Citation
The bulletin of the Southern Association of Africanists

Material Information

Title:
The bulletin of the Southern Association of Africanists
Series Title:
The bulletin of the Southern Association of Africanists
Creator:
Southern Association of Africanists (U.S.)
Southern Association of Africanists (U.S.)
University of South Carolina -- Dept. of Government and International Studies
University of Florida -- Center for African Studies
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
Center for African Studies, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
: ; 28-36 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
African studies -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
Periodicals ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

Notes

Issuing Body:
Published -June 1975 through the support of the Department of Government and International Studies at the University of South Carolina; Oct. 1975- through the support of the Center for African Studies at the University of Florida, Gainesville.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
03030893 ( oclc )

Full Text



THE FUTURE OF US./AFRICA RELATIONS
by Randall M. Robinson
(Randall M. Robinson (J.D., Harvard, 1970) is Executive Director of TransAfrica, a Black American lobby for Africa and the Caribbean. First incorporated in 1977, TransAfrica opened its offices in Washington, D.C. in 1978. Its purpose is to inform and organize popular opinion in the United States and to advocate policies that will help achieve a more progressive U.S. foreign policy toward the nations of Africa and the Caribbean. The board of TransAfrica is headed by Mayor Richard Hatcher of Gary, Indiana and includes Black leaders from labor, church, politics, and business. Mr. Robinson has served as Executive Director from the opening of this organization's Washington office. He is an active advocate of African and Caribbean peoples in a wide variety of forums within the United States.)
The following is a transcript of an informal discussion by Randall Robinson given at the University of Florida, sponsored by the Center for African Studies, on May 7, 1981. Questions from the audience, and answers, appear here following the discussion.
.We've consulted and do consult regularly with African leadership and attend the organization of African Unity meetings and meet with heads of state when I'm on the continent and we have pretty much a common mind on problems with U.S. policy historically towards Africa. I guess if you could say that two things concern Africa, two categories of things, the first would be the long-distance race of African countries to develop economically. Independent African countries. The other would be the rather short-term but highly-charged issue of the remaining work of the liberation struggle. Since 1942, of course, some fifty African countries have achieved independence. And there's no reason for us to believe that this charge southward is going to stop at the Limpopo River. There are two countries now remaining to be liberated, if you will, South Africa and Namibia. I think if any one issue unites and fuses opinion in the African world, it is the issue of South Africa. So I think it's helpful to look at these two historical problems and to see what U.S. policy has been, and what it is now. Just briefly I'll talk about the foreign assistance side of economic relations, and then go on to the more critical problem, at least currently demanding problem, of Southern Africa.
The United States has been traditionally quite stingy in its foreign
assistance to Africa. African countries want us to understand that they have pressing needs and want us to be generous in our economic assistance programs. In point of fact, U.S. aid is not now and has never been generous. We spent twelve times as much to rebuild Europe under the Marshall Plan than we spend for all foreign assistance put together now. Africa gets about $500,000,000. a year in economic assistance. We spend more in the U.S. on pet food than we do on that, and we're talking about a continent where twenty-one of the world's thirty-one poorest countries are located. By comparison, President Zia of Pakistan called a U.S. offer last year of $400,000,000. in assistance




2.
peanutsts" Well, those peanuts make up about eighty per cent of what the U.S. provides to some fifty countries in foreign assistance. So the U.S. doesn't give very much. As a matter of fact, eighty per cent of the U.S. military assistance goes to two countries, Israel and Egypt, and forty-two per cent of American economic assistance goes to the same two countries. So, the U.S. hasn't been terribly generous, and in real terms, American foreign assistance to Africa is less, adjusted for infl ation, than it was in 1962. So, in real terms the economic assistance has dropped. It's nothing more than a pittance.
Now, the question is, what, on this score, have the Reagan people done. I think the Reagan people probably have been judged a little unfairly inasmuch as they have not slashed aid in the way that has been commonly described. What they did was to slash the Carter request. As a matter of fact, over the last two Congresses, we'v 'e been operating under a continuing resolution. We haven't gotten a foreign assistance bill through. And so they cut that, and as a matter of fact, the request from Reagan this time is a little more than what actually was provided in economic assistance under the continuing resolution. Some countries have been cut out altogether. This is the major criticism with the Reagan administration as a point of departure from the Carter program. The assistance always has been too little. I think the Carter people deserve criticism for that as well. Consider that the arms bill in the world this year will be about $450,000,000,000, with the U.S. as the major suppliers, followed then by the Soviets. This is less than five per cent of that amount spent on official development by the industrialized nations in the world. Also that the U.S. is thirteenth on a list of sixteen aid-giving industrialized nations. The U.S. contribution is something less than three-tenths of one per cent of GNP, when in the decade of development we've made a committment to get up to seven-tenths of one per cent. Countries like Nigeria give better than one per cent of their GNP, and some of the Arab countries give in excess of that. So we can see the U.S. record hasn't been good. Carter needs to be criticized for that, and all of his predecessors.
But what is the real difference with the Reagan people? The difference is that they have married to this sort of stinginess an element of rewarding your friends and brutalizing your enemies. We've seen a country like Benin, that only got $4,000,000 last year, cut out of the request altogether because Benin in international forums has described the United States as the running dog, capitalist-lackey structure of the world. The folk in Washington didn't take kindly to that and cut them out altogether. The same thing has happened with Mozambique. Because of the recent difficulties in the relationship with Mozambique, the United States has taken the unfortunate course of cutting out food assistance. It is the first time in my memory that PL 480 assistance has been used as a political weapon. Of course, we have never given Nigeria a cent. It strikes me as extraordinary that we give to Israel $1,000,000,000 a year to three million people in economic assistance, and a country like
Nigeria where one out of every four Subsaharan Africans lives, we give nothing in economic assistance. A little technical program, but nothing of any consequence, when Nigeria remains a very, very poor country. Reagan has not disturbed that. The major change in policy is the increase in military assistance. Again, you reward your friends and you punish your enemies. The U.S. is going to provide the Sudan with $100,000,000 in military assistance, Kenya




3.
with $50,000,000, and Somalia with $20,000,000. 1 don't think it has a thing to do with any really genuine affection that the U.S. has for the Kenyans or the Somalis or the Sudanese. It has everything to do with what those governments have done in support of U.S. foreign policy objectives. Brezinskiand some of the people of old as well as the people of new, tend to perceive the world as a great chess board at which there are only two players, the Soviet Union and the United States. The rest of those little nations are merely pieces on the board to be moved around at will by them. I think in the final analysis it's a terribly disastrous policy. It grows out of a kind of western arrogance that is fed by western racism. We see countries but we don't see people in them. And we don't pay much attention to the objectives of these countries and what they want to do. And when you reduce countries and people in them to a subhuman status, then you don't understand what's going on in them, and when the governments get toppled that you installed, you're surprised. We were surprised by Iran. We are surprised by a lot of things. Kissinger said that the whites in Rhodesia and Mozambique and Angola would be there to stay in control, and I think perhaps before the statement was out of memory, all three white regimes fell apart. We don't have the sort of sensitivity to help us to understand what's going on in countries, and I think that's a major U.S. failing in foreign policy. It has gotten us in the position sometimes out of which we just don't know how to get.
For instance, U.S. foreign policy officials concede and admit that the CIA installed Mobutu in Zaire. We installed him in the same way we installed the Shah of Iran, and we've maintained him in the same way, and we know that a good percentage of our foreign assistance dollars to Mobutu ends up in a numbered bank account in Switzerland. That is the price you pay to keep governments on a tether. But in the final analysis, if governments are not responsive to the interests of their constituencies, those governments fall. Often times they fall on the U.S. as they did in Iran. And you get yourself in an embarrassing situation, as policy makers admit. For instance, where should we go in Zaire? You see, you can't take Mobutu out. If he falls, what is there to put in his place? I mean, there's always the thing about trying to engineer other governments. And it demonstrates sometimes how much we cherish democratic institutions at home, but how really little regard we have for democracy when it comes to notions of self-determination in other countries around the world.
I think this takes us to the situation in southern Africa. And I think
it's here that the Carter administration, against the tradition of U.S. foreign policy, deserves some fairly high marks especially on Zimbabwe and on Namibia. On South Africa, the Carter team did not do well. I think what the Carter administration did not sell well was the tremendous victory they got, together with the British, in Zimbabwe by holding the sanctions and keeping the pressure on until a formula was found to bring about a government that's representative, free, democratic, and led by the people who really made the fight there to win freedom for that country. And what it has resulted in is a government that still has good relations with the U.S., a government that this country needed to have good relations with. The same thing is true for Namibia. I think Andy Young and Don McHenry and President Carter deserve some credit for the carefully crafted four-year process of establishing the western power plan for democratic elections in Namibia. And one had hoped that that country would




4.
have had those elections by now. We'll get to why they haven't, I think, when we go on to talk about the Reagan administration a little bit.
On the question of South Africa, I think the Carter administration deserves bad marks. On the good side, it put in place or participated in the mandatory arms embargo. It deserves some credit for that. Although there are many holes in it and there were many breaches during the Carter administration, it also honored the process of placing restrictions on the export of technical data and commodities to the South African military and police, and it imposed a moratorium on the export of American nuclear enriched uranium materials to South Africa, and refused to recognize the Bantustans. But, on the other side, of course it made no move to disturb the substantial economic relations between the U.S. and South Africa. The investment now, of course, exceeds 2,000,000,000. The loans exceed 2,000,000,000. The diplomatic relations are fine, and in all likelihood will continue in that fashion. So Carter did nothing on that score.
Now we have the election of Ronald Reagan, which, from the South African point of view, caused nothing but pure jubilation. They knew that they had gotten a friend in the right place. Reagan said during the campaign in Chicago that the problem in South Africa was more tribal than racial. The South Africans said that's great stuff. He's just our candidate, you know. He's not even verligte, he's verkrapte. He's our guy. And when you looked at some of the other Reagan people, you saw similar attitudes. John Sears, Reagan's first campaign manager, now gets about $600,000 a year from South Africa as their official registered agent in Washington. A member of the Reagan transition team, Marian Smoak, gets $400,000 a year to represent the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance in Namibia. Through some sort of perverse humor, Reagan has nominated Ernest Lef ever as the Assistant Secretary of State for Humanitarian Affairs, and Ernest Lef ever believes that the United States must move closer into an alliance with South Africa. And our good friend, Alexander Haig, when he was a member of the National Security Council, in a book written by Chester Morris called Uncertain Greatness, was recorded to have, whenever African issues were raised at the National Security Council, made tom-tom beats on the table! So that gives you some real sense of the crowd of people who are now making policy vis-a-vis Africa.
So the South Africans were really jubilant, and we believed that because they thought that there was a green light, in January they felt that they could march into Mozambique and within the environs of Maputo kill'twelve people. And they felt that without reprisal they could walk out of the Geneva negotiations on Namibia in January. We had hoped to go to Geneva and finish with election details so that under the U.N. aegis elections could be held there in March, but the South Africans walked out and the Americans said nothing about it. Everyone knew that in order for this thing to work in Namibia, it had to work like it did in Zimbabwe. That the Africans had the responsibility of bringing
the Africans to the table. The front line states said, "We will get ZAPU and ZANJ. But it is the western powers that really have to bring in Ian Smith to the table." The black folk will talk to the black folk and the white folk will talk to the white folk. Same thing was true for Namibia, that the Africans would bring SWAPO to the table and make them agree and get Angolan compliance and all of that. They did that. SWAPO has agreed. They went to Geneva,




5.
offered a cease-fire, saying let's go ahead with the elections. It was going to require tremendous pressure from the western side to get South Africa to come to the table and comply, accept the cease-fire and go ahead with the elections. Well, the Reagan administration, at the very beginning, sent cables to the front line diplomats, the American ambassadors to the front line states, and to the American ambassador to South Africa. To the front line states, the cable said, on all questions concerning Namibia and the diplomacy there, all holds are off. Everything is under review. That's been the favorite phrase of this administration--everything is under review. And the statement to the American ambassador to South Africa was, you contact P. W. Botha and tell him that South Africa will not be stampeded into any agreement on Namnibia. Well, the South Africans were just pleased as punch with that, and of course
they walked out of the process knowing there would be no reprecussions from the United States. Now there are other kinds of moves. afoot: to lift the moratorium on the export of nuclear material, and to invite the prime minister of South Africa to visit the United States. We know Reagan recently characterized South Africa as a friendly government and a reliable ally. He's mistaken in his humanity and also mistaken in his history. If I recall correctly, South Africa was the only commonwealth country during World War II that did not declare war against Nazi Germany, so it has not been a reliable ally, and to characterize a government so heinous as that as a friendly government says as much about Reagan as it does about anybody else. There is now the contemplation of an invitation to invite Lucas Mangope, the leader of the Bophutatswana Bantustan, to visit the United States officially, thereby making the U.S. the first western nation to defacto recognize a South African Bantustan, thereby blessing the South African plan for a grand apartheid, you know, separation of thirteen percent of the land mass for seventy percent of the people, and the other eighty-seven per cent, the best land with all of the rainfall, all of the mineral goodies, for the whites. He was to be invited two weeks after, after Chester Crocker (now Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs) was confirmed. Whether that's still in the channels or not, I do not know. After the Botha invitation was sent up as a trial balloon and shot down, I think they began to rethink some things.
Now the current issue that is going on today is the vote on Angola. You know, the first thing that the administration did was to propose the repeal of the Clark Amendment that prohibits U.S. covert activity in Angola. The first thing that the Reagan administration did when it came to power was to express its loathing for Communism everywhere in the world. The view is that whatever is wrong in the world, the Communists are responsible for it. Now, that's a nice and tidy view, but in many parts of the world it just doesn't work. Jeane Kirkpatrick said recently that Marxism was worse than racism. Well, you tell that to South African families that see black children die every fifty-five seconds of malnutrition. You tell that to 20,000,000 people that can't vote. You tell that to a nation that executes more people per year than all of the western nations put together. You tell that to twelve and a half million people that have been arrested for passbook violations since 1950, and they don't understand what you're talking about. So it's a silly American policy to try and statistically analyze Southern Africa in that kind of context, and in so doing we sometimes push African countries who don't want to be solely in the Soviet embrace into that embrace. Angola is a perfect example of this.




6.
Angola is a government that is recognized by every western European
country, recognized by all African countries as far as I know save Senegal, recognized by Gulf Oil, recognized by Arthur D. Little, and General Tire and Rubber. These private concerns are doing quite well, and love the Cuban presence because, as Andy Young said, the Cubans have rather stablized things. And because if the Cubans weren't there, the South Africans would have run over the country a long time ago. As a matter of fact, South Africa invades the country on a daily basis, bombs it day and night, so that the southern part of the country looks like a lunar terrain, with South African bomb craters just littering the place. The Angolans have said that when the Namibian situation is cleared up and South Africa no longer enjoys that corridor into Southern Angola to kill Angolans and Namibian refugees alike, then the Cubans will leave. I think we can appreciate that the Angolans don't want foreign troops in their country. I don't think any country wants foreign troops in its country. So the Cubans will leave when that problem is cleared up. Well, what does the U.S. do? While we recognize the country of South Africa that is invading Angola, while we recognize Germany that has Soviet troops, while we recognize the Soviet Union and I'm told they have some Soviet troops there too, not only do we not recognize Angola but we seek to lift the Clark Amendment so that covert activity can begin to overthrow the government of Angola. Now that's not the way to win friends and influence people. But, happily, the sub-committee on Africa, under Howard Wolpe's leadership, voted seven to nothing to reject the presidential request. Some of you may have better information than I because I was flying during the full committee vote. I'm confident that the full committee turned us down as well. The vote will come up in the Senate next week. Now the Senate is likely to go along with the president to request repeal of the Clark Amendment, and we'll have to fight this out in the House-Senate conference when it comes to that. It's going to be tough. I'm pleased though that the Reagan people are not lobbying much for what they proposed. I think they've begun to see the folly in some of the policies they first tried to push.
However, on the Namibian question, there are other reasons for the South Africans to be happy. We negotiated something that everybody had agreed to, even the South Africans, to have elections first under U.N. supervision, and to have that elected constituent assembly work out a constitution for that country. The Reagan administration people say that that hasn't worked. It's kind of a self-fulfilling prophecy. It hasn't worked because South Africa hasn't agreed to it and South Africa hasn't agreed to it because there's been no real pressure coming from the Reagan administration to make them agree. So that now what they propose to do is to negotiate a constitution before they have the elections. Again, South Africa is very happy about that because all they sought to do in the first place was to buy time. Now they've come out with a statement that under no circumstances would they sit still for a SWAPO government in Namibia when they know that if there is a vote in Namibia it's going to go the same way it went in Zimbabwe. It's going to elect SWAPO. Here again--I must talk about my good friend, Chester Crocker, now--here again, it just shocks .me sometimes how some people can look at a sign on the wall, and the sign says "Go" and they will look at it and say, "No, it doesn't, it says 'Don't Go'." And you ask, "Are we looking at the same thing?" Response, "Yes, we are." Well, I used to talk to my good friend Chester Crocker. He told me that Bishop Muzorewa had support in Zimbabwe, and I would say to Chester, no, I don't think he does. I think Chester was somewhat influenced




7.
because he's married to a white Rhodesian, but she was of liberal stripe, and I thought he ought to have better information than that. But Chester insisted that the Bishop had a wide base of support and thatdirty, filthy, Marxist, God-hating Robert Mugabe had none. And so we go to elections and the South Africans had provided the Bishop with four helicopters with which to campaign. The Bishop won fewer seats than he had helicopters! When I saw my friend Chester again I had to ask what happened. The landslide went the wrong way, and it's the same thing now in Namibia. It's almost like we never learn lessons. The fact is people in countries know who won for them their independence. If you went to that ceremony.,last year on April 18, and sat in that stadium in Salisbury, the most thrilling part of that thing was the way the people responded. There were 30,000 people there that night when the Union Jack went down and the new flag went up. They had all of the troops March in. They had the regular units of the Smith government and some other units, but when the units from ZAPU and ZANU marched in, when the guerillas came into the stadium, the people went crazy. Because the people knew who had won for them this struggle. People always know. Chester didn't know, but the people knew. And you see, it's the same thing in Namibia. Those people in that country know who is fighting for them. And if you put that to an election test, they're going to elect a SWAPO government. So how are we going to negotiate with South Africa now when they say under no circumstances will a SWAPO government be allowed to take the reins there? What we're about here is apparently not democracy, and the Reagan administration is apparently playing into the South African hands to delay as long as possible.
The other thing, in closing, that I don't understand. In regard to the
Angolan situation, Haig explained to newsmen in a private session one time that we don't have an African policy and we will never have an Angolan policy. What we have is a global policy. You see, we ... what would the Saudis think if we kept this Clark Amendment on the books? We not only have to worry about the message to Africa, we've got to worry about the message to the Saudis, and we don't want our allies to think we're weak. We have to let our allies know that they are going to enjoy our support whatever they do. So that's the theory here. We might lose all of Africa, but we'll have the Saudis. And the Saudis now have become principal suppliers of arms and money to Savimbi (of UNITA) who's trying to overthrow the Angolan government. It's kind of neat when you examine the thing more closely. But again on the South African issue, the feeling is that if we are friendly to the South Africans, and we don't condemn them, perhaps we can sort of lure them oqt of the lair. Well, that is the most ridiculous thing that I have ever heard! You know, I remember disagreeing with Andy Young about South African policies when Andy compared South Africa to the American Civil Rights struggle. That shocked a lot of South Africans. It shocked me too because if there are any similarities, they are very superficial. We in this country were always in a minority and we never threatened to take over the country. It might not be a bad idea, but I don't think we ever had the numbers to do that. What black South Africans are fighting for is not civil rights. It's not a question of who sits next to whom. They're fighting for the right to vote. They're fighting to take over the country, then they can determine who will sit where on an equal basis. The point is they're saying it's their country. So it's terribly dissimilar from the situation here. And they're struggling principally against Afrikaners. Unlike the English, they have nowhere to go. Can you expect, with moral




8.
suasion and friendship and the sort of Midas touch of Reaganto persuade Afrikaners to turn over the reins of government to these people they've been heaping abuse upon for hundreds of years? If I were an Afrikaner I wouldn't do that, because that's just simple. People don't give away power like that. It's going to take two elements. Just as it did in Zimbabwe, it's going to take some amount of fighting, and it's going to take some severe pressure from the Western powers to let South Africa know that they have no base of support in the West, so that they would serve themselves best to go to the table and negotiate in good faith, and for the best deal that can be gotten. I think in that way you limit the bloodshed in the final analysis.
If the sanctions had been lifted in Zimbabwe and the war had gone on, the whole infrastructure of that society might have been destroyed, and there would have been infinitely more bloodshed than there was. But to say that the situation in South Africa can be peacefully resolved is to not look at the facts of history. It's just ludicrous to me, which leads me to believe that the people in the administration are not acting in good faith, that they're not telling us the truth. I don't, in my own heart, believe that they really want change in South Africa. Obviously they think more about mineral rights than they think about human rights. I think they feel more comfortable with a government in white hands. It is a culture and a value system that they know. They are concerned about the Cape route, that tip of land that sits astride important sea lanes to the United States. There's talk about South Africa as part of some kind of South Atlantic treaty organization with direct ties to the Argentinas and the Brazils of the world as well as to the NATO powers. And I believe that the thinking here is to ram that down the throats of the gullible and go with it as far as you can. I don't know what more to say about that, except that it's very much related to our policy in Pakistan and our policy in other parts of the world where we still find ourselves supporting tyrannical and oppressive regimes with our dollars and our reputation.
I guess in ending, the real upshot here is that Americans generally know less about what America is about in the world than do other people in the world who are touched by American foreign policy. The sad thing about traveling in the world is to find out how woefully ignorant we are. And the saddest thing about it is that Americans are so arrogant in their superiority. Hell, this is the United States, the greatest country in the world! And the problem with being the greatest is that those less great always know more about you than you know about them, because you never deign to look down with real examination. So Americans don't speak anything but English. The U.S. is the most language-ignorant country in the world. We don't know much about anything west of Los Angeles or east of Washington. We're closed in by these oceans. Mexico is a place where you can't drink the water, and Africa's a place where Tarzan still reigns. The sad thing about it is that out of t is sort of socialization process, our foreign policy is produced, because wevre all captives of that. You can't read anything about anyplace else in the world in the paper. Thirty million children under the age of five starved to death last year, but nobody knows that. But we all know that Prince Charles fell off the horse twice. Nowthe question is, what is the foreign policy consequence of that further down the road? The consequence is that we produce people who take the reigns of government with blinders on, cultural blinders,




9.
so we can't even begin to understand the rest of the world on which we're becoming increasingly dependent. This is not near post-World War II, it is far-post and this is a very, very different world in which the United States had better learn, with the other western powers, how to relate more productively and sensitively to the other member states in this world.
QUESTIONS /ANSWERS
X: To what extent will world powers, ourselves included, decide to bring any
pressures to bear on South Africa, remembering that as far as precious
and strategic metals go, they are in a very good position?
R: A very good question. I think that by their own volition, the answer
is no. What is going to have to happen here, you're going to have to
see the population in the United States begin to make this a large moral issue. I think that's the real, great service to this country that the
Vietnam protest movement served, that it cut short the war, and that's
going to have to happen with regard to Southern Africa too. These
countries have a real huge conflict of interest here now. Great Britain has half its foreign investment in South Africa, and the British economy
is pretty ragged as it is, so there's not much base of support for a
British withdrawal or support for sanctions. It going to be hard to do.
In addition, the black population in Great Britain is much smaller than
it is here and less well organized. So that would be very difficult
there. The other leaders in South African investment, of course, are the
United States, West Germany, with about sixteen, seventeen per cent apiece.
In very strategic areas. With those corporations making pretty sizable
amounts of profit because of the system so that it's not going to be easy
to win U.S. support. You recall too that most of the world has already agreed to the imposition of sanctions, even the Scandanavian countries.
Sweden has moved on that legislatively at home and gives aid to
ANC, PAC, SWAPO, and other similar groups. Sweden, with 8,000,000 people, gives half as much foreign assistance as the United States. A remarkable
ratio. But when you get right down to the countries that can make the
sanctions work, essentially there are five countries: Great Britain,
West Germany, the U.S., France and Canada. Those are five with interest, and those are the five that have always blocked the sanctions. So that's
not going to be easy to do. It was one thing to have them impose sanctionE
against Rhodesia, it is quite another thing for them to impose sanctions against South Africa, because they have a much larger interest conflict.
I think there' s going to have to be some mushrooming of an anti-South
Africa feeling in this country to even get them to move in that direction.
I think it's the only way to check Reagan, because I think this is an issue
they don't want to go public on, since the record here is so indefensible.
They don't want to have to talk about it publicly, so it's to our advantage to try to push it into the public place .........The United States
sometimes uses governments as sort of client states through which they
move things to South Africa. Saudi Arabia is one, not to South Africa but
to other places. Obviously, Morocco has been another. And with respect
to South Africa, Israel has been one. There are a lot of weapons that
go to South Africa from Israel that A're assembled from western components,
including American components. And the Israeli relationship with South




