Report', USAID/UF
Agricultural Research Project, Lilongwe, Malawi. pt.23.

Hansen, Art, Emmanuel, Mwango, and Bonson Phiri
1982 "Farming Systems Research in Phalombe Project, Malawi:
Another Approach to Smallholder Research and Develop-
ment" Paper presented at the 12-14 July 1982'Conference
on Development in Malawi in 1980s; Chancellor
College, Zomba, Malawi, pp.34.
Spring, Anita
1983 "Women in Agricultural Development Project USAID/Univer-
sity of Florida" Lilongwe, Malawi. pp. 9
-"3-







C.RELEVANCE OF AGRICULTURAL STATION TRIALS TO WOMEN FARMERS
Craig Smith
The following is based on activities of various sections
at Chitedze Agricultural Research Station (A.R.S.) near Lilongwe*.
These research activities have been examined from the context
of relevance to, female farmers, particularly those with limited
financial and labour resources.. Advice has been included which
suggests brief changes in research methods to increase benefits
to low-resource women farmers. Other research stations which
focus on different crops no doubt have similar patterns of.research
activities. As such, the work done at Chitedze can be reviewed
as typical of other agriculture stations within the Department
of Research (DAR) of the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA).

GROUNDNUT AGRONOMY SECTION

The section is conducting a trial concerning the time
of planting, which utilizes several varieties of. groundnuts.
It is fairly well accepted that early planting will generally
increase.y.ieJds because of more certainmaturity before the
cessation of the rainy season. Smallholder farmers in fMalawi
often:are restricted from. early planting all crops because of an
urgency to prepare a.nd plant. other fields.. This is particularly
true ,for, women: farmers managing groundnut gardens who must. assist
their husbands. in preparing other fields, thereby delaying their
groundnut planting dates... One goal of the time of planting trials
that is consistent with many women farmers' needs is to identify
groundnut varieities which yield well when planted late.

One experiment tested yield responses to the.type, of
ridge, variety, and population. The one treatment of flat, .broad
beds is d6 p-rdont. on the use of oxen-drawn implements. Research
on flat beds holds promise for smallholders only if the use of
oxen-drawn implements increases. According to the 1980-81 NSSA
of Lilongwe RDP, only about 4% of the households are likely to
possess a plough or ridger. Therefore, a technique such.as flat
beds is not likely to be of immediate advantage to most FHHs
since it depends on ox-drawn .implements.

A more relevant experiment for women smallholder farmers
would be. to test alternate ways of increasing plant population
and ground cover. Many farmers are not able to plant the high
plant populations desired because of a shortage of seed at
planting time. Experiments attempting to maximize the amount of
seed available would benefit many women farmers facing seed
shortages. The Groundnut Agronomist mentioned it was possible
for farmers to hoe an additional ridge between the normally
spaced ridges (90 to 110cm) to give ridges spaced 60 cm apart..
Such narrow rows would permit groundnuts to achieve better ground
cover, reducing the incidence of rosette. Maize must be grown
the following year if 60 ccm -wide ridges are to be adopted by
smallholders because narrow ridges are more labour intensive
to make. by hoc. Both maize and gr-oundnut agronomy should
.coordinate, with such on-farm trials to test this rotation on
60 cm wide ridges.

*This descript;iopn focuses on th .icti7.itis highlightd at..the Chited:,.
Agricultural Res,-arch Station field day on 23 r';'trch. i93 'ad resultingg
interviews with section heads. They are viewed in the context of general
knowledge gained as an agronomist working with the Women in Agricultural
Development Project based at Chitedze Agricultural Research Station.
-44-









Groundnut research particularly relevant to- women farmers.
could involve trials on how to decrease the labour required for
planting, thereby increasing chances of early planting. An
example would be a trial to study planting groundnuts on ridges
used the previous year for maize. Trials which measure the
labour input on .soil preparation could compare several'methods
of producing riges, including partial preparation of soil the
previous growing season..

PLANT.PATHOLOGY SECTION

', A ma)or task of this section is to concentrate on the
successful application of fungicides to control diseases in-
groundnuts. Of the 11 trials described, 6 deal with fungicide
use on groundnuts. Although the section considers fungicides
a short term solution much of this research is not .a solution
for most women farmers because fungicides are only feasible for
higher income.farmers' achieving high groundnut yields.

Of the 519 households sampled in the 1980-81 NSSA of
Lilongwe RDP, 0.% used a fungicide. The majority of smallholder
farmers, i-ncluding women farmers, cannot consider the us'e of
fungicides fue to constraints of chemicals, equipment, water,
and labour. T he gross margins are positive for high groundnut
yields although thisbudget does not include a cost for labour.
Credit for fungicide packageswould increase the relevance of
fungicide trials to women farmers.

Instead of burdening the pathologist with groundnut
fungicide trials this section might provide more benefits
to female farmers by increasing advisory services to other
agricultural personnel. This includes evaluating disease
resistance and incidence within the field trials of as many
researchers as possible. This assistance to researchers should-
include outlying research stations that do not have a Pathologist.
Extension personnel and farmers presently send infected plants
for disease identification via a technician. The pathologist
would visit scattered extension centres to inspect fields for
disease incidence if transport money was available. This section
should travel with other sections which make field trips so that
disease inspections can be possible. An increase in staff time
and expenses on advisory services would necessiate a decrease
in the time and money spent on fungicide trials.

GROUNDNUT BREEDING SECTION AND ICRISAT

These two research components are both concerned with
the breeding of groundnuts, especially disease resistance, while
maintaining high yield and quality. The International Crops
Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has
introduced over 2,000 new groundnut lines and breeding populations
into Malawi with an emphasis towards the major regional disease
problems of rosette and early leafspot. Staff from the'Ground-
nut Breeding Section regularly inspect.the ICRISAT plant materials
for incorporation into the Malawi programme. Unlike some agronomic
and pathological innovations, improved groundnut varieties can
be introduced into the farming. systems of most women farmers
with no change in: equipment, cash flow or labour scheduling.


-45-








Because the benefits of such breeding research are not restricted
to progressive farmers, a new groundnut variety is very relevant
to the class of low-resource farmers which include most female
headed farm enterprises.

Plant material which has promising resistance to early
leafspot has been introduced with the CIMMYT material. Groundnut
cultivars resistant to early leafspot would eliminate the need
for the fungicides tested by the plant pathology section. A
reduction in rosette is found in the agronomic practices of early
planting and close spacing. The release of a rosette-resistant
variety would help women 'farmers who plant late and with low
populations. The present rosette-resistant lines need to
incorporate the trait of large seed size before being released
as varieties.

LIVESTOCK/PASTURE SECTION

The work of this section will be of greatest benefit
to the estate and progressive farmer sectors of agriculture
which:supply urban markets with milk and high-grade beef... The
section is proud of its replicated grazing trial which quantifies
the live-weight gain from cattle fenced within the replicated
pasture. Such research is not applicable to most female farmers
because establishing an improved pasture with rotational grazing
would require extensive fencing and would exclude the field
from maize producing. One relevant research topic is to improve
low-cos't methods df fencing, such as living hedges of thorny
or spikc&plants. More efficient cultivars and production
techniques for the Agave spp.'khonje' is an example.

An improved, fenced pasture is often a prerequisite for
smallholder dairy production, and for such progressive farmers
this research opi.m roved pasture and supplemental feeding,is
applicable,..,The pasture agronomist feels production of legumes
and grass hnyor- stall-fed dairy cows is relevant because most
homes are 'clustered along the river systems far from the fields
available for improved pastures. As a result feed must be
carried to the stalls near the village. Women are heavily involved
in supplying food, such as legume and grass hay, to stall-fed
cattle and would directly benefit from concentrations of high
quality' feed.

The section has~ recently initiated a research effort aimed
at improving smallholder sheep and poultry production. For
example, based on the 1980-81 NSSA, about 70% of women farmers
in Phalombe RDP owned chickens whereas about 14% owned cattle.
An increase in research cn poultry is of greater benefit to
more smallholder farmers than research on cattle production.
The raising of stall-fed rabbits and guinea pigs is harmonious
to the lifestyle of many women farmers who spend much time at
the household. The pasture agronomist feels that Malawi farmers
will readily consume these domesticated animals since wild
rabbits and rodents are presently hunted for food.

GENERAL AGRONOMY: GRAIN LEGUMES AND MAIZE

These agronomists are coordinating on trials which
examine maize intercropped with food legumes. Intercropping
trials are relevant to women farmers since most legumes in










Malawi are grown mixed.with another major food crop such as
maize, sorghum or cassava. Women are largely responsible
within the family structure for providing relish crops such
as the bean and groundnut intercrops. Intercropping trials.
on an agricultural research station is a reversal of the trend
in previous years in which pure-stand maize was shown to be
higher yielding and therefore recommended to small holders by
researchers. Many farmers who took maize credit packages were
obliged to follow extension recommendations, which include
omitting legume intercrops from the maize.

Maize Agronomy is conducting a trial to determine
critical periods of weeding for maximum grain yields. Such a
trial will not help change the labour scheduling which forces
many female farmers to prepare the soil for planting other fields
instead of weeding maize planted a few weeks earlier. One
anticipated trial will investigate planting maize on ridges
used the previous year. This line of reasoning is very relevant
to labour constrained women farmers because a method is being
sought to reduce the labour input needed to plant the maize
crop at the beginning of the rainy season. A main advantage
in reusing ridges would be to allow early weeding of maize
fields instead of continuing .to prepare soil for other gardens.

Maize Agronomy has been,very active in cooperating with
researchers in outlying research stations to establish trials
under farmer management., ...Farmers'-field trials should include
women as trial operatorsor. instead of primarily as wives of
male cooperators. Often the researchers instruct the husband
on how to manage the trial in the absence of the wife. When
the wife later receives directions from the husband, essential
aspects on trial management may be omitted. Presently trial
cooperators are selected at the discretion of the area extension
staff.. It is necessary for the researchers to insist on a
representative proportion of women as trial cooperators.

MAIZE BREEDING SECTION

Two primary objectives for the benefit of women farmers
should be resist tance to storage losses from insects and proper
pounding characteristics for producing the preferred white maize
meal.

The section has quantified storage ability and pounding
characteristics of maize breeding lines, although these tests.
have not been conducted every year. However, the Maize Breeder
recognizes the importance of pounding characteristics and is
improving this trait by crossing local flint types with high
yield dent maize.

This breeder believes hybrid maize would be acceptable
for home consumption if rural grinding mills would incorporate
a polishing machine to remove the bran from the starch. This
would eliminate the need for.pounding maize in a mortar, which
normally shatters the soft starch of pure dent maize.


-47 -








A preference was stated towards open-pollinated
varieties to allow small holder farmers to save seed for several
years. This objective is particularly useful to low-resource
women farmers who are risk averse to the extent of avoiding
credit packages which include commercially-produced hybrid seed.

SEED TECHNOLOGY SECTION

This unit conducts the service of testing for seed
quality in Malawi, and must certify seed to be sold in the
formal economy. The testing is usually done shortly after harvest
and the section does not investigate the quality of seed at
the time of selling. It is true the section does not have the
resources to test seed at all distribution centres when seed
is sold. However, random spot checks would be desirable to
help locate seed which may have been damaged during storage and
transportation.

A trial at Chitedze A.R.S. investigated part of this
problem by comparing machine shelled against hand shelled
groundnuts with and without fungicides. This trial substantiates
extension recommendations that farmers save their own seed
instead of purchasing machine-shelled groundnut unless the seed
is dressed with fungicide. Seed dressing of groundnuts is a
moderate form of chemical use which may be easy to adopt by
low-resource women farmers with a moderate cash income. In
particular the high oil content of ManiPintar groundnuts causes
severe germination problems unless the seed has been dressed
with fungicide.

Another trial sought to correlate the germination
of maize seed planted in the field with results from the laboratory
for the same seed. This trial is aimed at buyers of improved
maize seed which is about 11% of female-headed households and
29% of MHH according to the 1980-81 NSSA of tilongwe RDP. The
section should continue coordination with Maize Breeding to
select varieties with seed which stores well without chemical
dressings and maintains high germination percentages the following
year.

FARM MACHINERY SECTION

This section tests, modifies and invents farm machinery,
while the actual production is.done ,by agencies and factories
located elsewhere. Presently a major effort is directed toward
developing a suitable steel toolbar to which the interchangeable
implements of a plough, ridger and deeptine weeder can be
attached. More affordable designs for low-resource women farmers
are ox-drawn implements of which the main body is built of wood
fashioned by village craftsmen. Only a few joints and the main
cutting tool need be of factory-made steel, a design used
extensively in North America during the 19th Century. The
section head foresees problems of identifying village craftsmen
who would be interested in constructing the wooden elements.
To accomplish this, close cooperation is needed with the
Vocational Training Institute in Mponela to identify and train
woodworkers.


-48-









.Engineers and craftsmen in the Farm Machinery Section
have, designed a hand-operated maize sheller which has the
ability to lighten the workload of many women farmers, especially
those who assist in growing maize for sale. Similar to a
meat grinder in design, the Chitedze Maize Sheller sells for
K6.00 and has several times the efficiency of the normal method
of hand shelling maize. The machine itself appears to be an
ideal example of labour-saving technology for Malawian women.
A new marketing arrangement should allow the Chitedze Maize
Sheller to be sold in rural-growth centres, thereby greatly
increasing the number of places women can purchase this appropriate
technology.

Unlike the maize sheller, the groundnut sheller
presently available is too large and expensive for most women
farmers. Future designs of the groundnut sheller are intended
to be smaller, less expensive, and partially built of wood.
Such inventions which decrease time needed after harvest for
threshing seed would allow women farmers more time for early
garden preparation when soil is still slightly moist. The section
head is also interested in low cost wheel barrows partly built
of wood. These would help relieve many women farmers who must
carry water, wood and food.

SOIL FERTILITY AND PLANT NUTRITION SECTION

This section is conducting atrial with the objective
of long-term maintenance of soil fertility through crop rotation
and integrated nutrient supply. One rotation includes 4-years
of fallow under pasture legume after 4-years of cropping, which
is not feasible for land-scarce families who cannot afford to
allow land to lie fallow for so many years. A more relevant
strategy where land is scarce would be using a legume green-
manure as an intercrop or as a fallow once every several years.
Part of this trial involves using lime, farm-yard manure and
N-P-K fertilizers. Lime and potassium fertilizers are presently
not available to smallholder farmers, so such results could
only be applicable in the future.

A major activity of the section is the service of
chemical and physical analysis of soil and plant materials.
Of the roughly 3000 samples analyzed per year, the estate
sector and research contribute the most samples. Soil samples
from sma:ilholder farms are usually given to extension centres
S for submission to the Regional Agricultural Officer. It is
possible that problems of cost, transportation or interpretation
of'results reduce the number of soil samples collected from small
holder farmers.

