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Title: Annual meeting
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Title: Annual meeting Society for Applied Anthropology
Series Title: Annual meeting Society for Applied Anthropology
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Society for Applied Anthropology -- Meeting
Publisher: Society for Applied Anthropology
Publication Date: 1980
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Subject: Applied anthropology -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
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Statement of Responsibility: Society for Applied Anthropology.
General Note: Description based on: 1988.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    General information
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    Abstracts
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    Back Cover
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Full Text





D SOCIETY
D FOR fiPPLIED
ANTHROPOLOGY
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ABSTRACTS


40th ANNUAL MEETING
March 19-22, 1980
Denver, Colorado











1980 Annual Meeting
PROGRAM COMMITTEE
Dorothea J Theodoratus
Margaret A. Gibson


Committee:






Associates:


Steve Arvizu (CAE)
Sheila Cosminsky (SMA)
Larry Van Horn (Local Arrangements)
Virginia Olesen (Medical)
Gil Kushner (Publicity)
Bernice Kaplan (Publicity)
Donna Jean Halstead
Glenda Travis
Mary E. Peters


OFFICERS

OF THE SOCIETY FOR APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY


President:
President-elect:
Past President:
Secretary:
Treasurer:
Editor:
Executive Committee


John Singleton
Peter Kong-Ming New
Alvin W. Wolfe
Willis E. Sibley
Billie Dewalt
H. Russell Bernard
Members:
Theodore Downing
Jacquetta Hill
Sue-Ellen Jacobs
Gilbert Kushner
Lorissa Lomnitz
Harland Padfield
H. Russell Bernard


Chairs:











GENERAL INFORMATION


REGISTRATION Registration, which includes a copy of the Program and
Abstracts, is required for attendance at all sessions. Registration will
be open in the South Convention Lobby from 5pm to 9pm on Wednesday, 8am
to 5pm on Thursday, and 8:30am to 4pm on Friday. Members who preregistered
should claim their programs and badges at the advance registration desk.

SOUTH CONVENTION LOBBY OFFICE Problems or special requests will be
Handled at the convention office located adjacent to the registration
desks. If this office is closed report to the Registration desk.

MEMBERSHIP SERVICES AND PUBLICATIONS A desk will be maintained in the
South Convention Lobby near the registration desk during registration hours
for those who wish to purchase SfAA publications or enroll in the Society.
SfAA Tee-shirts are also for sale in the registration area.

MESSAGE CENTER A self-service message center will be located in the
registration area. A file will be maintained of where participants are
staying in the Denver area.

ROUNDTABLE LUNCHEON (By Advance Registration only) A luncheon in honor
of the Malinowski Awardee -- DR. FEI XIAOTONG -- 12 to 2pm Thursday, March
20, 1980 in the Silver Room. DR. SOL TAX will lead a discussion of
"International Collaboration in Applied Social Sciences."

PLENARY SESSIONS The Margaret Mead Award will be presented to BRIGITTE
JORDAN at the SfAA Business Meeting, Friday, March 21, 3 to 6pm in the
Junior Ballroom. The Malinowski Award will be presented to DR. FEI XIAOTONG
(Deputy Director, Institute of Nationality Studies, Chinese Academy of
Social Sciences) Friday evening 8 to 9:30pm. A reception honoring Dr. Fei
Xiaotong (cash bar and hors d'oeuvres) will be held immediately following
the Plenary Session in Assembly I.

A SPECIAL NOTE OF APPRECIATION is due Wenner-Gren Foundation and various
local Latin American Institutions for co-sponsoring collaborative activity
allowing Latin American participants to be a part of the SfAA program.
This is a special effort to try to build better working relationships
between the U.S. and Latin American anthropologists.

SFAA CONVENTION ROOMS
Ballroom Complex: First Level:
Junior Ballroom Beverly
Assembly I Biltmore
Statler
Mezzanine: Terrace
Colorado
Aspen
Silver Second Level:
Gold Savoy
Century Empire
Spruce
Denver
Birch
Cedar











ABSTRACTS


Abstracts appear in program order, with session numbers shown to
the left of session titles. The times and locations of sessions
are given in the program. (See also Index of Authors for alpha-
betical listing.) Persons presenting papers who did not submit
Abstracts are committed from this listing.