10.
Africa has grown tremendously over the last twenty years, They have an
awful lot in common. They are pariah states in the world, including also
Taiwan. They are pariah states that are virtually recognized and
supported nowhere outside of the western community. Israel feels itself
besieged by Palestinians that they have disinherited in the same way
that South Africa has done with blacks. They have a connecting Jewry.
The South African Jewry is the largest per capita giving Jewry to Israel of any in the world, including the United States. And the Jews in South
Africa sort of struck a deal with the state that they have gotten away from the cause of blacks at home if they are allowed to continue their
support of Israel. We've seen a relaxation of restrictions on the exportof
capital and other things because of this sort of deal they struck with
the government, and their support of Israel has been lavish. So I think
that is a part, too, just as an aside, of the sort of coming apart of the traditional Black American-Jewish coalition in the United States.
X: In the presidential campaign President Carter suggested that President
Reagan has racist sentiment and is a warmonger. Looking at the new president's record, the last three months especially, do you tend to
agree with President Carter?
R: Sure I do. Racist probably in an absent-minded sense too. Itis sort
of like Gerald Ford. They used to say that Gerald Ford couldn't walk
past a fallen person in the street without offering his coat and picking
him up and taking him to feed them, but if they don't have to look at the victims, conservatives can just as easily wipe them out. I think,
in meetings that friends of mine have had with Reagan recently, they describe him as a man who'd been wealthy for so long that he really
doesn't have any appreciation for those who don't have those capacities.
They are not a part of his reality. He doesn't even think like that, he
doesn't even see you. You just don't register, and you're not in that crowd, we're not in the White House, we're not in the State Department.
It was bad enough under Carter. I used to walk into the State Department,
they have pictures on the board there of all the top level people, the
top hundred, and during Carter's best days there were only four or five blacks on the board. No ; the board is white, all white. So that's what
welre operating with here. And again, if you're making foreign policy
out of that kind of situation, you've got to be insensitive because you've
excluded from the process other points of view that would help sensitize
you, help you to make better policy. But threats a lot to be said in a
relationship between domestic policy and foreign policy. It is a policy that is insensitive, that is callous, that is cold, it doesn't care about
the human rights of people across the board. We got from Carter, just
before he went out of office, an executive order to ban the export of
hazardous waste. You remember they had the idea last year, some of the stuff you're scared to bury in the ground of this country, and a lot of
it was being buried in black communities in the south, this stuff that'll
bubble up in twenty years and kill everybody in town. This is the stuff
that they wanted to ship to Sierra Leone and other parts of the world.
The first thing Reagan did when he got into office was to rescind that
executive order. So we can start shipping that stuff again. Just completely knocked out the law of the sea understandings. I mean, across




the board, wherever Third World interests were concerned he did it.
Renewed relationships with Argentina. There's not a pariah state,
there's not a right-wing government repressive regime in the world that
was not cheered by Reagan's election. So it's not only a question of race. I don't think it's as simple as that. It's a question of his
clear class preference. He is a man who is concerned about the preservation of privilege.
X: I would be interested to bear a little bit more about the kinds of
strategies that you and your organization are pursuing to bring pressure
to bear . .
R: Last night in New York, former ambassador Carl McCall, there was a
reception for us, and Carl said that during the Carter administration
he used to walk in there to see Muskie and Vance. When he asked to see
the Secretary, he would go right up to the seventh floor, and he'd see
the Secretary. Now when he asks to see the Secretary, they point him to a clerk-typist. That's exactly what he gets to see, a secretary, so we
don't have that kind of access any more. But I think it might be there's
a silver lining in this. If I can point up the mistakes that I think that we have made, that blacks have made, it is that sometimes we have
been mesmerized by democratic access. It's what I call the East Room disease, you know. We got invited to the Carter White House more than
by any White House in history. I mean, I was over every other week, and you get mesmerized by it, so that you forget about the work you have to
be doing at the grass roots because you're sitting up there talking to the President. And the President knows that he can ignore you, too, if
you're not doing work at the grass roots. Because every politician thinks
when you sit down with him, "Can you help me, or hurt me?" And if you
have neither capacity, that is a nice discussion you are having, and it's cute, and you're very scholarly and cogent, but it's not worth anything.
That's the kind of fix that the democrats have often left us in. By
leading us to believe they're our friends, getting our votes and disappointing us. Carter did a lot of that in his early term in office, and
later on, particularly in his domestic programs. Now, Reagan is going
to force many of us to concentrate on what we ought to be concentrating
on, and that is building a constituency, building a system of response from the grass roots up that works. Administrations don't make up the government alone. And sometimes apathy can be your friend. See, most
Americans are apathetic. And that can be your friend as long as your group
is not one of those elements. I think that people talk about how much
impact the American Jewish community has had on Middle East policy. And it's true. But they've had that impact because they've been disproportionately industrious, while most Americans don't even know what the West
Bank is. They think it's somewhere that they can put money! They just
don't have any sense about these sorts of things, so it means that politics
is the business of competitive pressures. And most people who vote in
the Fouse of Representatives, most Congressmen, they vote on hundreds
and hundreds of things per session. They don't know what the bell they're
voting on. They go over there and they look for the leadership, they




12.
look for the whip. How can they know all these things? What is the MX? I mean, they're kissing babies half the time. So that it's the
business of competitive pressures. And if they get ten letters on an
issue, they think that's a crisis because they've got this formula,
they multiply that times a hundred, and say, "Well, there must be thousands of people in my district concerned about this." So Reagan is
going to force many of them to get down in the vineyards and do what we should have been doing all along, quit drinking that democratic liquor.
X: Would you briefly comment upon the way in which our information about
developing nations is obtained?
R: It's the thing that happened in coverage of the Zimbabwean war. The war
was covered by the New York Times and Washington Post in Salisbury, and if you didn't come into the hotels to talk to them, you just didn't get
your view into the paper. So they talked to less than one per cent of
the population, and overwhelmingly they got their information from Englishspeaking Zimbabweans. So they never got any sense of what the feeling
was in the country. I think in the American Embassy in Iran, there were
only three, two or three people who spoke Farsi, so they only talked,
essentially, to English-speaking Iranians, and so they never got any sense
of what the people in that country were thinking. And that's the real
problem with American intelligence, even soft intelligence data gathering.
We just don't have any sense what the people are really thinking in these countries. I think the other thing, too, is a lack of cultural sensitivity. I don't know if we understand the Muslim world very well at all.
I don't think we understand the significance or the importance of Jerusalem
to the Arab world. You know, it's difficult to take the blinders off
when you live in a country like this, but some effort has to be made if
we're going to do better.
X: How does TransAfrica stand with regard to promotion of trade between U.S.
and Africa?
R: Well, we' re in support of the African call for a fairer and more equitable
international economic order. You know, since I.M.F. and the World Bank and the rest were put together after World War II, African countries and the developing world in general have had neither the capacity to control the price of what they buy from the west or the price of what they sell.
And so they have really been put in a kind of bind, and now that's been
added to by the spiraling price of oil. I don't think all of this is
the fault of the west. Because the oil-producing countries have not done
the best that they can do either. But we would be in favor of a process that indexes, that helps developing countries adjust to world inflation, thlat helps developing countries make better use of their diminishing raw
materials. Nigeria for instance has about thirty years of oil left,
and that's it. If they haven't done it and don't do it [develop] in the
coming thirty years, they're in serious trouble. And so it's important
for the world to see that as a world concern. But instead of doing that




13.
you've got the law of the sea thing, and we've got all of those manganese
nodules down at the bottom of the ocean, with manganese and cobalt and
copper and what else is in there, there's something else, four or five of
them. Untold riches. Sort of windfall. Nobody's had it, and now the technology has been developed to go down there and get it. So, at the
beginning of this process, the U.N. determined that this was the common heritage of all mankind, and they had reached some understanding of how
the goodies were to be divided. You were to have some international
instrument that would fairly divide these goodies once they were mined.
So as to begin to close the gap between the rich and the poor. Now
the Reagan people have scrapped that in favor of the companies, western companies, that have the wherewithal to go down there and get them, and
so the western powers are saying, "Yes, this is the common heritage of
all mankind. If you can get down there, go ahead and get it." Now that's
raw power! But again, it shows how far away the western powers are from
making any sensitive approach to closing the gap. And the thing again,
I believe, is characterized by greed. The rich simply want to get richer,
without respect to the problems of the very poor. And we talk about
stability in countries. The main cause of instability, it doesn't make any difference whether the country's communist, capitalist, or whatever
it is, the main cause of instability in a country is poverty. And as
long as countries are ground into poverty, you're going to have that instability. And you really can't even blame petty elites, who take the
little bit and hog it because that happens in all countries. This country
just happens to be so wealthy that its elites are not focused on, because
the rest of us are anesthesized by having just enough not to focus on
wealth. And then wealth rides in Volkswagons sometimes here, and it makes
you miss them in traffic. But it's different in the Third World where there's not nearly enough to go around, and poverty is really painful.
You're not going to have stability under those circumstances, I don't care
what kind of ideology the government pursues.
X: What is the current U.S. policy regarding Somalia?
R: The current policy, again, is much like the old policy. It is to see
it in the East-West context. This administration, like the Carter administration, wants to make use of Somalia as a launching base into the
Persian Gulf. I remember having lunch with Brezinski and being shocked
that he had no real grasp of the history of that problem--of the disputed
border. He had no sense of the issue and didn't care, because the concern
was not about regional consequences. The concern was about what use we
could make of Berbera, Nogadeshu, in terms of our rapid deployment system
into the Persian Gulf. The current policy is much the same. Now,
Somalia has a million and a half refugees. About as many refugees as
stable population. The economy is in shambles and the last thing in the world they need are weapons. They need economic assistance, but
we're going to give them $20,000,000 in weapons, and they've demonstrated
over the last twenty years what they're going to do with the weapons.
They're going to go back into the Ogaden. I have never met a Somalian
who is not an irredentist, who does not believe that the Ogmaden is a part of Somalia. Not only the Ogaden but also northeastern Kenya and Djibouti.




14.
The Somalis, of course, describe Ethiopia as a colonial power to be
considered with the British and French and everybody else. I know there
was subregional imperialism that was practiced in Africa before the coming
of Europeans, but if we broke up all the countries on that basis of pre1800 political configuration we'd have 1,000 countires. So that, I
understand the 0.A.U. position that you can't begin to redraw borders now. And Somalia doesn't appreciate the fact that it has no African
support. But it has U.S. support. And the Kenyans, of course, are up
in arms about it, and part of the reason that we have to get $50,000,000 in arms to Kenya is because we gave $20,000,000 in arms to Somalia. And
then we talk about Cubans in Ethiopia and how to get them out? Well, if you scare the hell out of Ethiopia, you push them further into the
Soviet embrace. Ethiopia is in a sad shape. They've got insurrections
in about four provinces. The less defensible one, in my view, is the Eritrean one. But you've got a country controlled by about thirty per
cent of the population, an advantaged group, and a country that's afraid
that it's coming apart at the seams. And so countries like that get paranoid, and that just pushes them further and further into the Soviet embrace.
It is foolish for the Americans to pursue this kind of policy. And when
Dick Moose was asked what would the U.S. do if we had facilities there
and American soldiers there if the Ethiopians bombed Berbera. He said we would fight back. And there you find yourself enmeshed in a war you don't have the faintest understanding of. So I just think, again, it's
a ridiculous policy because we refuse to look at the area. It's the
chessboard again.
X: You were speaking before about Americans' attitudes towards Africa being
characterized as racist and with ignorance. What can TransAfrica do
to change Americans' attitudes?
R: Well, I think the first thing we have to do is to try to chip away at the
ignorance problem. It's not only a problem towards Africa, I think it's
a problem towards all of the Third World. America has to do something.
When I think of media. . let's talk beyond media, let's just say education generally. I'm from Richmond, Virginia. I'm thirty-nine now, I f inished high school in '59, I went from grade one through twelve in high
school, and I don't think I heard an African country mentioned five times.
But I knew all about Europe. So that I wasn't prepared. I got to college, and I remember a Nigerian student told me he was from Lagos and
T didn't know what that was. There is no basis for conversation because
you don't know anything about anything. Well, where's that? Is that
near London? I'm sure the African students here have had much the same experience in the United States. I went to a photographer, I was going
to Brurudi last November, and taking my wife and my children with me.
I go to a photographer to get the passport pictures, he said, "You're
taking your oiillcyz to Africa?" You know, this kind of thing is offensive. He's a nice guy though, he's just ignorant. And the sad thing
about it, he doesn't know he is, and he's just so terribly ignorant.
The question is how do you deal with it? Obviously, universities have
a role, and all of us have a role in trying to reshape our early childhood public school education. God knows what to do about the media.




15.
We've got a few blacks in media who have a major, an enormous responsibility. But we've got to understand that blacks in this country are diseased in the same way. We've been victimized by the same system of
no information and at best bad information. So it's not an easy problem
to solve, but clearly, organizations have to try to do that. I think there's been some improvement. You know, twenty years ago, blacks in the United States didn't identify so readily with Africa. Now I don't
think of a single national organization, NAACP, Urban League, PUSH, all
the rest of them, that don't have foreign policy workshops, that don't
have resolutions on foreign policy. Just today, for instance, I talked
with Joe Lowry, I talked with Leon Sullivan, I talked with Jesse Jackson, I asked them all to get in touch with the House Foreign Affairs Committee
regarding repeal of the Clark Amendment. They all knew about the issue,
they all sent their telegrams, and made phone calls. That would have been
much harder to do twenty years ago than it is now. So I think there has been some real improvement in the black community. You know, improvement
in our own self image and our own identification with Africa. All of
my support comes from the black community. We have at our annual dinners in Washington 2,000 people, all blacks, payitig seventy-five dollars a head
just for a lobbying organization. I think I could hold that dinner in a phone booth twenty years ago. But things have changed, and that's a
good sign, but we have an awful long way to go.
X: Do you think these racist attitudes will have to be changed before we
can expect the American Congress to provide more financial assistance?
R: Well, some things are going to change anyhow, whether the Congress changes
or not, and that's a good part of the story. You know what they did to
Mugabe. One Saturday, Mugabe was a bloodthirsty communist, and the Monday
morning he was on the front page of the New York Times, walking with his
wife and the dog on the front lawn. All of a sudden Mugabe became a
school teacher and a Catholic and a lovely person. And they can do it.
It just shows you. We're talking about propaganda in other countries,
and how people control your thinking and that sort of thing, and we think
it doesn't happen here. But, you know bow they did in China. Overnight
we were seeing Mao on television. He was on television chatting with
Nixon and all this sort of thing, and China became an alright place to
go. What Americans do understand, they understand the power of dollar
and the power of the resources that they need. This country needs Zimbabwe. It's a strategically important country. We need Nigeria. And
when blacks take South Africa, and I think that's going to happen in my
lifetime--I don't quite agree with Bishop Tutu that Botha is the last
white prime minister, I think the Bishop is talking like a Bishop when
he says that--I think that attitudes are going to change here. They
have to change. You know, people start seeing things differently. But
right now, the white South Africans are doing enormous things in this
country. They are feeding to school systems all across this country
filmstrips and booklets and slick pamphlets. Very nicely written, big full color spreads, pictures, and all that sort of stuff. Spending an
enormous amount of money on that. But I think that slowly the thing will
turn around.




16.
REFUGEES IN AFRICA*
(In the decade of the seventies the number of African refugees rose from an estimated 750,000 to about 5, 000,000, more than the population of many African countries. Now approximately half of the world's refugees are i.n Africa. The notes which follow were disseminated in April 1987 by the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs as an effort to keep the magnitude of the problem before the public. It is hoped that this information will be used by teachers, not to reinforce the attitude of North Americans who see Africa only as a place of human and geographical disaster, but to encourage further interest and inquiry about the continent.)
Background: Armed conflict, civil strife, and systematic oppression *have generated millions of homeless persons in Africa. The UN High Commissioner
for Refugees (UNHCR) estimates thatinore than 3.1 million refugees--those who have crossed international borders--are living in over two dozen African countries. The refugees place immense economic, social, and political burdens on the countries of asylum. In keeping with longstanding African tradition, these countries, which together host the largest number of refugees in the world, have been remarkably hospitable to the refugees. The African nations often use their own meager resources to provide for the refugees, but largescale international assistance is still required. Among the most serious African refugee problems are the following:
Somalia: Since October 1979, refugees from the fighting in Ethiopia have been arriving in Somalia at an average of more than 1,000 a day. As of February, 1981, the Somali Government estimated the refugee population in more than 35 camps at over 1.3 million, the overwhelming majority of them women and children. Another 500,000 refugees are believed to reside outside the camps. However, since an exact count has been difficult to obtain, a thorough refugee census will be undertaken soon. Until the autumn of 1979, the Somali Government attempted to care for the refugees from its own resources. Then, in October, 1979, Somalia issued an appeal for $71 million in assistance, of which $25 million was received. This appeal was superseded in March 1980, when the UNI{CP called for $40.7 million in nonfood assistance and 158,495 metric tons of food for Somalia in 1980. Both UNHCR appeals were fully subscribed, with the US-the largest donor--providing $18 million worth of nonfood relief and about 114,000 metric tons of food valued at $35 million. To meet the needs of the refugees in 1981, the UNHCR and the World Food Program (WFP) have called for $85 million in nonfood assistance and 283,000 metric tons of food. The U.S.
*The United Nations held an International Conference on Assistance to Refugees in Africa April 9-10, 1981 in Geneva. A small booklet grew out of that conference entitled Refugees in Africa, a country-by-country survey. For a copy contact: UNHCR, Palais des Nations, CH-1211, Geneva 10, Switzerland.




17.
plans to contribute significantly to both programs. The outlook for an early solution to Somalia's refugee problem, complicated by the ever-increasing numbers and a limited infrastructure, is not good.
Sudan: Sudan is host to nearly 500,000 refugees, more than 350,000 of them Eritreans who have fled the civil war in Ethiopia and are now living in cities and the rural regions north and west of the Ethiopian border. More than 100,000 Ugandans, including about 60,000 who left after Idi Amnin' s overthrow in 1979 and another 50,000 who crossed more recently during electoral and other disturbances in Uganda, are living in the southern Sudan. Sudan traditionally has hadone of the most liberal asylum policies in the world, and in mid-1980 the country offered the refugees permanent resettlement. In June 1980, the Sudanese Government held an international conference on refugees in Khartoum during which it announced plans for a $240 million program to resettle the refugees in areas where they can become self-sufficient. Contributions to this program have been minimal. Most US refugee aid to Sudan is channeled through contributions to the general program budgets of the UNHCR and the WFP. In response to the conference request, an additional $3 million will be granted to Sudan to construct a refugee water supply system in Port Sudan.
Zaire: During late 1980, many residents of Uganda's West Nile region, f leeing the continuing disturbances there, joined the 54,000 Ugandan refugees who came to northeastern Zaire when Amnin was overthrown. A recent US Government study team estimated a total of 80,000-100,000 Ugandans in northeastern Zaire; it also found that the refugees frequently moved back and forth across the border to acquire food and to escape military or rebel harassment. Although the refugees present nutritional status is good, assistance will be required in a few months when the current harvest runs out. In cooperation with a Belgian rural development association, the UNHCR is planning a regular program of relief and resettlement for refugees wishing to remain in northeastern Zaire. Similar programs are envisioned for the Ugandans in Sudan and for refugees returning to Uganda's West Nile region. Zaire also is host to about 400,000 other refugees, mostly from Angola. Most US assistance to refugees in Zaire is transmitted through the UNHOR. The US has authorized UNHCR to use part of its African general program contribution to help begin an immediate relief effort in northeastern Zaire.
Cameroon: Following the outbreak of fighting in Ndjamena, Chad, in. March 1980, much of the city's population fled into northern Cameroon. Some 80,000 Chadian refugees in the area around Kousseri, Cameroon, still need assistance. In the first weeks after the refugee influx, the European Community (EC), France, and the US provided immediate bilateral aid. The US diverted 6,300 metric tons of food destined for Chad to feed refugees in Cameroon. In early June 1980, the UNHCR issued a $7.6 million appeal, to which the US contributed $1.7 million. An additional $1.3 million was applied to the UNHCR Cameroon
program from the US Government's regular contribution for the UNHCR's Africa program. other donors, including the EC, fully subscribed the appeal. Recently, the US contributed another 6,000 metric tons of food, to be delivered before the end of May 1981.




US assistance: In FY 1980, the US contributed nearly $105 million worth of assistance to African refugees, including more than $48 million in food and $56 million in nonfood assistance. These contributions went to the UNTICR, the WFP, the International Committee of the Red Cross, private voluntary agencies, and directly to African governments. The US anticipates similar contributions in FY 1981.
International conference: The UN Secretary General's Office, in conjunction with the Organization of African Unity and the UNHCR, called an International Conference on Assistance to Refugees in Africa, April 9-10, 1981, in Geneva. Its purpose was to bring the world's attention to the scope of African refugee problems and to raise funds from the international community to help address them. The US participated in the development of the conference and sent a high-level delegation.
HAVE YOU RENEWED YOUR MEMBERSHIP?.???
If you have failed to renew your membership please help us to keep our records straight
and do so as soon as possible. A membership form is located on page 60 immediately
following the Index.
If you are not receiving the Bulletin and
have a new address, please notify us.




19.
THE POLITICS OF AFRICAN INDEPENDENCE
IN AMERICAN CHILDREN'S BOOKS
by Nancy J. Schmidt
(Dr. Schmidt is Librarian at Tozzer Library, Peabodl Musewn of Archaeologyf and Ethnology, Harvard University. Her latest book, Children's Fiction about Africa in English was recently published by Conch. This article originally appeared in Africa Today Vol. 27, No. 3 (7980), and is reprinted here with permission.)
During the last twenty years both scholarly and popular literature
about African politics has increased in geometric proportions, as has literature about Africa in general. Political scientists have been developing new theories about political process, as well as about political structure to deal with political behavior in Africa and other "emerging" nations. Africanist scholars have broadened the framework for the discussion of African politics through historical research and field studies which aim to learn about African perspectives of political events and behavior. The mass media have discovered political crises in Africa, which are typically reported without background and are rarely followed through with regular coverage until their conclusion.
What has happened to the presentation of African politics in American children's books since the beginning of the era of independence more than two decades ago? What perspective of African politics will American children obtain from reading books? Does this perspective reinforce that presented by the mass media, or that presented in scholarly materials? These questions will be addressed in this essay through a brief survey of the kinds of children's books available and specific examples that illustrate how African politics are presented. Most of the books discussed are works of non-fiction. However, a few works of fiction will be mentioned for the topics about which they have been written.1
Social Science Surveys
The most common form in which American children are introduced to African politics is in social studies surveys of African nations or geographical regions. Almost all of these surveys appear in social studies series such as Enchantment of Africa (Children's Press), Finding Out About Geography (Day), First Book (Watts), Getting to Know (Coward McCann), Portraits of Nations (Lippencott), and Understanding Your World (Laidlaw). Typically one or two of eight to twelve chapters in a book of approximately sixty to one hundred pages is devoted to a topic such as independence, government, or the future.
The conceptual framework for all of these series, including Enchantment of Africa,2 is Euroamerican. At least half of the series have a tourist orientation, in the sense that young readers are introduced to "highlights" of the country through the eyes of an American traveler. In books in these series




20.
the coverage of politics is exceedingly superficial. In almost all social studies surveys the approach to politics is wholly structural. Features of political organization that have no Euroamerican counterparts are usually ignored, as are how the political structures are integrated with African sociocultural context and how personnel are recruited to fill political positions.
In American children's books-that appear in social studies survey series the concept of political process seems to be absent. Where the structure of the colonial government is mentioned, which it often is not, the two structures are briefly described without mention of how the change occurred when the colonial structure was replaced by the independence structure. These descriptions typically involve only a manipulation of labels such as "parliament," monarchyhy" "one party state" etc, without any details. Mention of preindependence African political organization is almost always ignored in the chapter on government unless a "chief" or "chiefs" were incorporated into the government at independence. However, in the chapter on "tribes" and their customs some facets of preindependence political organization may be mentioned, but their contemporary relevance is neither mentioned nor discussed. In this chapter on "tribes" and their customs it is also sometimes stated that there
was no ''tribal' government or political organization.
Although details of how contemporary governments function are typically not included, mention of their failures to function (from the author's perspective) are almost always enumerated. Thus in Benin (Chicago: Children's Press, 1978) by Allan Carpenter, for example, the series of post independence coups is enumerated without any background for understanding their causes or consequences. In general, coups are presented in children's books as "bad" events which disrupt political structure, rather than as part of political processes characteristic of postcolonial politics as European-derived political structures are adapted to African sociopolitical realities. The authors universally seem to assume that the only appropriate type of government is a stable government.
For the most part, presentations of African governments in social studies surveys are depersonalized, with the exception of the mention of names of nationalist leaders at the time of independence, or of the current heads of state. However, these surveys are so short that the political roles of independence leaders and current heads of state are neither enumerated nor described.
Biographies of Political Leaders
Biographies of political leaders usually include more information about political structure and political process in African nations than do social studies surveys. However, very few biographies of African political leaders have been written for American children.3 Those which are available usually focus on leaders of English speaking African nations at the time of independence who have become internationally prominent, such as Kenneth Kaunda, Jomo Kenyatta, Kwame Nkrumah, Julius Nyerere, and Haile Selassie. Patrice Lumumba is the only political leader outside of English-speaking Africa who is the subject of a book-length biography written for American children.