HORTICU LTURE SECTION

This section was begun at Chitedze in 1981 under the
guidance of Bvumbwe A.R.S. Although research trials were
delayed until recently while awaiting for 'instructions from
BVumbwe, cultivar trials have been established for straw-
berries, mangoes, and oranges. The staff members have concentra-
ted on producing vegetables for the Chitedze Community. Except
for pumpkin leaves, the vegetables are of the European style
rather than indigenous.


-49-








Men rather than women tend to manage the dimba gardens
which produce European-style vegetables tir cash sale. Therefore,
it seems 'men will benefit more than women from the present
emphasis by the section on non-traditional vegetables. Research
on 'Impiru', amaranthus, pumpkin leaves and okra would be of
more relevance to women farmers, since women tend to produce
these traditional vegetables consumed within the home.


CONCLUSION

This analysis of the relevance of agricultural research
activities to women farmers has been limited to various: sections
of the largest research station.. However, these viewpoints
can be extended to other agricultural stations at which different
scientists are investigating other questions. One basic
assumption used here is that many women farmers on their own"
are low resource farmers. Progressive farming techniques
that are used on fields managed by the husband may not be
applied to the wife's crops due to a lack of labour and inputs.
The tnhdency'of female household heads to have less.,ormal
education and smaller holding sizes than male household heads
may be reflected in a slower adoption rate of new techniques.

Societal attitudes affect the occupational tasks
carried out by men and women within the household structure.
This can efse some'priorities within a given research programme
to be more i'mportarit to women than to men. An example: was
found in a farme2's'survey conducted by Lifuwu Rice Research
Station. it was discovered that many women farmers did not
prefer to grow early maturing varieties of rice because the
timing conflicted with their work on maize.

1. Due to the lower priority of groundnuts compared with maize
and tobacco, groundnut research needs to identify varieties
which yield .well when planted late, find techniques to
maximize low amounts of seed, and discover less labour
intensive methods of planting.

2. Plant pathology research should concentrate more on identi-
fication of disease diversity and incidence in the fields
of farmers and fellow researchers.

3. Groundnut breeding should continue to strive for new varieties
with resistance to rosette and early least spot while
maintaining high yield and large seed size.

4. Livestock research should expand on its recent experiments
with poultry and sheep and concentrate more on small
animals for smallholders.

5. Maize agronomy should continue to investigate techniques
that ease critical periods of labour shortages. On-farm
trials should include a representative proportion of women
farmers.

6. Maize breeding should continue to quantify and select for
varieties with characteristics of efficient pounding and
low insect damage during storage. They should continue
to breed open pollinated varieties so that low resource
farmers can save seed for several years.


-50-









7. All plant breeders in Malawi need to request assistance
from seed technologists to screen breeding lines for the
seed traits of high germination and insect resistance during
storage.

8. Horticultural research needs to send more efforts on
selecting more favourable cultivars and management practices
for the indigenous vegetables and fruits commonly consumed
by rural households.

9. Farm machinery researchers, factories and village craftsmen
need to cooperate to produce oxen-drawn implements fabricated
partly of wood. Continued research on threshing machines
and commodity carriers will help relieve the workload of
rural women, and allow more time for other productive tasks.

10. Research on maintaining soil fertilizer should consider the
conditions of smallholders by growing legume green manures
as intercrops and one-year fallows. The fertilizers and
soil amendments used should be in chemical forms and amounts
realistically available to low-resources farmers.



In order to be adopted, applied research must be
profitable to the target farmers with a minimum of modifications
to the existing farming systems of land, labour and capital.
Research conducted for the recommendation domain of progressive
farmers may not be appropriate for women growing crops under
low resource conditions.

To benefit both high and low resource farmers, researchers
must be aware of the advantages and problems of each target
group. Sometimes a new innovation will directly benefit both
categories, such as a new variety of an existing crop. If the
problems of poorer farmers are .not considered during the research
process, too often the results from the reeearch may not be
relevant to that recommendation, domain.


-51-






III. INCLUDING WOMEN FARtlERS II RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT PROPOSALS
A. National Rural Development Programme

In 1977 Malawi embarked on a 20 year National.Rural Develop-
ment Programme .(NRDP) to increase production in the smallholder
sector which was lagging behind the estate sector (GOM, NRDP, 1978).
The Department of Agricultural Development (DAD) was formed to be
responsible for crop and rural development, extension and training?
marketing, co-ordination, and technical services throughout the
country (GOM, NRDP, 1978:24). The country was divided into 8 Agri-
cultural Development Divisions (ADDs) at:Karonga, Mzuzu, Kasungu,
Lilongwe, Salima, Liwonde, Blantyre and Ngabu. Each ADD has 2 to
5 Rural Development Projects (RDPs) under its control. There are
40 RDPs of which 19 are funded by donors and the rest are on govern-
ment revenue funds.*

The basic unit of agricultural extension/development service
is the Extension Planning Area (EPA). An EPA is ideally'environ-
mentally uniform, with a permanent market, an office area headed by
a TQ or STA grade officer, about 10 TAs of various types, and aver-
aging...about 500 farm families (or 25,000 people). There are 180
EPAs within which are a number of smaller service centres (temporary
market, dip tank, health post and primary school). In each RDP
there are an average of 4-5 EPAs. Graduates from Bunda, (olby,
Thuchila and Mikolongwe staff the Projects and ADDs.

The objectives of NRDP are threefold:

1. To increase smallholder production, especially the pro-
duction of export cash crops and food for the urbanites.

2. To conserve National resources th-rough better crop husbandry,
conservation of .watershed areas and forests.

3. .Provide inputs and services for smallholders.

According to the programmes each RDP or development area
would go through 4 phases:

(a) a 2-3 year preparatory phase where surveys and trials data
were collected followed by physical and economic planning
and construction of staff housing, offices, and roads.

(b) a 5-year extensive phase withti improved extension and
training, marketing and supply of inputs and.credit.

(c) a 5-year intensive phase where more research.and new crops
and technologies were introduced as well as the opening
of new areas.

(d) a consolidation phase where the intensive phase would be
continued, and health, education and rural industries -would
increase (GOM, NRDP, 1978:56-7).

Baseline and labour data for development of RDPs would be
provided by Agro-Economic Surveys. Data on.yields-and crops would
come from surveys both national dnd localized. Evaluation units
were set up in the ADDs as .well as in the Planning Division (MOA).

*Figuros supplied by the Planning Division show a total of 28
RDPs, about half of which are funded and half ae n.revenus.








NRDP set up a series.of reporting formatsfbr the !RDPs. The
Monthly Report summaries data on financial control, credit and cash
sales to farmers, crop purchases, vehicle and plant use, staffing and
crop forecasts, The Quarterly Report summarizes monthly data by
quarter with brief comments from each section/component and management,
-tables of comparison between targets: and achievements. '-The Annual
Report tabulates data on project targets and achievements, evaluation
survey and research results, weather statistics, price, input, crop
and-livestock.;:statistics, and analysis of credit performance (GOM,
NRDP-I 178: Annex 3-1). :

B. The Present Level of Addressingc tomen Farmers Needs in RDP
Proposals

It is useful to examine a few RDP proposals to donors to ascertain
their objectives and whether or not (1) provisions have been made for
women as well as men as project beneficiaries and (2) if any avail-
able data on women have been incorporated into the proposals.

LRDP, Phalombe and Balaka.RDP are selected here. The first two
fare considered because information on women in these areas have been
discussed. The Balaka RDP? proposal, among the most recent and'ready
for funding, contains more information on womenthan any proposal
available.

LRDP Proposals for Phase IV 1977 (LADD)

The aim of the project over a 5-year investment period (begin-
ning 1978) would be to

a) continue agricultural extension services and staff training,

b) supply operating costs for the credit fund to continue
seasonal, medium term, stall feeder, dairy and poultry
loans for all programmes area farmers,
c) develop further specialized livestock services,

d) complete land allocation,

e) accelerate the rate of establishment of wood lobs by
smallholders,

f) continued support for Dzalanyama Randh,

g) continued function of the marketing sector.

It can be seen that a, b, and e directly affect women in particular
as they could benefit from agricultural services, increased uptake of
all types of credit and establishment of woodlots in their capacity
as :, wives and household heads (farm managers). Unfortunately, the
assumption in.th'e proposal is that women ase "farmers wives" to be
trained in home economics. 'Women are mentioned as having high
attendance at day training courses. The section on farmers benefits
stresses improvement in crop husbandry and livestock programmes but
no strategies are given. The section on forestry notes that "the
demand for timber: for domes-tic purposes w 1.1 probably incre-ase faster
than population growth" (AnRex 4) but the proposal focuses on supplying
poles for construction and,'fuel for tobacco curing, and theer-efore-
f.ocuses :on men.; :Women's responsibility for :fuelwood is no t mentioned.
The credit figures do not--'show any sex-desaggregated figure s. Specific
problems with groundnut yields are noted, but women's invordlvement with
the crop is not noted.









Phalombe RDP Proposals 1975 and 1977 (BLADD)


The Phaloribe RD? proposal for June 1975 does provide sex ratios
for the, area (they are as lo as 4; males to 100 females in some areas)
Hevertheless the unit that the development project aims is the family
concistinl of husband, wife and children. The report states that the
woitin is 'in charge of food crops while tlho a-:n is in ,charge of cash
cross and the basic source of labour is the husband and wife. The
husband is counted as one man unit while the wife counts as .7 man
unit. Po Troject services or programmes take into account that so
malny\ .?en are away and many households are headed by women. Women are
mentionedd as contributing labour to the pi'ed water project. The
1 ,77 roC .osal makes no mention of womene. The unit of development,
once again, is the farm family husband( -7ife and children.

It,.should be pointed out that other LDPs prep ared in the 1970s
are similar to the LRDP and Phalombe RDP proposals. These proposals
have little or no background data on women nor is their involvement
in ,,rocrammes specified. No mention is made of their needs, strategies
for ra~chin3- them (except for training in ho:!e economics and need for
one Hji as for each EPA) or targets for procrarnmes. The only reference
to ,women is their need for training in horae economics and the need
for one FHA to staff each EPA.

i klaka RIDP (L.,T DD)

By contrast with the RDPs prepared in the 1970s, the Balaka
RDP -roposal has a section on Homen's Prorgrar's. It differs from many
RPL? proposals in that it provides a considerable amount of socio-
econom ic background data, some: of which is six disaggregatd.,. Also
unique is that the strategies for some cf the programmes are specified.
H)otice is taken of the lo:w sex ratio (380 males to 1000 females) and
the fact that .2 percent of all households are headed by women. It
is noted that these FHihave limited labour supply as -well as smaller
holding size. Recognition is given to the fact that 50 percent of the
food deficient households are headed by women.

:'; Under Basic Ag9ricultural Services is a section on Women'
Pro-?ranmies which is given here in its entirety.


"WT'omens Programmes
Niore than 40% of all households in the Balaka RDP are headed by
Women, hence training of the mostly male extension field staff
will have to take due account of the particular circumstances
resulting from this situation.
In particular the common perception of specifically women-
related programmes has been reconsidered in view of the fact
that the decision-making power oi what crops and how they are
to be grown rests with women in the major part of the target
population. Hence in organizing extension groups at the
village level women specialist staff (still called "Farm
Home Assistants" (FHA) will beco.-e more closely involved than
in the nast. Each EPA has one TFHA staff whose activities are
prepared by a specialist women's procraimmes officer at MU
level. Apart froim this shift in emphasis the FHAs still will
devote about half of their time to provide social extension
advice on matters directly related to the household. In this
res-pe.t each FH7, will establish four fWomen groups and provide
a .vice on crop storage, nutrition and other household-related
issues. In particular wo;imen groups will be trained on agri-









cultural activities which can serve both, generating additional
income to the household and improve daily diet. These prograrmmes
will concentrate on vegetable and fruit production, poultry
for either hone consumption or salee" (page

There is a ;ood recognition of fact th"-t more than 40 perce~r
of households are female headed'.and t'.hat na.al exte-nsio-n--sCtff 'will
have to take this into account. The str ate for dealing with rur;.l
fwo.'ien suggested howTever, is that the .lih.. >ill become more closely
involved i.ni extension groups, each est Abl ish:ing 4 women's groups --which
will concentr at. on vegetable anC oultrvy o.rorduction. This stratceav
has been offered by the Iomen's sPrograrmmes in other areas; it is n.ot
newv nor very effective. Some reasons are:

.1. FHAs are fe'.7 and rural ionen -ve many., There are 163 FPH .s
for the entire country. Ealaka has 3 of them and hopes to
get another for ite. 4 EPIs.

2. FHA r have had little training in these topics and many
haven't taught the subjects or don't teach them regularly.
(See Part !I, i.nnex : on : Hs.n

3.. The focus on vegetable and ;-oultr, production has its origin
in. a), the western model of far.,crs' wives keeping kitchen
gar cens and chickens, and b) thec ilalawian concern with
be ,tter .nutrition.

However, in all the years of e:p'hasizing these agricultural
aspects to rural women who are responsible for field crops,
not too maany women have grown the exotic (European)
vegetables that have been promoted. Some reasons are that
i1en more than women have access to da'bo land and can do
garden fencingr and loIns for poultry production have
favored men as vell. Rural woman are used to indigenous
:vegetables which are often 'volunteer" crops.

ven if the main agricultural emphasis for women were to be on
vegetables, and poultry production," a serious strategy would have
some of the' following aspects..

General 2.
1. Trainers would be many and include inale workers as well as
the few PHAs.

2. Training Centres would have poultry units and demonstration
gardens with local vegetables e. ;.; Tonongqe, Mrhiru)
and European vegetables (e.g. tcm-toesonions) in which
improved practices would be demonstrated.
3. Recruitment of women to the prograw.,ie would have be be wider
basis than the few women's groups.
T*'"his strategy fails to ta-;e into account that women's main interest
is in rowingg field crops for a staple foo. supply and cash income.









4. Local leaders and village heac'-'-n would have to be contacted
and theo help obtained in tellin. wom-oen about the programme.
In addition, suitable land for growin! vegetables would
neci to bee ndo available by villa(:o headmen.

V eta ble Production

5. Trainers of rural women would have the correct technical
information and inputs both on exotic and indigenous
vegt:ables in terms of nursery ire a.ration, seed rates
and spacing, fertilizer and water requirements, etc.

{. Trainers could teach fencing methods,

7. Problems of obtaining water for vetetab hle.garcens would be
addressed. iater run o If froi boreholds and taps could be
.utilized. Vater pum.s and water collection systems need
to bo devised.

0. Trainers could instruct rural w -:en on marketing and pricing
procedures, gross margins, etc., for various vea..iablea.

Poultry

?. Regular programmes for purchasing; improved breeds and obtain-
ing vaccines would be part of the emphasis on poultry.

10. Trainers would have the technical information on breeds,
housing and feeding requirements, vaccines, costs and prices
(gross margins), etc.

Considering strategies offered in the proposal for reaching
farmers, the basic extension technique relies on TAs making regular
contact with farmers. The farmers are to

-participate in decision making-through the promotion of farmers
committees at section, EPA, project and the iManagement Unit (MU)
levels.
--be assisted in forming farmers groups a.s multipurpose develop-
ment clubs with the final objective of transforming all groups
into clubs.