21.
Typically biographies of African political leaders focus on their
adult lives. Topics that never enter social studies surveys are included, such as the development and organization of political parties, the formal and informal processes of obtaining independence, rivalry for political power both before and after independence, relationships with other African nations and their leaders during the independence struggle and the nation building period, and the roles of such groups as labor unions and women's societies in politics.
The accuracy and depth, of coverage in biographies of political leaders varies considerably, depending upon the knowledge of the author of the biography and the sources that he or she used for learning about the political leader. Among the better biographies that discuss both political structure and political process are Sophia Ripley Ames, Nkrumah of Ghana (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1961) and Shirley Graham Dlu Bois, Julius K. Nyerere: Teacher of Africa (New York, Messner, 1975). The biography of Nkrumah closely follows his autobiography, Ghana, The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (London: Nelson, 1957),4 and though now dated in perspective, provides more information on preindependence politics in Ghana than any other book written for American children. The biography of Nyerere is based on the author's lifelong familiarity with African politics, as well as her personal familiarity with Nyerere. Unlike most biographies of African political leaders for children, it provides balanced coverage of both Nyerere's early and adult life, thus showing the personal and cultural origins of his adult political behavior. It Includes mention of details of political life rarely found in other books for children such as Africanization, building an army, annual political party celebrations, and how Nyerere responds to complaints about the government.
There also are collections of short biographies about African political leaders of the present and past. Because of the limited space devoted to the biography of each person, few details about politics are included, although numerous political events are enumerated. Collections of biographies of African political leaders may focus entirely on leaders of the past, such as Naomi Mitchison, African Heros (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1968), or include leaders of both the past and present, such as Florence T. Polatnick and Alberta L. Saletan, Shapers of Africa (New York: Messner, 1969), or focus on leaders of the last two decades, such as Edna Mason Kaula's Leaders of the New Africa (New York: World, 1966).
By far the most successful collection of biographies for revealing political process is Colin and Margaret Legum, The Bitter Choice (Cleveland: World, 1968). subtitled Eight South Africans' Resistance to Tyranny, this book presents a unique political perspective of South Africa among children's books. Instead of focusing on the formal structure of the South African government, as do almost all books written for American children, it focuses on the resistance to that structure by persons who favor equality under the law and the representation of the African majority. It shows how workers, clergymen, "tribal" leaders, and a poet have been drawn into the political arena in South Africa as a response to legislation based on principles of apartheid. Unlike other collections of biographies written for children, it is united both by a common theme and a three chapter introduction that discusses the sociopolitical realities of South Africa of the 1960s. Also unique is the




22.
final chapter that raises questions about tyranny in South Africa and its implications for the future. Most children's books that deal with African politics conclude either with a myopic statement about the great promise of the future or a statement of the "things fall apart" variety indicating that political stability has not followed independence instaneously.
The only preindependence African political leaderwho is the subject of a book-length biography written for American children is Chaka.5 However, Chaka is not presented as a nationalist leader by either Daniel Cohen in Shaka, King of the Zulus (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1973) or Bern Keating in Chaka, King of the Zulus (New York: Putnams, 1968). Chaka's relationships with Europeans are both presented and evaluated from the perspective of South African whites. Chaka's political activities are presented almost in a vacuum in which Europeans are of no consequence. The overhwelming focus of both biographies, as is all children's fiction about Chaka, is on warfare and its brutal aspects. Nevertheless, some aspects of political process are mentioned in this context, since Chaka is considered a military genius and numerous details are given of military organization and reorganization during the years of Chaka's leadership. As in most biographies of contemporary African political leaders, the biographies of Chaka ignore his relationships with other African leaders and with his religious and political officials who helped him achieve his political goals.6
Although more can be learned about politics in Africa from biographies of political leaders than from social studies surveys, social studies surveys are far more numerous than are biographies. In addition, almost all biographies are written for high school students, whereas social studies surveys are written for upper elementary school children, as well as for children in junior and senior high school.
Books on African Nationalism
Most of the children's books on African nationalism were written in the 1960s, as were most other children's books dealing with the politics of African independence. There is only one book which attempts to p:ovide historical background for the independence of African nations that began in the late 1950s, Robin McKown, The Colonial Conquest of t 'rica (yfhw Yok, 1971).7 Because it attempts to cover the entire continent in eighty-eight pages no details of either political structure or political process are included. However, there is-an enumeration of political events, primarily in the nineteenth century, within a context that emphasizes the brevity of European control in terms of African history and the exploitive nature of colonialism.
Most books that deal with nationalism in the mid-twentieth century are equally superficial and restricted in scope. For example, in the sixty-three pages of Leslie A. Lacy, Black Africa on the Move (New York: Watts, 1969), there are one and a third pages on colonialism and two pages on independence movements, with the space devoted to such topics as freedom fighters and problems in South Africa being measured in paragraphs rather than pages. Almost all of the specific examples are from West Africa, an area with which the author is personally familiar. Sydney Lens, Africa--Awakening Giant (New York: Putnams, 1962) is nearly three times as long as Lacy's book and thus can discuss more




23.
factors related to the emergence of twentieth century African nationalism, such as slavery, colonialism, and the return of African soldiers from fighting in the two world wars. There is also space for five case studies of Egypt, Ghana, Guinea, Nigeria, and Tanzania, which were largely determined by the date at which the book was written. The case studies are written from a biographical perspective so that the independence of each nation is viewed largely as an extension of the activities of the national leader at the time of independence. The text, like the title, of this book includes numerous cliches about Africa. This is typical of books on African politics written for American children.
The most successful book of this type is Jill Hollings, African Nationalism (New York: Day, 1972).8 This is the only children's book that discusses both black and white nationalism in Africa within the same conceptual context, mentions early twentieth century African nationalists and nationalism between the two world wars, discusses details of the emergence of political parties, mentions economic factors related to the expression of nationalism, and explicitly states that the nationalist struggle continues after independence. The book is too short to discuss many details of political structure or political process, but it does provide specific examples from all of the major geographical regions of Africa and all nationalities of colonial control, except Spanish.
Although not conceptually written as a book on African nationalism, A. F. Addona, The Organization of African Unity (Cleveland: World, 1969) contains information about political processes involved in the development of African nationalism. Negritude and Panafricanism are discussed as factors related to African independence, the process of decolonization is explicitly labeled and outlined, and the formation of blocs of African nations as the OAU receives considerable attention. The major problems with which the OAU was concerned in its early years also are discussed: African liberation, the Congo crises, refugees, and regional cooperative groups. In a sense this book complements other children's books that deal with African nationalism by focusing on the intra-African components of African nationalism and by detailing some of the interests and activities of national political leaders outside the borders of their own nations.
Reference Books
Apart from children's encyclopedias there are few books that provide basic data pertaining to the politics of African independence.9 What data there are in children's books are extremely limited. Ben Wattenberg and Ralph L. Smith, The New Nations of Africa (New York: Hart Publishing Company, 1963) is a country-by-country survey with numerous photographs that includes information on ethnology, industry, economics, and education, in addition to government and politics. It is full of cliches and factual errors. Since it has not been revised, it has extremely limited value.
Africa 1966 (Washington, D.C.: Stryker-Post, 1966) is the first of a
series of reference books in the World Today Series prepared by Pierre Etienne Dostert that has been published annually since 1970. Each volume usually appears in the autumn of the year for the date in the title. In it one can find political facts such as the former colonial status of each nation, date




24.
of independence, current head of state, capital, and official language, plus a statement on the future of the country, which is usually a comment on its political stability and whether it tends to be communist, democratic, or socialist. When an unusual political event occurs in a country, it may be described in one or a few paragraphs. For example, in Africa 1968 there are several paragraphs on the Biafran conflict in the entry on Nigeria, and in Africa 1976 the Tipending independence of the Transkei is mentioned in the entry on South Africa. In addition, a general up-date section precedes the individual country entries, which are grouped regionally. Over the years this section has included brief commentary on such topics as the unliberated areas of Africa, which are referred to as dependencies, activities of the OAU, Angolan independence, and the activities of Idi Amin.
In Africa 1975 a map shows the "political face" of Africa with a symbol for each nation indicating military rule, one-party state, dependent territory, military control, or democratic government. The same labels are used in the country entries. This source describes neither political structure nor political process, but it does include some political facts. It is up-dated relatively little from year to year, and changes in political names are often considerably belated, the change from Southwest Africa to Namibia being a case in point. 'Despite such lags, it is the most up-to-date reference source for children on political facts for the continent of Africa, since neither children's encyclopedias nor social studies surveys are up-dated with any frequency, if at all.
Fiction
The politics of African independence are not covered in any systematic way in fiction written for American children. In fact, children's fiction about Africa is notable for ignoring political background regardless of whether it is set in times of independence or colonialism. However, it seems to be significant that on-those few occasions when politics are included in fiction written for American children, it is only political violence that is mentioned or described. This is as true of Dorothy Robinson, The Legend of Africania (Chicago: Johnson Publishing Co., 1974), an allegory about the colonial era, as it is of Charles Kearey, Last Plane From Uli (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972), a first person description of the Biafran conflict by a European mercenary.
Usually political violence is mentioned only in the background of a
novel that has some other focus. For example, election riots briefly disrupt the activities of the boy hero of Mary Louise Clifford, Salah of Sierra Leone (New York: Crowell, 1975), and guerrilla fighting in Angola is briefly mentioned in Alice Wellman, The Wilderness Has Ears (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1975), a modern-day exotic novel about an American girl's experiences of Kimbutu religion. Perhaps fiction is worth mentioning in this essay only to illustrate that stereotypes about African violence die hard, and that routine politicalbehavior is not yet a part of the fictional world of Africa, whereas warfare still is, as it has been ever since Europeans first contacted Africa and began to write fiction about it.10




25.
Conclusion
The preceding review of the topics of American children's books that
in some way deal with the politics of African independence does not do justice to the quality and accuracy of the books. Many of the books include out-ofdate information, factual errors, imprecise maps, and illustrations that do not accurately complement the text. Few of the authors have expertise on Africa or even any particular interest in Africa. The same is true of the editors who revise their work. Neither authors nor editors, with a few
notable exceptions that will be obvious to readers of Africa Today, are familiar with either the scholarly literature or current, indepth political reportage' on Africa. Thus, they have selected popular, biased, and sometimes out-dated sources to use as background for their children's books. The very few books on the politics of African independence that have been written by experts on Africa are for older children of above-average reading ability.
It seems that most writers of children's books have a very limited perception of African independence that is more similar to that portrayed by the mass media than by Africanist scholars. Independence is presented as a onetime event that begins and ends when the colonial control ceases. It is very rarely presented as a process with historical roots and sociocultural and economic ramifications after the independence celebrations are over. Perhaps this accounts for why relatively more children's books dealing with African independence were published in the 1960s than in the 1970s. It is evident that little recent scholarship on the politics of African independence has been utilized in writing children's books. American children will obtain a very limited and extremely biased view of the politics of African independence from reading children's books.
NOTES
1. This article deals only with children's books written in English for
American children. It deals with trade books not text books. The
generalizations are based on all of the American children's books
about African politics that I have read, most of which are briefly
described in Children's Books on Africa and Their Authors: An Annotated Bibliography (New York: Africana, 1975) and Supplement to Children's
Books on Africa and Their Authors (New York: Africana, 1979).
2. The conceptual framework for the Enchantment of Africa series is the
same as for The Enchantment of America and Enchantment of South and
Central America series. For details about the series see my articles
in Bulletin of the Southern Association of Africanists, 3, 1, (1975)
35-42; 4, 3, (1976) 24-31; and 6, 3, (1978) 1-10.
3. A wider range of biographies is available for African children in such
series as African Historical Biographies (Heinemann) and Makers of African History (Longman). More of the political biographies for
African children are written by scholars than are those written for
American or British children.




26.
4. For details of the content of this book and how it compares with
other children's biographies of Nkrumah, see my article "Who is
Kwame Nkrumah?" Newsletter of the Southern Association of Africanists
3, 3(1975) 25-28.
5. There are book-length biographies written for British children that
are not available in the U.S. such as David Killingray, Samori Toure: Warrior King (Amersham: Hutton, 1973), as well as ones
written for African children in the series mentioned in the third
footnote.
6. Cohen does mention "wizards, witch doctors and witch finders" whose
independent power Chaka tried to reduce. However, this is more in
the context of calling attention to unusual influences among the Zulu
political organization. Both Cohen and Keating used what were "standard"
sources on the Zulu, such as E. A. Ritter, before the recent trend in
African historiography to utilize oral traditions and view political
history from an African perspective.
7. A more detailed and African-oriented book on this topic written for
British children is David Killingray, A Plague of Europeans (Hamondsworth: Penguin, 1973).
8. This book was originally written for British children and published
in London by Hart Davis in the Young Historian series. Many books
on Africa published in the U.S. are reissues of British books.
9. For an evaluation of the coverage of Africa in children's encyclopedias
see my "Entries on Africa in Reference Books for Children." Newsletter
of the Southern Association of Africanists 3.2 (1975) 3-9.
10. See Dorothy Hammond and Alta Jablow, The Africa That Never Was (New
York: Twayne, 1970) for extensive documentation of this point.




27.
SETSWANA: AN AFRICAN LANGUAGE UNIT
FOR THE CLASSROOM
by M. L. A. Kgasa
Southern Africa is frequently in the limelight for its political activities, which tend to overpower both information and interest in
other aspects of their cultures. Botswana in particular, an independent country of only 850,000 people, is little known to North American classrooms. One of the ways to stimulate further interest in the peoples of
Botswana is to involve school children in speaking its national language, Setswana. The following notes on Setswana are meant only as a brief exposure to the language. Teachers are reminded that. some language accuracy in this program has been sacrificed to brevity. A cassette tape accompanies this program. For further information contact: Outreach Coordinator, Center for African Studies, University of Florida, 470 Grinter Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32621.
PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
STRESS
The main stress in a Setswana word is determined by the number of
syllables in the word. If it has two syllables the stress is on the last syllable (eg. bala). If it has three or more the stress is on the next to
the last syllable (eg. dumela; moruti).
VOWEL SOUNDS
a is like 'a' in father (aba give) e is like 'i' in bill (bela boil)
e is 1ke 'e' in sell (sela pick up)
i is like 'e' in tea (ila hate)
R no English equivalent (lcma bite)
6 is like 'aw' in awful (6ra sit by the fireside)
u is like 'oo' in ooze (pula rain)
Some Setswana sounds can have either a high or a low tone, thus
altering the meaning of a word. For example, 8 means "you" (singular)
and 6 means "he/she."
examples: 0 ya k.ae? (Where are you going?)
0 ya kae? (Where is he going?) Listen to the tape for the high and low sounds. Other difficult sounds
will be made clear by the tape.




28.
I, COMMON GREETINGS
dumela a general greeting for anytime of the day
rra father/sir
mma mother/madam
Ee Yes
0 a concord which refers to the pronoun 'you'
kae? where?
ke a concord which refers to the pronoun 'I'
teng fine
tlhotse the whole day
sentle well (adv.)
Practice (1)
James: Dwnela, ma. (Good day, madam)
Sharon: Ee, dwnumela rra. (Yes, a good day sir.)
James: 0 kae? (How are you? lit. You are where?)
Sharon: Ke teng. (I am fine.)
Note: If it is evening time, the greeter would say "A o tlhotse" (ie. How did you spen-d the day?) in place of "O kae." The answer would be "Ke tlhotse sentle" (lit. I was well the whole day.).
bana children (in a general greeting also includes the wife)
Go? What?
utlwalang news
Lefa ele sepe nothing (lit. There is nothing)
Practice (2)
James: Dumela, rra.
Fred: Ee, dumela, rra.
James: 0 kae?
Fred: Ke teng.
James: Bana ba kae? (How are your wife and children?)
Fred: Ba teng, rra. (They are fine, sir.")
James: Go utZwalang? (What is the news?)
Fred: Lefa e le sepe. (There is no news.)
2, SOME COMMON USAGES
Ee Yes.
Nnyaa No.
Kea itumela. Thank you.
Tsena. Come in.
Nna fatshe. Sit down.
Tla kwano. Come here.
Nxe! Sorry (when someone is hurt)
Bona! Look out!




29.
Reetsa! Listen (pl. Reetsang)
Didimala! Be quiet!
Tsamaya! Go awa,,y!
Tswa! Get out!
Thata very much
0 dirang? What are you doing?
Go ntse jalo. It is so.
Kea itse. I know.
Ga ke itse. I don't know (lit. Not I know)
Practice
Choose an appropriate response to the sentences below
by drawing upon the list of common usages above.
(a) Have you been to Botswana?
(b) Do you like travelling?
(c) Act in such a way as to demonstrate anger and say
(d) Act in such a way as to demonstrate a warning
and say
(e) Act in such a way as to demonstrate disgust and say
(f) Do you study other languages?
(g) Act in such a way as to demonstrate the need for silence.
(h) Express sympathy with your friend who is hurt.
(i) Question whether something is true.
(j) Express thanks.
(k) Act as if you don't know and say
[Make up other situations which require similar responses.]
3, SELECTED NOUNS
mma mother or madam (pl. bomma)
rra father or sir (pl. borra)
rre my father (pl. borre) mine my mother (pl. bomme) ngwana a child (pl. bana)
motho a person ( pl. batho)
mosimane a boy (pl. basimane)
mosethsana a girl (pl. basetsana)
moruti a teacher (pl. baruti)
morutwa- a student (pl. barutwa)
buka a book (pl. dibuka)
sekole a school (pl. dikole)
lokwalo a letter (pl. dikwalo)
pampiri- paper (pl. dipampiri)
pena pen (pl. dipena)




30.
tafole table (pl. ditafole) setilo a chair (pl. ditilo) madi money
tiro work (pl. ditiro) thuto education or a lesson nama meat
tee tea
metse water
sukiri- sugar
sejo food
borotho bread
koloi an automobile (pl. dikoloi) koko chicken or fowl (pl. dikoko) ntlo house (pl. matlo) bothata problem or difficulty lorato love
masi milk
nako time (pl. dinako) watshe a watch (pl. diwatshe)
Practice
After practicing pronunciation of the nouns, the teacher should, by pointing, lifting an object, showing pictures or dramatically acting out a situation, indicate one of
the comon nouns and illicit the correct Setswana word
from the student.
A Useful Prepositional Form
We can add '-ng' to many nouns and designate place.
examples: (1) sekole (school)+ ng = sekoleng (to/from school)
tafole (table) + ng = tafoleng (to/from the table) sentilo (chair) + ng = setilong (to/from the chair) moruti (teacher)+ ng = moruting (to/from the teacher)
(2) 0 ya kae? (Where are you going?)
Kea sekoleng. (I am going to school.) 0 tswa kae? (Where do you come from?) Ke tswa moruting. (I come from the teacher.)
FORMING SIMPLE SENTENCES
In English, simple action sentences may answer three questions:
who? (the subject) usually a noun or pronoun what? (what the subject is doing)- a verb form
when? (when the subject is doing the action)- the verb tense




31.
examples: (who) (when) (what)
I am reading.
She will teach.
He teaches.
They ran..
Sometimes this action takes an OBJECT: He is teaching STUDENTS.
They like FOOD.
It is similar in Setswana. For example:
Ba tlaa kwala = They/will/write.
(who) + (when) + (what)
Kea bua = I am speaking.
(who) + (when & what)
OR
Ke bala buka I/am reading/a book.
(who) + (when & + OBJECT
what)
Each of the following paragraphs provides you with building blocks for creating simple sentences.
(a) Pronouns used with verbs (Concords)
In Setswana, concords have both long and short forms.
The short form must take an OBJECT (eg. Ke bala buka.
- I am reading a BOOK.). The long form does not have
an OBJECT. (eg. Kea bala. I am reading.). These forms, so essential to forming sentences, are given
below.
(short forms) singular plural
ke I re we
0 you o10 you
6 he/she ba they
Note: The symbol means the voice goes down, and
the symbol means the voice goes up.
examples: Ke rata hamburgers. I like hamburgers.
-Q ja eng? What are you eating? (lit. You are eating what?) d nwa metse. He is drinking water. Ba ya Tampa. They are going to Tampa. Re tswa Ocala. We come from Ocala.




32.
(long forms)
singular plural
kea I rea we
Oa you loa you
Oa he/she baa they
examples:
Kea kwala. I am writing. Kea bona. I see. Oa bua. He is speaking. Baa ruta. They are teaching. Oa ema. She is standing.
Practice
List the six English pronouns on the board. Give the class a basic verb construction (eg. Kea kwala I am writing). As you point to one of the English pronouns, have the students substitute the
Setswana equivalent in the given verb construction.
example: (pointing to "we", students should
respond with "Rea koala." We are writing.)
(b) Verbs and Verb tenses
Most Setswana verbs in the PRESENT TENSE end in "-a"
(bala-read, ema-stand, dira-work, etc.).
examples: Ke bala buka. I am reading the book.
Ba rata sejo. They like food.
The PAST TENSE is formed by substituting "-ile"' for "-a"
in the verb root. For example, ruta (educate) becomes
rutile (educated); bua (speak) becomes buile (spoke);
and dira (do) becomes dirile (did).
examples: Ke rutile John. I taught John.
Ke dirile setilo. I made a chair.
The FUTURE TENSE of all verbs is always formed by simply
using "tlaa" plus the present tense:
Ba tlaa kwala. They will write. Ke tlaa tsamaya. I shall go.




33.
The following is a list of commonly used Regular Verbs and three of their tense forms:
present past future
dira do or work dirile did tlaa dira will do or work
bala read badile read tlaa bala will read
kwala write kwadile wrote tlaa kwala will write
rata love or like ratile- loved or liked tlaa rata-will love or write
ruta teach rutile taught tlaa ruto will love or like
tsamaya walk tsamaile walked tlaa tsamaya will walk
itse know itsile knew tlaa itse- will know
tla come tsile came tlaa tla will come
re say rile said tlaa re will say
ya go ile went tlaa ya will go
lere bring lerile brought tlaa lere will bring
batla want batlile wanted tlaa batla will want
bua speak buile spoke tlaa bua will speak
Some verbs, however, are Irregular because they form the PAST TENSE in a different way. Note the following common verbs:
present past future
botsa ask boditse asked tlaa botsa will ask
ema stand eme stood tlaa ema will stand
nna sit nntse sat tlaanna will sit
bona see bonye saw tlaa bona will see
tulwa hear/understand utlwa heard/understood tlaa tulwa will hear or understand
ja eat jele ate tlaa ja will eat
bula open butse opened tlaa bula will open
tswala close tswetse closed tlaa tswala will close
tsena come in/enter tsenye entered tlaa tsena will enter
tswa go out dule went out tlaa tswa will go out
tsaya take tsere took tlaa tsaya will take
nwa drink nole drank tlaa nwa will drink




34.
Note: The infinitive form of the verb (eg. to go) is formed in
Setswana by "go" + verb root.
examples: go bala (to read)
go ruta (to teach)
go bona (to see)etc.
Practice (1):
Vocabulary practice can be done by dramatically acting out
the action indicated by the verb and requiring students
to identify the Setswana verb.
Practice (2):
Choose one basic verb construction and practice substituting
the three different tenses. You should practice using the
verbs from the lists on the previous page. Example:
basic construction: Oa ruta. (He is teaching.)
substitute: present tense = Oa ruta (He is teaching.) past tense = 0 rutile (He taught.)
future tense = Oa tlaa ruta (He will teach.;
Practice (3):
Begin by writing a full sentence construction on the board, such as "Rea kwala" (We are writing.). The teacher should then provide students with cues for them to change either
the concord, the tense, or the verb. Given the cue, students
should then respond with the appropriate Setswana sentence
construction, followed by its English translation.
basic construction: Rea kwala (We are writing.)
cues response
past tense Re kwadile (We wrote.)
they Baa kwala (They are writing.)
bala Rea bala (We are reading.)
future Re tlaa kwala (We will write.)
etc.




35.
5, COMMON ADVERBS
now jaanong
soon/shortly kgantele
yesterday maabane
today gompieno
tomorrow kamoso recently maloba slowly ka bonya
quickly ka bofefo
very much thata
examples: Nna fatshe jaanong! (Sit down now!)
Ke tsamaya kgantele. (I am going shortly.) Ke ile toropong maabane. (I went to town yesterday.)
0 buile gompieno. (She spoke today.) Tsamaya ka bonya. (Walk slowly.) Ke rata Euka thata. (I like the book very much.) Tla ka bofefo. (Come quickly.)
6, PERSONAL PRONOUNS WHICH STAND ALONE
singular plural
naa I, me rona we/us
wena you lona you
ene he/she bone they/them
examples: -Lo batla mang? (Whom do you want?)
-Wena. (You.)
-Ba bua le mang? (With whom do they speak?)
-Nna. (Me.)
-Lo bonye mang? (Whom did you see?)
-Bone. (Them.)
-Nna kea bala. (I myself am reading.)
-Ba batla nna. (They want me.)
- Wena botsa bone. (You ask them.)
-Bone ba utlwa lona. (They hear you.)
7, FORMING QUESTIONS?????????
(a) Using "A"' to begin a sentence
You can take a simple sentence and turn it into a question
by beginning the sentence with "A".




36.
examples: A o batla sejo? (Do you want food?) A 6 rata sekole? (Does he like school?) A ba tlaa tla? (Will they come?) A o ya Orlando? (Are you going to Orlando?)
(b) Using special words
kae? where?
eng? what?
leng? when?
jang? how?
go reng? why?
question answer
0 ya kae? Ke ya sekoleng.
(Where are you going?) (I am going to school.)
Ba tswa kae? Ba tswa Tampa.
(Where do they come from?) (They come from Tampa.)
Lo dira eng? Rea kwala.
(What are you doing?) (We are writing.)
Lo tlaa tsamaya leng? Ga ke itse.
(When will you go?) (I don't know.)
O kwala jang? Ke kwala sentle.
(How do you write?) (I write nicely.)
O kae? Ke teng.
(How are you?) (I am fine.)
0 dira eng? Kea bala.
(What are you doing?) (I am reading?)
Ba ya kae? Ba ya Ocala.
(Where are they going?) (They are going to Ocala.)
0 batla eng? Ke batla madi.
(What do you want?) (I want money.)
Go reng a tsamaile? 0 ile go bala.
(Why did he go?) (He went to read.)
Practice
You can now begin to ask your students questions and expect simple answers. Use vhe questions above for practice, and begin to substitute other verbs and nouns in your questions
and answers.




37.
SHow TO DESCRIBE
-ntle beautiful, nice
-leele tall (for a person)
-telele tall, long (for things)
-tona big, large
-nnye small, tiny
-ntsi many, much
-kima thick, stout
-sesane thin, narrow
In Setswana, adjectives do not stand alone unchanged as in
English. They exist as stems and take on a prefix which is determined by the noun they modify. For example, to form "beautiful person," you take the noun (motho person) and the adjective stem (-ntle beautiful), and join them in this way:
motho + yo + montle = a beautiful person (lit. a person of beauty.)
examples: motho + yo + moleele = motho yo moleele
(person) (of) (tallness)=(a tall person)
selo + se + sentle = selo se sentle
(thing) (of) (beauty) = (a beautiful thing)
dibuka + tse + dintle = dibuka tse dintle (books) (of) (beauty)= (beautiful books)
Note: Nouns belong to different classes. Each class has a
different way to form the preposition ("of") which joins the noun and the adjective stem. The three nouns in the
above examples are from different classes and form "of"
in slightly different ways.
If you omit the combining preposition and write, for
example, "motho montle" you change the meaning significantly.
"Motho montle" becomes "The person is beautiful."
Similarly,
motho moleele = The person is tall. selo sentle = The thing is beautiful. dibuka dintle = The books are beautiful.
Colors
-sweu or -tshweu white
-ntsho black
-tala blue or green
-khubidu red




38.
examples:
mosimane yo mosweu a white boy
koko e ntsho a black fowl
koloi e tshweu a white auto
tafole e tala a blue table
pena e khubidu a red pen
pena e tala a blue or green pen
OR
motho mosweu the person is white
moruti mokima the teacher is stout
tafole tala the table is blue
buka tona the book is big
Practice
Match the following nouns with appropriate adjectives given in
the second column. Remember that they can be combined in two
different ways.
dibuka -leele
barutwa -ntsi
mosimane -ntle
madi -kima
tzo -tona
koloi -nnye
tafoZle -sweu
pena -tala
sejo -khubidu
SLET'S COUNT
nngwe one
pedi two
tharo three
nne four
tlhano five
thataro six
supa seven
fera bobedi eight
fera bongwe nine
some ten
In Setswana, when we are referring to persons (instead of animals or
things) different words are used for the numbers 1-6. Note the
following examples.




39.
one pen pena e le nngwe
one person motho a le mongwe
two chairs ditilo di le pedi
two people batho ba le babedi
three chickens dikoko de le tharo three children bana ba le bararo
four books dibuka de le nne
four students barutwa ba le bane
five papers dipampiri di le tlhano
five girls basetsana ba le batlhano
six teachers baruti ba le barataro
six tables ditafole di le thataro
seven watches diwatshe di supa
seven children bana ba supa
eight books dibuka di fera bobedi eight people batho ba fera bobedi
nine automobiles dikoloi di fera bongwe
ten people batho ba le some
ten pens dipena di le some
twenty teachers baruti ba le masome mabedi
a hundred people batho ba le lekgolo
a hundred dollars didollar di le lekgolo
Practice
One effective way to learn the use of numbers is to write
down aZll of the numbers that are important to you and practice saying them in Setswana. For example: your
telephone number (and you friends'), your social security
number, zip code, street number, etc. The teacher can make
up other questions which require the student to compute and answer in Setswana (eg. How many days to Christmas?
How many days in the week? How many sisters or brothers
do you have? The number of books on your desk? etc.)
10, PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
The teacher may use and elaborate upon the following
exercises to practice the Setswana learned thus far.




4Q.
(1) Questions and Answers
(Question) (Answer)
Lo dira eng? Rea bala.
(What are you doing?) (We are reading.)
Ba ya kae? Ba ya Ocala.
(Where are they going?) (They are going to Ocala.)
0 batla eng? Ke batla madi.
(What do you want.) (I want money.)
A o bona mme? Ee, kea mmona.
(Do you see my mother?) (Yes, I see her.)
A o tsere pena? Nnyaa.
(Have you taken the pen?) (No.)
A o bona buka e tona? Ee.
(Do you see the big book?) (Yes.)
A o rata madi? Thata.
(Do you wike money?) (Very much.)
Go reng a tsamaile? 0 ile go ja.
(Why has he gone?) (He has gone to eat.)
(2) Miscellaneous Statements
Lere buka. (Bring the book.)
Moruti o buile sentle. (The teacher spoke well.) Ngwana o rata nama. (The child is fond of meat.)
Ke kwadile lokwalo maloba. (I wrote a letter recently.)
Lo tlaa bona rre kamoso. (You will see my father tomorrow.)
Lere ditilo di le thataro. (Bring six chairs.)
Re tswetse sekole maabane. (We cloosed the school yesterday.)
Bula ka bofefo. (Open (the door) quickly.)
Basimane ba le lekgolo ba rata sekole. (One hundred boys like school.)
Go ruta ngwana go batla madi a mantsi. (To teach a child needs much money.)
Ba tsere dipena di fera bongwe. (They took nine pens.)
Ke tlaa go bona kgantele. (I shall see you shortly.)
Baruti ba tswa sekoleng. (The teachers come from school.)
Nxe! (Sorry you're hurt.)
(3) Questions and Answers (using adjective forms)
The teachers should first question students. Students may
then turn and question one another.




41.
Teacher: A sekole se sentle? (Is the school beautiful?)
Student: Ee, sekole se sentle. (Yes, the school is beautiful.)
Teacher: A moruti o moleele? (Is the teacher tall?)
Student: Nnyaa, moruti mokhutshwane. (No, the teacher is short.)
Teacher: A tiro e ntsi? (Is there much work?)
Student: Nnyaa, tiro nnye. (No, there is little work.)
) Conversation:
Ruth: Dumela, tma. Good day, madam.
June: Ee, dumela, mma. Yes, good day, madam.
Ruth: 0 kae? How are you?
June: Ke teng. I am fine.
Ruth: Bana ba kae? How are your wife and children?
June: Ba teng. They are fine.
Ruth: Go utlwalang? What is the news?
June: Lefa e le sepe. Nothing.
Ruth: 0 ja eng? What are you eating?
June: Ke ja hamburger. I am eating hamburger.
Ruth: John o dira eng? What is John doing?
June: Ga ke itse. I don't know.
Ruth: 0 botsa mang? Whom are you asking?
June: Wena. You.




42.
BULLETIN OF THE SOUTHERN ASSOCIATION OF AFRICANISTS:
ARTICLES AND MEDIA REVIEWS 1973 1981
The first issue of the Newsletter of the Southern Association of
Africanists was published in February 1973 with support from the Department of Government and International Studies at the University of South Carolina, Columbia. In 1975 the Newsletter became the Bulletin, and major responsibility for publication shifted to the Center for African Studies, University of Florida. Since its beginning, this publication has appeared three times a year. A few back issues are still available for purchase, and special arrangements can be made for SAA members who wish to obtain photocopies of those volumes which are out of stock (see the notes on ordering and on SAA membership immediately following the INDEX). The following Index covers Volumes 1-8 and Volume 9, Number
1. The Index is divided into two parts: articles, which focus primarily on problems and suggestions related to teaching;and media reviews, mostly of published books. Omitted from the Index are reviews of filmstrips, miscellaneous announcements, and items of news. To conserve space and time, we have ommitted dates. For reference:
Vol. 1 1973
2 1974
3 1975
4 1976
5 1977
6 1978
7 1979
8 1980
9 1981
Special thanks go to Ms. Betty Sue Odom, graduate student in Social Science at Western Carolina University, for her work in compiling the Index.
INDEX TO ARTICLES
Bergerol, Jane. "Facing Independent Realities" in Vol. 3, No. 3.
Brana-Shute, Rosemary. "Post-Independence Africa: An Annotated Bibliography"
in Vol. 4, No. 2.
"Post-Independoice Africa: An Annotated Bibliography (Part II)" in Vol. 5, No. 1.
Brooks, George E. "A Scheme for Integrating Africa into World History" in Vol.
3, No. 3.
Brown, Walter T. "Funding International Studies: The Challenge of Globalizing Education" in Vol. 6, No. 2.
DeLancey, Mark. "Some Cameroon Authors in the African Writers Series of Heinemann Educational Books" (Review Essay) in Vol. 4, No. 1.




43.
"A Return Visit to Nigeria" in Vol. 4, No. 1. "Some Nigerian Views on the Angolan Conflict" in Nol. 4, No. 2. "Bills to Establish and African Development Foundation" in Vol. 6, No. 2.
Dudman, Mary K. "Rhodesia and South Africa: A Selected Reading List" in Vol. 6, No. 1.
Dumont, Rene. "Population and Cannibals" in Vol. 3, No. 1. Dunbar, Roberta Ann. "The Validity of African Studies in American Education:
the SAA Position" in Vol. 8, No. 1.
English, Marti. "The Changing Role of Women as Illustrated in God's Bits of
Wood" in Vol. 3, No. 3.
Erb, Karen Simmons. "Books on Africa in the Local Library A Critique" in
Vol. 5, No. 2.
Fuller, Thomas. "Synthesizing African History" (Review Essay) in Vol. 4, No. 1. Gals, Steven H. "American Studies in Liberia" in Vol. 7, No. 2/3. Glover, Karen. "Teaching Multi-Cultural Studies in High Schools" in Vol. 7,
No. 2/3.
Hall, Susan. "African Fiction in Class" in Vol. 2, No. 3.
"Tarzan Lives! A Study of the New Children's Books About Africa"
in Vol. 6, No. 3.
Hansen, Kathryn. "Idi Amin" (Review Essay) in Vol. 7, No. 2/3. Harris, Joseph E. "Afro-American Africanists and African Studies: A Statement"
in Vol. 5, No. 2.
Hartwig, Gerald W. "Empathetic Learning Reconsidered" in Vol. 5, No. 1. Heggoy, Alf Andrew. "North African History in English" in Vol. 8, No. 3. Herskovits, Jean. "Dateline Nigeria: A Black Power" in Vol. 6, No. 2. Huff, Carolyn B. "Southern Africa" (Review Essay) in Vol. 4, No. 3. Issacman, Allen. "U.S. Press Smears Mozambique" in Vol. 5, No. 3. Kenski, Henry C. & Margaret C. Kenski. "Teaching African Politics at American
Colleges and Universities: A Survey" in Vol. 5, No. 3.
Knipp, Margaret and Ronald Cohen. "Women and Change in West Africa" A
Synthesis" in Vol. 9, No. 1.




44.
Lemarchand, Rene. "Ethnic Genocide in Burundi" in Vol. 4, No. 1. Lyons, James E. "The University Press of America" in Vol. 8, No. 1. Manning, Patrick. "Things Fall Together: The Use of Literature in Teaching
African History" in Vol. 8, No. 3.
Meyers, B. David. "Teaching Teachers About Africa" in Vol. 3, No. 2. Motani, Nizar A. "The Expanding Frontier of African History: From Oliver
and Atmore to Robin Hallett" (Review Article) in Vol. 4, No. 3. Minter, William. "Learning from Guinea-Bissau" in Vol. 7, No. 1.
_ "The United States and Southern Africa: Some Reading Suggestions"
in Vol. 5, No. 3.
Omotoso, Sam 0. "Balance and Relevance in the U. S. Public School" in Vol. 6,
No. 1.
O'Toole, Thomas and Daniel Schafer. "Clearing the Jungle out of African Studies"
in Vol. 3, No. 1.
"The World History Teacher and Africa" in Vol. 4, No. 2.
_ "Teaching About Africa" in Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
"Understanding Contemporary Central African Society" Vol. 8, No. 2. Outreach Program of the African Studies Center (University of Wisconsin, Madison).
"Media About Africa in Outreach to Minority Groups" in Vol. 8, No. 3. Pounder, Lona. "Teaching About Africa" in Vol. 1, No. 3. Rich, Evelyn Jones. "Mind Your Language" in Vol. 4, No. 3.
"Mark My Word" in Vol. 5, No. 1.
"Media to Teach About Africa in Secondary Schools and Beyond:
An Overview" in Vol. 8, No. 2.
Rosenthal, Jerry E. "The Creeping Catastrophe" in Vol. 2, No. 1. Sanzare, James. "Checking the Labels" in Vol. 1, No. 2. Schmidt, Nancy J. "Four Perspectives on African History for Secondary School
Students" in Vol. 2, No. 1.
"Textbook Introduction to Africa: General or Specific?" in
Vol. 2, No. 3.
. "Enchantment of Africa: A New Series for Children" (Review
Essay) in Vol. 3, No. 1.




45.
"Entries on Africa in Reference Books for Children" in Vol. 3,
No. 2.
"Who Is Kwame Nkrumah?" (Review Essay) in Vol. 3, No. 3.
i "Fiction About African Children for African Children: Books
in Series" in Vol. 4, No. 3.
. "Enchantment of Africa: Recent Additions to the Series"
(Review Essay) in Vol. 4, No. 3.
"The African Bookshelf: Basic Books for High Schools" in Vol. 5,
No. 3.
"Conceptual Frameworks for Study of Africa in American Secondary
Schools" in Vol. 6, No. 1.
. "African Sketches: A New Curriculum Unit From Inter-Culture
Associates" in Vol. 6, No. 3.
"Enchantment of Africa: Tbe Rush to Finish the Series" in
Vol. 6, No. 3.
"Africa in Children's Fiction: American Views 1830-1979" in
Vol. 9, No. 1.
Scott, Patrick. "The Cultural Significance of T. N. Aluko's Novels" in Vol. 7,
No. 1.
Seckel, Jr., Clarence G. "African Oral Literature in the Secondary School
Curriculum" in Vol. 4, No. 2.
Stanley, W. R. and K. E. French. "Studying the Human Geography of Sub-Saharan
Africa" in Vol. 2, No. 3.
Stevens, Jr., Phillip. "On The Teaching of African Anthropology" in Vol.. 8, No. 1. Walsh, Gretchen. "Textbook Publishing in Africa" in Vol. 7, No. 2/3. Walter, Kenneth G. "Library Development for Areal Studies: Cameroons" in Vol.
1, No. 2.
Zimra, Clarisse. "Women in Contemporary Arabic Fiction" (Review Essay) in Vol.
7, No. 2/3.




46.
INDEX TO MEDIA REVIEWS
Abdel-Rahim, Muddathir. Changing Patterns of Civilian-Military Relations in
the Sudan. (Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1978). Reviewed
by Gerald Hartwig. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Abrahams, Peter. Mine Boy. (Heinemann, 1963). Reviewed by Joan Lewis. Vol. 2.
No. 1.
. Mine Boy. (Heinemann, 1963). Reviewed by Harriet Wells. Vol. 3,
No. 1.
Accad, Evelyne. Veil of Shame: The Role of Women in the Contemporary Fiction
of North Africa and the Arab World. (Editions Naaman, 1978). Reviewed by
Clarisse Zimra. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. (McDowell, Oblinshey, 1959). Reviewed by
Susan Hall. Vol. 2, No. 3,
_ No Longer at Ease. (Publications, Inc., 1969). Reviewed by
Russell Linnemann, Vol. 3, No. 1.
Morning Yet on Creation Day. (Doubleday Anchor Books, 1975).
Reviewed by Esther Fisher. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Africa Research Group. Race to Power: The Struggle for Southern Africa. (Anchor
Books, 1974). Reviewed by Carolyn Huff. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Akintoye, S. A. Emergent African States: Topics in 20th Century African History.
(Longman, 1976). Reviewed by R. L. Watson. Vol, 5, No. 3.
Akpan, Moses E. African Goals and Diplomatic Strategies in the United Nations:
An In-Depth Analysis of African Diplomacy. (Cristopher Publishing House,
1976). Reviewed by Robert Mundt. Vol. 6, No. 1.
Nigerian Politics: A Search for National Unity and Stability.
(University Press of America, 1977). Reviewed by James S. E. Opolot. Vol.
6, No. 2.
Alland, Alexander. When the Spider Danced. (Anchor Press/Doubleday). Reviewed by
Steven Nachman. Vol. 8, No. 2.
Amadi, Elechi. The Concubine. (Heinemann, 1966). Reviewed by Mary Jane Schenck.
Vol. 3, No. 1.
Amengual, Michael. Une histoire de l'Afrique est-elle possible? (Les Nouvelles
Editions Africaines, 1975). Reviewed by Daniel M. McFarland. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Ames, Sophia. Nkrumah of Ghana. (Rand McNally, 1961). Reviewed by Nancy J.
Schmidt. Vol. 3, No. 3.




47.
Arco Publishing Company. Peoples of Africa. (Arco, 1978). Reviewed by Nancy J.
Schmidt. Vol. 3, No. 2.
Arnold, Guy. Modern Nigeria. (Longman, 1977). Reviewed by Mark W. DeLancey.
Vol. 6, No. 3.
Austin, Dennis. Politics in Africa. Reviewed by Sandra Wurth-Hough. Vol. 8,
No. 1.
Awooner, Kofi. The Breast of the Earth, A Survey of the History, Culture, and
Literature of Africa South of the Sahara. Reviewed by Patrick Greig Scott.
Vol. 6, No. 1.
Bastide, Roger. The African Religions of Brazil. Trans. by Helen Sheba. (John
Hopkins Press, 1978). Reviewed by Thomas O'Toole. Vol. 8, No. 2.
Bebey, Francis. Agatha Meudio's Son. (Heinemann Ed. Books). Reviewed by Mark
DeLancey. Vol. 4, No. 1.
Bender, Gerald J. Angola Under the Portuguese: The Myth aLd the Reality. (University of California Press, 1978). Reviewed by Joseph C. Miller. Vol. 6, No. 3.
Berghahn, Marion. Images of Africa in Black American Literature. Rowman and
Littlefield, 1967). Reviewed by Larry E. Rivers. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Bernheim, Evelyn and Marc. A Week in Aya's World: The Ivory Coast. (MacMillian
Co., 1969). Reviewed by Jean Travillion. Vol. 3, No. 1.
. In Africa. (Atheneum, 1973). Reviewed by Jean Travillion. Vol.
3, No. 1.
Best, Alan C. G. and Harm J. deBilj. African Survey.' (John Wiley and Sons, 1977).
Reviewed by Jeffrey W. Neff. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Beti, Mongo. Mission to Kala. (Heinemann, 1964). Reviewed by Susan Hall, Vol.
2, No. 3.
. The Poor Christ of Bomba. (Heinemann Ed. Books). Reviewed by
Mark W. DeLancey. Vol. 4, No. 1.
Bhagavan, M. R. Zambia: Impact of Industrial Strategy on Regional Imbalance and Social Inequality. (Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1978).
Reviewed by Eugene Hermitte. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Birks, J. S. Across the Savannas to Mecca, the Overland Pilgrimage Route from West Africa. (Frank Cass and Co., 1978). Reviewed by Claude Chauvigne.
Vol. 9, No. 1.
Bissell, Richard E. Apartheid and International Organizations. (Westview Press, 1977). Reviewed by Mark W. DeLancey. 7ol. 6, No. 2.
Blair, Dorothy S. African Literature in French. (Cambridge University ?ress, 1976). Reviewed by Pat Umfress. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.




48.
Bleeker, Sonia. The Ibo of Biafra. (William Morrow and Co., 1969). Reviewed
by Jean Travillion. Vol. 3, No. 1.
Boateng, Yaw M. The Return: A Novel of the Slave Trade in Africa. (Pantheon
Books, 1977). Reviewed by Elaine Greenberg. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Boesak, Allan Aubrey. Farewell to Innocence: A Socio-Ethical Study on Black
Theology and Power. (Orbis Books, 1977). Reviewed by Paul Blankenship.
Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Bono, Salvatore. Le Frontiere in Africa. (Guiffre, 1973). Reviewed by Anthony
S. Reyner. Vol. 3, No. 2.
Booth, Newell S., ed. African Religions: A Symposium. (NOK Publishers, 1977).
Reviewed by J. R. Crawford. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Brooks, Lester. Great Civilizations of Ancient Africa. (Four Winds Press,1971).
Reviewed by Thomas Fuller. Vol. 4, No. 1.
Burchett, Wilfred. Southern Africa Stands Up: The Revolutions in Angola, Mozambique, Rhodesia, Namibia and South Africa. (Urizen Books, 1978). Reviewed
by Joseph Miller. Vol. 8, No. 2.
and Derek Roebuck. The Whores of War: Mercenaries Today.
(Penghin Books, 1977). Reviewed by Mary Jo Bratton. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Burness, Donald. Fire: Six Writers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde.
(Three Continents, 1977). Reviewed by Maria Luisa Nunes. Vol: 7, No. 2/3.
Butere Girls High School, Form IV A (1968). Loice, High School Student. (East
African Publishing House, 1970). Reviewed by Steve Burgess. Vol. 2, No. 2.
Butler, Jeffrey, Robert I. Rotberg & John Adams. The Black Homelands of South
Africa: The Political and Economic Development of Bophuthatswana KwaZulu.
(University of California Press, 1977). Reviewed by Carolyn B. Huff. Vol.
6, No. 3.
Carlsson, Jerker. Transnational Companies in Liberia: The Role of Transnational
Companies in the Economic Development of Liberia. (Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1977). Reviewed by Donald E. Vermeer. Vol. 6, No. 3.
Carpenter, Susan and Pat Burke Guild. Cultural Iniative Series: Africa. (Intercultural Associates, 1974). Reviewed by Phyllis Alexander. Vol. 3, No. 1.
. Africa--Cultural Iniative Series. (Intercultural Associates, 1974).
Reviewed by Tom Erb. Vol. 5, No. 2.
Casada, James A., ed. African and Afro-American History: A Review of Recent
Trends. (Conch Magazine Ltd., 1978). Reviewed by William C. Henderson.
Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Chamberlain, M. E. The Scramble for Africa. (Longman, 1974). Reviewed by R. L.
Watson. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Chanock, Martin. Britain, Rhodesia, and South Africa. (Frank Cass, 1977). Reviewed by K. Nyamayaro Mufuka. Vol. 7, No. 1.




49.
Chester, Edward W. Clash of Titans: Africa and United States Foreign Policy.
(Orbis Books, 1974). Reviewed by Dennis Schroeder. Vol. 6, No. 3.
Chirenje, J. Mutero. A History of Northern Botswana, 1850-1910. (Farleigh
Dickinson University Press, 1977). Reviewed by Richard Sigwalt. Vol. 6,
No. 2.
Clissold, Stephen. The Barbary Slaves. (Rowman and Littlefield, 1977). Reviewed
by Dwight L. Ling. Vol. 6, No. 1.
Cohen, David William. Womunafu's Bunafu: A Study of Authority in a Nineteenth
Century African Community. (Princeton University Press, 1977). Reviewed
by Harris W. Mobley. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Comins, Jeremy. Getting Started in African Crafts. (Bruce Publishing Company,
1971). Reviewed by Jean Travillion. Vol. 3, No. 1.
Cooper, Frederick. Plantation Slavery on the East Coast of Africa. (Yale University Press, 1977). Reviewed by Gerald W. Hartwig. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Craton, Michael, James Walvin and David Wright. Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation: Black Slaves and the British Empire. (Longman, 1977). Reviewed
by Mary Jo Bratton. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Crowder, Michael. West Africa: An Introduction to its History. (Longman, 1977).
Reviewed by K. David Patterson. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Crowley, Daniel J., ed. African Folklore in the New World. (University of Texas
Press, 1977). Reviewed by Lauren Yoder. Vol. 6, No. 3.
Cruickshank, Robert, Kenneth L. Stand and Hugh B. L. RUssell, eds. Epidemiology
and Community Health in Warm Climate Countries. (Livingston, 1976). Reviewed by K. David Patterson, Vol. 7, No. 1.
Curtain, Phillip, Steven Feierman, Leonard Thompson and Jan Vansina. African
History. (Little, Brown and Company, 1978). Reviewed by Tom O'Toole.
Vol. 6, No. 1.
African History. (Little, Brown and Company, 1978). Reviewed
by John Zarwan. Vol, 6, No. 2.
Dalby, David, R. J. Harrison Church and Faima Bezzaz. Drought in Africa. (International African Institute, Special Report 6, 1975). Reviewed by Jeffrey
Neff. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Dathorne, 0. R. African Literature in the 20th Century. (University of Minnesota
Press, 1977). Reviewed by Charles F. Dameron, Jr. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Davenport, T. R. H. South Africa: A Modern History. Second Edition. (University
of Toronto Press, 1978). Reviewed by K. David Patterson. Vol, 8, No. 2.
Decalo, Samuel. Historical Dictionary of Dahomey--People's Republic of Benin.
(AHD#7). (Scarecrow Press, 1976). Reviewed by Daniel MacFarland. Vol. 7,
No. 1.




50.
. Historical Dictionary of Chad. (AHD#13). (Scarecrow Press,
1977). Reviewed by Daniel MacFarland. Vol. 7, No. 1.
DeLancey, Mark. W. and Virginia H. A Bibliography of Cameroon. (Africana
Publishing Co., 1975). Reviewed by James W. Brown. Vol. 4, No. 1.
DeLancey, Mark, ed. Aspects of International Relations in Africa. (Indiana
University, 1979). Reviewed by Karen A. Mingst. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Deng, Francis Mading. Dinka Folktales: African Stories from the Sudan. (Holmes
and Meier Publishers, Inc.). Reviewed by Paul A. Kotey. Vol. 3, No. 2.
. Africans of Two Worlds: The Dinka in Afro-Arab Sudan. (Yale
University Press, 1978). Reviewed by Edwin S. Segal. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Dipoko, Mbelle Sonne. Because of Women. (Heinemann Ed. Books). Reviewed by
Mark W. DeLancey. Vol. 4, No. 1.
. A Few Nights and Days. (Heinemann Ed. Books). Reviewed by Mark
W. DeLancey. Vol. 4, No. 1.
Doudu, Cameron. The Gab Boys. (Fontana). Reviewed by Allyn Purvis. Vol. 3, No.
Egejuru, Phanual Akubueze. Black Writers, White Audience: A Critical Approach to
African Literature. (Exposition Press, 1978). Reviewed by Patrick Greig
Scott. Vol. 8. No. 1.
Egero, Bertil. Research Report n-42 Mozambique and Angola: Reconstruction in the
Social Sciences. (The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1977). Reviewed by Mario Azevedo. Vol. 6, No. 3.
Egudu, Romanus N. Four Modern West African Poets. (NOK Publishers, 1977). Reviewed by Patrick Greig Scott. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Ekwensi, Cyprian. Jagua Nana. (Fawcett World Library, 1969). Reviewed by
Russell J. Linnemann. Vol. 5, No. 1.
Ellis, June, ed. West African Families in Britain, A Meeting of Two Cultures.
(Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978). Reviewed by Risa S. Ellovich. Vol. 7,
No. 2/3.
Elphick, Richard. Kraal and Castle: Khoikhoi and the Founding of White South
Africa. (Yale University Press, 1977). Reviewed by John Zarwan. Vol. 7,
No. 2/3.
Fage, J.D., ed. The Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 2: From c. 500 to A.D. 1050.
(Cambridge University Press, 1979). Reviewed by Stuart A. Marks. Vol. 8,
No. 3.
Fernea, Elizabeth. A Street in Marrakech. (Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1976). Reviewed by Wilfred C. Bailey. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Flint, John, ed. The Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 5: From c. 1790 to c. 187
(Cambridge University Press, 1976). Reviewed by Roberta Ann Dunbar. Vol. 8,
No. 3.




51.
Foray, Cyril P. Historical Dictionary of Sierra Leone. (AHD#12). (Scarecrow
Press. 1977). Reviewed by Daniel MacFarland. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Furley, 0. W. and Tom Watson. A History of Education in East Africa. (NOK
Publishers, 1978). Reviewed by David Gardiner. Vol. 8, No. 1.
Gann, L. H. and Peter Duignan. South Africa: War, Revolution or Peace? (Hoover
Institute Press, 1978). Reviewed by Carolyn Huff. Vol. 8, No. 2.
Gay, John. Red Dust on the Green Leaves: A Kpelle Twins' Childhood. (Interculture Associates, 1973). Reviewed by Alice Estes. Vol. 2, No. 1.
Red Dust on the Green Leaves. (Interculture Associates, 1973). Reviewed by Clive Kileff. Vol. 4, No. 1.
Gerhart, Gail M. and Thomas Daris, eds. Political Profiles, 1882-1964. (Hoover
Institution Press, 1977). Reviewed by Ted Hemmingway. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Gibson, Richard. African Liberation Movements: Contemporary Struggles Against
White Minority Rule. (Oxford University Press, 1972). Reviewed by Carolyn
Huff. Vol. 4, No. 3.
Gray, Richard, ed. The Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 4: From c. 1600 to c. 1790.
(Cambridge University Press, 1974). Reviewed by R. L. Watson. Vol. 8, No. 3.
Grimal, Henri. Decolonization: The British, French, Dutch, and Belgain Empires,
1919-63. (Westview Press, 1978). Reviewed by Tyler Blethen. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Guerry, Vincent. Life with the Baoulg. (Three Continents Press, 1975). Reviewed
by Steven Nachman. Vol. 8, No. 2.
Gugler, Joseph and Milliam C. Flanagan. Urbanization and Social Change in West
Africa. (Cambridge University Press, 1978). Reviewed by Wilfred C. Bailey.
Vol. 8, No. 1.
Gwyn, David. Idi Amin, Death Light of Africa. (Little, Brown, and Company, 1977).
Reviewed by Kathryn Hansen. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Haley, Alex. Roots. (Doubleday, 1976). Reviewed by Tom O'Toole. Vol. 5, No. 1.
Hall, Richard. Zambia: 1890-1964. (Longman, 1976). Reviewed by Eugene Hermitte.
Vol. 6, No. 3.
Hall, Susan J. Africa in United Stated Educational Materials: Thirty Problems
and Responses. (African-American Institute, 1976). Reviewed by Thomas Owen
Erb. Vol. 5, No. 3.
Hallett, Robin. Africa Since 1875: A Modern History. (University of Michigan
Press, 1974). Reviewed by Nizar A. Motani. Vol. 4, No. 3.
Hammond, Dorothy and Alta Jablow. The Myth of lfrica. (The Library of Social
Science, 1977). Reviewed by Mary Jo Bratton. Vol. 6, No. 2.