The extension service is provided only to farmers groups on a regular
fortniCh tly sequence and is mainly concerned with crop husbandry
practices which are part of the systeIm. Re)resentatives.-of groups and
clubs are well trained on a rocular basis.

The basic str.tegy is a sound one, but as specified the main
participants will be men because:

1. ien are committee members. (i[ost cor:Aittees have one women's
representative at best).

2. Farmer group/club members are primarily men.

3. Group and club leaders who will receive the training will
mostly be men.

4. The Responsibility for rural women .ill still rest with FHAs
who are supposed to concentrate on poultry and vegetables.









Other asp..ects of the Project Strategies and Programmes include
the followingn. HWet to each one arc suggestions as tol how women coul
be reached by the proqramme.

1. te ater rograncmaes,: In addition to obtaining local leaders
ol.inions, -:women (',who are re.s',n _ibl~ for the household
supply) need to be queri.e Thev should also be taught
simple maintancnce and o laced on water coomi ttees.

2. La nd. o'-i.bandry_ The lack of kn-wled'e of r-idge ali,:jnment
fcllo:'.inc contours is wide s-reaZ a c ;' nc; n women but the
targets for remedying the situation are existing clubs/
group~ which contain prina-r.ily on. cFr ex aple, wives
of male members should be tarcg:ete for participation.

3. fReforestat.ion: ,iothods; of how. to reach women .;ho are re-
ssconsible for fuelwood a:re not consi-dered. Once the
n(echanis.,'ss for miale staff reaching female farmers are worked:(
out; thon pro.grammes can succeed in targeting women.

4. Credit Prorai.ines Tend to focus on cotton growers. Al-
though the percentage of female cotton growers is not hiAhr
women should be encouraged to take UVL srrayers and oxen
on medium term credit. Special seasonal packages of irm-
proved soghum and fertilizer by itself will be more useful
to women. However, women must be in farmer groups/clubs
to receive credit and the mechanisms for increasing their
participation .are not stated.

5. Liestock Proqrammines: oionen on their own and married women
lhiose husbands own cattle w.,ill nee," oiviee. Once again this
relaotes'to extension methoo-; for reaching women.

.Pl-ant Protectioun: The report intentions the low standards of
knowledge on plant protection. TJo.ion usually have little
knowledge and training courses (even the home economics
ones) should cover this tooic.

7. Cassava Project to offer mosaic resistant varieties should
concentrate on jetting the seed material to women who are
responsible for the croo.

8. _'inor Cash Crops sesamer sunflower, caster seed) are good
crops to target for introduction to women.

9. Trials: r Harried women and FHAs should p-.rticipate in on
farm trials. Constraints to their production as well as
their skills may be appreciated.

10_._ monitor irng and Evaluat ion: In order to assess the impact
of the project t on women as well as men, internal reporting








and survey for:Mats are listed. T'.h internal formats should
collect information on the number of men and women partici-
natina. The survey formats need to disaggrenate data by
sex of household head aq is alrc:: done for some of the
variables.

a. Internal Peporting For ats

1) Daily Diary. List mTeen and "'omeen in clubs and
participating in activities.

2) Ulendo Programme ForEn. TList men and 'women
contacted.

3) Fortnightly Record. Por '.1. List club members,
members traincO, and aocction by farmers in terms
of m;en anO '; women.

4) Extension Record for EPAs. List number of club/
oroup members and Carmicor attending training as
oell as percentage of farcers attending in terms
of i:men and 'o;r'en.

5) Extension Record by Project. List number of members
in clubs/groups and actually attending training
as well as percentnagovQ o7 farmers attending in
terms of rmn and women.


C. Guidelines for RDP Proposals: AddressiJg Prog;rammes to Rural Women

!hat should be included in the :rc.:osaal so that ,women can be tarc;eted
and their participationn monitored?

The following lists the backgrc'un,'/baseiine data that would be useful
in planning programmes. It is realized that not all of the items listed are
available for inclusion because the .dat. has not been collected. H-' aever
if the data has been collected or available,. bu. not analyzed by sex of house-
hold head o:: by men and onen n ten it sM.iul.. be analyzed to obtain the
necessary information. Much of the information (yields, cropping patterns,
t FHH;s, livestock ownership, etc.) is available frc:m the NSSA and labour
caita froN. AES can also be used.

Tackgroung/ i; .i.ne Da ta

1. De.o.,raphic cata
Sex ratios
% FiHRs (% married and unmarried)
Average family size (for NMHHs and FFHs)
School education by sex.

2. Holding size by sex of HH

3. Yields by crop and six of IH

4. Livestock ow:nershi; by type of animal and :ex of HH

5. Cropping patterns of "HHs and FHHs

5. Basic social organization and division of labour by sex









7. !2n estimation of increased labour require:,;nts of nen and wiromen as a
result of development *:.rc-ir-'*,-.

n. Land tenure patterns.

9. Cultivation -?ractices of men rand 'ocen l. nd/or r-IHHs and FHHs
-.improved techniques and varieties
-fertilizer usage
-cultural practices; sracinc, ,.eedsaing

10. Income from agricultural and non--a;ricultural pursuits by sex.

11. Extension staff by grade and sex
-Ratio male staff/farmers
-ratio femalle sta.ff/farmers

Baseline Data on Project Services

iany RDPs coming up for rene :hmvea hnd sorie extension services/
activities onerating already. Where this is the case the following additional
baseline data should be included in the -,r:::osal.

1. 'Number of men and women in farmers' clubs

2. Number of men and women in farmers' seasonal credit p~rocrammes.

3. Number of men and women in farmers' medium term- credit progra.nnes.

4. Number of men and women in farrers' stallfeeder orograim'es.

5. iNumber of men and women in farmers' dairy programs.

6. Number of men and women in farmers:' oultry arogrammes

7. Types of credit -.:ich;. c; taken by w-omen and men.

8. Number of women in women's groups.

9. Training Centre figures by type of course an- sex of participants.

10. Extension contacts to farmers by ty e ancd sex of farmer.
-Visits
-Meetings
-Attendance at demonstrations
-Field days, tours

11. Staff training by sex and type.

12. Land husbandry and farm planning exercises by sex of participants.

Development Constraints

Most RDPs assess various constr,:.:ints in the households to be, targeted.
Assessment of the following aspects slouldr indicate the differential effects on mTen
and women as individuals, household, members and household heads.









1. water sunp-ly


2. firewood suply

3. typos of households (by income categories, holding size,
cropwing *:-.t.rl ) that ca.n itilizo the standardized
S-packages, those that cannot and the reasons,


.Laaour constraints
-peak ti-es
-househoilds that hire labour
, -househol's th-it sell labour


(-.ce.. ork and contract)
(piece -work and contract)


5. croy )robltems-,
-soils ;.-,
,--referre': patterns


Core Components of RDPs .. ...

Most RDPs in Hala.ai have similar basic cc ,ln.-l.t. These include
inirastr.uucure, erop :and, .li Gctock .proc;:.ranneos, extension a-rnd crc-.li services,
etc, .Differenoes betweene. one: rovpxos:! rdi; .the.neet rest with how th' nature
an hic conditions and situational constraints of the particular area
ar:e fitted in to the components. The skill, utilization of background d;.ta,
creativity of the *.rc;---:'Il writers affect its -com!osition,. The follo'ihn.- dis-
cusses each conmonent in terms of how wcmen mry,/ be affected and target as
beneficiaries. The components* are: .

1.. .Basic Agricultural Extension aorvices

2. Land !Hur--.-r. .


:ni:mal Husbandry and Liveotocak Developmrmont


4. Crop Production and Protection ,. ,

5. Agricultural Credit

+. Forestry

7, -tcr Supply

8. 1tjcen'-s .Progrnames

9, 59utri tion**

10. budgett









*The Balaka TDP proposal serves ;s a noodc guide to -'r-ject components.

**This has .not been a com)-onent, but it should be.






Basic Agricultural Extension Services


1. Extension services are provided to farmers in clubs/groups, there-
fore women must be members to receive assistance. Strategies to
include them should be specified. So:!;: :cuggestions area

a) campaigns by extension workers toget women into existing clubs,

b) use of problem solving methodology (see Part II, Annex 4) to
form women into groups,

c) use of local leaders to encourage participation,

d) special leadership training for women, etc.

2. Farmer committees to be formed, should include several women, not
just a women's representative.

3. Development officers must monitor extension staffs contacts with
women as well as men. Reporting formats must give extension contacts
by men and women.

4. Training programmes must increase training for women in general
agriculture. Topics may be combined with home economics but should
include aspects of farming in which women are involved. (See above
discussion on vegetables and poultry production). Improved
methods and varieties should be promoted. At least 30% of places
in agricultural courses should be reserved for women. There must
be new recruitment strategies to get women into these courses.
Use of traditional and non-traditional leaders, husbands and male
relatives, direct contacts, women s groups (of FIAs and HCHs),
media campaigns, etc.

5. In-service training for staff, male and female staff should attend
regular in-service training and staff meetings together, receive written
materials and be assisted by SMSs at various levels.

Land Husbandry (See Annual Ttork Plan below?)

Proposals should note:

1. That Women's Programmes staff and women's groups can be provided
with land use planning.

2. FHAs and female FAs should be included in staff training on land
husbandry.

3. mechanisms for recruiting woaen farmers for catchment
conservation and soil conservation measures on individual plots.

4. Targets ..... for male and female household heads partici
nation in construction of physical structures such as bunds, water-
ways, etc.

Animal Husbandry (See Annual 'Pork Plan)

1. Targets should be set for women as well as men in livestock pro-
grammes (stallfeeders, dairy, poultry) and training (ox-ploughing).

2. olechanismns for recruiting women as well as men in livestock pro--
grammes should be specified.





3. iomen farmers (FHHs) who own cattle and are willing to improve
their herd should also be included on the annual health drugs
budget.

4. There should be a mention ~is t: h-;,i !-.section is going to increase
the number of women obtaining steers, dairy animals and oxen on
credit and the funds:required.

5. Number of women (rural women and female staff) to be included in
the special animal husbandry courses, e.o.p stallfeeding, dairy,
should be targeted. Mechanisms for recruiting the women should be
stated

5. If ox-training is part of the ADDs Animal Hfusbandry Programme, the
number of women to be trained and issued oxen should be targeted.

Crop Production and Protroction

1. Programmes 'of introducing major an,! minor cash crops as ell
as fruits and vegetables must specify how they will reach women
as well as men.

2. Pilot projects might target certain crops for emphasis by women,
e.g., green grams, wheat.

3. Crop protection problems that men and women face should be.identified
and mentioned in all proposals.

4. :Mechanisms for making women more aware of the crop protection
measures need 'to be specified. ,

5. FHAs and female TAs as well as themale staff, should be included
in the training budget on special crop production and protection
courses.

6. Both men and women should participate in the trials and the% section';
special courses.

Agricultural Credit (See Annual Work Plan)

1. More women need to be included in groups/clubs because this is
the way seasonal credit is issued to farmers. Strategies for
increasing women's participation in the clubs/groups should be
clearly indicated. (See work plans below).

2. The types of packages and numbers of farmers by sex should be
monitored.

3. If special credit/saving scheme programmes are-one of the ADDs
pilot projects, it should be included in proposals .

4. Strategies by which project staff -.:ill help women participate
more in the credit programmes and should be given ways for making
women more aware that they have access to seasonal and medium tern:-
credit should be indicated.

5. There should be special targeting of female high resource farmers
for ox-carts and farra implements.

6. Pilot projects that aim at providing seasonal- credit inputs to
wonen on a no-waiting period basis (as is being done in:Phalombe,
women's groups are formed and villaGeaheadmen vouch for women's
reliability) should be written into proposals.







7. Similarily, pilot projects on such packages as improved varieties
of sorghum and millet and other crops grown more by women than
men could be directed to women.

8. To increase food selisufficiency, small credit packages of ground-
nut seed (17.5 kg.) and 1-2 bags of fertilizer could be offered.

Forestry

1. The proposals should mention women's groups as one of the target
groups to be encouraged to grow trees for fuel wood and poles on a
communal basis. Strategies for doing this should be indicated.

2. Mechanisms as to .how rural women (min users of wood) are to be
encouraged to attend afforestation courses or get involved in
afforestation programs, e.g., conservation of old forests, pro-
tection of soil and water supplies, production or timber, etc., should
be specified.

3. The section should propose a pilot project which would enable more
FHHs to establish woodlots.

4. A programme to teach women to raise their own seedlingsand to
plant trees around the house could be started.

5. The reports of;,the section need to be disaggregated by sex to
identify activities in which women's participation is low. Such
activities should be brought up in the proposals for further
action.

Uater Supply

1. Location and type of water supplies should be dependent on women's
requirements. Location wherever possible should be selected on
women's preferences as well as density mapping and technical con-
siderations. How the planners will obtain women's views should be
specified.

2. Women as .,ell as men should be involved in the self-help aspects of
putting in water supplies, i.e., they can help in digging trenches,
laying pipes, etc., in order to understand the operation of the su-pp-ly

3. Both men and women should be trained in simple maintenance of the
water system, e.g., coreholes, water taps, etc.

4. Maintenance committees should be .composed primarily of women because
they are the utilizers of the system.

7omen's Programmes (See Part II, Pr ioritihsfor 7omen's Programmes)

Nutrition

1. Assessment of the situation should be included in background data if
possible. Otherwise it should be part of the Project's programme.

2. Field staff must be trained in interviewing people to obtain nutrition
information on
-seasonal availability of food
-blocks in the food chain
and in delivering nutrition demonstrations and working with feeding
programs.







3. Training sections should be supplied /l'ith adequate nutrition infor-
mation, e.g., nutrition education training packs of the Food and
Nutrition Programme/(these are costly and should be budgeted for).
Section
4. Food and Nutrition Programmes Section should prepare a coordinated
package that could be utilized in RDP proposals.


Budget


1. Extra funds for women's credit involvement (seasonal, medium term).

2. Funds for statioriry equipment, housing, etc., for female staff.


3. Transport for T .omen's Programmes
and PHAs.


-tion (vehicles) and scooters for SFRAs


4. Funds for pilot projects involving wo-i,~en must be budgeted.









IV. PROJECT SERVICESS -TO RURAL 'OMEn

A. The Present Situation

The following 1:.:, ,ct- of cevclo I.ent .ro.- rammes depend on.the exten-
nion services inputs, credit, training, o-rgni-zation of clubs and groups,
former--.Ianagt' trials, lan-' husbandry and farm planningg services, livestock
,rograrmes, crop protection oroc'ramnies; forestry -nd collection of data on
farmers -participation in programimeos. Therefor- the policies an -ichanisnms
set up for the extension personnel getting in r o.:;:i:;cct rith farmers and recruiting
tnem for prcgrammes;:and (2) the extcnsicn .irsonnel cutting correct technical
information to give to far.;iers are critical for the success of progrrammees.

Inforr.ation froi" all over Africa -and irllavi .. ell sho.. that
the extension staff is predominately !ale. In h'i alai there are about 1,900
.male and 190 freale extension workers or i ten-.fold difference. Yet at le!st
lalf .id usually more of the farmers are fer-ale. The female farn managers in
c"alaui comnrises an average 30% of househr'l'.s.

Uncerstanndably, mnale workers se k, out iiale farmers, organizing;
recruiting an', offering project services to them primarily, even though agents
are cu. n -: to work with "fa.rmners." The result is that ,women are under re-re-
sented in extension programmes and farmers organizations. Often it is assu:med
th.'t if husbands a.:e rained, cr assisted it is sufficient for the family. As
the information shows today married women i. tom.iorrou's FHHs and the "trickle
dlown" effect does not vwor!-. as well ;as one ,ou.!' k like it to in that husbands
do not .-ass on as much information as develc;-ient ',-nners would like them to.

r ec.uso of this hiast t is necessary to specify specific mechanisms
and strategies and to set targets for inclu'!in. wc'maen. The absence of
specifying these things means no one is required or responsible for involving
'women and : their participation is on an .d hoc basis only. Sometimes
services reach them and other times they do not. The following documents
the extent of women's involvement in extension contacts, credit programmes Ea-n
trainin-'.. an N o data was availablee concerning their partici-
pation in land husbandry and' far' planning services, crop protection progra-mmees*
or afforestation.



*~-o surveys exist on farmers participation in cro protection programmes.
However, WIADP asked male enumerators about ie:..lo extension workers contacts
with women. Almost all agreed that women were contacted very little in any
worm control programmes. Queries to farmers revealed that women had much
less information on crop diseases and pest anrd their control than nen. FI.s
mentioned their own lack of technical information in this field.









General Extension Activities


Farmers contacts with extension workers (personal and field visits, group
meetings, demonstrations) and Extension Aids programmes (radio programmes,
cinema and puppet shows) were quarried in the Extension Survey of the NSSA. i
In addition to the sources of advice and types of contacts, farmers were
asked about the topics on which they received advice. Data from two RDPs
(Lilongwe and Phalombe) and two ADDe (Karonga end Ngabu) are compared here as
these data are disaggregated by sex*.

In both Lilongwe RDP and Ngabu ADD data on MHHs, their wives and FHHs
were tabulated separately. In phalombe RDP the Evaluation Unit tabulated both
male and female household heads together, and wives of MHHs were tabulated
separately. In Karonga ADD the wives of MHHs and FHHs were tabulated together
due to the low number of FHHs in the Extension Survey.

The data on the sources of advice for the major extension topics, shows
that extension workers are the major source of advice for both mon and women
farmers. Apparently more of the advice given to men comes from extension
workers compared with women. Except in Phalombe RDP women appear to receive
slightly more of their topics from other farmers and friends, as seen by the data
from LRDP and KRADD (Table 21).

In most cases for both men and women little agricultural advice was
derived from yellow-van puppets or cinema shows, traditional or party leaders
and agricultural shows. Training courses were an important source of advice for
both men (180) and women (20%) in Karonga ADD.

Table 22 shows the proportion of respondents who were contacted by extension
agents. More men than women receive personal visits by extension workers.
In LRDP 41% of FHHs were personally contacted compared with 28% of their
wives and 23% of FHHs. In Ngabu ADD the personal contacts were lower

Twenty eight percent of MHHs versus 12% and 4% of wives and FHHs in Karonga
ADD 44/ of male heads and 29% of women respondents wore contacted personally.

Group meetings tend to reach more farmers than personal contacts, although
women may not benefit as much as men. In the three areas shown at least 15%
more men were contacted by meetings compared with personal visits (Table 22 ),
Only in LRDP did women benefit considerably more by meetings than personal
visits. However, more men always attend such gatherings. In LRDP 66% of male heads
were contacted by group meetings, compared with .44% of their wives and 49%
of FHHs. The overall,:attendance was lower-in NADD where 43% of MHHs, 12% of
wives but only 8% of FHHs attended meetings. Only half as many women as men
were included in KRADD with 61% of malf heads and 34% of wives and female heads
contacted through meetings.

Relatively few mal or female farmers visited extension demonstrations.
Although the differences were very small, slightly more men than women learned
through this method. Field visits also reached a smaller proportion of farmers
than personal visits or group meetings, although women appear to be
contacted less than men. One reason may be that nearby women are not
summoned to listen as the extension agent instructs the men he finds working
in the field. -In LRDP 13% of the MHHs were visited in the field compared with
9% of wives and 6% of FHHs visited in the field. Similarly in KRADD 16% of
MHHs and 4% of wives andFHHs received field visits.

WIADP disaggregated the KRADD and LRDPsurvoys and the Evaluation Units of
. l BLADD and NADD disaggregatec/phalombe and NADD surveys.
the





r riena
Par ty Leader
T ".'iditional
Leader
-Sxtension Worker
-'-. .ii r: CoursO
Y'fdio '.;:,-. .
Yx i ;..:'.V_ .'.
Cinema
Agricultural .'..:,
P.. -['...v- Van
Puppets
Other Sources.


1.);. L %,


9
aso


43 "o


11
48,


1C


9%?


99


00)


3
3





7


2
1 2


9 o 6

"! 100
^ ^.Y~~--y


32


"Other Sources includes rr. .itional ad Party Leaders, Za Achikuwbi and ,l-'-I:..u,
,Includes Extension eWrker and Rdjc n.-:.,:-.7;..r:-
ot tabulated.
+Male llousehold lis;ahold Heads (T-;^:f their wives and Female fos.i;:.ld Head (FiHH) tabulated
separately for Lilongwe Rurual -.l.-ile-pent .-:ject (InfJP)
++MHHs and FYiHs tabulated L : 'La e i;f.-. Wives of M-HHa in jhl..ro RDP (PRDP).
':li. tabulated separately frl.. Fiis afd Wives of MH~i in .:--A Agricultural Devel...-:;t Division (KHADI4


1: '


-~"~""~~"~"~~~I"`-"~'--~" ~-~- ~--^~x~-~~ ----------------------------


A I te i'M fl;~7----~- r


TABLE 21: SOUCFS OF ADVICE ON ;T. STO" TOFIS FRO' THR-E' ARs F TE SS.

LDP----- : *--P.PRDP+, -....-- -.--.r ADD+++ +-----*
SOURCE O lUI WIVBS' FHH : M1 + FHll IVES ;,t 1 I :;:,'V
ADVICE (a=147) (n=35) (-1=77) (n2?77) (n-=42) (n- 70) (n73)

.. ... .... ...---- -.. ..---- 1 Tp ic 1

Other Fairer/ 5 9 4 13 14 .2 19


ai/r;~sr IYUa








TABLE 22: TYPE OF CONTACT FROM EXT'SION AGENTS TO HOUSEHOLD HEADS AND WIVES OF THE 1980-81 NSSA.


(MHHn= WiV)
(n=14?) (nl35)


Fn35)
(n=35)


-----NADD*------------
Min UIVEZS FMl
(n=95) (n=95 ) (nU=31)


----KRADD --
IHH FMir;lWIVES
(n=70) (n=73)


--~-----------*-"-% 'Rcc~l~s-.piici Cstadtaefe-------.--~.-----*-"-"""" *"*.,,.


Personal Visit 41 28 23 28 12 4 44 29
Group F,..i,; 66 44 49 43 22 8 61 34
Demonstration 13 6 6 5 1 0 16 10
Field Visit 13 9 6 15 5 2 16 4

'Male ;4.u.hc.d Heads (tKs), their Wives and Female Household Heads (FHIs) tabulated
separately for Lilongwe Rural Development Project (LRDP) and '-.Ea: Agricultural
Devew.lop,r,.::i Division (NADD).


'*MHs tabulated separately from FlHHs and Wives of MHHis for Kr.z--n. ADD (KRADD).


TYPE OF
SCOr'TAC-














1980-81 NSSA A AS WHO i7L.(-1:iD ADVICE ON ..T"L 1 TO'PICA


EXTE'NSIONl


- Y IIIIWY~Y II~Ly-~ULW-~-I~ ~ n~I -L-*-CI-- I~1I ~-- II MAILlV tI1'II


% Received Advice


Land Husbandry

Animal Husbandry

Crop c;ai :l




Credit

'. i .-.,_age

Agricultural Show

atrver Clubs

Training

Home Economics

Sarple Size


"S: rate tabulations for Male Household

**MHK and FHI tabulated together whereas


Heads (MBH' ) their wives, and


Female Household Heads (FHH' ).


the wives of EtP: tabulated separately


***MHH tabulated separately whereas FHH ani the wives of MHIH abuu-..:c together.


61

42

.6

25

47

64

31

29

32

34

25

147


28

18

47

22

14

33

19

12

i3

15

39

135


RE SPO1DOENT --- F'CU


- ---------


II~LIIYII-UIIII 1-l1---1- II~


-I ~U--IL---IIIPlp----- -~I~ _~yglpm~yigUUli~-(l~l--i


liUI-


~YI--~,~ .~ .1. _~~_~~~~ _~~_~


TABLE 'jS3:5 PEDRC:N i;.CEL OF


RI~ST(3~ciiE~iTS FFI~/I F'13T14


C'b


fEEXI-I: W~i~up


N:iB: i~ivo~3 PA1-2~


MLH Wives ,.







TABLE 24: AVlf AGE NUMBER OF .'". : 'r ,-''T r.O' ?",o.. ^i.


. EXTENSION
AREA




L i.'. '- RD?
Phaleibe :., .
.Karonga ADD
e-h bu ADD


------HOUSEBOLD ,. ',r I.!. -__ ---.-..-

'O. \ OF F .ALE
H AD .r..


2.2

3
1.4
2.2 -


2.6
18
5*0
1,1


4.5


35.9
3 0


Il--~--"~~l""~'-~n~wl~. i _~


.-------- ~,....:






on
Tho respondents were asked/which of eleven major extension topics they
had received advice (Table 23). For most topics (except home economics)
MHHs received-more advice than wives or FHHs,

Crop Husbandry was the most commonly taught subject for both men and women
although.wives received less advice than household heads. The difference in
Crop Husbandry advice between male and female household heads in LRDP was not
vast'76% versus 63%.) although wives were contacted much loss (47%) than their
husbands. The wives in BLADD received much loss advice on Crop Husbandry
(11%) than both FHHs and MHHs. Large differences, were found in NADD Jhero
62% of mal.oand 41% of female household heads received advice compared
ith only 22% of wives.

Only small differences were found between men and women for advice on
vegetable growing. This could be because this subject is heavily emphasized
by female extension agents. In LRDP 22% of female heads and wives learn vegetable
growing compared with 25% of female household heads. For Phalombo RDP 29%
of household heads learned this subject versus 12/ of wives. The differences
in KRADD and NADD were smaller. Land Husbandry and Agricultural Credit
are two commonly taught subjects for which women tended to receive less
instruction than men. IN LRDP about half as many female heads and wives
(34% and 28%) learned Land Husbandry compared with male household heads (61%).
The gap was wider in Phalombo RDP with 11% of wives and 52% of male and female
households heads learning about the subject. Only 34% of the women and 59%
of the men surveyed in KRADD learned this subject. In NADD3and.FHHs were
similar (45% and 42% respectively) compared with only 20% of the wives.

Wives tended to receive about half the instruction on credit as their
husbands. This may be due to beliefs that the household head should be responsible
for credit within the family. In LRDP only about half the proportion of
wives (33%) learned about credit as their husbands (64%), while FHHs were more
aware 3 Asilr trend is scn in NAD (" .
FHHs and in"'KnRAD PFHHsond wivs -versus Hs* HHHs 11 of wives and 26% of
Home Economics was the one topic in which more iJmen than men received
advice. In LRDP 25% and 26% of male and female household heads wore
taught home economics versus 39% of wives. In KRADD 29% of the women but only
9% of the men learned this topic. In NADD home economics was taught to
26% of female household heads and 14% of wives but only 2% of male heads.

For all extension areas the average number of extension topics was more
for men than women (Table 24 ) The average man received advice on more topics
than the wife by 70% in LRDP, 120% in Phalombe RDP, 60% in KRADD and 170%
in NADD. This data provides some evidence of the poor success of the trickle-
down effect" %hereby husbands are supposed to inform their wives after learning
a new agricultural concept,


Training

Farmers training takes place at Day and Residential Training Centres
(DTCs,RTCs), Farm Institutes (FIs) as well as in farmers clubs and woments
group's. The Syllabus for Farmer Training at DTCs, RTCs and FLs is being used by
many training centres. The Syllabus provides courses on Agriculture and
Home Economics. An analysis of the Syllabus (see Section on Women's Programme)
shows that DTCs have 25%, RTCs have 22%, and FIs have 16% agriculture in
their home economics courses for women. Women are eligible for both Home
Economics and Agricultural courses. :

Generally, more women than men attend courses at training centros but fewer
women than men participate in agricultural courses. The National policy for
Women's Programmes set up in 1901 targeted at least 30% of the places in
agricultural courses for woman (part II, Annex 1). However, more men than women
71







are trained in agriculture because of the following reasonsz-


1. extensioh workers.nnd local leaders tend to recruit men rather .than
women,.
2. husbands.chose to go for the courses themesolves.radther than sending
their wives,:

3. some women farmers prefer home economics to agricultural courses because
that is. uha,t they.-have been exposed to for a long time. ''But where the
initiative has beenc t;i'n to offer agricultural traiining to women, they
have jnprcci..tqed the" course and adopted the improvements at a rate
similar to male farmers.) .


Instruction takes place in the clubs and groups as well but fewer women than
men are in agricultural farmers clubs and groups (dairy, stall feeding, posture
management). This is because men have dominated the clubs and.groups for
long and hence many women have been made to believe that they are for men.
(Encouraging women to join the clubs and groups is under way in some areas),
Women in women's groups are primarily taught by FHAs, DAs and female TAs who
teach mostly home economics.: Although generally women receive less training
on agriculture than home economics, the type they receive varies from area to
area. Some women receive more agricultural training than others because they
are involved in a particular enterprise.F'or example, there were no differences
in the agricultural training on irrigated rice schemes for MHHs and FHHs
concerning rice production. However, there was a difference concerning non-scheme
crop with men receiving more instruction and inputs than women.