52.
Hansen, Emmanuel. Franz Fanon: Social and Political Thought. (Ohio State
University Press, 1977). Review by Wade Smith. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Harris, Grace G. Casting Out Anger: Religion Among the Taita of Kenya. (Cambridge University Press, 1978). Reviewed by Susan Abbott. Vol. 8, No. 2.
Harsch, Ernest and Tony Thomas. Angola: The Hidden History of Washington's War.
(Pathfinder Press, 1976). Reviewed by Carolyn Huff. Vol. 4, No. 3.
Hartwig, Gerald W. and William O'Barr. Student Africanist's Handbook. (Schenkman
Publishing Co., 1974). Reviewed by Dennis W. Schroeder. Vol. 3 No. 3.
and K. David Patterson, eds. Disease in African History: An Introductory Survey and Case Studies. (Duke University Center for Commonwealth
and Comparative Studies, 1978). Reviewed by Ira E. Harrison. Vol. 8, No. 1.
Hetherington, Penelope. British Paternalism in Africa: 1920-1940. (Frank Cass,
1978). Reviewed by James A. Casada. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Hodder, B. W. Africa Today: A Short Introduction to African Affairs. (Africana
Publishing Co., 1978). Reviewed by Robert Mundt. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Honwana, Luis Bernardo. We Killed Mangy-Dog and Other Mozambique Stories. (Heinemann, 1969). Reviewed by Lauren W. Yoder. Vol. 6, No. 1.
Howell, John Bruce. East African Community: Subject Guide to Official Publications.
(Library of Congress, 1976). Reviewed by Gerald W. Hartwig. .Vol. 5, No. 2.
Hull, Richard W. African Cities and Towns Before the European Conquest. (W. W.
Norton and Co., 1976). Reviewed by R. L. Watson. Vol. 5, No. 3.
Ibrahim, Sonallah. The Smell of It. (Heinemann, 1971). Reviewed by Susan Hall.
Vol. 2, No. 3.
Idowu, E. B. African Traditional Religion. (Orbis Books, 1975). Reviewed by
K. Mufuka. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Ilogu, Edmund. Christianity and Igbo Culture. (NOK Publishers, 1974). Reviewed
by Patrick Greig Scott. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Imperato, Pascal James. Historical Dictionary of Mali. (Scarecrow Press, 1977).
Reviewed by Mark LaPointe. Vol. 6, No. 1.
Indakwa, John. Expansion of British Rule in the Interior of Central Africa: 18901924: A Study of British Imperial Expansion into Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi.
(University Press of America, 1977). Reviewed by Eugene Hermitte. Vol. 6,No.3.
Innes, C. L. and Bernth Lindfors, eds. Critical Perspectives on Chinua Achebe.
(Three Continents Press, 197). Reviewed by Janice Spleth, Vol. 9, No. 1.
Irwin, Graham W. Africans Abroad: A Documentary History of the Black Diaspora
in Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean During the Age of Slavery. (Columbia
University Press, 1977). Reviewed by Arnold Shankman. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.




53.
Isicheri, Elizabeth Allo. History of West Africa Since 1800. (Africana Publishing
Co., 1977). Reviewed by Leland C. Barrows. Vol. 8, No. 1.
Jassy, M. Perrin. Basic Community in the African Churches. (Orbis Books, 1973).
Reviewed by K. Mufuka. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Johnson, Rhoda Omosunlola. lyabo of Nigeria. (Alpha Iota Chapter of Pi Lamda
Theta, 1973). Reviewed by Alice Estes. Vol. 2, No. 1.
Jorre, John St. A House Divided: South Africa's Uncertain Future. (Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace, 1977). Reviewed by Dennis Schroeder.
Vol. 6, No. 3.
Joy, Charles, R. Emerging Africa. (Scholastic Book Services, 1965). Reviewed by
Jean Travillion. Vol. 3, No. 1.
Kane, Cheik Hamidou. Ambiguous Adventure. (Macmillian, 1969). Reviewed by
Lauren Yoder. Vol. 2, No. 3.
Kapungu, Leonard T. Rhodesia: The Struggle for Freedom. (Orbis Books, 1974).
Reviewed by Dennis Schroeder. Vol. 6, No. 3.
Kaula, Edna Mason. The Land and People of Tanzania. (J. P. Lippincott Co., 1972'.
Reviewed by Allyn Robertson. Vol. 2, No. 2.
Keenan, Jeremy. The Tuareg: People of Ahaggar. (St. Martin's Press, 1977). Reviewed by Richard L. Smith. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Kileff, Clive and Wade C. Pendleton, eds. Urban Man in Southern Africa. (Mambo
Press, 1975). Reviewed by Carolyn Huff. Vol. 5, No. 3.
Killingray, David. A Plague of Europeans: Westerners in Africa Since the Fifteenth
Century. (Penguin Ed., 1973). Reviewed by Thomas Fuller. Vol. 4, No. 1.
Kimenye, Barbara. Moses and the Ghost. (Oxford University Press, 1971). Reviewed
by Allyn Robertson. Vol. 2. No. 2.
Kitchen, Helen, ed. Africa: From Mystery to Maze. (Lexington Books, 1976).
Reviewed by R. Hunt Davis, Jr. Vol. 5. No. 3.
Knight, C. Gregory and James L. Newman. Contemporary Africa: Geography and Change.
(Prentice Hall, 1976). Reviewed by Claude Chauvigne. Vol. 5. No. 3.
_ Contemporary Africa: Geography and Change. (Prentice Hall, 1976).
Reviewed by Jeffrey W. Neff. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Knoll, Arthur J. Togo Under Imperial Germany 1884-1914. (Hoover Institution Press,
1978). Reviewed by Donn M. Kurtz. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Kyemba, Henry. A State of Blood: The Inside Story of Idi Amin. (Ace Books, 1977).
Reviewed by Kathryn Hansen. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.




54.
LaGuma, Alex. And A Threefold Cord. (Seven Seas Publishers, 1964). Reviewed
by Susan Hall. Vol. 2, No. 3.
Lappe, Frances Moore and Joseph Collins. Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity.
(Houghton Mifflin Co., 1977). Reviewed by Janice E. Baker. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Laye, Camara. Dark Child: The Autobiography of an African Boy. (Farrar, Strauss
and Cirou, 1954). Reviewed by Carolyn Huff. Vol. 2, No. 3.
Lee, Richard B. and Irven DeVore, eds. Kalahari Hunter-Gatherers. (Howard
University Press, 1976). Reviewed by Brian du Toit. Vol. 8, No. 2.
Legum, Colin. Southern Africa: The Year of the Whirlwind. (Africana, 1977).
Reviewed by Mark DeLancey. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Lemarchand, Ren6, ed. African Kingships in Perspective. (Frank Cass and Co.,
1977). Reviewed by James William Jordan. Vol. 6, No. 1.
Levtzion, Nehemia, ed. Conversion to Islam. (Holmes & Meier, 1979). Reviewed
by Bruce Haight. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Lindfors,Bernth, ed. Critical Perspectives on Nigerian Literatures. (Three Continents Press, 1976). Reviewed by Dolores Smith. Vol. 8, No. 1.
Lipschutz, Mark R. and R. Kent Rasmussen. Dictionary of African Historical Biog (Aldine Publishing Co., 1978). Reviewed by Daniel M. MacFarland,
Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Listowel, Judith. Amin. (IVP Books). Reviewed by Kathryn Hansen. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Mabogunje, Akin L. and Adetoye Faniran, eds. Regional Planning and National Development in Tropical Africa. (Ibadan University Press, 1977). Reviewed by Donald
E. Vermeer. Vol. 6, No. 3.
Madubuike, Ihechukwu. A Handbook of African Names. (Three Continents Press, 1976).
Reviewed by Harris W. Mobley. Vol. 8, No. 1.
Mahomo, Nana. Last Grave at Dimbaza. (film). Reviewed by Nancy J. Schmidt. Vol.
5, No. 2.
Mahmoud,Zaki Naquib. The Land and People of Egypt. (J. B. Lippincott Co., 1972).
Reviewed by Allyn Robertson. Vol. 2. No. 2.
Markovitz, Irving Leonard. Power and Class in Africa: An Introduction to Change
and Conflict in African Politics. (Prentice-Hall, 1977). Reviewed by Karen
A. Mingst. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Marquard, Leo. The Peoples and Policies of South Africa. (Oxford University
Press, 1969). Reviewed by Carolyn Huff. Col. 4, No. 3.
Marshall, Anthony P. The Malagasy Republic. (Watts,.1972). Reviewed by Jean
Haworth. Vol. 2, No. 2.




55.
Martin, David. General Amin. (Faber and Faber, 1974). Reviewed by Kathryn
Hansen. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Martin, Phyllis M. and Patrick O'Meara, eds. Africa. (Indiana University Press,
1977). Reviewed by Tom O'Toole. No. 6, No. 2.
Mbaeyi, Paul Maegha. British Military and Naval Forces in West African History,
1807-1874. (NOK Publishers, 1978). Reviewed by Perry E. Leroy. Vol. 8, No. 1.
MacFarland, Daniel. Historical Dictionary of Upper Volta. (Haute Volta).(AHD#14).
(Scarecrow Press, 1978). Reviewed by Janice Baker. Nol. 7, No. 1.
McKown, Robin. Nkrumah. (Doubleday, 1973). Reviewed by Nancy J. Schmidt.
Vol. 3, No. 3.
Melady, Thomas Patrick. Burundi: The Tragic Years, An Eyewitness Account.
(Orbis Books, 1974). Reviewed by Elinor Sosne. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Sand Margaret. Idi Amin Dada: Hitler in Africa. (Sheed, Andrews
and McMeed, 1977). Review by Kathryn Hansen. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Melander, Goran and Peter Nobel, eds. African Refugees and the Law. (Scandinavian
Institute of African Studies, 1978). Reviewed by James S. E. Opolot. Vol. 8,
No. 1.
Mensah-Brown, A. Kodwo. Introduction to Law in Contemporary Africa. (Conch
Magazine, Ltd., 1976). Reviewed by James S. E. Opolot. Vol. 8, No. 1.
Miers, Suzanne and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. (University of Wisconsin Press, 1977). Reviewed by
Melvin Page. Vol. 8, No. 2.
Mitchinson, Naomi. Sunrise Tomorrow, A Story of Botswana. (Farrar, Straus, and
Giroux, 1973). Reviewed by Jean Haworth. No. 2, No. 2.
Mojekwu, Christopher, Victor Uchendu and Leo Van Hoey. African Society, Culture
and Politics: An Introduction to African Studies. (University Press of America, 1977). Reviewed by Anita Spring and Art Hansen. Vol. 8, No. 1.
Murphy, E. Jefferson. History of African Civilization. (Thomas Y. Crowell,Co.,
1972). Reviewed by Thomas Fuller. Vol. 4, No. 1.
Mufuka, Nyamayaro N. Missions and Politics in Malawi. (Limestone Press, 1977).
Reviewed by John R. Crawford. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Mutswairo, Solomon M. Mapondera, Soldier of Zimbabwe. (Three Continents Press,
1978). Reviewed by Eugene Hermitte. Vol. 8, No. 2.
Naden, Corrine J. The Nile River. (Franklin Watts, 1972). Reviewed by Steve
Burgess. Vol. 2, No. 2.
Nagenda John. Mukasa. (Macmillan, 1973). Reviewed by Alice Estes. Vol. 2, No. 1.




56.
Nolen, Barbara, ed. Africa is People: Firsthand Accounts from Contemporary Africa.
(E. P. Dutton and Co., 1968). Reviewed by Steve Burgess. Vol. 2. No. 2.
Nwulia, Moses D. S. Britain and Slavery in East Africa. (Three Continents Press,
1978). Reviewed by Mary Elizabeth Thomas. Vol. 8, No. 2.
Nyang, Sulayman Sheih, ed. Seminar Papers on African Studies. (Howard University Press, 1974). Reviewed by Richard Spencer. Vol. 3, No. 2.
Nyangoni, Wellington W. African Nationalism in Zimbabwe. (Rhodesia). (University
Press of America, 1977). Reviewed by Dennis Schroeder. Vol. 6, No. 3.
Ofeogbu, Mazi. R. Living Together in Africa. (Book One). (Conch Magazine, Ltd.,
1972). Reviewed by Marcia Texler Segal. Vol. 8, No. 1.
Ohaegbulam, Festus Ugboaja. Nationalism in Colonial and Post-Colonial Africa.
(University Press of America, 1977). Reviewed by Sandra Wurth-Hough. Vol.
7, No. 1.
Okonjo, I. M. British Administration in Nigeria 1900-1950: A Nigerian View.
(NOK Publishers, 1974). Reviewed by Donn M. Kurtz, II. Vol. 8, No. 1.
Oliver, Roland, ed. The Cambridge History of Africa Vol. 3: from c.1050-c. 1600.
(Cambridge University Press, 1977). Reviewed by Richard L. Smith. Vol. 8,
No. 3.
and Anthony Atmore. Africa Since 1800. (Cambridge University Press,
1972). Reviewed by Nizat A. Motani. Vol. 4, No. 3.
Omer-Cooper, J. D., E. A. Ayandale, A. E. Afigbe and R. J. Gavin. The Making of
Modern Africa. (Humanities Press, 1972). Reviewed by Nizar A. Motani, Vol.
4, No. 3.
Osinya, Alumidi. The Amazing Saga of Field Marshall Abdulla Salim Fisi, or
How the Hyena Got His. (JOE Publications and Transafrica Book Distributors,
1977). Reviewed by Lauren W. Yoder. Vol. 6, No. 1.
O'Toole, Thomas. Historical Dictionary of Guinea. (AHD#16). (Scarecrow Press,
1978). Reviewed by Daniel MacFarland. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Oyono, Ferdinand. Houseboy. (Heinemann, 1967). Reviewed by Susan Hall. Vol. 2,
No. 3.
. The Old Man and the Medal. (Macmillian, 1971). Reviewed by
Russell J. Linnemann. Vol. 3. No. 3.
. Boy' (Macmillian Co., 1970; Collier Books, 1970). Reviewed by
Russell J. Linnemann. Vol. 4, No. 1.
Pachai, B. Land and Politics in Malawi. (Limestone Press, 1978). Reviewed by
K. Nyamayaro Mufuka. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Palmberg, Mai, ed. Problems of Socialist Orientation in Africa. (Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1978). Reviewed by Joseph Smaldone. Vol. 9, No. 1.




57.
Palmer, Robin. Land and Racial Domination in Rhodesia. (University of California
Press, 1977). Reviewed by Elizabeth Normandy. Vol. 8, No. 2.
Paton, Alan. Cry, The Beloved Country. (Scribner). Reviewed by Thomasenia J.
Benson. Vol. 3, No. 2.
_ Cry, The Beloved Country. (Scribner). Reviewed by Donna Conrad.
Vol. 3, No. 1.
p'Bitek, Okot. gong of Lawino (East Africa Publishing House, 1966).
Reviewed by Susan Hall. Vol. 2, No. 3.
Pellow, Deborah. Women in Accra: Options for Autonomy. (Reference Publications
Inc., 1977). Reviewed by Clairesse Zimra. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Pinney, Roy. Slavery Past and Present. (Thomas Nelson, 1972). Reviewed by
Alice Estes. Vol. 2, No. 1.
Plaatje, Sol T. Mhudi. Edited by Stephen Gray. (Three Continents Press, 1978).
Reviewed by G. E. Gorman, Vol. 9, No. 1.
Powell, Erica. Kwame Nkrumah of the New Africa. (Nelson, 1961). Reviewed by
Nancy J. Schmidt. Vol. 3, No. 3.
Proceedings, First Annual Meeting, 1975; Proceedings, Second Annual Meeting, 1976;
French Colonial Studies/Etudes Colonials Francaises, 1977. (The French Colonial Historical Society). Reviewed by Daniel M. MacFarland. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Ranson, Roger L. and Richard Sutch. One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences
of Emancipation. (Cambridge University Press, 1977). Reviewed by Ted Hemmingway. Vol. 6, No. 3.
Rich, Evelyn Jones and Immanuel Wallerstein, eds. Africa: Tradition and Change.
(Random House, 1972). Reviewed by Nizar A. Motani. Vol. 4, No. 3.
Robinson, David Jr. and Douglas Smith, eds. Sources of the African Past.
(Africana Publishing Co., 1978). Reviewed by John Zarwan. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Rogers, Barbara. White Wealth and Black Poverty. American Investments in Southern
Africa. (Greenwood Press, 1976). Reviewed by Richard Leonard. Vol. 5, No. 3.
Roscoe, Adrian. Uhuru's Fire: African Literature East to South. (Cambridge
University Press, 1977). Reviewed by G. E. Gorman. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Rose, Willie Lee, ed, A Documentary History of Slavery in North America. (Oxford
University Press, 1976). Reviewed by Larry E. Rivers. Vol. 6, No. 3.
Rotberg, Robert I. and John Adams. The Black Homelands of South Africa. (Univerversity of California Press, 1977). Reviewed by Carolyn Huff, Vol. 6, No. 3.
Samkange, Stanlake. African Saga: A Brief Introduction to African History.
(Abingdon Press, 1971). Reviewed by Thomas Fuller. Vol. 4. No. 1.




58.
Schmidt, Nancy J., ed. Children's Literature and Audio-Visual Materials in
Africa. (Conch Magazine Ltd., 1977). Reviewed by Thomas 0. Erb. Vol. 6,
No. 3.
Sembene, Ousmane. God's Bits of Wood. (Anchor-Doubleday, 1970). Reviewed by
Coletia Brown. Vol. 2. No. 2.
Setai, Betheul. The Political Economy of South Africa: The Making of Poverty.
(University Press of America, 1977). Reviewed by Christopher W. Herrick.
Vol. 6, No. 2.
Shaw, Timothy M. and Kenneth A. Heard, eds. Cooperation and Conflict in Southern
Africa. (University Press of America, 1977). Reviewed by Carolyn Huff,
Vol. 8, No. 2.
Shepherd, George W. Jr. Anti-Apartheid: Transnational Conflict and Western Policy
in the Liberation of South Africa. (Greenwood Press, 1977). Reviewed by
Mark W. DeLancey. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Shorter, Aylward. African Christian Theology, Adaptation or Incarnation? (Orbis
Books, 1977). Reviewed by Paul Blankenship. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Siriex, Paul-Henri. Felix Houphouet-Boigny: l'homme de la paix. (Les Nouvelles
Editions Africaines, 1975). Reviewed by Daniel ". MacFarland. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Smith Robert. Warfare and Diplomacy in Pre-Colonial West Africa. (Harper & Row
and Methuen, 1976). Reviewed by Mary Elizabeth Thomas. Vol. 7, No. i.
State University of New York. Review, Vol. I, Numbers 1 and 2 (1977). Reviewed
by Thomas O'Toole. Vol. 6, No. 3.
Stavrianos, Liften and Loretta Kreider Andrews. Sub-Saharan Africa. (Allyn and
Bacon, Inc., 1967). Reviewed by Jean Travillion. Vol. 3, No. 1.
Steinhart, Edward I. Conflict and Collaboration: The Kingdoms of Western Uganda,
18S0-1907. (Princeton University Press, 1977). Reviewed by Kathryn W. Hansen.
Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
T~temeyer, Gerhard. Namibia Old and New: Traditional and Modern Leaders in
Ovamboland. (St. Martin's Press, 1978). Review by Carolyn Huff. Vol. 8,
No. 2.
Tracey, Hugh. The Lion On the Path. (Frederick A. Praeger, Inc., 1967). Reviewed
by Linda Meadows. Vol. 2, No. 2.
Troup, Freda. Forbidden Pastures: Education Under Apartheid. (International
Defense and Aid Fund for Southern Africa, 1976). Reviewed by Carolyn Huff.
Vol. 8, No. 2.
Udo, Reuben K. A Comprehensive Geographv of West Africa. (Africana Publishing
Co., 1978). Reviewed by Jeffrey W. Neff, Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Vengroff, Richard. Botswana: Rural Development in the Shadow of Apartheid.
(Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1977). Reviewed by Richard Sigwalt.
Vol. 6, No. 2.




59.
Verger, Pierre, Trade Relations Between the Bight of Benin and Bahia from the
17th to 19th Century. (Ibadan University Press, 1976). Reviewed by Thomas
O'Toole, Vol. 7, No. 1.
Voll, John Obert. Historical Dictionary of the Sudan. (Scarecrow Press, 1978).
Reviewed by Gerald W. Hartwig. Vol. 7, No. 1.
deVilliers, Les. South Africa: A Skunk Among Nations. (Tandem, 1975). Reviewed
by Carolyn Huff. Vol. 6. No. 2.
Vilakazi, Absalom L. Africa's Rough Road: Problems of Change and Development.
(University Press of America, 1977). Reviewed by Thomas O'Toole. Vol. 7,
No. 1.
Wauthier, Claude. The Literature and Thought of Modern Africa. (Three Continents
Press, 1978). Reviewed by Lauren Yoder. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Weinrich, A. K. H. Mucheke: Race, Status and Politics in a Rhodesian Community.
(Holmes and Meier Publishers, 1976). Reviewed by Marcia Texler Segal. (Vol.
8, No. 2.
Wellesley Editorial Committee. Women and National Development: The Complexities
of Change. (University of Chicago Press, 1977). Reviewed by Elizabeth
Normandy. Vol. 9, No. 1.
Were, Gideon S. A History of South Africa. (Africana Publishing Co., 1974).
Reviewed by Penny Campbell. Vol. 3, No. 3.
Widstrand, Carl and Samir Amin, eds. Multinational Firms in Africa. (Scandinavian
Institute of African Studies, 1975). Reviewed by Donald E. Vermeer. Vol. 6,
No. 3.
Willmer, John E., ed. Africa: Teaching Perspectives ahd Approaches. (Geographic
and Area Study Publications, 1975). Reviewed by Tom O'Toole, Vol. 5, No. 1.
Wilson, Ellen Gibson. A West African Cookbook. (M. Evans and Co., Inc.. 1971).
Reviewed by Angela W. Ransom. Vol. 3, No. 2.
Wilson, Henry S. The Imperial Experience in Sub-Saharan Africa S.nce 1870.
University of Minnesota Press, 1977). Reviewed by Richard L. ,n;th. Vol.
7, o. z,3.
Windrich, E. Britain .id t. t Rhodesian Independence. (Africana, 1978).
Reviewed by K. Nyamayaro Mufuka. 'ol. 7, No. 1.
Wright, Donald R. The Early History of 'Tiumi: Settlement and Foundations of a
Western Mandinka State in Gambia. (Ohio University Press, 1977). Reviewed
by Tom O'Toole. Vol. 7, No. 1.
Wright, Richard, ed. African Philosophy: An Introduction. (University Press of
America, 1977). Reviewed by Paul Blankenship. Vol. 7, No. 2/3.
Zekiros, Astair and Marylee Wiley. Africa in Social Science Textbooks. ( isconsin Department of Public Instruction, 1978). Reviewed by Thomas O'Toole.
Vol. 7, No. 2/3.




60.
SUBSCRIPTIONS AND BACK ISSUES
Persons interested in learning about or teaching about Africa may wish to subscribe to the Bulletin of the Southern Association of Africanists. This journal is published three times a year through the auspices of the Center for African Studies at the University of Florida, Gainesville. The content of the journal is directed towards teaching and features short articles, reivews and review essays, and syllabi. A membership form is provided below.
Available back issues can be purchased for $1.50 each, Issues out of stock can be photocopied for current subscribers at cost, presently 6 per page. Send your request to the Center for African Studies, 470 Grinter Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
SAA MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION FORM
NAME
ADDRESS
(street) (city) (state) (zip)
INSTITUTIONAL AFFILIATION
Enclosed is $ for my dues in the SAA ($4.00 per year).
Make checks payable to the SAA and send to:
Dr. James Brown
SAA Treasurer
International Education University of South Carolina at Spartanburg
Spartanburg, S.C. 29303
LZ New Application
IZ [ Change of address




61.
REVIEWS
NOTES FROM THE MEDIA REVIEW EDITOR
We continue to present readers with a mixed bag of reviews. Leading
of f are a number of short notices from the Scandinavian Institute of kfrican Studies followed by a single short review from the Centre for Development Research in Uppsala. Many thanks to the reviewers, who took time to do these small pieces on potentially overlooked sources.
The next group of reviews are focused mainly on West Africa and offer
a broad spectrum of potential interest for comparative purposes. Two reviewE of Ivory Coast development are especially valuable as are those reviews of three works on Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde. We are then warned away from a work on Liberian mass communications. This is followed by reviews of thorough studies on the EEC and Africa, Anglophone West Africa's perspective of the Italo-Ethiopian crisis, colonialism and underdevelopment in Ghana, and a contrasting study of German rule in Africa.
Reviews are welcome, especially of works of pedagogical value, but
reviewers should be warned that editing and time lag in publication are a reality.
Research Reports of the Scandinavian Institute of 'African Studies (numbers 1-41). Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala Offset Center AB, 1962-1977. No price available, soft cover. Review by James Williamn Jordan, Longwood College.
The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies was organized in 1962 in Uppsala, Sweden as a center for the collection and distribution of information about Africa. One principal task of the Institute is to publish relatively short research reports which are then circulated to educational institutions, private and state agencies, and individual scholars concerned with African issues. Most of the research activities of the Institute are in the fields of the social sciences, modern history and modern biography. For up-to-date information on the travelling scholarships, sponsored research activities, annual international seminars, and publication list of the Institute's Africana Library, scholars may subscribe to the Institute's annual Newsletter which is available free of charge from the Institute at P.O. Box 2126, S-750 02, Uppsala, Sweden.
This review deals only with the Research Reports of the Institute.
Forty-one Research Reports have been published but Numbers 1-6, 9 and 20 are out-of-print and were unavailable for review. Each of the 33 *Reports still in print is bound in booklet form and the average length of the 33 is 59 pages. No attempt is made here to note the contents of each Report but a list of the




62.
number, title, and author of each is given so that readers will be able to order a specific Report if the title seems appropriate to their interests.
Number
7. Selinus, Ruth, The Traditional Foods of the Central Ethiopian Highlands.
8. Haag, Ingemund, Some State-controlled Industrial Companies in Tanzania. 10. Linne, Olga, An Evaluation of Kenya Science Teachers College. 11. Nellis, John R., Who Pays Tax in Kenya? 12. Bondestam, Lars, Population Growth Control in Kenya. 13. Hall, Budd L., Wakati Wa Furaha. 14. St~hl, Michael, Contradictions in Agricultural Development. 15. Linn6, Olga, An Evaluation of Kenya Science Teachers College. 16. Lodhi, Abdulaziz Y., The Institution of Slavery in Zanzibar and Pemba. 17. Lundqvist, Jan, The Economic Structure of Morogoro Town. 18. Bondestam, Lars, Some Notes on African Statistics. 19. Jensen, Peter F~ge, Soviet Research on Africa. 21. Ndongko, Wilfred A., Regional Economic Planning in Cameroon. 22. Pipping-van Hulten, Ida, An Episode of Colonial History: The German
in Tanzania 1901-1914.
23. Magnusson, Ake, Swedish Investments in South Africa. 24. Nellis, John R., The Ethnic Composition of Leading Kenyan Government
Positions.
25. Francke, Anita, Kibaha Farmer's Training Centre: Impact Study 1965-1968. 26. Aasland, Tertit, On the Move-to-the-Left in Uganda 1969-1971. 27. Kirk-Greene, A.H.M., The Genesis of the Nigerian Civil War and the Theory
of Fear.
28. Okereke, Okoro, Agrarian Development Programmes of African Countries. 29. Kjekshus, Helge, The Elected Elite: A Socio-Economic Profile of
Candidates in Tanzania's Parliamentary Election, 1970.
30. Frantz, Charles, Pastoral Societies, Stratification, and National
Integration in Africa.
31. Esh, Tina, & Rosenblum, Illith, Tourism in Developing Countries Trick
or Treat? A Report from the Gambia.
32. Clayton, Anthony, The 1948 Zanzibar General Strike. 33. Pipping, Knut, Land Holding in the Usangu Plain. 34. Lundstr~m, Karl Johan, North-eastern Ethiopia: Society in Famine. 35. Magnusson, Ake, The Voice of South Africa. 36. Ghai, Yash, P., Reflection on Law and Economic Integration in East Africa. 37. Carlsson, Jerker, Transnational Companies in Liberia. 38. Green, Reginald H., Toward Socialism and Self Reliance: Tanzania's
Striving for Sustained Transition Projected.
39. Sjstrm, Rolf & Margareta, Literacy Schools in a Rural Society. 40. StAhl, Michael, New Seeds in Old Soil. A study of the land reform
process in Western Wollega, Ethiopia 1975-76.
41. Holmberg, Johan, Grain Marketing and Land Reform in Ethiopia.
The primary strength of the Research Reports is their presentation of data and sensitive observations from the field. Most of these data would probably not find their way to African scholars in other forms. A weakness of most of the reports is their frequent lack of theoretical perspective and sophisticated analysis of the data presented; in most instances this weakness is compensated by the richness and unique quality of the field observations.




63.
There are three uses for which the Research Reports are well fitted. The first of these is, of course, specific Reports will fall within the sub-disciplinary specializations of various students of African culture and society and can be useful as additional data. The second use is in the classroom; the length and degree of complexity of most of the Reports make them ideal as a basis for student oral presentations in advanced undergraduate or graduate level courses in African culture. Students will find sufficient material upon which to base a 15-30 minute seminar report and the frequent lack of interpretative or discussion sections in most Reports will provide the instructor the opportunity to force the students to carry out this task also as a part of the pedagogical process. The third use of the Reports is as a source of case studies or illustrative material for instructor's lectures. I have employed Bondestam's report on dangers in the interpretation of African statistics, Frantz on pastoral societies, and Esh and Rosenblum on tourism in developing countries in my own courses and been pleased with the results. The high degree of specificity of the data can complement nicely a more general discussion of the same topic.
A Critique of "Appropriate" Technology for Underdeveloped Countries. By M. R. Bhagavan. Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Research Report No. 48.
Inter-relations Between Technological Choices and Industrial Strategies in Third World Countries. By M. R. Bhagavan. Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Research Report No. 49.
Industrial Planning and Development in Mozambique, Some Preliminary Considerations. By Jens Erik Torp. Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Research Report. No. 50.
Review by A. Wade Smith, University of South Carolina.
These Research Reports are delightfully instructive, critical, and yet somewhat uneven. While the condensation of several complex issues allows a single volume to treat a range of important issues, the result is a report containing dense and extensive treatment of some topics while lightly passing off others.
Bhagavan's Critique of Appropriate Technology for Underdeveloped Countries takes considerable effort to define and describe "aptech" (appropriate technology), and to contrast aptech and "modtech" (modern technology). While instructive in both the economic and social relations resulting from the struggle of aptech vs modtech, Bhagavan expends considerable effort in pointing fingers at the politics both influencing and resulting from the choice of techniques involved in technological development. This is distracting, and uses space that would be more valuable in outlining those considerations that determine which alternative is the more realistic.




64.
For all of the faults of the previous volume, Bhavagan is forgiven if one reads his Inter-relations Between Technological Choices and Industrial Strategies in Third World Countries. While instructing the reader as to why the choice of industry (i.e. choice of product) always preceeds the choice of technique of industrialization, Bhagavan also manages to analyze the conditions leading underdeveloped countries to their respective decisions. 'The flaws of Critique are avoided, replaced by the shortcoming of glossing over developments occurring in socialist developing societies.
While best described as an even, instructive effort, Torp's Industrial Planning and Development in Mozambique is relatively uncritical. This volume describes the efforts of Mozambique's newly formed socialist government to cope with the maintenance and redirection of one of Africa's most industrialized economies. Eschewing nationalization whenever possible, FRELIMO encourages foreign participation, yet allows the import substitution of consumer (luxury) goods to collapse. Torp describes this policy as pragmatic, but also depicts- it as an attempt to resolve the contradictions existing between the government and the industrial sector. As this is a political strategy, not an industrial one, the entire discussion is descriptive as opposed to analytical, and therefore somewhat tentative.
Colonization & Migration: A Summary of Border-crossing Movements in Tanzania Before 1967. By Bertil Eger6. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1979. Review by Marcia Texier Sega., Indiana University Southeast.
This pamphlet will be useful to Africanists seeking quantitative data, some not previously published, on migrants into and out of Tanzania during the colonial period and first decade of independence. It will also be useful to teachers as a case study illustrating the interplay between colonialism and population movements.
Eger6 uses historical sources and 1948, and 1967 census data to estimate the numbers and movements of Europeans, Arabs, Asians and Africans offering brief but accurate and informative explanations for trends, and insights into their consequences. The reliability of the data is assessed.
Data from the 1967 census show over 440,000 persons living in mainland Tanzania who were born elsewhere including over 38,000 non-Africans. Native and foreign born non-Africans made up just over 1% of the mainland population. in 1967.
Labor migrations into and out of Tanzania can be documented, but movement across colonially defined borders by people whose traditional homelands are split, and the movements of political and other refugees are more difficult to estimate.
The text and tables, apart from a few awkward phrases, are readable.




65.
The map on p. 35 would be more useful if placed nearer the beginning of the text and accompanied by a caption explaining the numbers. A useful bibliography and list of all publications in the series are included.
Aspects of Agro-Pastoralism in East Africa. Research Report No. 51. By Per Brandstr~m, Jan Hultin, Jan Lindstr6m. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies. Review by Frank FilZo, University of FZorida.
Agro-pastoralism refers to a society in which animal husbandry occurs
in combination with agriculture. This report analyses some of the variations that have developed within this general mode in East Africa. It is the premise of the authors that the differing ecological-socio-economic linkages
that have evolved are to be viewed as "variations on a common agro-pastoral theme."
The thematic element considered invariant is the interdependency of agriculture and animal husbandry within one and the same societal context. Agriculture is the economic base, while livestock are of utmost importance not only for subsistence, but also for the integration and reproduction of the social system. This interdependency is given a variety of expression in East Africa, and examples which illustrate this diversity of social form are presented. The authors suggest that the variations among agro-pastoral groups can be viewed in terms of differing degrees of specialization and exchange within/between societies, ethnic groups, and households.
Attention is given to the problem of human and livestock population pressures exerted on the ecological niches of a number of agro-pastoral societies. Examples of methods of adjustment to overcrowding are discussed. Principally, it is the complexity of this problem, the occurrence of which is likely to increase in frequency and severity, which is emphasized.
The stated intention of the authors is for this report to be a "prestudy," to raise questions for further research. Combining simple theoretical models with a number of empirical examples, they accomplish this purpose admirably.
DiversityRegionalism and National Unity. Research Report No. 54. By Mohamed Omer Beshir. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1979. Review by Frank Fillo, University of Florida.
A chronic condition characterizing many African nations is the conflict between regional and national interests. This conflict and its possible resolution is the theme of this report.




66.
The report is divided into two sections. First, the author examines the interrelation between cultural diversity and national (and continental) unity. Diversity in Africa is reviewed, with reference made to religions, languages, music, and arts. Unity and the nation-state are discussed in terms of the colonial experience, that is, the economic, legal and educational systems imposed by foreign powers. The thesis is presented that ethnic regionalism need not be incompatible with national aspirations.
Described in the second part of the report are the political events
in Sudan since independence. That is, a case study is presented of conflict and reconciliation of regional and national interests. The long civil war came to an end when it was realized that the promotion solely of the culture of the majority in Sudan could never lead to a national integration. Only the acceptance of differences in cultures, and a rejection of strict uniformity and regimentation, could provide a sound basis for unity.
The problem of regional-national conflict is far from resolved for most of Africa; this report presents the issues involved, and the approach required if resolution is to be attained.
La Revolution agraire en Alg~rie. Historique, contenu et problemes. By J~nsson, Laws. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1978. Review by Reng Lemarchand, University of Florida.
Brevity is not the only merit of this highly informative "digest" of
the so-called "agrarian revolution" of 1972. In 84 pages the author covers the most significant aspects of this "eminently political operation," including the redistribution of land and the setting up of the Cooperatives Agricoles de Production de la R'volution Agraire (CAPRE). The political structures designed to implement the reform are dealt with at some length as well as the problem of investments and commercialization. But perhaps the most illuminating section is that which discusses the struggle for power within the Assemblee Populaire Communale between large and small land holders. Unfortunately little effort is made by the author to set the Algerian experience in the perspective of comparable efforts at rural reorganization elsewhere in the world. And there is precious little in the way of serious political analysis. Jnsson's treatment is largely descriptive, and at times exceedingly superficial. The author, I might add, seems totally unaware of Claudine Chaulet's classic work on rural reform in Algeria, La Mitadja Autogrge (Alger, 1971).




67.
The Village Women in Ghana. By Jette Bukh. Uppsala: Centre for Development Research Publication 1. 1979. Review by Anita Spring, University of Florida.
This is an excellent study concerned with the consequences of development. After studying the Ewe people in Southeast Ghana in general and men's participation in farming in the area in particular, the author realized that women were greatly important to the farming economy, and he began to survey their production and distribution. Research was carried out intermittently from 1973 to 1978 and eight different surveys were made. The author focuses on the long term consequences of cocoa production and male out-migration. Both were good for the colonial masters in terms of supplying raw materials and manpower, and for the Ewe people in terms of increasing the standard of living. However, cocoa and out-migration have produced devastating long term effects on agricultural production, division of labor, and family lif e.
Bukh explains the mechanisms by which cocoa was introduced, dominated the economy and undermined women's position. Traditionally the Ewe were completely dominated by small-holder production with half the land allocated for food crops and half for tree crops. When cocoa was introduced to men, they began occupying large tracts permanently and thereby limited the amount of lands for food crops. By custom, land was allocated by the lineage, but cocoa trees belonged to the individual to be bought or pledged. The first cocoa growers took the best fertile land, leaving smaller plots for later comers. Over time, this created a new propertied class and labor system. As men became more involved in cocoa production and/or migrated for wage labor, more of the household agricultural production fell to women, most of whom had always farmed. As a result of cocoa farming, there was less emphasis on food crops. Production was left to women and food farms were pushed from the most fertile land. Subsequently, there was a.major change in the crops grown; yams which had been cultivated by men was replaced by cassava and maize cultivated by women. Cassava and maize are less labor intensive than yams and women began growing these crops because they had to do numerous other jobs (such as trading, food processing and preparation for household consumption and sale, firewood and water carrying, domestic tasks and childcare) and had no input of male labor. As a result of cocoa production and male migration, Bukh argues, women wound up working harder and households began to rely on female labor exclusively. The end result was that agricultural production was lowered and remains low today.
Bukh details through charts and tables agricultural labor, household composition, and expenses in terms of men's and women's input. He shows that the incidence of female 'headed households has increased significantly and that 42% of all households are now headed by women. A consequence of this situation is that women take greater responsibility for their families' subsistence and at the same time have greater difficulty in access to resources. They do not qualify for programs or resources which are reserved for men. more women are divorced, more households are headed by women, and women are increasingly pauperized as their yields and lands decrease while the amount of labor expended increases.




68.
Bukh provides a classic case of the consequences of unplanned development. He documents the mechanisms by which women have lost land, been denied access to credit, agricultural inputs and services, and begun protesting their situation. The author is to be commended because he considers both sexes' contribution to production, disaggregates the data by gender, and provides an historical perspective which shows that "progress" does not come evenly to all segments of the population. This book will be more useful for courses concerned with the development, farming systems and gender roles.
Ivory Coast: The Challenge of Success. By Baastian A. den Tuinder. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978. Review by Robert Mundt, University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
The Ivorian case is at the center of many discussions of growth and
development strategies in Africa. In basing the country's economy unequivocally on private foreign investment, President Houphouet-Boigny bucked the ideological tide of the 1960s. Consequently, there is more at stake in the debate about his success than the destiny of a single African economy. Not surprisingly, much has already been written, mostly polemical, on the subject.1
Den Tuinder headed a World Bank mission to the Ivory Coast in 1975.
This book is essentially his report to the Bank of the mission's assessment of the soundness of the Ivorian economy. It includes an introductory economic history, detailed descriptions of current economic planning and policy, and of Ivorian economic relations with other countries. Without staking out an ideological position, den Tuinder presents data relevant to discussions of dependency: The concentration of trade patterns, balance of payments, foreign exchange holdings, and imports of vital resources (petroleum). Three interrelated problems are identified: employment, income distribution, and the presence of African and non-African foreign populations. The book concludes with a prescriptive econometric model and a corresponding set of policies, while admitting that many of these suggestions (e.g. in taxation and education) are probably not politically feasible.
This work offers no new cures for poverty and underdevelopment, even for countries with relatively high potential. Its principal merit is that it presents, in a vocabulary accessible to the layman, a dispassionate analysis of an important model of development as it operates in a real-world case. Students of Third World economies will find it rich in generalizable observations.
1 The book-length literature alone includes Samir Amin, Le Dveloppement du Capitalisme en C~te d'Ivoire, Michael A. Cohen, Urban Policy and Political Conflict in Africa, and Jon Woronoff, West African Wager.




69.
West African Wager: Houphouet Versus Nkrumah. By Jon Woronoff. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1979. Review by John O'Sullivan, Tuskegee Institute.
Mr. Jon Woronoff has established a reputation as a prolific writer on West African affairs and Ivory Coast in particular. His byline is often seen in Africa Report and other periodicals. He seems well acquainted with modern Ivory Coast though his knowledge seems more that of a journalist than an academician. This in itself is no criticism of course.
West African Wager follows in the wake of at least five other works
which compare the two countries. Such comparisons are logical for several reasons. Ghana and Ivory Coast are two similarly sized countries covering approximately the same-ecozone. Ghana experienced British colonial rule while Ivory Coast was controlled by the French and since independence they have pursued markedly different political and social policies. Ghana's Kwame N'Krumah was the Pan-Africanist and arch foe of neo-colonialism while Felix Houphouet-Boigny, President of Ivory Coast, has been willing to consort with France and even South Africa in order to build up the economic base of Ivory Coast and to promote its development.
Woronoff's book leads us along the road of such comparisons though it certainly is not the definitive study. His book plods from chapter to chapter presenting first the Ghanaian then the Ivorian experience of "the Struggle for Power," "Foreign Policy," "Economic Development" without delving into any serious analysis of the whys and why-nots.
It is striking to me that Nkrumah, the militant anti neo-colonialist,
led his struggle for independence with the slogan "Seek ye first the political kingdom and then all else will follow" and then proceeded to lead Ghana straight into the neo-colonial trap from which it still is not freed. On the other hand Houphouet, the tool of neo-colonialism it is claimed, has been able to develop the Ivorian economy significantly. At least Ivory Coast has been able to maintain a 7% growth rate while Ghana faces inflation of 116% per year, the devaluation of the cedi and other economic difficulties.
The book's presentation is lifeless and dull which is too bad since the problem of development and neo-colonialiam is so interesting. What progress has been made in the more than thirty years since Nkrumah and Houphouet began their struggle?
A further problem with using this book in a course on Africa is that doleful bane of the Africanist--the Hamites. They crop up on page 4 as "Fierce Hamitic tribes." That canard ordinarily causes me to close the book and give up on the author as unread if not worse. The whole first chapter is weak on history with few footnotes or acquaintance with the literature.
Beyond that Woronoff could get the unwary confused as to time sequence (-beginning Chapter 2), internal Ghanian (Gold Coast in the context) politics, and the complexity of the Ivorian struggle within the confused post war French political scene.




70.
In summary then, this book might be of use in an upper division course where sophisticated readers could compensate for the book's weaknesses. It might well be used as supplementary reading (with Nkrumah's Neo-Colonialism for example) or as a good base for a book review essay assignment since it does have some problems. As a descriptive record of the struggle for independence and the years up through the 1966 coup in Ghana it does serve a purpose.
Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Islands: A Comprehensive Bibliography. By Joseph M. McCarthy. New York: Garland, 1977. Review by Richard A. Lobban, Jr., Rhode Island College.
This bibiography is just what it claims to be.- There is no introductory essay, nor is there any annotation of the bibliographic citations. It does, however, present a comprehensive collection of sources in various European languages, and especially in Portuguese which, naturally, has been the
language of a very significant portion of the studies on these former colonies of Portugal. The bibliography is also comprehensive in the subjects which are covered from Agriculture to Economics and Religion to name three of the twenty separate topics. The section on the Liberation Struggle is particularly useful for those interested in the main currents of African nationalism.
McCarthy's work is THE place to begin any serious study of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde. None of the other existing bibliographers covering Portuguese Africa is as complete as his. As a research tool for these African nations the book is to be highly recommended and is a significant contribution to more scholarly investigation of the culture, history, flora and fauna of the two countries. The virtual monopoly of research in Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde by the Portuguese and their centuries of colonialism is being broken by this and other efforts in the area. The McCarthy bibliography provides a key to open doors of inquiry which were only ajar for those not
equipped to have access to the wider literature. At the same time it brings the fine scholarly works of Portuguese anthropologists and historians to wider attention. The writings of Antonio Carreira, Antonio Correa, and Avelino da Mota, to name only a few of the more prominent Portuguese writers, are very worthwhile reading.
The author index at the end of the book gives another channel of access into this bibliographic collection so that familiarity with either author or subject can instantly produce the compiled sources. At the risk of being immodest I suggest that the McCarthy volume be used as a companion to my own ref erence book, An Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (Scarecrow) which procides dictionary style entires on the same wide variety of subjects as covered by McCarthy. Together the two books may represent the logical starting point for more advanced studies of the two African nations. In the coming years I should think, and I assume that McCarthy should agree, that more books and papers will appear on ths subject. In this light McCarthy has made a useful contribution indeed.




71.
Historical Dictionary of the Republics of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde.
By Richard Lobban. African Historical Dictionaries, No. 22. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1979. Review by Joye Bowman Hawkins, University of Southern California.
Richard Lobban's 'Historical Dictionary of the Republics of GuineaBissau and Cape Verde is the twenty-second volume in the series on Africa edited by Jon Woronoff. Like the other volumes, this one presents a chronology of historical events, a brief introduc-tion, an extensive dictionary of historical figures, places and events, and a bibliography. Unlike the other volumes in the series however, Lobban discusses two countries, Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde because of their historical connections. Lobban has published a variety of articles on these two countries and travelled extensively in Guinea-Bissau during the war of national liberation and visited both countries after independence. Thus he has first-hand knowledge about the countries and their problems.
Lobban's volume is a useful introduction for both specialists and nonspecialists to these two countries. With the exception of recent literature on the liberation war (1963-1973) and post-independence developments, the majority of the works on Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde are in Portuguese. Consequently, this work in English is a welcome addition to the literature.
Lobban convincingly demonstrates the historical connection between the two republics in both the introduction and the dictionary entries. However, he is also realistic and points out the historical differences between the two countries in terms of population settlement, resources and colonial policy in areas like education and land usage. Although the connections between Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde should not be underestimated, recent political changes, including the 1980 coup d'etat in Guinea-Bissau and the formation of the PAICV (1981) show that a more thorough analysis of the differences
between the two countries should be made.
In the dictionary, Lobban draws on his knowledge of the liberation war and makes meaningful comparisons between life under Portuguese rule, under the PAIGC in the liberated zones during the war and under the independence governments. He presents useful statistics on agricultural production, the balance of trade and educational and health facilities. These statistics graphically explain the nature of Portuguese colonial rule and the problems facing the new governments. Although Lobban discusses the precolonial, colonial and independence periods, he is more comfortable with the era of national liberation and independence, his area of specialization.
The bibliography is useful but as Lobban states it is not a comprehensive list and thus should be used in conjunction with other bibliographies he cites. His main concern was to list major works on both countries in English although some books in Portuguese and French are also included. The bibliography is divided into twelve categories and contains reference to historical materials as well as works by and about Amflcar Cabral, the PATCC, the war of national liberation and independence. The entries are straight forward and easy to use.




72.
Lobban's dictionary also includes three valuable appendices, the
PAIGC Programme, the Councils of State Commissioners in each country and the Peoples of Guinea-Bissau. Although the information in the first two appendices is no longer accurate, the material will be useful for those people interested in the PAIGC and the pre-1980 government.
Richard Lobban's book is a valuable contribution to the literature on these two West African countries. He presents a readable summary of the major issues in the historical development of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde in English, which can be used by students of Africa and non-specialists alike.
Revolution in Guinea: Selected Texts by Amilcar Cabral. By Richard Handyside (ed. and trans.). New York: Monthly Review Press, 1969. Review by Mario Azevedo, Jackson State University.
As the title reveals, this is a compilation of some of Cabral's addresses from 1961 to 1969 by Handyside. If readers expect an analysis of Cabral's ideology by the author, they will be disappointed.. A four-page introduction clarifies Handyside's simple objective, namely ... to present the writings of an outstanding revolutionary thinker" (9).
Yet, the selection of the speeches was skillfully done, for they do not simply contain revolutionary rhetoric but they revealvividly Cabral's analytical ability and commitment to his cause. The passages reflect the progress of the freedom fighters against Portuguese colonialism in GuinBissau and Cape Verde as well. Readers unfamiliar with Portuguese colonialism and the peculiar political, social, and economic conditions in Guin6-Bissau will find the collection helpful (31,156).
Above all, however, this volume should prove an invaluable source to teachers of African revolutions in general and to those interested in the thinking of Amilcar Cabral in particular. His philosophy and ideology are quite apparent in the speeches, as the following brief analysis reveals.
First, Cabral believes essentially that every type of domination has an economic basis (16) and that all other types (political and social) are subsidary. It is in that light that he interprets Portuguese colonialism in Guing-Bissau, which he labels as a "commercial colony." Second, Cabral deemphasizes the ethnic origin of conflicts in Africa, particularly in Guin6, where he thinks that the "contradictions" are based on class divisions. This leads him to analyze the social structure of the former colony, offering a rare picture of two ethnic groups--the Fula and the Balantes.
Cabral disagrees with the Marxist interpretation of history as a class struggle, affirming that such interpretation would deny history to most of Africa. He, like Walter Rodney, believes that every society goes through




73.
three phases: communalism, feudalism and socialism. Marxists, he notes, tend to neglect the stages of societal development characterized by the absence of class and the presence of communal ownership of the means of production. For him the motivating force of history and change is the mode of production (95-98).
On African unity Cabral seems to differ sharply from Nkrumah in that, although he favors unity, he does not think that the continent is ripe for it. He strongly supports the concept of non-alignment, deplores neo-colonialism, and blasts the lack of ideology among African parties and movements, "the greatest weakness of our struggle against imperialism" (92-93).
He eloquently and skillfully equates the revolutionary struggle of Guine with the United Nations' defense of human rights through the world. He predicted that the fall of colonialism would also result in the fall of facism in Portugal. He thought, however, that this latter task would be accomplished not by the army but by Portuguese intellectuals (18).
In summary, Cabral comes out of his speeches as an informed, articulate, determined, and an analytical thinker and leader. A comparative review of this volume and The Return to the Source: Selected Speeches of Amilar Cabral (by the Africa Information Service, 1971) should be interesting in determining Cabral's degree of maturity from 1961 to his death in 1973. The impact of his philosophy and dedication, however, is well depicted in Sowing the First Harvest (by Ole Gjerstand and Chantal Sarrazin, 1978). All college and university libraries should carry Revolution in Guinea.
A Model of Mass Communications and National Development: A Liberian Perspective.
By Abdulai Vandi. Washington: University Press of America, 1979. Review by Dalvan M. Coger, Memphis State University.
This book is a dissertation with all the weaknesses to which such
excercises are prone. It examines the relevance of the experiences in mass education, using the electronic media, of six countries for the Republic of Liberia. The countries chosen for study are El Salvador, India and the Ivory Coast, as third world countries, and the United States, Canada and Japan as advanced countries.
Liberian education, it is generally conceded, has failed to reach the majority of the people. There was an account some years ago of a Liberian Minister of Education who expended the entire annual budget on sending his daughter to a private school in Italy. (The story is possibly apocryphal.) Until comparatively recent times, only missionaries attempted to reach Liberian communities other than Americo-Liberian. Certainly, Liberia would be the ideal place to experiment with using mass communication to reach
inaccessible areas.