Accordingto the 1979 82 attendance figures compiled by the Training
Section, D.A.D. headquarters, more men than women attend courses at RTCs and FIs
(Table 25 ). At national level it is difficult to knoi whether or not these
figures reflect agricultural or home economics training because the attendance
figures are not disaggregated by course attended;most of the courses women
attend are on home economics,


Table 25. ATTENDANCE OF FARMERS BY SEX AT FIs AND RTCs FROM 1979/82



Not of Centres
oN of Centrs o. of centres Total Total / Men
Year supplying
er supp g Missing Men Women Men Women
figures

1977 15 7 7480 4714 61% 39%
1980 16 6 7500 7226 51% 49%
1981 15 7 7693 5940 58% 45%
1982 15 7 9729' 4740 67% 33%



In WIADPs visits to the ADDs it was found that m:ny training centres courses
for women focus on home economics primarily with a few agricultural topics.
Some ADDs have started putting in more agricultural topics on the Wiments courses.
LADD targeted at least 30% of places in agricultural courses for women. Data
from Juio to December 1982 show that 26'of the farmers who participated in
agricultural courses wore women; whereas igure for SLADD was 15%. Other ADDs
might have also targeted women's participation in agricultural courses, but
made no mention of it. WIADP advised the training sections to list male and
females attendance by type of course(Agriculture or Home Economics)so that
women's participation in agricultural course could be monitored .








The emphasis of teaching women more agriculture than home economics
cannot be achieved by female extension workers alone because they are few and
many of them are not confident to teach most agricultural topics. (See Women's
Programmes Annex 6.) Table 2, shows. that 10% 14% of staff training goes
to women. Since women compose about 10% of the extension service, they are
receiving training in appropriate numbers. However, the type of training is
not specified and the female staff usually receives more training in home
economics than in agriculture. In the past year the refresher courses for
FHAs have included as much or more agriculture as home economics. Some of
the ADDs have begun to have FHAs and female TAs, take agricultural courses
with male TAs.


TABLE 2o ATTENDANCE OF MEN AND WOMEN STAFF AT FIs AND RTCs, 1979/82



No. of Centres No. of Centres %-
Year supplying with missin,'j oin Women. % Men Women
figures figures

1979 13 9 4413 582 88% 12%

1980 14 .8 .5292 717 88% 12%

1981 14 8 4195 6G9 86% 14%

1982 12 10 5076 589 90% 10%








Credit Programmes

Farmers, when asked, specify that credit programmes and access to in-
puts are the ways that projects directly affect them. Usually, a significant
component of RDP has to do with credit. The present policy is that farmers
receive seasonal credit as club members. Medium term and livestock programmes
(work oxen, stallieeders, dairy animals and poultry) are given individually.
Concerning seasonal credit, some ADDs allow married women to receive credit and
others do not claiming it would be a burden on the family. In some areas
men and women are club members and the family's need for credit inputs are
determined by themselves.

Up to now there has been no way to know the number of women and men
in clubs and receiving credit without going through the forms and tabulating
the information as a separate exercise. WIADP did this for KRADD and LADD. Table 27
shows the number and percentage of women getting credit by type of inputs in
KRADD. These figures were tabulated by going through records at headquarters
and recognizing the females by their names. Twenty-three percent of all
credit farmers are women. Most women get packages for CCA (23%), followed by
Faya rice (19%), and S /A fertilizer. Women's credit for cotton insecticide
packages, hybrid maize and 20:20:0 is low (6% and 7% respectively). No
information ias collected on medium term and livestock credit programmes.


TABLE 27 NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES OF WOMEN OBTAINING CREDIT AND AMOUNTS OF INPUTS
ISSUED FOR NON-IRRIGATED SCHEMES (COTTON, MAIZE, RAIN -FED RICE) IN
KRADD 1981/82

Amount of Inputsz

S/D/D 20:20:0 S/A FAYA OCA MH12
W* ALL* W ALL W ALL 'W ALL W ALL W ALL W ALL


NOrth 162 411 52 450 838 4'425 -
Kaporo
South 306 1298 0 56 111 682 363 1735 19 66
Karonga
Centre 83 473 28 300 4 26 59 142 37 49 11 59 2 13
Karonga
South 128 817 41 472 0 34 43 207 142 924 7 36 0 19
Total 679 2999 68 1028 4 60 265 1730 1380 7135 37 161 2 33


Percentage
Women 23% 7% 7% 15% 19% 23% 6%


Compiled by Mrs. J.
ment records.


Cunningham and the Credit Officer from credit disburse-


2
SEVIN/DDT/DIM-One Unit = 50/30/10; 20:20:0-One Unit = 1 PKT; S/A-One Unit =
2 bags; FAYA-One Unit = 25kg; OCA-One Unit = 10kg; MHl2-One Unit = 10Kg.
W = Women; ALL = All Farmers








1in In LADD TIADP- clesicined a sirm-le for>.m asking for information Oh.
the nu!,bers of men and women in clubs and taking seasonal, medium term and
livestock credit. Data .was collected atitthc-,' A or Unit level and a c rebate. ,
for roject"(see on LADD for detaile information).

The infori.iation. in-.Table. 2 shows that '-hcreas-27'% FpT the houses 3.'s
,are o'' Only. 3, of.those getting season:'n credit are "vo ,mcn (both married
and FaUT. 'The record for.mediun torri, credit is abysmal; .;nd although L'RD
has had:ithe stalifeeder prqgr ar:ae since 195? a.nd; as''so'me womeris 'dd.:onstra--
tions grou:':., the .number .of women .artaciaiing is still siall.' Furtherm or
the older project t (LRDJP) has fewer w t.o-en taFkinI. seasonal and me'diumi term
credit and .diry animals than Dodza an,-d Utcheu.


'!.' ir 23. PERCENT .0? JOI E IN CLOUDS. KAD) CREDIT PROCIRA'ES IN RDPs IN L-,DD,
19' 2/ 3
1 -/ 3 ',. .- i "

'.'," Li! T/L D'DZA NTCHEU TOTAL
LADD

1 FHHR" 20% 20% 33C 39% 33 27
Club I'.e mbership 12% 11% L~2% 21% 24% 14%
seasonal Credit 12% 9% 10% 19% 24% 13%
'1. iu: Term Credit 0.40? 0% 12 2% 5% 1%
Stallfeeders 17% 0% 5 0 15%
Dariry Animals 0% 0% .3 5% 0% 0.5%

'FProm NSSA 19S0/ '


Interestingly, the percentage of woi.an gettin... credit in KP.DD
.hiich has only 16% PFHt is hi,' ',r than in LADD where it in 27%. As noted
before the v omen getting credit may be unmarrieds .s all as married, but
the relationship to the percent of FV-s is given here to put the topic in
:rs--.iecve. In absolute numbers, the total .;:ount of women who get credit
in L,RDP is twice zs much as in the other four projectss in LADD or 1'URAD.(total).

It is suggested that methods of recruitment into programmes mnay be
different for mcn and women, that women may not join clubs because they think
they are for :Ien, and that ext-ension workers mn;y have established routines
lwhlich bypass woo:'en.

TIADP's study of the stallieo.ars ,r rog::rammei in LRDP documents
soMe of these conjectures. The data show that ;!"en learn about stallfeeding
through the extension staff .dho generally contact the:- at meetings or in
their villages.. .Other male stallfeeders attend training courses; a few
become interest by seeing their friends stall feed. i.ost women are not
recruited by extension staff. They see others stallfeeding, especially'
other women. Only a few mention that they have been actively recruited '
by extension personlnel. In one villacoe, the village. dvelonpent committee
chairman encouraged-a number f women. In terms of women's interaction with
extension n staff, some women note that they have to convince the extension
workers (some note that it took one to twc. 'years), and sometimes they are
told they have to former a groutt first. This experience does not occur for
the men.






A pilot programme in Phalombe RDP began with the premise supported
by the figures) that women were not participating in credit programmes and
that unless their special needs and problems were taken into account, they
would not be reached and .would fail to turn up to meetings and participate
in programmes. By re-educating the male extension workers, and giving rural
women leadership training and organizing them into groups, the number of women
taking credit increased twenty-fold. The problem solving methodology was
used as well as the idea of forming credit groups rather than clubs so that
there is no probationary period to qualify for inputs. If these strategies
were not used, women's participation would not have increased.


TABLE 29 SEASONAL CREDIT TAKERS IN PHALOMBE RDP BY SEX; 1980/83



Year Men Women % Women


1980/81 1099 54 5%

1981/82 2285 126 5%

1982/83 4518 1151 20%



Giving inputs to women is critical in the Phalombe area. As the
information above documents Phalombe is a food deficit area as well as having
high FHHs(35%)Y Since the women will be keeping most of their maize for food
for their families, they cannot repay the credit from ADMARC sales. However,
women are already paying back the credit from beer and minor cash crop sales.
IF RDP's are supposed to help the smallholder be self sufficient in food as
well as provide food to the urban market, there is no better place to start
than with these food deficit households and that means credit programmes
which are aimed towards women.


B. Implementation of Project Programmes to Rural Women

Although SMSs at the ADDs are set up to administer Project Programmes
to all farmers, there has been a tendency to rely on the Training and Women's
Programmes Sections to address the needs of rural women. These needs have mainly
been addressed by courses in home economics. It is noted that the programme
has been successful judging from attendance figures. However, this type of
training addresses only some of the needs of the rural women.

The need for recreational activities is addressed by such topics
as embroidery and crotchetting. Sewing courses help the family save money by
having a garment made at home. Cooking lessons provide new recipes which
bring, pleasure to the cook and the diners. Instruction in handicrafts is
enjoyable and will i-:-rove the appearance of the house. However, in addition
to these activities rural women havelneed connected with their occupation as
farmers. If they cannot grow or purchase item, the new recipes will do them
no good. Without cash to purchase materials, they cannot sew or embroider.
Without adequate food supplies, their families will suffer nutritionally and
will lack energy for farming and other tasks.

The section on Project services to Rural Women: The"Present situationn
provides some evidence on the extent to which women participate in and receive
the services of rural development projects. It was seen that they receive
fewer extension contacts, less agricultural training and credit than is com-









ensurate- Jwith agr'icutural needs !an-s contri:utin., The allowingg. are suggestions
for roie:;,yinj the: situation;. .

,-,,To,:.b in to correct the eoph ,h..s of including women 'in all aspects ,
the ,SMS a.nd field-.t.a: tt- havevto i artici';to. The we r cannot be, left to the
':en's 'r- vFr'- i 'es :Offi ers alone .'

Y\ *ro "r-T thoa i'racts on fir:'ar. iiay hve consequences for
women. What is needed is to examine the proc'r..m):e **] acsk

a) nHow can women"fit in?

b) .1?hptt .are the constraints to their ,artici.-ation?

c) That can he done to alleviate these cornrrraints?

d) How'.will their j.;rticipation/or lc.CIk o rtici tion be known?

Any special charactristic women i have .(e., shyness, busy
schedules, noeO to.be at horie, l2 .c of I. eadrsrhi... skills: etc .) ,mu.t b-
ttaken into account. In addition s-'ecial ;:e-.ure.i and strategies may have to
be devised to ensure ,narticiatciation (if this ,-7.re. not the case then vomen would
be participatingc already).

Section and Projoct Programmies in the AJDDs

WITADP interview) and revieued progFram-es of imanacemennt SMSs, -i.n:'
scmae Project Officers at ADD level, Their activities uere noted and the above
-u...stions were posed. Sub).sreuently a re-,ort ,'s pre2nared listing each section
or project an'd .u'-.- L.tions for including wo;',iseni in their program.mcs

LA)DD, for example, took the report an..d with the UIADP tcom considered
the su-ggstions. Some were agreed u-'on to be i';-lei.nted.. TheSe are presented in
Annoe: 2: "Uo'w LADD Sections and Projects cn Incor )orat6 niOre T.onen Farmers in
Their Progjrammes. The following c- 'mnents are csveredc

-flanaqgemernt Unit '!ork Plan an! Intern'!l Budget
-:omen s Pror:rammes Section
.'.'raining Section
S.Crops Section
-.Land Husbandry Section
.--Evaluation Section
-Rural Industries Section
-*.udio/Visual A ids ubsction
-one.arch and Tri als Sec i;on
-iarketin" Section
-Land .Allocation Section
-Each Rural Development. Project

It 'houldc be noted that most of these sections can be found in the
other ADDs, although some ADDs have sections unique to them (ego. ,* LIADD has
:eand locationon. .vertheless, the ertho'olo,. Y is the .saMe for each-section
anid project.

'.SL,.DD ~;ADD,. LADD, LADD, NA1DD an'.] L'AC .'-re. lrerady contacted.c ZADD and '
KPJRND will be interviewed later tiuis year. T'us far reports have been
circulated to SLADD, KADD, BLATDD a n LADD-







.' r' :. -''I' --orin r -. -

So.,rate mention must be made .-...:.::-, the qc;uation of how the
participationn or lack of participation c. *-c-.'. in -!.-.r:- w will be known.
"Data collected.froK the field on exten~"ion contact:, andK fairm. ors' u:take of
services and inputs is recorded on monthly, quarterly ;.and yearly reporting
formats subNitted from

a) F .;, FHAs, CA, to DOS and Si.!?s

b) DCs to Project Officers (f0s:

c) ;'s to w-'.'.il tion and manae.:;na ;nt units

d) EV. Unit/AU to -' -:/n.-

:f the information is recorded at the field! ai1: ea-ch subsequent level, then the
information can be tabulated nnd socI orn's and men'ss participation monitored.
rTherefore, suggestions were made concerning. rejortinC forrnats for each section.

The most important ro-'orting, format for .a project or WDD is the
Extension Activities Report* which collects data o:n extension contacts (attend-
ance at block demonstrations, club visits, niatings and co.m:iittCe visits to
individuals and schools). Club membershilo credit borrowers (seasonal, medium
torm, livestock) training courses, extension ai's contacts, etc. From this
format, the basic information from: the field is collected. It is critical that
this format be disaggregyted by se,: that is, in terms of the number of men
and women. LADD in conjunction with '!.'IDP des:i.ned two sets of form which
wer approved by thea ADO.

E;.tention Activities Report Form ?. i. ;,:il used by TAs while Form. .
will be used by DOs, Project Officers an! I'::n aeme nt. Data on attendance,
nontings, commiittees at all levels, as well .as iAn.vidual and school visits
will note the number of men and women. A credit breakdown form will report on
club :.:,'-.b. i:, seasonal credit by crop, medium tera r- .'.t, stallfeeders,
amounts paid, an: balance outstanding by sex. The formats will be utilized by
all Projects thereby making extension in ,rrmat :io co.'iarable among EPAs and
Projects.


;-Some ADDs have separate forms for the various com oonents.






Annual Work Plans

Extension personnel at all levels prepare annual ..crk plans to quide
thef, in pro:ramme im -lementation. Manyv work lans are -recared in an automatic
.way ;it!. many ,.,-T; merely repeating earlier objectives, required actions
an& methods from the year before. MIany cf these v:%re too general and lack
uwyvs of bi.n implemented. Often the activit-; c-.endar and/or Ulendo Prooram.ve
(travel schedule) do: not correlate much -Jith objectives and methods. For


Object ives;

"More farmers iIll :artici ate in "farMersc' clubs."

.Required Action:

"Farm-ers will be encourag-ed to for.i clubs."