74.
The editors have been extremely careless. Such passages as "Sixtythree developing countries . were interviewed" should never have found their way into print. Jargon such as "The client is sometimes labeled the input to the educational system, sometimes as the throughput entity," is simply absurd when all the author means is "student." In addition, the author has ignored a mass of material from the late colonial period, specifically articles dealing with Anglo-phone Africa, widely available in such journals as African Affairs. His bibliography does not indicate that he has consulted the comprehensive dissertation by Dr. Dale on the history of education in Liberia.
There certainly is a need to study how mass communications can aid in developing national consciousness in new nations. Likewise, education must provide the necessary training for workers and management in these countries. But to be effective, the writing about such education should be intelligible, should in the wry humor of. one critic, "eschew obfuscation."!
Europe and Africa: From Association to Partnership. By Carol Cosgrove Twitchett. Westmead: Saxon House, 1978. Review by Clifford R. Lopin, Western Carolina University.
Neo-colonialism is an epithet commonly used today to attack special
relationships between former colonial countries and colonies. Even the Lom4 Convention of 1975, which commits the signatories "to establish, on the basis of complete equality between partners, close and continuing cooperation in the spirit of international solidarity," is sometimes seen as a new and more subtle instrument of imperialism. In order to assess accurately these allegations, a scholarly account of the evolution of the colonial empires
to an association of independent nations under the European Economic Community through the Yaound4 Convention to Lom4 is needed. That is exactly what Carol Cosgrove Twitchett has provided in the book under review. This book was assisted by the European Economic Community because of its "significant and original contribution toward European integration," and it does provide a favorable interpretation of the activities of EEC. Little evidence of bias exists, however, because Ms. Cosgrove has done her research so thoroughly and her writing so carefully.
The basic outline of the book involves events and documents which are well known. Ms. Cosgrove analyzes the documents carefully and includes political considerations which shaped the agreements and affected their implementation. For example, she discusses in some detail the French insistence on the association clauses of the original Rome Treaty. The opposition and eventual agreement of West Germany to this arrangement are explained. The heart of the association agreement, the Economic Development Fund, had some tough sledding at first and seemed to accomplish little. The author explains why this was true and what was done to make the EDF more effective later on. The transition from association to partnership was complicated by the granting of independence to most African states in the 1960s. This was handled




75.
effectively through the two Yaounde Conventions because of the maturity of both the Six and the Eighteen (as the African states were called). The expansion of the Community in 1973 led to the need for a new arrangement. The Lomg partnership emerged.
Recognizing the shortcomings of the EEC-African connection, Ms. Cosgrove concludes: "The EEC-ACP (Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific countries) partnership represents a symbol of hope in a divided world. It shows that Black and White can create co-operative frameworks and devise institutions within which they are able to work together on a basis of mutual respect."
The research on which the book is based is more than adequate. Original material including interviews, letters, newspapers, opinion journals, and appropriate secondary works have all be used. The only weakness in this regard is the relatively small number of books on the economies of the African states from the African perspective. Helpful aids such as appendices, an abbreviation list, a select bibliography, maps, graphs, tables, and an index are included. The only real criticism I have of the book is that it is awfully dull reading. The style can best be described as turgid, and the book is over-organized. The flaws are not fatal, however, because the book is essential to anyone wishing to have a clear picture of this aspect of international relations. Incidentially, a sequel to the book, on the Lomg II Convention, has been written by Ms. Twitchett and appears in the January-February, 1980, issue of Europe.
Pan-African Protest: West Africa and the Italo-Ethiopian crisis 1939-1941.
By S. K. B. Asante. London: Longmans, 1977. Review by Perry E. LeRoy, Morehead State University.
Professor S. K. B. Asante's main purpose was to show how the Italian invasion of Ethiopia both contributed to and speeded up the growth of West African national movements, especially in the ex-British colonies of Sierra Leone, Gambia, Nigeria and the Gold Coast. However, the style is often repetitious, with each chapter written as if it were a part of a dissertation. In addition, the author assumes that the reader would have a basic knowledge of African history. This book, therefore, should be recommended only for the advanced student who already knows something about West Africa.
For the Africanist, however, Dr. Asante has produced a thought-provoking
study, drawing on all forms of literature to reveal the attitudes and reactions of the emerging West African nationalists, distinct from the former elitist leaders. Much of the material, consequently, is propagandistic, but nonetheless, carefully judged as to effects and significance. Emotionalism is regarded as important since it causes the individual to respond to any attacks, such as that upon Ethiopia. In this regard, much is made of the racist issue, that is white versus black. Though recognizing that in earlier days the Ethiopians did not regard themselves as black, they now became the focal point of black accomplishments, of independence versus colonial subjugation.




76.
Dr. Asante, though admitting the significance of regional economic
and social pressures and though fully understanding the motivations behind British appeasement of Mussolini, successfully shows that the articulate African was responding to the pride of race. This is shown through numerous African-based newspapers, letters and demonstrations, all demanding that the British uphold their alleged values and not follow the path of hypocrisy, to no avail. The same approach is used to expose the Vatican since Pope Pius XI refused to jeopardize his situation in Italy. In fact, the author is correct in stating European security was more important to the British than African needs.
Much attention, therefore, is given to the methods and groupE which
sought to help the Ethiopians against the Italian aggressors, to tne growth of demands for self-expression and rule including demonstrations against indirect rule in the British regions, to demands for a freer press, to organizing volunteers to help the Ethiopians, to raising funds in a time of poverty, and to criticisms against sedition laws and fears on the part of some British officers. Of special value are the.sections dealing with the rise and expansion of various youth groups, such as the Nigerian Youth Movement, or in the Gold Coast the West African Youth League. Equally significant was the attention given to the radical leader, I. T. Wallace Johnson, whose influence and impact is exaggerated. More attention should have been given to other African leaders such as J. B. Danquah or Nnamdi Azikiwe.
In regard to research materials, Dr. Asante has compiled an excellent
bibliography, including manuscripts, archival items, private papers, printed primary sources, secondary books and articles, newspapers and unpublished works. The result is the gathering of some unknown sources, especially those of Africans. In addition, each chapter concludes with a section of detailed footnotes containing valuable information and comments.
Colonialism and Underdevelopment in Ghana. By Rhoda Howard. New York: Africana Publishing Company (Holmes and Meier), 1978. Review by Daniel M. McFarland, James Madison University.
Colonialism and Underdevelopment in Ghana is a Marxist analysis of
economic developments in the Gold Coast between 1874 and 1939 plus a postscript in which the author offers a prescription. It is Dr. Howard's thesis that the Gold Coast never made a full transition from a pre-capitalistic to capitalistic economy because capitalists intended to keep Africans in a perpetual state of dependence. PrimVictorian Marxist terminology produces an image of bourgeoisie vampires sucking the vast wealth of a helpless Gold Coast to sustain the bloated coffers of Manchester et cetera. The author is honest from page one. She makes it clear that she is on the left and that profit is a no-no. The Gold Coast exchanged cocoa, palm products, timber, and some gold for manufactured products. Long ago Lenin warned of the stacked relation of raw materials to manufactured goods. In spite of her frequent preachy tone, Rhoda Howard has produced an interesting economic history.




77.
The author has made extensive use of records in England and the Gold Coast. Her account of land ownership, mining, imports, exports, internal commercial contracts, and transportation are backed by useful tables. She traces the evolution of trading, shipping, commercial, and banking combines; and she shows the relation of these businesses to the British power structure. Final chapters deal with the social impact of cash-crop production, new class alignments, and the beginnings of a proletariat in the Gold Coast. The section on the 1937/38 Cocoa boycott is especially good.
Rhoda Howard, who teaches Sociology at McMaster University in
Hamilton, Ontario, argues that the only hope for Ghana today is a clean break with world capitalism. In her postscript she regrets Ghana's dependence upon the West, and she issues a call for Ghanaians to throw off their chains in "a massive mobilisation to make the effort of redirecting productive activities...." With the executions of Afrika, Acheampong, and Akuffo, and the rise of Jerry Rawlings and Hilla Limann, who offer new nostrums to their countrymen, one is tempted to munch on a kola nut and to speculate a bit. What if the Europeans had never come to Elmina or Cape Coast? What if the Asantehene had defeated William Maxwell in 1895? What if Samori had conquered Kumasi in 1897? What if Nkrumah had been Houphouet-Boigny? These are questions for a sociologist rather than a historian.
The Rulers of German Africa, 1884-1914. By L. H. Gann and Peter Duignan. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1977. Review by Arthur J. Knoll, University of the South.
A. P. Thornton of the University of Toronto aptly concluded that
"there will be no end to the books on imperialism, no last work concerning it, since there is no limit to the emotions it can arouse." Lewis Gann and Peter Duignan of the Hoover Institution in Stanford seem determined to validate Thornton's contention. In addition to this volume the authors later published companion volumes in the ruler series dealing with British Africa in 1978 and Belgian Africa in 1979. They have also done African Proconsuls: European Governors in Africa, 1978.
In The Rulers of German Africa Gann and Duignan first proceed to demolish most of the assumptions usually associated with evaluations of German rule in the four African colonies of Togo, Cameroun, Southwest Africa, and East Africa: 1) the Germans were the most brutal and authoritarian of imperialists; the authors cite evidence and use reason to show that the Germans were no more addicted to the use of force or authoritarianism than their British or French counterparts. 2) German colonies were convenient receptacles for the mother country's surplus population and capital; the authors refute this Marxist contention by pointing out




78.
that German capitalists fled colonial investment, seeking instead safer havens for their capital in Europe, America or Turkey. 3) Germans ruled a standardized and uniform colonial empire; quite to the contrary, Gann and Duignan show that there was little uniformity to German rule because governance depended upon such variables as personality, availability of funds, and African response. Indeed the Germans are seen as pragmatists who attuned their rule, either direct or indirect, to conditions in the local milieu, including the existence or nonexistence of strong African polities. As a result there existed not one but many German imperialisms.
The authors concentrate upon three basic categories of investigation: the Geist of German colonalism, the groups responsible for colonial policy and governance and their social origins, and finally, socio-economic development in the colonies with its impact upon local populations. In regard to the first category Gann and Duignan examine the intellectual currents which flowed into German colonialism and conclude basically that the pragmatic Germans developed no particular colonial dogma such as French assimilation or British indirect rule, perhaps because the colonies were held in such low esteem by the home government. In category two Gann and Duignan present fascinating personnel sketches of the rulers amounting almost to a group biography of German officialdom. In catetory three the authors maintain that thirty years of German rule (1884-1914) meant development and modernization and that in spite of individual cases of exploitation the Germans collectively promoted a logistical, administrative, and scientific infrastructure which helped propel the colonies into the modern age. To substantiate their argument Gann and Duignan quote Karl Marx who welcomed imperialism as the agent which would shatter traditional and oppressive societies thereby moving the colonies to more modern means of production and, of course, to socialism.
Gann and Duignan's rather favorable evaluation of imperialism has been challenged by other reviewers such as Ralph Austen in the Journal of African History, (Vol. 20, June 1979) who maintains that the Hoover researchers overlook the creation of dependent ties occasioned by even the best-intentioned colonial governments. Gann and Duignan are, however, persuasive in their contention that the German legacy to Africa was four economies which turned out to be more productive than the traditional barter systems which they replaced.




79.
ANNOUNCEMENTS
COMMENTS ON ACHEBE AND BALDWIN
Interesting comments and observations on the two princiDal speakers at the 1980 African Literature Association Conference (University of Florida, Gainesville) are available in Occasional Paper #3 (April 1981) of the Pacific Coast Africanist Association, Chinua Achebe and James Baldwin: Two LiteraryGiants Meet. For copies write to: Ernest Valenzuela; P.C.A.A. Diablo Valley College; Pleasant Hill, California 94523. Please include $1.00 (check, cash or stamps). Discounts arranged for over five copies.
A CALL FOR PAPERS
The New York African Studies Association Annual Conference will be held October 2-3, 1981 at S.U.N.Y. Binghamton. The conference title: "Critical Issues in African Affairs: Implications for the 1980s." Papers are invited in the fields of Visual Arts, Education, Politics and Economics, Language and Literature, Anthropology, Agriculture and Geography, and Folklore. There will also be a panel for independent papers. Manuscripts or abstructs should be submitted by August 1st to: Dr. Peter van Lent Department of Modern Languages and
Literatures
St. Lawrence University
Canton, N.Y. 13617
AFRICAN STUDIES INFORMATION RESOURCES DIRECTORY PROJECT
The African Studies Association has received a grant for $15,100 through the Resea-,ch Coll.ections Program of the National Endowment for the Humanities. The grant will be used to prepare a dictionary to collections of library and related research materials and information services for African Studies in the United States. Jean E. Meeh Goseurink, former Librarian for African Studies at the Indiana University Libraries, is the project director.
The directory will provide up-to-date, concise statements describing library and special collections, information resources and services relevant to Africa south of the Sahara and African Studies. In addition to traditional library collections, it will survey map collections, collections of visual and aural documentation and computerized data collections. Information for the directory is being gathered by questionnaire and from published sources.
For more information about the project or to make comments and suggestions about it, contact Jean E. Meeh Gosebrink, Project Director, 3533A Wyoming, St. Louis, MO 63118; (314) 773-3667.




80.
AFRICAN LITERATURE ASSOCIATION ANNUAL CONFERENCE
The conference will be held April 7-10, 1982 at Howard University, Washington, D.C.. The theme: "African Literature through its Interdisciplinary Dimensions," Panel proposals are now being considered. The call for papers will be in August, 1981. Send an abstract of your panel proposal to Professor Daniel Racine, 4302 River Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20016 (summer address), or c/o Department of Romance Languages, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059.
* *
AFRICAN STUDIES ASSOCIATION MEETING
A.S.A. will meet this year (October 21-24) at Indiana University, Bloomington. The theme: "Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Humanities." For further information write to: African Studies Program, Indiana University, Woodburn Hall 221, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. Phone (812) 337-6825.
NOTE TO READERS
Persons interested in and involved with teaching about Africa are
encouraged to submit articles, reports of local or regional activity,
and book reviews to the Bulletin. We will consider any item which may be of interest to public school (K-12), community college, aftd
university educators in their efforts to teach and learn about Africa.
Book reviews should be submitted to: Professor Thomas O'Toole, Bulletin Review Editor, Department of History, Western Carolina
University, Cullowhee, N.C. 28723. Other items should be sent to:
The Editor, Bulletin of the Southern Association of Africanists,
Center for African Studies, 470 Grinter Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.
This issue of the Bulletin was promulgated at a cost of $642.00
or $.802 per copy to distribute information pertaining to the
Southern Association of Africanists.




Dr. Anita Spring B 362 GPA
University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
fcla fda yes
dl
METS:mets OBJID UF00083266_00002
xmlns:METS http:www.loc.govMETS
xmlns:mods http:www.loc.govmodsv3
xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.org1999xlink
xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance
xmlns:daitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss
xsi:schemaLocation
http:www.loc.govstandardsmetsmets.xsd
http:www.loc.govmodsv3mods-3-2.xsd
http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss.xsd
METS:metsHdr CREATEDATE 2008-06-27T11:40:08Z ID LASTMODDATE 2008-06-27T11:40:07Z RECORDSTATUS NEW
METS:agent ROLE CREATOR TYPE ORGANIZATION
METS:name UF
OTHERTYPE SOFTWARE OTHER
Go UFDC FDA Preparation Tool
INDIVIDUAL
SMATHERSLIB\matmari
METS:dmdSec DMD1
METS:mdWrap MDTYPE MODS MIMETYPE textxml LABEL Metadata Object Description Schema
METS:xmlData
mods:mods
mods:titleInfo
mods:title The bulletin of the Southern Association of Africanists. Vol. 9. Nos. 2-3.
type alternative
Newsletter of the Southern Association of Africanists
mods:relatedItem series
bulletin of the Southern Association of Africanists.
mods:part
mods:detail volume
mods:number 9
issue
2-3
mods:name personal
mods:namePart Southern Association of Africanists (U.S.)
mods:role
mods:roleTerm authority marcrelator Creator
Southern Association of Africanists (U.S.).
Creator
University of South Carolina. Dept. of Government and International Studies.
Creator
University of Florida. Center for African Studies.
Creator
mods:originInfo
mods:dateIssued August 1981
mods:language
mods:languageTerm text English
mods:identifier OCLC 03030893
3030893
mods:note Published -June 1975 through the support of the Department of Government and International Studies at the University of South Carolina; Oct. 1975- through the support of the Center for African Studies at the University of Florida, Gainesville.
mods:subject
mods:topic African studies -- Periodicals.
original
mods:physicalDescription
mods:extent 28-36 cm.
mods:location
mods:physicalLocation code UF
METS:amdSec
METS:digiprovMD AMD_DAITTS
OTHERMDTYPE DAITTS
daitss:daitss
daitss:AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
METS:fileSec
METS:fileGrp
METS:file GROUPID G1 E1 imagejp2 CHECKSUM 55f540fa9d7556963cd3c24d71963f52 CHECKSUMTYPE MD5 SIZE 945461
METS:FLocat LOCTYPE OTHERLOCTYPE SYSTEM xlink:href 00001.jp2
G2 E2 d24ca8f6fecb6d77631f0ebaaf9d207d 195018
00002.jp2
G3 E3 a981b828c684cde39354a76f2c3c534d 212385
00003.jp2
G4 E4 f496352a56a893c6b7038dcba3612f6c 212765
00004.jp2
G5 E5 b6664524e8e5768d8384f2c590b5e078 209508
00005.jp2
G6 E6 7594fe20cd3d5be88ccaf15472d01269 217607
00006.jp2
G7 E7 a524e9b8c51229db9b8f01731c49c793 223298
00007.jp2
G8 E8 028a4fc8c1eb91c9cc47bdc48ae8b9cf 220023
00008.jp2
G9 E9 56241d4269539182ce04fa0a3d1a126c 211254
00009.jp2
G10 E10 1a09a279496fc59f0b0e67029abd0236 198023
00010.jp2
G11 E11 de95d0e8aa1e30a34b22bfef77106143 200054
00011.jp2
G12 E12 5a5a99298d4ecc52fef68c9c0a29957d 185164
00012.jp2
G13 E13 496736c19f90f021dbc832aa1de14d97 172470
00013.jp2
G14 E14 ed1bf3b2fb5cabf20b1dd3be67dc3e20 194532
00014.jp2
G15 E15 424b5920c819b2ac4344a3e3b065bf09 189858
00015.jp2
G16 E16 95bd1d28b7e90dace91d08d8b87955ed 194648
00016.jp2
G17 E17 c8ac80f75c39db2dc62ddde0fba7c11c 186972
00017.jp2
G18 E18 7b081f57be3417fd60e03bc4fe12ff92 197757
00018.jp2
G19 E19 e78761bf05d11ae1fd729a882bf7ef86 79864
00019.jp2
G20 E20 239330c8ebc2d278165365a57842bb6e 174607
00020.jp2
G21 E21 0e536bb4971e0e508488349a2ab8b771 194186
00021.jp2
G22 E22 67db083a86d6a5fa449da85a22c41384 213093
00022.jp2
G23 E23 b6efca9ac35dbadf46ed6d5b8434b617 202996
00023.jp2
G24 E24 8202a76cfd5198faf6324b3bc53453c0 201648
00024.jp2
G25 E25 7bb5c001cc20cd743279fa3d615b943e 191177
00025.jp2
G26 E26 a8292d7e451d5cca125ec9deed72ca34 178852
00026.jp2
G27 E27 61c266df9a1547b63758560ef8ffe75e 104165
00027.jp2
G28 E28 450bdd4bd757102e0a14894dd8392105 109378
00028.jp2
G29 E29 ba16ebc221d2ef2b9dd062472c04a421 83601
00029.jp2
G30 E30 a95d90232355b180fcff6364052554e4 91950
00030.jp2
G31 E31 f6b1d4becf02c5fdee2f5c26cbf2f8fa 90604
00031.jp2
G32 E32 f5f4e7479d4da4848e980d916adad309 79386
00032.jp2
G33 E33 a32311f489878d6e2239eba63d523a1f 84909
00033.jp2
G34 E34 3b89f661c08d72b42af9d55fc11ec78e 96545
00034.jp2
G35 E35 65f8c3e9cf6c5c4512b5535f007f5613 183737
00035.jp2
G36 E36 74fa4c4d1307c27b0f1e9b2c0cd7e2c4 104339
00036.jp2
G37 E37 541f10a3357e6cec222a6d7bab7707f9 886530
00037.jp2
G38 E38 7f30617c410648bb1215d25dcdfd436c 73176
00038.jp2
G39 E39 9e5c3fce195a98b97d5d6083a38d284d 125485
00039.jp2
G40 E40 1e4174c759d8adb2d8f3924af0717c3c 100778
00040.jp2
G41 E41 e78361fe53da911b0304c55894ed5afc 92862
00041.jp2
G42 E42 17058627ca114d6fd84cae78c43e5774 90647
00042.jp2
G43 E43 9776f45a5851705e3ddabd07c5342143 108511
00043.jp2
G44 E44 0047af72d5277197d070ddbf5cdb748b 69189
00044.jp2
G45 E45 d786adafb0918a8071580d2f16b97e64 110403
00045.jp2
G46 E46 c5ac9dc6e96e23ede121783484058c13 94798
00046.jp2
G47 E47 08b1825b2ce09f66c69328456855c3c2 126891
00047.jp2
G48 E48 ba49be97fe419ae31c0aa401b81049e4 96359
00048.jp2
G49 E49 ecfb8fd1848202032be258648bc30d57 59828
00049.jp2
G50 E50 0b0e7df71a54268514d2abe9094dd8e3 152908
00050.jp2
G51 E51 6d3cb3b9b403cedac4547c2defcef235 149593
00051.jp2
G52 E52 7d3d77a51851f2627743886c92b5831f 149195
00052.jp2
G53 E53 6aaddaf5d5275fcfb42963bb809aaafd 163513
00053.jp2
G54 E54 b606f4b065787b9f18ff765b1acffa3c 140261
00054.jp2
G55 E55 0e5dd08f72f8562018964afdb2899745 142681
00055.jp2
G56 E56 c4c4c0e5df59c6a80e8af56a78a5405d 146924
00056.jp2
G57 E57 c8d98c3d70ba8d15ef0ae4043e0dd8c9 150379
00057.jp2
G58 E58 ad82712cbaee230fab1e2426b32aedeb 150729
00058.jp2
G59 E59 edc673506ad944360280a16d317b49d8 154441
00059.jp2
G60 E60 24c0912a5f4251339732ba4c5e5ae2cf 154170
00060.jp2
G61 E61 2a1547fac83fb89bb7133e05cea8dc0b 82524
00061.jp2
G62 E62 f16ddb2ca3452f47336d18c93da5f258 157410
00062.jp2
G63 E63 0b83907889769e0d4bbefa2966166e1d 197194
00063.jp2
G64 E64 a9ce6d3fa2773cbc24e4775e1584ccdb 171624
00064.jp2
G65 E65 b584bf4afb7865b2d336bc244a5abba7 169777
00065.jp2
G66 E66 111f155083acf7361532c659527f1553 150628
00066.jp2
G67 E67 ef3d75c531fcc3d2fec5ba3df553bae6 151454
00067.jp2
G68 E68 1bd254e80b4dbde6fe2f6a8a5c6e4b37 200111
00068.jp2
G69 E69 661afa4a9126b1217e1f6bc2726b6338 168987
00069.jp2
G70 E70 e3cb558c534089c698f0d3a5d1af012d 180454
00070.jp2
G71 E71 47fac6ed56c51030f88383650f5da1f4 187911
00071.jp2
G72 E72 c3df6519d79ec621ce03bf0dc39a9ff5 194134
00072.jp2
G73 E73 2385fe4dfc94c40a57c94ab084ffe36d 166545
00073.jp2
G74 E74 2927b74ed89302c93b9a7f870c9fdfb7 169208
00074.jp2
G75 E75 bd32ed8f0976574f5d7026cf9f57d41c 188413
00075.jp2
G76 E76 0f349021afb50b2e8043b7603e6c4bab 182083
00076.jp2
G77 E77 bf29a15ed4c78debafe348b622bba627 187562
00077.jp2
G78 E78 a22d2de7b0a6e5e52d90c1b2e383cd59 168700
00078.jp2
G79 E79 655f4aee23d6604c41d1b03beae814a6 151251
00079.jp2
G80 E80 93d47a2fe094a3f49753fbc1eea6abf8 147328
00080.jp2
G81 E81 94f7602ca3feb4cf7cbb239695a1c826 114522
00081.jp2
G82 E82 564d2244db4467255256101d68a0bbc3 967187
00082.jp2
F1 imagetiff 6.0 013231f44799ce94fa39576c268ad444 22705132
00001.tif
F2 af38dc60252306c19f6670f65bf5abcf 964784
00002.tif
F3 81bc4e29cc35d450756cf5c426d821e5 977444
00003.tif
F4 0b32f40756730c0c038a43e7ce0f2736 981640
00004.tif
F5 35c9ac534c76b3f84f803e2b6d7a5cec 975124
00005.tif
F6 cbaa75421146bab34aafadb0d619a1f6 971016
00006.tif
F7 3a1bb3158685fd87262ed58cc3a3876a 967456
00007.tif
F8 9dbbd256c13bf3e2cf928c57c3638340 972840
00008.tif
F9 7aee90b12078a60e7b9568eaf569db19 962664
00009.tif
F10 5d38aaf4533efce3ea04bc92ee9b4e8a 967644
00010.tif
F11 9fa56ed420bcce6da39cce626760b944 987204
00011.tif
F12 7d26f06652c811aedf296fb3f2a70448 964916
00012.tif
F13 00249c87b5bce975497264a5b21d00e7 991920
00013.tif
F14 4f14c7b7a6190a8128a6c63ad201a789 965308
00014.tif
F15 a0a6488aab09d468fdf31d59ef22e0c2 968124
00015.tif
F16 46fe8d1dc8a5ec4349df474010e85f39 975740
00016.tif
F17 a59365cee9593d68fb94a1651d0623e0 976740
00017.tif
F18 0b5d94aa3eb30488f1acbfabb9998d95 965052
00018.tif
F19 5ff18ab4b31e6546b3234305a18d2217 951724
00019.tif
F20 6e4b07be0e05c18b14092b63afb77b0d 970384
00020.tif
F21 6e496c8d5881bda28628df91b0428a27 967828
00021.tif
F22 3685d3c3b8f78e29349e425ac09d7aac 981328
00022.tif
F23 8bef9ea03cceac19f6b9fad27e815e6d 970148
00023.tif
F24 662701cd4636341572ccdaf3a4f0eec0 975752
00024.tif
F25 29922001c0d6888686b46a13e8e0e8c9 963252
00025.tif
F26 bac877a99269ad8026b6e699bcb2d2be 978804
00026.tif
F27 a2b182e3613e3f1dc321783214b3a30f 963888
00027.tif
F28 d599ca8d8e1f8fe2f2fa02d2dfbf31a3 958336
00028.tif
F29 75c6854c0162971112d4603f94e9a0cf 963380
00029.tif
F30 fc55cfdbbe9606618d0219a4f1a00ae3 966064
00030.tif
F31 596c08c7e69624a589f0275196ef3113 959188
00031.tif
F32 51f49b33c8daa720a94644d7d0f76360 973388
00032.tif
F33 dc074549c37d6d5546d17f5becf60727 950144
00033.tif
F34 dfa5d08646000d1752f3f66962696c71 952440
00034.tif
F35 6daa8cfd9b557e22b5d274b391474ad4 929444
00035.tif
F36 2a6a571421db1e4b81436830c3b95ef5 895876
00036.tif
F37 d34c33a07bb0f38413a53f61bd46b7ef 7113316
00037.tif
F38 bcbdb61fc45ed1180020e2a2bcd13ae7 962248
00038.tif
F39 89ab0a909be81ba189c488d669f4dec4 978492
00039.tif
F40 45db871f9be082dd9f9b74a1ca3844eb 953368
00040.tif
F41 47761ea695a766fd65ae7f18b7f65da1 886512
00041.tif
F42 84f7afaed3827bdfdfef37796fc513cb 970680
00042.tif
F43 5a64a46c66ec3ac567c9b4cadf7455de 973448
00043.tif
F44 240f38ed411cdfb7efed4149e1595c3f 954716
00044.tif
F45 1bcb4a6a965039d8a3fe780a3f507ac6 973260
00045.tif
F46 0864cb18fa9f1c29ddaf9a81a2c85a29 977532
00046.tif
F47 48eef9fb3027f8fe0b5375e5f0cdee99 973036
00047.tif
F48 755597bed9c2522b815dbe3db920dea9 970928
00048.tif
F49 ccae5f51d710b76f60a41393de1c1d8c 946292
00049.tif
F50 e64b4d4535217539267a60bb9993a7df 964680
00050.tif
F51 76fcfcf0458e67b0dabd31da6a1d434d 964132
00051.tif
F52 c3cbe1383e6de21a703ebaf5bacb25e0 968708
00052.tif
F53 1dd0d6fc416871a13a410f1a0754e55d 962868
00053.tif
F54 7a57748ba52ac7c0dc57510452ab6392 977104
00054.tif
F55 9d191b145e5ea856f0dc37e48992856c 962024
00055.tif
F56 da2b06d60d08af957bc388877cd00c21 974508
00056.tif
F57 373fae55f6e6714e51508457d78a7e0e 961348
00057.tif
F58 ddbc26046a9b693e04854edded8f479e 973472
00058.tif
F59 562c46290550b885806d485eb17637b5 952512
00059.tif
F60 224aec1a2a62435756449ca1449fa130 965996
00060.tif
F61 e11730fed84c27a7740651defb0564d6 960088
00061.tif
F62 9f40927f45a217a66c821af13c8dcaf0 978840
00062.tif
F63 f27fad401ff10c9ece6157eb3ede35b5 963360
00063.tif
F64 8d055af41487d1c329b27ff0f966e4ce 964632
00064.tif
F65 644b5d6575f116af0272d3b22bfeb55a 994572
00065.tif
F66 a868efddd872278c4dd9002ba9d2c837 966864
00066.tif
F67 f83765e70e30a5c0d07af2e3e7d99f24 970988
00067.tif
F68 290c28ea10f1cf31823402157ea5682b 968324
00068.tif
F69 f60dd7c881bc5e24b0cfd20ffef024f1 969800
00069.tif
F70 853962f1a97a4b1e7f9348bb8242bae6 974536
00070.tif
F71 d553da6a4833a811d8c67ebe32c24f1f 986992
00071.tif
F72 a4f2a777bb3d3aa649613250352e3807 965840
00072.tif
F73 bac27bf1f3122d41601a704114d769b4 986844
00073.tif
F74 cfa3c9574da8590fbbb1fe1dd89373ff 975276
00074.tif
F75 460652ac607a6f2f03cc3fbc45617812 975624
00075.tif
F76 2621ef305ca9d5c09137851373daf790 969608
00076.tif
F77 6b87eefb5750f79251dd5f8a7ccdf0dc 975092
00077.tif
F78 5f2c3421c7a5669f492ae463826334ef 971128
00078.tif
F79 b55823d500ac1d04d453dfbb7e21ea26 969788
00079.tif
F80 ddf741a99c6c218656894f5faf9b4e95 972348
00080.tif
F81 e6467d28d3615bd586589b60a8842097 960464
00081.tif
F82 5faf68a3b19aed9a5c204fb105111bba 23221712
00082.tif
J1 imagejpeg 40751ca6ba7878522f6d9ab6491e2ab6 78443
00001.jpg
J2 9bcfd5b7e56774302b4025791bcd8cea 147276
00002.jpg
J3 e9ba970d5fd6e0e79ef864f65ac81d99 162994
00003.jpg
J4 b4df78f31cae5b7f937347961b0d6f8f 163505
00004.jpg
J5 c0a4d793c4083230d6a0311054ce7c9b 158522
00005.jpg
J6 a5a251448f5187d2448cbdf667305d5e 173647
00006.jpg
J7 89d528eac4459227e3c2758caa15b34d 165161
00007.jpg
J8 13e8388efb92c31341873a7eff92859c 165673
00008.jpg
J9 429063f7273d126da32d288450225906 159451
00009.jpg
J10 d9e6c76e7d7645e97e1b63ad6feffc7e 151986
00010.jpg
J11 9d0125fcc264cebb646d8e6c16dd354a 147169
00011.jpg
J12 0f1d692d87f374bbac59cc66601f0ad4 140770
00012.jpg
J13 258c07e12c19326ed3829477e3758b7e 124498
00013.jpg
J14 cde4792dc8ebf0cc57a4c7ec9859c6de 146088
00014.jpg
J15 1759c7295043b9e6513ca95728fdcb11 145495
00015.jpg
J16 cb3c181a877b25ecba9c03762405e7e5 145159
00016.jpg
J17 bc47fd2ce38f963cde6711de31eba3ce 131536
00017.jpg
J18 d6b0d5b0466e71e14848d92f583a3d27 149220
00018.jpg
J19 c33cb7e1330f12cf3aa1c0dabddf8cd9 63537
00019.jpg
J20 a4769c24ee5c7639c229927d3e76a850 125745
00020.jpg
J21 0069b702985ebcdc1ca524c01e871d6c 140114
00021.jpg
J22 0614b970f252655cf6c0b24879af148a 153308
00022.jpg
J23 ebe2902cf4041e862dd1e207ded0968c 149262
00023.jpg
J24 a7ec9b1bafbbcc1531d8acee3cb69803 152150
00024.jpg
J25 27e33506813ba64504501fee749aae14 147156
00025.jpg
J26 2795f3b720e2209820bb5b3dab7fe458 130583
00026.jpg
J27 ba8a15259b0922fb3cd91cdd20475f2c 78091
00027.jpg
J28 27a6fc157d4ca0b0d1088a468437853c 78798
00028.jpg
J29 b040e4cf0f36b3441ab10b22b62c0890 65044
00029.jpg
J30 ddcbd7ed6a46f20343f6c7acc590360e 67961
00030.jpg
J31 6cfcf9f41c0347b29ba6500a0f71bbec 70040
00031.jpg
J32 4593a362949b688b8377e377866a0905 61036
00032.jpg
J33 f2d575218410ec99cb82a98964adb98c 63866
00033.jpg
J34 2fcf9105f7911e2540eb5699cff8bf2e 72956
00034.jpg
J35 1912e09637659244db42cadc5a97f671 114898
00035.jpg
J36 676d181a01dcba307e855b3eb3dfb4cd 69544
00036.jpg
J37 f57a8d3dfacd773c09d2562404836243 107274
00037.jpg
J38 22135f0596e49a04103024a680e7b8eb 59500
00038.jpg
J39 6355439cf38a740d9c7c9eef53c5e0fc 90615
00039.jpg
J40 d2bb8f59779b0933491ac783bb69eef7 68720
00040.jpg
J41 22cdeeabbe4ffe85e644b0c2673fc6eb 66987
00041.jpg
J42 49961ab68485f2640d49763a7bcefd7c 72155
00042.jpg
J43 aa302e53fe735213dfaa45fbbf40a5b0 78632
00043.jpg
J44 3382db7c0049611ffda5babd5a34ed2d 46552
00044.jpg
J45 eda635593fc8308531c606f265cdde1a 82844
00045.jpg
J46 fa2d69d29faefb1bc793185a35b3248b 70894
00046.jpg
J47 d655e718354eed9b85bb8eba642126be 95429
00047.jpg
J48 e9aa4f7ed7f006f212121a5b80c66e58 76154
00048.jpg
J49 9e34f9ff37def414d6d978ba58e914b6 51073
00049.jpg
J50 b17e1c095960ed946628c7bda44a585a 109831
00050.jpg
J51 5d5f1580997bce521bd5b208b5822d99 105832
00051.jpg
J52 70cab010bbdb3a6180cab9a76e97296c 102938
00052.jpg
J53 61780833809a074468e91a90c2c2ce44 118814
00053.jpg
J54 8539d3a51c949ec98e6e31544d4cba4a 100148
00054.jpg
J55 adb5a2697c38503ac2f31559e80b491f 102607
00055.jpg
J56 515850614617415374ab236e8b6a4aff 103347
00056.jpg
J57 91853aebcfee24bcd52a05b427a845dd 112159
00057.jpg
J58 3bbf8bdd3c077d7baf373875c4b10a97 104844
00058.jpg
J59 b43018125dfdc3c8922453f4f557b834 104541
00059.jpg
J60 267c183ef3ed6aebd6e036bb752f9048 109760
00060.jpg
J61 2e588c5983d44a1c95fc28b41619d66a 63859
00061.jpg
J62 3d17e4460d710945a05640ad7c7dcb4b 116004
00062.jpg
J63 33ad520b6f733e0dd39ee6466c617270 141979
00063.jpg
J64 b403bf7e29226710d290d65e0cc9a38d 128087
00064.jpg
J65 1a73c1392036c5b515947249bba45a9d 120376
00065.jpg
J66 70f7eaf2f9adfdb8ef07c6535cd0c525 111567
00066.jpg
J67 2a0962122df1103e50616936e287836f 110677
00067.jpg
J68 62e35b9a6a9d9820e1254e21251462ba 147065
00068.jpg
J69 7c96b88eac025436020b61127c581744 122284
00069.jpg
J70 c9452983201a09bcc7797a16c8737a2c 133309
00070.jpg
J71 cf8fbf67bf9255eef911ce3dbde36fb9 132410
00071.jpg
J72 7b612c63fc8a40f99950b46ac6795feb 146440
00072.jpg
J73 5406403b0b66f9e3e44e2c959750867d 122645
00073.jpg
J74 d39755d7534153a4f954182adc255d86 124518
00074.jpg
J75 ae4e1bb803184491b290ff9b040ee41f 141056
00075.jpg
J76 41afa83c3390f9a080530502cc7eb4d0 135124
00076.jpg
J77 980a53d56b239164681ea9501b1b7b76 137681
00077.jpg
J78 25bcc71d5c5578f3d255bf171d270cb3 124734
00078.jpg
J79 b268bd6de02d0b42d43bf6e0fe63cd26 111873
00079.jpg
J80 a3e531052344d3d7d6f3e8a46f060514 109219
00080.jpg
J81 3c4532742e2668baa70944a74aaa419a 86215
00081.jpg
J82 6a5bfc0ade946b41ad0db303eb955658 40173
00082.jpg
UR1 eb6862102002b74f73160dffe9f1a140 5957
00001thm.jpg
AR1 3e90bd47da29a6d4e0e489ece17a5ccd 21563
00001.QC.jpg
AR2 cfa25082ddee9121e7ca542e74ac0af6 40122
00002.QC.jpg
AR3 13c96430cde9bfb7cfa31e2a3ed48c37 9767
00002thm.jpg
AR4 ee6a601b2ff972f0338ad45476ffc61a 43405
00003.QC.jpg
AR5 9ea00c05144fb95e7d956d7601a11fe1 10298
00003thm.jpg
AR6 94687af5d4d09814d49471710679fb97 43916
00004.QC.jpg
AR7 a6b1744049133d207ab6d3cc796e71f3 10331
00004thm.jpg
AR8 2512562a06572ddadcfa3f3a1275eeda 42118
00005.QC.jpg
AR9 0f6c3f109a040441afa80a0c9b208394 10120
00005thm.jpg
AR10 10dd9c5021dce275ab51e2dec4246b48 46713
00006.QC.jpg
AR11 f0e08d45f87df4bcba8356b0ae5fdd1e 10827
00006thm.jpg
AR12 1be8ba600f50dedf9b309cd7837a4f43 43721
00007.QC.jpg
AR13 b657cad0ad948c3eef49262aa4c3d45a 10311
00007thm.jpg
AR14 388b275d918732dac413190cd9c09a63 44184
00008.QC.jpg
AR15 99e1230f027feacfd1b7d4ff3f9f0162 10419
00008thm.jpg
AR16 1446abaabb245571b9c4cc0825b95fb2 43146
00009.QC.jpg
AR17 9d0376dbebe15f542de60a1718ac84d1 10257
00009thm.jpg
AR18 aecc251d6b933f222d7cd50508e5b5d3 40841
00010.QC.jpg
AR19 6225c1a6dc034204d1875cbcfa1cea21 9914
00010thm.jpg
AR20 2dab373ddb401c061034a5c72a48ec55 38132
00011.QC.jpg
AR21 e5acd25445f775df3db3d62bca032c0b 9688
00011thm.jpg
AR22 0ab4a79d512e2ab457f4779f2d7f1093 37969
00012.QC.jpg
AR23 ab0664647b6ce223861378a7fcf0edd4 8851
00012thm.jpg
AR24 e3f7331715c2acb7d9b545ef0938c0bb 33630
00013.QC.jpg
AR25 ece14fd1e52850836221959753b8284f 8056
00013thm.jpg
AR26 3e2c367166d7560290b9ce9a209bd8d5 38762
00014.QC.jpg
AR27 4db597a7cee6fbdbab431dbca1dd68cb 9082
00014thm.jpg
AR28 2c25b0ac9ac875325dbe62d58840def2 37826
00015.QC.jpg
AR29 c48d9198fac562871acfe88cbbc9dd38 9038
00015thm.jpg
AR30 d3de8206cdf48487184694981b025843 38544
00016.QC.jpg
AR31 6f69830d7af7267b545bb77dc11d54bf 8930
00016thm.jpg
AR32 b47b502937cf7add477b21f2c04cc63f 35106
00017.QC.jpg
AR33 98d9f52b102fac52e294726e155768e2 8356
00017thm.jpg
AR34 4710b0cee166d273101cb204998fc924 40250
00018.QC.jpg
AR35 24d35718a0266680d676a465454f5f10 9929
00018thm.jpg
AR36 e3f5e65fa741a7d7aaab853b606403ee 19021
00019.QC.jpg
AR37 325bc65c67e22d636c2ef22bf0610f48 5371
00019thm.jpg
AR38 5626ea28ced9b1e9b6c1ec553ac2a9f2 34594
00020.QC.jpg
AR39 e8fb39a9db2a44bbf7c163c6a5d509ea 8548
00020thm.jpg
AR40 7b85486c3a78b6e82c8c7b8c6c563873 38312
00021.QC.jpg
AR41 a8b0647c373c8140e994f2dce0a31ec7 9232
00021thm.jpg
AR42 cdf42903630a7045f7c1c5a493239743 41037
00022.QC.jpg
AR43 3b94a79d2853bb6de1eb9c12a1309b3d 9335
00022thm.jpg
AR44 13a9d18c24dea5e30c72bb3f2a518701 40324
00023.QC.jpg
AR45 ac04e048c9f40dd617d08c2798cecbbb 9594
00023thm.jpg
AR46 6fe50634a30412ea01ecd1fc971e3008 41559
00024.QC.jpg
AR47 67e9a9f271cf4265ad50bbb78c549983 9753
00024thm.jpg
AR48 81e56da351572c93e1de273a612afd68 40047
00025.QC.jpg
AR49 4405ba81d96190fa4ebd9c4dbfd548ee 9685
00025thm.jpg
AR50 76d5c3eef64171be5088c60fe3e8bda4 36056
00026.QC.jpg
AR51 8621cb48dfdfe13a1c2fd989a5fb83e9 8494
00026thm.jpg
AR52 67704d7d06127ca5cd56a726079c6d6a 23111
00027.QC.jpg
AR53 b78565df119b34e9379788b2fa96b034 6163
00027thm.jpg
AR54 3ad74e5f654e4060b6d6b37a0080bb11 23374
00028.QC.jpg
AR55 18c701ddd0a9cf0c1afbc74d489f3fba 6213
00028thm.jpg
AR56 d6239179d41545752b014d0cac41efad 20169
00029.QC.jpg
AR57 839a680440886bc2b5a4aefa12559844 5579
00029thm.jpg
AR58 a0ed62514c5273c962c2bef16e61c84c 20566
00030.QC.jpg
AR59 baff5649e32753721805531cb253a108 5715
00030thm.jpg
AR60 18455490c5a812722272067fa6e06c5e 20729
00031.QC.jpg
AR61 512e8c44ced382e8a2ba96c532591a3c 5837
00031thm.jpg
AR62 95d6f6b1085517d9bcd41dd3b5aabe68 19495
00032.QC.jpg
AR63 26591557e55daa205421497546abce05 5918
00032thm.jpg
AR64 cf435d3b6baabf5f7d2d2cec287db9a0 20873
00033.QC.jpg
AR65 d9a143f86c4c924c6c1939d45ac884e1 6156
00033thm.jpg
AR66 d246c8db3f9bb16256e494129b912c32 25622
00034.QC.jpg
AR67 8f83ff3a18e00f9c5bf4494aaf86c629 7202
00034thm.jpg
AR68 47d6a2053cce5af7ebab21a358f484d8 36443
00035.QC.jpg
AR69 7da1ad36d0a62e3e01795141ab6e05ed 9647
00035thm.jpg
AR70 df01612613c2c8f50e56bfaccc5fb0c9 20444
00036.QC.jpg
AR71 b6a00da093f08e8c4aeab782200857c6 6024
00036thm.jpg
AR72 8da7d980b18807e443249221e0b8684b 32985
00037.QC.jpg
AR73 132cb33f1893cd63a6823cc39d42698c 8878
00037thm.jpg
AR74 60e18d75e278bd32d3c2421a4bef6bad 18550
00038.QC.jpg
AR75 6fab0e5e51a9a2260f511f5f22f4bb06 5511
00038thm.jpg
AR76 c4818586be447865ba1059cce49208ab 29171
00039.QC.jpg
AR77 772a4728e8623a75541692977c46cff4 8314
00039thm.jpg
AR78 39c975705184d85515e0e4796bedd18a 23438
00040.QC.jpg
AR79 d9150ee86213150097b395b1a5d15180 7111
00040thm.jpg
AR80 c39fa37050630521e4e6d833655d7702 22233
00041.QC.jpg
AR81 5cd885cec91c151d51519e1d2727ede0 6547
00041thm.jpg
AR82 d10c4f54f6c529826af46174d0c30fa7 21681
00042.QC.jpg
AR83 1d8469afecfd6092bca59389f0e61ada 6108
00042thm.jpg
AR84 87fdddfd09f34172d3515844151880c8 27276
00043.QC.jpg
AR85 2e6da9c7d99c3339b0e1191b64249050 8063
00043thm.jpg
AR86 51701f8fd326484cbcac96fd230804dd 14044
00044.QC.jpg
AR87 95fbb4a24bdf88d14ef12093e1c54dbe 4445
00044thm.jpg
AR88 36fb909d30ca9d452f803ce54fd5cb01 27989
00045.QC.jpg
AR89 2d8d6f395507b0fa50a222da1f8345d3 8226
00045thm.jpg
AR90 d678697c5a7746bd3136480b54cbe7b0 21449
00046.QC.jpg
AR91 55e7dc7114fbebe4fe2e6e0bea70cf21 6124
00046thm.jpg
AR92 0353435633425e83101a6c8eed58a84c 28889
00047.QC.jpg
AR93 b460376d6dc3489b37ac38004bf2dbfb 7705
00047thm.jpg
AR94 af909a07d6c836830f77571e1e3ca5ca 24257
00048.QC.jpg
AR95 ce57834879a8f9cd22e4791493360c72 6892
00048thm.jpg
AR96 789704f02c4083946061768d0550479f 17376
00049.QC.jpg
AR97 4c390c3316957dbc3f20008f08dd210e 5156
00049thm.jpg
AR98 30b6fb146bf4d8b03161d2d48954521b 33885
00050.QC.jpg
AR99 dec051c7005a108f4e0edb08b6d56c8e 9301
00050thm.jpg
AR100 2ade12e5c029f7d80b178124b06209df 33509
00051.QC.jpg
AR101 52fb896865df2184f3e99f3022f4b738 8975
00051thm.jpg
AR102 57c48677d6ace4b8307ebb422f05b22f 32192
00052.QC.jpg
AR103 12d35e8bb9bf6ce57687727ede11dacb 8962
00052thm.jpg
AR104 f41107338ef92129e868c53d2884e58e 36986
00053.QC.jpg
AR105 44a84ff9fc217c12127b38d13e6e1ed8 9443
00053thm.jpg
AR106 12c68e5284bdceec525e468866010bcc 31760
00054.QC.jpg
AR107 51fc7c2388be1eb8dc188b31b2830cb3 8989
00054thm.jpg
AR108 e4a08ad455f5845cd6e5b94b9b0405f5 32467
00055.QC.jpg
AR109 af7c4fcea461038ef7f1f2a125e0d142 9176
00055thm.jpg
AR110 93513f1672373e97db37504d5a9887ca 32452
00056.QC.jpg
AR111 7bdae2aff273a77e8919c633a6659b15 8896
00056thm.jpg
AR112 f717b6edcc9575aab0678de21b56e42a 34735
00057.QC.jpg
AR113 e31a947b4a15d747ef45c13f69165ed5 9296
00057thm.jpg
AR114 434e760e1a29c5f72b27bc813c5dcaf1 32518
00058.QC.jpg
AR115 7b3248371a8fb8e28feb3108acf53995
00058thm.jpg
AR116 dd2bd0ba02dc1d0f0baa11e4b9714fa2 32327
00059.QC.jpg
AR117 7d4e47337690fac00f3cd4b493001d88 8958
00059thm.jpg
AR118 8728f0bf655224c7b3e42c25e87d9918 34376
00060.QC.jpg
AR119 5d9084bc153f18dc842f481120710640 9626
00060thm.jpg
AR120 065b901a221bd681dc41d46bdd6fb7ff 19170
00061.QC.jpg
AR121 7afb6c1d5f2b20da957074520e6c9e2f 5782
00061thm.jpg
AR122 8759d0c6a20be3dd16b9083bdd8286b0 31218
00062.QC.jpg
AR123 75c45ff5f197115326aae8002484edb9 8394
00062thm.jpg
AR124 0ef215c3b8d8fe7d5c5fe8b8805edb6b 40095
00063.QC.jpg
AR125 f3771d9a089aee7aa7cdda2819d969b7 9597
00063thm.jpg
AR126 96fa499b79c096e0988d5d89bf7b4449 35073
00064.QC.jpg
AR127 457647170bb5a5b1a3f68283473eae1c 9180
00064thm.jpg
AR128 f7614c665f3ec2391040ee59387a7608 34795
00065.QC.jpg
AR129 c233385d9a233ec6e13e713e4344907c 8206
00065thm.jpg
AR130 806da3cef912c4f0bbac553509082e7f 31743
00066.QC.jpg
AR131 16dc94c686c1c4fd1007578bd4c0b2dd 8135
00066thm.jpg
AR132 c41bdfda1716a1a73f44f79039502992 30243
00067.QC.jpg
AR133 50c0a1a8b42243afe3fc8fd769a228cb 7389
00067thm.jpg
AR134 85e7366a21fe687137ddc48bfc393fad 40194
00068.QC.jpg
AR135 fe68eeb6dfe5f2adcb8303760516940a 9696
00068thm.jpg
AR136 42a005e18886937e9d09110b01ada780 33541
00069.QC.jpg
AR137 5a1138351a18935c86f876cf3bb43bbc 8456
00069thm.jpg
AR138 4fa4d886fb2a3d2dc9bd27b4b2c0f957 36686
00070.QC.jpg
AR139 cd5e958dee0171edcacfa1a8a36fd0f8 9129
00070thm.jpg
AR140 1f1faa192478ed01652f005db975eead 36176
00071.QC.jpg
AR141 a94e6a6ac63c8dc340cfbe5b23298041 8873
00071thm.jpg
AR142 abd8f456cfad44a7d2c186521b234b23 40035
00072.QC.jpg
AR143 e503a3d921e1944984a4ac9b366ca5d9 9786
00072thm.jpg
AR144 f65a5a6e38d0c9c9177304f5eceed564 35235
00073.QC.jpg
AR145 7075f0d871b1dacf16b2a2fc6960f9ed 8724
00073thm.jpg
AR146 ea2b9b1caae5c7a6b1a6d502b43a2fee 36090
00074.QC.jpg
AR147 ac5eb32231069127393abd91574e2a16 9008
00074thm.jpg
AR148 ab27cdb2df81dda3b5b0bdff3dbebbaf 38280
00075.QC.jpg
AR149 f0a0f2ff2db4481bcc7495ac1ec042b3 9178
00075thm.jpg
AR150 bdb96a9468672a8f7c4da5d9b4819cc7 37335
00076.QC.jpg
AR151 c1f7c6ccebbf0067b016d15a62590941 9234
00076thm.jpg
AR152 a2ec11241163d1df07d5ef62a81cab24 38159
00077.QC.jpg
AR153 dc1789799109d3260172eb2f587b0b7a 8699
00077thm.jpg
AR154 b30860618728368aad6d7b74e4ecdcd5 33779
00078.QC.jpg
AR155 8fef36a164ce210dbe959b2046430364 8650
00078thm.jpg
AR156 2175f3898e49efbd46a098deef3e390b 30069
00079.QC.jpg
AR157 98bfa2b2f98c97528065b6da844faed1 7277
00079thm.jpg
AR158 9760b638a46b5794f7187b745d42e04a 30964
00080.QC.jpg
AR159 d71f003717529acd805a36a5c1bacc38 8143
00080thm.jpg
AR160 3f547051afb0d6d9d0df1487bbe1f8a1 25904
00081.QC.jpg
AR161 75171f882cedb6e960c705a80ed88041 6945
00081thm.jpg
AR162 9b9eb21d22194b8d35b74a7dba8b843c 9214
00082.QC.jpg
AR163 360e3a305736f319d80979999077e772 2710
00082thm.jpg
AR164 36370bfb514a6ab9e8aa4766766c3d39 92060
UF00083266_00002.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT1 mixed
METS:div DMDID The bulletin of the Southern Association Africanists. Vol. 9. Nos. 2-3. ORDER 0 main
D1 1 Front Cover
P1 Page
METS:fptr FILEID
D2 future U.S.Africa relations by Randall Robinson 2 Section
P2
P3
P4 3
P5 4
P6 5
P7 6
P8 7
P9 8
P10 9
P11 10
P12 11
P13 12
P14 13
P15 14
P16 15
D3 Refugees in Africa
P17 16
P18 17
P19 18
D4 politics African independence American children's books Nancy Schmidt
P20 19
P21 20
P22 21
P23 22
P24 23
P25 24
P26 25
P27 26
D5 Setswana: An language unit for classroom M.L.A. Mgasa
P28 27
P29 28
P30 29
P31 30
P32 31
P33 32
P34 33
P36 34
P38 35
P41 36
P42 37
P44 38
P46 39
P48 40
P40 41
D6 Articles and media reviews 1973-81
P47 42
P45 43
P43 44
P39 45
P37 46
P35 47
P49 48
P50 49
P51 50
P52 51
P53 52
P54 53
P55 54
P56 55
P57 56
P58 57
P59 58
P60 59
D7 Order form
P61 60
D8 Reviews
P62 61
P63 62
P64 63
P65 64
P66 65
P67 66
P68 67
P69 68
P70 69
P71 70
P72 71
P73 72
P74 73
P75 74
P76 75
P77 76
P78 77
P79 78
D9 Announcements
P80 79
P81 80
D10 Back
P82 81