Methods:

"Visits and :metin'js."

iLost work plans cd not target woren. The exceptions are the Traiinin.i
and (oRnen's Proqramc-ees Sction but usually only as regards training courses ;and
FIA programames. In order for women to be inci;i'edK in the implementation of
-.rocgrames it is suggested that strategies woi.:i.c specifically are directed
towards them be written into work plans. Perhaps even 'more important is that
work plans suc.rest creative, worLkable and s*:eciic strategies (action plans)
that will reach farmers. The strategies should relate to the objectives. They
should be concrete, detailed arid capable of. bein-,' carried out by the staff.
Furthermore, montitcring procedures should' s:-eci-fi,.

A brief. e::ample of the methodology using farmers' clubs ,is given here.

Objectives

Participation of men and moman in farmers clubs will increase in general. Tha
target is two more clubs per EPA. Participi ti-o by women will increase from.
the current 10% to 20%.

Strategies (A\ction Requir'd)

ADD Level-

1. Management, SMS% Project Of icer (PCs) will discuss the need to increase
women's participation in farmers clubs. I icalized constraints will be
pinpointed.

2. Evaluation Officer, SAEO nd *_ 7PO will collect figures on present rrte of
of participation of women and men at EPA level and by Project.

3. Training Officer will be informed that various refresher courses should
have short sessions on a ) extension '1ethiotMolo-ies for increasing women's
participation in clubs, a.n b) club procedures ai regulations, etc.

4. Formats for recording tho number of 'me.:bers by sex will be prepared and
uitilizec in order to monitor the increase in women's participation.

RDP Level-

1. POs ad Develoopmnt Offears (DOs5) will :.eet to discuss the same issues as
at ADD level. They will forroulafte specific recruitment methods that can
be used in localized areas.








EPA Level.


1. DOs 'W.ill train their staff (FAs, F.LHAs. CiAs, etc.) in these recruitment
methods* and in the ne.r r.eportingr .:. --,.

2. Local leaders and existing club office, bearers and me:abers will explain
the need. to have women :oin clubs.

3:. Male club members will be r..1 -.:;-...' to discuss membership (either full or
auxilliary) with their wives.

'. Households heac'ed b'y woien ,'ill be soecifically contacted by extension
workers.

The nore detailed the plans area, the easier it will be to see what is to
be done and the sequence of events. It might be desirable for very detailed
plans to be prepared at first. They can then ce condensed.

1IPAD? has designed a format for work plans that provides a way of trans-
forming a policy to straLteg'.es for action. Extension workers at any level can
utilize the format. The co .--.'n.-,t. are as :ilows: ,

Policy ('!OA)
Major Problems (In general)
Current Situation (Localized)
COerational Objectives (Targets)
Strategies (Plan of Action -- these should be specific, detailed, and
operationalizable. Each point should be .isted-.rn. the Activities
Calendar.)
Inforimation/iaterials Needed
Staff? Involved (Cooperating Sections)
BuOget
Monitoring
Evaluation
Activity Calendar by month. The strategies should be listed point by
point. Durino the c?' .c '-'. yearr, the pointt, may be repeated.

The following detailed annual work loanss provide scr:e exam:t:les that could
be use'd by the sections. They may also be used ;'s ;.:.7j :.t components. The
first is on Cradit and was ;*,e::.;::. by Dr. t. ring and the Women's Programmes
COfficers at the ExTtension Management Semin.,r. it contains an Activity Calendar.
The second on Land Husbandry was prepared by Miss Evans of Phalembi RDP. The
third work plan was :-r-;ar:,. on Animal Husbandry by Miss Iayuni of *,IADP.


''See generall Extension Approach.










A VNU-L TORK PLAN /CREDIT


POLICY OBJECTIVES


To help the rural family
increase its agricultural
food production through
increased extension
efforts.


:AJOR ?ROBLE"IS


1. Most women are not aware
of the credit packages at
their disposal.

2. Credit regulations do not
give -:.:.n access to
credit.
3. Most women are not in
clubs, therefore, they ge
less cra-it.

4. o:alen receive less train-
ing in agricultural pro-
ducticn than men and have
little or no incentive to
take mediumu m term credit.


CURRENT SITUATION


~--'-I----I t -- -- -- --1"-- --


1. Very few-women tnke
seasonal and even
fewer take medium
term credit.

2. Participation of
'o:nen in stall-
feeding and dairy
progra:mmes is low.


OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES


1. 7Tomen will take seasonal
and medium term credit and
ui to 25 or 30% of seasonal
credit farmers will be women.

2. s'omen 'will comprise 5-10%
of medium term credit.borroT:ers.

3. The percentage of women
doing stallfeedinc in the
area will increase to 25%
of the total.


_ ~^_ __ I







ANNUAL WO RK-PLAN


STRATEGIES


,0 1) VEL:
S'NFO will obtain fctLs-and
figures fro:;_ credit, m-ar-ke
i-g and Ani'sral husbandry
Officers :- the umber of
woti.en obtalminn seasonal and

rteduunm teriw redit:, types
of stall -fredders ;nrii dairy-
an.imals and form :-.plmEn'tr.

0 WPC will hclda {. .-at'n-i at.
.:'. eIvel ,i.t-h ?.! Credilt
T'frainirng ar:.-d M;:.rk .ti.:'g
Officers so they .cen be aw; a:
-of the plea to involve r,-ore
wo;:en in erv:dit a t o trri. -
imae and fo'-ulo stofft
on this topic.


. \\PG in conjunctii-n w!ith f
iT.nagement, Cred t ar i
Evaluation Secti-nof to
vcrk out gross ;m .rgins so
that proper pack-.,gs are
sx com.niended to ;-:! en.


. In ADOs with sotll-feeding
mnd dairy projects, the
WPO will liase ith the
Animal Husbandry Officer
and Beef Produc::ion Officor
on hcw stallfeeding and .
..siry prc: cts Thould be
coL'rieod out to include
MEr'P,


INFORM TION/HATER.IALS
S':EDED


I. Data oan num.ib.:rs of
w..., tak:;q credit ..
by : .' ': and an.ount.

2. Credit :- guiationt3: and
3 "- p-'-it"
3. Credit I'. *s


5, App'.i.c.-.ntjion {orfiocs ',:
C-.ce.upt books Siiouid
be available.
:6, Book RTCs for ctrain-
inr cures,


*r In fkz:2.!Z' C
av~il ii -j-*


- 9*


T .chni.. n. ion
from an.. :al Husba:dry
and fa3-j!: rich.inery
a octinrs.


1O.Exaeples of packages.


" -;s continued on the nhex- rac,'


STAFF -INVOLVED/COO'PERATING~
SECT IONS I


t, .~I~TtY flsu~~nrranr-rra'.At4.-


MINISTRY -
ADD LEVEL-



EPA LEVEL.-


WP(G, CO

CO, ~EO RO,
-^Op,^0


00), FA-, CAs,
FIdAs, Group
and Club
Leaders,
Village
Le-ders,.


iIn&:-'a irtion, oCn the f ollwin
will be clle',t: d:


) ui cf Fws ;


ci lub'rs.

,(tu) NuTe;br- of -10"o1eun ,i .
O'e.e"! I eaod. .23 l di







7:7
.e. c ri cre-dit L(!1'










v'.I"Veied znd. d rtiuiiber
| d'rI. l 1; .:',-g c r'lF i '-y,
| ,typ. o f :.Lge, t' f ;!j ~
d ;... !: '. ls.i


dfn- :.. ng.

i f-oLlow-up d -a-y by ? -'.d
s!: .taff. '"

'(,) H.. inuch hs been
j recovered end number
o ;- defau ler..,









I
I


E:VAL UATI ON


The '"" L l ;. ..-4 ,
by the
mniTitoring prac-c;-'
darre :,ill be
cortiiled and
ai alyzcd.
xt:ensBio.bn st:;rf
lepor ts and
coinserrs wii. ,,/

ProbVlem enc&-'jnLt
o r:tet i -e,

y: h :
(a) Steff and
(b) W;iomen farn:er:
:(:) i-, gend -ral
adm i.nistra-
t.i.n of
credit will
i:e studied

surveys,


..uam~---aul-~n~lu+-rarrr~-rr- r-d---- YII*I_DLLVINLCIUUr~LI~U-IUUII *LIII~~~-CUI-CIYUICWIYLb~LIIP~LU


. MONITURI NG


an.j'u on Credit '-,.


or. nm;. .kots








S.T R A T E G I E.S

5. WPO will book RTC for meeting and courses, work with Training Officers to give courses 1.
(see below) and work with S.E.O. to infztm DOs of these meetings and courses.
2,
6, Tell Credit Officer and PM that there is a major up take in credit anticipated and there
should be adequateffunds and inputs. ,3.

T AIRING:
1. FHAs and FAs will receive training on credit procedures, end management, club formation
and women will be introduced to the issue of women and credit.

2. Credit Assistants will also be introduced to the idea of women and credit, processessing
women's applications plus issuing packages and implements.

EF A LEVEL

1. FAs and FHAs do fact finding to find out what women really need using the 3-step method.

2. FAs and FHAs work with local leaders to form women's groups and clubs and/or increase
number of women in mixed ones.

3. FAs and FHAs train local leaders bout credit procedures and packages and work with
them to recruit women for training and procedures end packages.

4. FAs and FHAs register women for credit (both seasonal and medium term). FAs and FHAs
check with CAs to be sure the inputs, animals and implements are available,
the
5. FAs and FHAs demonstrate proper use of inputs tow women taking credit.

6. FAs and FHAs do follow-up with women to see if they are using inputs correctly
(using spot checks on individuals, and demonstration gardens, talking to farmers on
what they did, etc.


BUDGET


RTCs (food, accommodation)

Transport

Stationery.


~q








;ACTIVITY'


1. Collection of fc::a and
figures from CO, MOI'AHO.
2. Discuss issue with P;I, CO,
Mo, AMO, etc.
3. Book RTCsi -
4. Work out gross irigiris with
Eo. Properipackages with

5. Hold mreeti4g with special-
ists .
6. Inform, DOs
7. Hold courses for FAs, FHAs
CAs. i
8. Local'Leaders' courses

9. FAs,'FEAs,. do fact funding-
3-etep method

10. Group formation

11. Credit Registration

12. Pr.per use of inputs be
demonstrated

13 o Issue, Credit inputs

14. Spot checking of gc~rk

15. ip.oJITORINGW

Collsct figure on number
of women and men and
t po of packages

16. Evaluate the programme



17. e..,; meetings, courses
group formation,
chicking etc. in follow-
ing fiscal year


ACTIVITY C iWl Pug.

~ipril May Junaj Jul. Aug.


Sep.


Oct. Nov.


Dec,


Jan.


?-






1


Feb. K-,


I.



F


F-.


re *a~--L-rrau~--l------~~uaa~e*B


--------- ------ II- ----II-~~-


T


~~ ~~~--~~---~--


- ---. ra IC- -~I IVLLI~LIYIII)~FII1-~-UI-C~-~ -~YI~---l~-+ ~*~-~-~li~- I---~_I_ -~L-llrtlU-~~~ ~U-t I I Y-~--I--~IIZIUI~~.~


r


_L_


UIZL~S~-(-







ANTNTTAT, VORK PTAN STAND HTRTUANTRY*


POLICY OBJECTIVES MAJOR PROBLEMS CURRENT SITUATION OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVE


To promote good
land husbandry
practices for
improved, prolonged
and sustained crop
productivity.






















*Prepared by J.E.
Evans ;Phalombe ...
RDP, 1983.


1. There is widespread soil erosion yet soil
conservation advice is going to a small number of
progressive male farmers.
2. 90% of soil erosion can be controlled by biological
conservation measures and only 10% by physical
measures. Women think that soil conservation
involves heavy manual work constructing bunds,
storm drains, waterways and marker ridges. Yet the
most important measures can be carried out by
women who take on the majority of the garden work,
through good crop husbandry practices.
3. There is little mention of planning and implementing
soil conservation programmes at RTC's and DTCs. Few
people are aware of benefits and help to be gained.
What little advice offered usually goes to
progressive farmers who make individual requests.

4. Physical conservation measures (primarily making
marker ridges) has been done on an individual
basis. This can increase soil erosion in
neighbours gardens.
5. In the past, women have only been marginally
involved in agricultural extension activities.
They have had even less chance of participating
in conservation programmes.


1 .Women are not aware of
or are being involved in
any soil conservation
programmes.
2. Physical conservation
measures have been done
on individual gardens at
owners request (usually
only progressive male
farmers who are aware
of service).
3. No special programmes are
taking place for biologic
conservation.
4. Mass conservation (i.e.
physical and biological
measures) almost noh-
existant


Mass conservation should
be carried out on a
village bad involving
both men and women.
a) Biological measures
b) Physical measures
(i.e. catchment
conservation).
a. Biological
Especially y
relevant to wo men
and possible _for there
to carry out. To
promote healthy quick
ground cover.
bury stalks.
good land preparAtion
timely planting
Good plant population
Encouraging. inter-
planting.
use of fertilizer
and manure.
Fire control.
b Catchment conservation
critida 1 villages
tackle first-others
in turn.
Commually carried
out on village basis
Theref ore women are
encouraged to be
involve d as work is
shared on constructing
storm drains and
marker ridgeasj









STRATEGIES


ADD LEVEL
1. WPO and LHO to gather acts and figures from LH. section
on conservation works taking place in ADD and numbers of
women involved.


2. PO to hold.meeting with PM, LH, Training and Senior
Agriculture Extension Officers from headquarters and
Projects on:-
mass soil conservation ]rogranmes
importance of involving omen.

3. L.H. section produces analysis of situation in each
Project, pin-pointing critical areas.



4. WPO,.SAEO, LHO, PO's work out strategy of tackling soil
conservation and involving 4omen.
LH staff assessed to see if numbers are adequate to
carry out programme.

5. PO, TO, S.EO and LHO to plan staff courses to
implement programme (Book ITC's.).


Project level

----Discussions to be held at Project ]evel with PO, WPO, and
ADO's on strategies to implement piogramme in Project. '-


TRAINING
1. LH Field Assistant to receive
- Back ground to importance of involving women.
- Mass conservation techniques.
- New extension approach.


2. FAs/FHAs receive two day course
- reviewing new extension approach and how LH- rpgrammeo fjt in
- Importance of involving women'bass conservation techniques
anl use of."prrqblems solving method".


3. Training continued:
After discussions at village level-women sent for leadership
training to DTC and how to involve other women in mass
conservation programmes.

EPA LEVEL

1. Soil conservation to. be raised at EPA, Section meetings and
ways of tackling problems. Villages are earmarked for
catchment conservation measures.

2. Importance of involving women in programme discussed and
planned.

3. Soil erosion problems discussed in detail using 'problem
solving method'
What is the problem?
-What can be done?
How can we do it?
Ensure that women participate fully.

4. Implementation: carry out biological and physical
conservation measures.













INFORMATION AND MATERIALS STAFF BUDGET MONITORING EVALUATION
____INVOLVED ;


1. Report from Land Husbandry section
on soil conservation measures taking
place in each Project area.
Earmark areas where measures are
critically needed,

2. Handouts produced by LH section on
mass conservation techniques and
programmes, for project field
staff (LH, FA, DO's and FHA's)

3. Ensure that staff have following
equipment:
LHFO/LHFA:
Tripod, staff, quickset level,
abney level, prismatic compass,
land metric chain.

4. FA/FHA
hand level and land metric chain.


ADD
PM, TO,
SAEO,
WP,
AWPO,
LHO,
*EVO.

PROJECT
PO, APO,
DO, ADO,
LHFA,
LHFA, +
FA, FHA.


Staffing
Transport
Courses
Equipment.


Information on the following will
be collected..
1. No of.LFHAs, FAs, FHAs trained
2. Seminars held at project level
for staff.
3. No. of women leaders trained
4. Villages where biological
conservation measures are takin&
place.
5. No. of women and men following
biological soil conservation
measures.
6. No. of villages where conservatil;
measures taking place.
7. No. and length of bunds.

No. and length of marker ridge
8. No. of Men and Women taking
part in constructing communal
structure-,
9. No..of male and female headed
households where ridge.
alignment has been undertaken.


* Monitoring information
collected and compiled by' H.
EVO, WPO to assess the uptake
of advice.
-Womens involvement.
-problems encountered

SDiscussions to be held by SATi
WPO, TO, LHO, POs on how
programme should be improved
and extended to other villages

SLong term evaluation procedui s
set up by EVO and LHO assessing
improvement of soil conservation
measures and lessening of
erosion due to mass conservation
measures.







T1AL .'.-.1: ANIMAL TJuSl.NDR'.'


POLICY OBJECTIVES


MAJOR PROBLW74S


CUmRRENT SITUraTION


4 _a*ff~l S. ---'-.---'--------a-m-.-.--'-ne-t-- IX


To reach self suffiency
in animal production
by improving the
productivity of
livestock,


1.


There is little training of
women in dairying, stall
feeding, pasture improvement
and establishment, and
srall ruminants production
e.g., rabbits.


2. Most women are not aware
of regulations: and procedures
for *btLa.ign sti
feeders, dairy animals and
oxen on credit,

3, Women know little livestock
diseases control and
prevention.


4, : ,r,.- women are
in ex-training
programmea


not included
and plkaughCiun


5. Most women are not aware
of r:pulFn.ticns and
procedures tff-.-obtaining
oxen on credit and
u..r *ir; 7 poultry.


6. 'Women have not improved
their way of raising
chickens in spite of the
long tie. that the topi&
been +-t,,wgt to rural
women.


has


1. Few women farmers keep
stall feeders, dairy
animals, Mikolongwe
chickens and small
rnxjiants
2. Few women farmers
have established
pastures and few are
in pasture inr':ve-
ment groups.

3. No special programmes
are t-kirn': place
for small ruainants.

4, Few women are
involved in ex
train i n. programmes,

5. Few women obtaih
i xen on' credit and
purchase chickens -

6. Most MrHs and FHHa
ke.p their poultry
on free r-ang;
system.


OPF.AT;IONAL OBJECTIVES


1. At least 30% of the farmers attenda,
livestock training will be women.

2. Women should be taught about
regulations and procedures in
chbainini stall feeders, and
dairy animals on credit in
their agricultural animal
husbandry courses.

3. Women should be *,r^ ht about
small ruminants production
and the enterprise cotecd out
for them.

4. At least 30% of the farmers
attending ex-training
propg:'.7 a should be women,

5. The local leaders, TAs and
FHAs should recommend that
more women, especially
FHHs, obtain oxen on credit.
Weonem should be taught
about re,-'latir.ro and
procedures in purchasing
Mikelogwe chickens and
>btzining oxen.

6. Animal Husbandry section should
find out what the farmers
need to learn in poultry production
and why most of them have not
improved their way of raising
poultry.


i-~------ ---~ a_-__~ __ca


Cm~~-nna~n~hr-MII~MP ----~----------- -j-~--r ~-r.~-~us~iL1*~.~l~IEsi





STRA 7EG-E

ADID *2L

l. Data. ot unaber of Women crnil- stall faeil:. deatryi :.i .pasrure .:;rs-:-Ct, ,x-trrbiinr courses will be collected (WPC-t,


. AORAnial '. Ic.-'. y A;istants ad 'WOa/AWFPO to diacuse tbhe reasons And cauSaa for the ra.ll number of women in
tall -. ,, o ,e- -- '..-.-.. ,..._. T r r--r "i-.'- t and poultry l- *.," :-- dev iase itT.... ge '-; for increasing the-
numberQ

, :r., :.ie. w4POf/A!WPOs and :..0s will hold meeting to di~iuss ways -of ic-rce3rin woaen s recruitment for agricultural
and special -iialB- husband courses ei.g:e, 0 tr.;i:": to at(least J"o of the farrmiers t -c,'?.i the courses.

., :- *-'-/.'. o.:s aod i TO e wiltl hld -.:-: Wth th -:;. and FAs to talk about the i.-drt.':.:a: of recruiting amr are meo
-;;- the .:. l animal whusbadiy/ariculturfal ourei- an strategies for recruiting aore women.

:, ..and WPOs/AWPOS iU ho3ld r ;' toG diacues u trEte-,c ,3 for .ii.-i-:-,ir., the importance of ,nai ruminants in -ra'--
S.-.it n., Thin information i n ill be ;it3cusseed ;ith ': atd iAs sAthey canr include the topics in their courses.

6 A AO will ?repart technical materials an emall rauinants for exstoxeian staff,





7. Animal u' and Evluatitn se kctr ion ?il.l c';-:.ct a sutrvy to find .ut Vhmt rsn :.-I wcran need to learn in poultry
production, why 'ost G.f them have not improved their ways of raising poXltry andt if there., is any rnom for improvement.


i... J~ AHOa oill tfach the iiA and r-ef-.l'. .th -" en the rsgulations P.id procedures for p'u'r.chk?.a i.' Mikalongwe' chicken
for obtairling stall fr'-.e.., dairy aAnioeJ~.tceen and pastureo nrd3 on credit and on forming stall feeding, dairy end
pasturo Tianagcoent groups,.











S2TRA r E-C I'ES

E,P,A. IE"!2.1

1~. 'A- and F wHAs will find out what womaea want in termi of live-stock progranmes talll teedirgi dairying; raising asall
s-iItiantes rik::crli j- chickens, etc.;j, their attitude towards small ruminant-s and number of nen and women *--.inr cattle
-end mall rutirnants. (WI'C~ and A OC will ask tha -C.-- to find out the nuAbeir of men and women on.ing battlee and small
rua inn tlt a3.

2, PHAA erd 'As will sk women farmer cwn-ing cattle t group imeestings anrd i n'iLdal visits about the possibility 'f stall
fedi.g thsir oi'n anim.ll.s, prohlemn they .re i.rr or would fac ad hw- thy t hink the problem s wonud be solve

5. FHA and FAa w. ll find out ftr;: m.en doing stall f-.edi, nd dairying, about the ~o.r:.robi .ty of their wives starting the
the saime activities.
of
4., Y; and iAf 'will noti and di-uass with thB local eIadera at l'' /village me-tings, the importar-ce nd strategies for-
ineluding mor women in stall f'.e- .':, dairying, o^tratl..i -- and pasture sxanage-ment pr:'o'.e.....

5 -r-r:: i.di :. on the area, F IAs, '., and local leaders will % c--t--.h.r hold group meetings with the male and female farmers-to
gi for =in7-c-sin; the number of inwomen in these pr.g:: ".me,-.

6, .- FAs aasd -2:, with the help ,f local leader .- will recommend sore potential women for stall feeding and dairying
7.. ar rames and recruit more women for course on o':-tra~'ii" and pasture management using strategies devised at the ADD
level by the 'TO, WPO/AMiPO AT0 awild :~;L)

7 P The FA, -.r, and local leader will recommend more wo-e.n to obtain O-xe on credit especially the FEHss,

8. ThIe H!Aa, FAs and -ocal Leaders will conduct meetings with male and fe-ale farmers to talk about the importance of both
m;n:t and "woean attending ox~trai!'.iin and will recruit more, women for the ox training courses (not less than 30% of the
farmers attending the course).

9:. tFrei the survey, AH Section should cam up with ways of improving poultry training and the topic's content to wamen
anid Mn.






" -G.....I ;/MA AL ONTORD. I ALUATION 6:DGT
I| : ,:*:--*'-,7 9 F.'
I r.."NTNOB- I -


1. .ata on number of women and mena
keeping stall feeding animals ,
dairy animals, small rtminants,
I'.'i.1n gwe chickens, 'tiii
cattle, iztvolved in pasture
e.'; :..h-i' e:a. groups and trained
in oxo-ploughing.

2. Handouts on regulations f and
procedures for obt:'-rin, credit.
st-eea-s and dairy aniraals ai-d
r purch'-'.in,: mikclongwwo
chickens.




5.. Uandcuts on stall feeding,
dairying, chicken production,
r.tall ruminan.ts production,
pasture management and
eotablishinent.


D:Ca f-r trainiL,
and ADD coference
meeting.


Transport

Lea.rn why (mst men and women have
not iamprovad their taCy of raining
-poultry.


ADD lrvel'
SA.O
.VJpO/AWPO

EVO
TO



E A level

FA
E;Os


Thqe '-;ll-i:; i --rn'flcior to be
collected:
1. Number of wowen and man partici-
pating in stall feeder, dairy,
Ki.k-jlont'w chickens and small
ruminants programse,


S2* Nizibr of men, women and local.
leaders (male and female) trained
in ;:.Ra;-rial re.~u? Rnai:'7 and
I',--:',ur-,; in ch, -il.nl teers,
dai:-y animals, oxen anc pasture
sends on credit and for pur-
chasing nikjlAn:.,e chickens.

I3, '!:-iLr of FAa and '-hil trained.
t-
.4 Dza tks, disear;-s of t.' farmers'
Sanimails and csueBs?

5 r-Preblems encountered by the
extension workrc during the
.traiinin and follow Up.

.6*Nunmbr and tyLpe" o'f follow ups
done by FAs adI FIIAs. Grarss
margin obtained by men and
worme%.
?' Number of men and women
involved in 'ox-t:raining
progr ja- es.


1. Moni'.or.in information
will be analysed.






2. s7::cen':-- staff reporcFs
0o animal husbandry/
livestock will be
collected and the date/
inc.ErroTrir'. will be
compiled and analysed,



3. Pobleai encountered by
staff an& *'omen farmers
in obtaining Rnd
managing of stall, feeder
dairy animals, oxen,
small ruminantE, and
** l.!i:r-.p:f chickens
should be compiled from
extension workers'
reports and discussed
with the AHO, TO and
SAWiO on how to combat'
them.


transpoq
Coure
nosta




papers
pens .
stencil,


'RTCs and
course fs
zea ifcr






ANNEX 1


Labour distribution of farm operations for farming systems in Malawi

A.E.S. Report No, Page

I Subsistence

1.. Masambanjati 5 1
2. Nkhota-kota 6 7
3. Namwera 31 10

II Groundnuts
4. Nsanje South 22 12

III Rice-irrigated and non-irrigated
5. Hara irrigated 1, 8 14
6. Karonga North 3, 18 17
7. Lake Chilwa irrigated 9 27

IV Tobacco
8. Chisasa 22 30
9. Mbawa 4, 11 34

V Cotton
10. Ngabu 2, 7, 15 39
11. Henga Valley 34 46
12. Kasupe West 33 51

VI Cotton/tobacco
13. Bwanje Valley 25 55

VII Smallholder coffee and tea
14. Northern region (coffee) 26 60
15. Mulanje (tea) 19 65











Annex 1
I-






Agro-Economic Survey D.te.t
;La~:cLu:r .istribiution oi farm operations in 'asambanjeti*

Laily activities in Khungw- and Chalinnane. villages in Chief's
SArea ,sab.De in Thyolo District were recorded by .enumerators, from
1 Septe.,eii, 1' 69' to 31 August 1 i0. Sixty households were monitored
with labour requirements for various Tiold operations in several
cropping systems observed and 'recorded.

.In M:asembanjeti, there were 51 male heads of household, 9
fe:iale heads and I5 wives in the 63 households studied. The farm
.size ranked from 2.0 4.0 hectares, witih' 35 ftrms bengr I.0 -- 1.
hectares in size. All o-f the ft-.rtws in this area had more then one
garden (233 g~nrdens on 60 -farms) and most gardens were intercropped. The
cropping systems were primarily maize-based, intercropped with legumes, bananas,
groundoutsts, cassava, millet, and other fruits. .Oue to the different decree of
complexity of the-cropping systems, tie labour requirements fcr land preparation,
* planting, weedihg, fertilizing, and harvested varied greatly.

Females performed -.most of the work -cnnected with drop production (see
Table 1) dcin, .3.1% of the field work and 41.4% of the after harvest work
Males and children over 12 performed between 20% 2% of this work. The
g: .greatest proportion of'men's time was spent marketing the produce.: Children of
all -ages .were primarily responsible for the care of livestock, 'y months, 35.5 `
- 401, :of the hours -sifnt oh field work operations were done by females (see
Table 2). Frca September through Decebser, children over 12 accounted for onc-4hird
of the. hours. i'les averaged -28.1%, peaking azt 34 4" in March, Labour was hired
for field work .ll year round but the months of FebruAry thrcuch April were when
peak use was made of hired labour. It appears, therefore, that women are always
busy.with some sort of field work throughout.the.year while men have some months ir
which they are free of work.
In srdor to understand what is entailed in the field work operations, the
category of operction,asnd th. rcyp'in-. sy:ti;: :.r.vlv;, i : :;v: .k;n.'o.:n in ,mor.
det ilt' The simplest cropping system encountered wss ,: aize monoculture (Table 3).
The categories of operation for this cropping system ( ..id all subsequent ones) were
garden preparation, planting, weeding, fertilizing, and harvesting. Most of the
gerdcen preparation, planting and weeding was done by fomilese, mIales did ;:r-. of th.
fertilizing and harvesting was shared alfmoet equally Ly m'les (39.!%) ano females
(4u,.1). Hirea labour and children under 11 iiwo uoed only slightly for land
preparation and weeding.
The next cropping system, very similar to ::aize monoculture in crop canopy,
.was maize gn :i millet (see Table 4). Again hired l1 -ou an_ n younc children were
used only slightly, probably because these are crops for home consumption. Females
again spent the most hours on land prep" rtion, planting, weeding and harvesting but
were not involved in fertilizing .t all. Children over 12 part icipate in all
phases of operations.
sizee and cassava lFbour requirements (Table 5) differ in that less time is spent
spent in weeding (165 iourb) and fertilisinr (3.9 hours) compared to maize
monoculture (217.3 cad .2 hours) or maize-iillet (205.4 and 4.6 hours). Femnles
and males fairly equally divided the task of garden preparation and weeding with
females b;~'in" responsible for over hglf of the plInting and ;males for 63 '3% of the
fertilizin. (3.1 hours). Fem-iiles did mo;t of thie harvesting, with males and chilTren
over 12 contributing 27.o% anJ 24, of the labIour. gainn hirod labour and siall
children were net usec much.
;'vaize onc! oroundnuts &nu maize and leuges are two very similar cropping
s systems (Tables 7 and 8) with two mQjor "nifif-ernces: hired l&bour was used in All
cegeCories of operation in the maize aen, grcunJnut syste:'! ~r2 only for land
clearing~ fertilizing and harvesting in the m;aize-iogumr system -nd in the .aize
lecume syotam, over twice is much time vwas spent on fertilizing. In both of those
cropping systems, ,eiales performed the majority of all tasks (except where children

*'ased on date. roim .E.S No" for lhose..: njati, Thyolo District, N'ovember 1971.
Annex 1
1 -








ch~il~:dran over 41 2 Ad 312: of thn plntingINo:'-the maizei legume system:).
ThRic --ieiunt of tint spentli in On2 rjan pn -;r tion dro,;p cornsicr3ably vwit'
thre m1ze/1t:mt/Us/Knona garrrns (from 321 houzrsfor m.aize HIonu.; to '1.7 hours)
W :e AM ).;.la ia tak several yamrs to .maturo an it cst as assumed that
thd *.a.Lz and~ Ileu'. we;re interjJ&.nt~o into an .ttAiewy existing c. onanR atald -
Radic n of this gair:d'fl too kmore time Lio-n :mly either syot;trn. (206.0 hours). TAMk:
ara Aar& Amost auiv.ly ly w.les M fewoles, except for .;xvetin; Whore
',io;rk<.l hired YibIoui: anak cnitunF war, us;ed for-mos

uj i2 -e 'i 33ys3tC n, fd w mug iain upet t most tM-e on a11
..k! (oey abb 01). m 40.for all ctg la lzur w usEdjprimarily
ArTh:'..ii (30 1 s.)-ni mcalxinci (36.95%) 1 "<'ildr' wv~r 1% Kwhamed u forVf rtilizirc-,
(0.5) hresin (IA) Smiar'to the wo:,;c jb unun!ilr t3 ii i.-Jze 0-,~ o
sy u,,qnly woacn wiqqiCqt of thM frltilizir' ('4: kO.5 .r. 1:0cur wva used fay'
ovary Coperahio: cxccn, Foltilizing; young children n[.'.] niru. e input,:
T:c- c-ssuvp swalf3otato systeml (TaLbe 'I.-) wr*: MliMJti iOrf ant in th't tv;2
crop oyre pot Fertilized! qYi-:ired labour w~s "m;e for' >r1j prepJrion cm
5pisO aThosL Q'uivy.;icnt to the fenale labourz (29.4n:vs M2R7.). io.oi A.nd chiilrew n
oVer, 12'jid .;quqh oK tho planting and hi rvlesting, while rile purticipitior; is
gestn"est for woci~~ng
J pnll, V1;hieie tre coes not appeal to we siobely Winau tQ.;ks' or Pchole tas
mulds qirticjza-tqd '"cre in. bnd. prepirsticn and: i.in fartilizing. in ovary ;1,nt.noe '
fa~bb-did most of thp plantoing, :we .;dinC h arvestin>. ButuAall the cstecorico
of work 'Yle 1). womanrr spent 45140 hours, *.Vgn. spent 34lld ihioursi under 11 spent
c9 o omn tharofor r-ccant more time tho:n qny olh~r cmtercry (57.6%) an-
guicuitrJUil brbour KA l..ii;Lypes.













An



Ann ex 1L
-2-





.l0 '. -ELilCllj SURVE. ..
:,................ ..... ............. ............. ....

.~~..- -
IAS..A.M-JIJ I:. ; ,. A,.-tij\ i lM l: .. a sampTeo farm inmageomopt"surv'dy--f agriicultu al households.
near Masamianjait in Thyo.lo District .,t. ala1a H ovemboi, -17i-...... ... ...

Teblo.1 I CAvj ri~ s..f \krk and T pe-,.,f i, rWor ) .
t y .b .- .. .+ + ,


S' -. .. ..H ......urs ... ...-$ :"" .. urs ; Hours
,,- 2ales. ._29s2: l2,4I-ioo- .. .... 378' 56 ..


i


Sfoemalos 39363 38.1 1855 1.4 3913 26 9 1.5
4-1-- -4 -3913
Ch..12. 23994 23.2 914 20.4 2002 13.5. ...21 37,5
Hrced L3Lour '-, 101:. 2: ..:. i .-- 573 12,1 .173 1.2 -
Ch.r.11- 701 0.8 135 3.0 328 2.2 354. 60 -
..... ... 100 7
-0- -9Total- 103285. 1*i B5 .0 1494 1 5C1 9 9 .
... .. ... .."........ ,................ 10; :,
aped froAE.S.oport : 5 P. 10 ...

S. Table 3. Dis.tribL3on of a4zo.-.ardon-abo Ro atro nii y Cato'. ry of Operation and Typo of Labour
. (hours andI peracroe) .
. ........


C r2te r ork Gardon Proparation Planting
Hours %. Hours.
lales 25.5. W
Feralos 121.9 38.0 114.9 1 43.7
Ch.r.12* 105.3 32.8 7.8 22.3
Hired Labour 42 1.2 .
Ch.r.1- 7.9 2.5 1 .7 2.0


*!.- ., .:.W. ..- 1-- For ..t..'., -t z r I" f.;y a t + ing i
. lou:- 'mr-jrHtr iurs


--I 37T- ,
7 ...8. .. .-.36.1-: 3.4- 54.1 -2 :- 39.8

97.-9 45.1 2.8 452 *22.4 40.1
34._7 1_- 6.; 0 .i 9.7 17.4
S3.7 1.7I ___


2.6


1.5 I


Total-. 3.21.1 100.0 34, -- 2173 lOO.1000 0 558 100.0


-. ............. r........... ..........


-_..... ... ............ .......... ... .-.
M Adapted -5- S. Report r .-5fP. -18


== = ===.; a.-' -bou o a : ....... ... .. -.:' a m


Cateoerker a:-Girdon Praation Planting i Woding Fortilizno Harvosting
.--. I-- Hours Hours Hours I. Ho urs .Houds
ii ....... .......... .......... t *._ ,_ j*- _. i,;,i,$ ._im ..|,.. -.. ^..Hj... -- M *.i.l oir. | ..
3 5 .2 4 7
1a als- --. .... ;i 30.7, Mo0.4 27.4 1 39.1 i..<9.b .1.86 134.8+...85 22.41
Faal ....' 754 35.9 17.2 1 45.3 87 ,G..!-42fa 1 57.31
r---,., P"-'-. ^-- J5T "--T.--.- !---i"J--J-t-----i---" 1I-, "--^ ....--- '*--"" --- -"1
Ch.r.12+ 58.7 I 28.0 110.4 1 27.3 1 75.3 36.7 .8 i 17.4 14.2 17.2 I
-- ---. : _- 1 ,...- -
Hired Labour .8. 4.7 3.1 1.5 2.2 7.8 2.6 3.11
ICh.r.11- 1.6 0.7 .1 I I
Total 210.0 100o0 30. 100.0 205,4 100.0 4.6 100.0 82,7 100.0
w Adapted from A.E.S. Report No. 5 P.19


Annex 1
-3-


-----^'~~""-~



I -i-t."-i--
'
~~,. .....~...
i
.c,..
------;
.-1.~. --
i
.i.
,..~...
,.,.~.~ .~..--
._... .~...


I








Table 5


: Distribution of Maizo/Cassava Gardon- Labour Roquiromonts by Catogory of Operation and Typo of
Labour (hours and 7 per acroj n


Category Workor Garden Proparation Planting Wooding Fertilizing Harvesting
S Hours % Hours Hours ours Hours
Malos 3 .5. Z. 1_. ....1... 5.- 2.0 -63;8 38.5 :3.1. 6073.3. ;16.1 27.9
I Foalos :- 8,0 36 11.7- 5 3G.5 0,8 16.3 27.4 47.4
LCh.r.12 47. 5, .6- : 280-5 172 1.0 20.4 ;13.9 24.0
i H ad Labour- .*.. .-* -3. .. -,4 ;,- '-- I
I Ch 11 -J| .... 4 ..... -~ ..- -. -.- ... ..1.4.. '"' I
"2 .2 1"65 ...6. -o ",. ..
-tal 152. 0.0. 23 0 10 65 .60 0 0 100. :57.8 100.0
S- H Adaptodfr.o A.ES. Ropor.t fc.. 5 P.. 20 ". .
abl Dsri a udnuta do LabourR fsyaogry of Ora.. and Tyo ...........
IThkb,6 i : ltri ut'W cl.,a o/ C ui dnuts, don-Labour R Uq IVhdfiii -,6ky ajoo ry of Oporation and Typo of


.. >..., ;*
S; '+ "" ,l"", "


r a
r l",'* i '*
?""' n

............ ...
LL.I;... .'
I


Labour (hours and % par acro) i '


Catgoory.rko Gard.n..Proparatori. Pl'aifing Woodi For fizing Harvesting
Hours %. lHours 1 Hours Hours ours
os.1. .1. 21,';4 '.7 24.9 49.2.. 307 ,0.9. 17T3 ..9.9 15.5
Foalos-;i:.,-5.2 ,',35.4 .1.2 36.5 52.7 32.8 17 .7 1 32.7 2.3 44.31
ht'.12,..- .3 3T.7 3.1 .7 33.1 220.6, 1.4 26.9 .:18.1 28.3
S .. .-- .
HIPrd-tiabout~.- 1--- '.1 11.3 i' ..7I 44 25.0 1 15.6. i .1 21.2 :, .6 11.9
COhr.11' l- :"....,....,..-..... 0. 0 .2 0.5 0.5 0b.3 0.1 .. : -
t:. ._t .. 240.6dl 1. 3 t10.0 160.5 1 0 1 5.2 -.100.. 3. 100.0
.....~.... ........ :,w.,.Ad+ tod~ frm-- .E'.S." o 2 b P. 21 I ,
S...... .. .Ada tdfro A.E S opo ., 1.. ..-....
.. 4 ,. : .... ..ab. .por..la .........
T.able,.7'-' -. ostrtibutt f 6os rdon, L bour Roqulrcnonts Categoryof Op.ratt:n and Typo of
Labou (hours and perO acro) N
.------....----..- '., _____________________________________________________


..'Iatbgory WIorkor Gardon Proparation Planting .odng -' T Fortllizing Harv
Hours -Hours Hours- .... -.. .i.r..
I !. ...u .
.........d. tal. -533 19S.6" i 1.1 24.9 47 I. : 1.g .. 3- -"6.6 11.4
"- .- -,' "--". --,"- .-. '. I-, .
...F aTb...... oa s i 117.0 1 .0 1 6.1 36.1 4. .8 ..6 .A j.7 5... 43.0 45.5
C-i.-. .- .; ,'i.6'' 97.6 1 35 .9 17.4. 39.0 0 ..... 21 0- ..-I- 1 5
L od La ur .5 .. .. .....A..5 0.3 .. 23 I Ai.
S.r.jl. I ......... 0.... .' ...... h..9.f..... ... ..' *^ ,;,."
.... 0......
"............ ... i"I 100 ". .. 000 217.9 .. 0000 :12-0 1 -i .-( 7" 7.5
f- Adapted from A.E.. Report No. 5 P.-22 .... .
: .i .... ..
: ~~ ........ e .Annex I .
-4-


costing
s %.
S14.7
58.7
23.91
S2.3
0i.4
100.0j








Table : Distribution of Haize/Logunos/Bananas Gareu: 'abour, Roquiromonts by Category of Operation and Typo
of Lboui (ihou a' d per5 acro) T


I Hovls |u r % a -L:-s % -- Hours Hours %-
77,7 33,4 17, 325 3 94. 36.9 32 41.6 2.3 25.2.
Mialos 777J l, 263
IFelos Fm83l7s 36,0 20,2 378 95.5 37.4 1.9 24.7 '42.3 40.5
Ch.r.12. 445 19,1 11,6 217 30.9 12.0 0.3 3.8 18.8 1.0
fired Labour 25~- 10. 39 1 73 32.4 12.6 12.3 29.9 16.5 15.8
ICh.r,11- L16 07 0.4 0-7 3.0 1 .1 1-0.4 0.4
- ... --- r---- J -
STotal 24 10053.5 00.0 256.4 1100.0 7.7 0.0 104.3 Q 99.9
: Adapted from A.E.S. Report No. 5, P. 23


Table- 10 : Distribution of Cassava/Swoo{ Potatoes Gardon Labour Roquiromonis by Category and TypO of Labour



S..._ .. ------ -- -. ... .... .---- I--
SCategory worker | Gardn "roparaton -P'i od
SHours Hours Hours I Hours
.... ......... "". ...----........... -......f-. ;L..l.--- ---- .- 1-
Mals 31.6 221 5 2 .1 t2 1015 63.2 i 37.0 1 2.5 10.0
Females 45 8 32,7 9 i j 47.0 69,9 40.9 7.0 50.4
"Ch.r.12. 21.6 AL 154. 6,7 33.5 18.6 10.91 3,8 27.3
Hired Labour I 41.2 294 1.8 9,.0 19.1 11,2 ..
Ch.r.11- 0 0.6 4.3
........----- -- .
STotal :402 1 100,0 230 ? 100o.0 170.8 1100.0 13.9 1 100.0
M Adapted -i'on A.E.S Report No. 5. a, 24


Table : Distr tlion of HNa z/Casava/L sueimo Gardon Roquiremon's by Category of Operation and Type of
Labo : hours and a~ poi' ar ro) }


Category Worker Gardon Popa ra ion lantin Woodin..... g F"lizing Harvesting
Hours Hoursl Hours % I Hours; % Hours
Nales 41.6 22,4._ 147 L 3, 4 63.7 1 36.5 2.1 22.08 14.4 15.3
I I -,1
Fomalos 77 6.4 1 3.4 35.9 67.7 38.8 4.2 45.7 1 37.5 39.9
|Ch.r.12 51. 276 5.6 15.0 18.7i 10.7 2.9 31.5 34.6 36.8
----d_-Labo-- r-- ..__..- -- .... 465 .......-. 6.
Hired Labour 2 12,8 i 3.6 9,7 17.3 9 -. .5 6.9
Ch.r.11- 1.5 08 1 7.2 4.1 0.9 1.0
J++__+o..l^Jl--._-L--.L +.-o-oi.- .... i.M|p"gl
STotal .186,0 _00.0 37.3 i 1000 46 9.2 100.0 93.9 99.9
Adapted from A.E.S. Report No. 5, P. 25


Annex 1
- 5 -


Harvesting I


i Fertilizing


SNooding


y oea Wok r IGrdonn Prep g iio


------- ------------- ---


~~s~-1--'-''-"---~`-------~~' ~1


I'




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