S(50) TEAMING: ANTHROPOLOGISTSINON-ANTHROPOLOGISTS PARTNERSHIPS FOR ACTION AND TRAINING
This workshop is designed to explore strategies for collaboration between anthropologists
and non-anthropologists in developing training settings for social scientists, health,
education and social service personnel and community residents and activists. It is
based on the premise that anthropologists and non-anthropologists working in community
Sand institutional settings, can combine theory, methods, approaches and resources to
enhance social science training, institutional capabilities and community leadership
and development. The workshop will center around teams of anthropologists and non-
anthropologists currently collaborating in design and implementation of projects and
training programs. Teams will focus on health, mental health, social impact assessment,
bilingual, community and adult education and research as a leadership development
strategy. The workshop will open with the presentation of a framework for considering
training and continuing education in contemporary applied anthropology. This framework
will address issues such as the establishment of training settings outside the univer-
sity, the role of research and other skills in community-based training and technical
assistance, the role of community and service institutions in training social scientists,
and ways in which anthropologist and non-anthropologist can collaborate to facilitate
training, technical assistance and community development. Participants will break into
five groups, each facilitated by a team of anthropologist/non-anthropologist.
Facilitator teams will discuss features of their particular training and continuing
education settings with participants. They will then work with participants to assist
them in analyzing ways in which similar training and technical assistance opportunities
can be created in their own sites. Participants and facilitators will reconvene for a
brief summary session and open discussion. Plans for an expanded two day conference in
Scotland, 1981 will also be discussed.
Time Schedule:
7:00 7:20pm J. Kaufert, Introduction
7:20 7:50pm J. Schensul, Presentation of overall framework
8:00 9:15pm Discussion and "technical assistance" at Wine and Cheese
Roundtables
9:15 10:00pm Summary presentation and general discussion; plans for
Edinburgh, Scotland in 1981
Facilitator Teams
1. J. Schensul, E. Caro: Research and leadership development
2. S. Schensul, J. Walker: Medical education
3. P. Pelto, M. Gonzalez: Community-based action research in health
4. W. Partridge, P. Aimes: An ecological approach to social impact assessment
5. S. Arvizu, A. Gil: Bilingual education, parent participation and community
services
Registration
$3.00 to cover materials and refreshments (pay on site). Participation
limited to 40 people. To assure your reservation and for additional
information write Dr. J. Schensul, c/o Research in Action, Inc.,
275 Collins St., Hartford, Conn. 06105.










(100) RURAL-URBAN CONTINUE IN HEALTH ISSUES

BRUCE BERSTEIN, JEFFREY BACKSTRAND, MEL TAPPER (Conn) MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND
HYPERTENSION OUTREACH IN THE CITY: REPORT AFTER ONE YEAR At this Society's meeting
last year in Philadelphia we reported on the involvement of University of Connecticut
medical anthropologists in the early stages of a C.A.P. agency operated, inner city
hypertension outreach program. This follow-up report concerns progress of the program
and roles anthropologists have played after one year. Anthropologists have provided
on-going assistance in the form of proposal writing, consultation, in-service training,
data analysis and program evaluation. The program staff has learned a great deal
about hypertensives in the target neighborhood: major concerns at present include
1) the high incidence of obesity and overweight in the hypertensive population being
followed and 2) the fact that a majority of hypertensives followed maintain that
they are following medical regimen, but have high blood pressure readings when screened
by outreach workers. We have also rediscovered the difficulties encountered in getting
adequate in-depth information from the community.

MYRNA SILVERMAN, L. SHUMAN, E. RICCI (Pittsburgh) A MODEL FOR RURAL EMERGENCY MEDICAL
SERVICES HEALTH CARE DELIVERY: THE CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES Rural health care has not been
the traditional focus of anthropological study. In recent years, this area has begun
to attract the interest of both policy-makers and social scientists in the analysis and
planning of quality health care programs for rural United States. One such project
developed from a contract awarded by the Federal Department of Transportation to the
Health Operations Research Group in the School of Engineering at the University of
Pittsburgh. The purpose of the project was to develop a computer model to investigate
different alternative configurations for delivering Emergency Medical Service care in a
rural environment. An interdisciplinary team of a computer scientist, health care
manager, operations researchers, and an anthropologist combined the technological and
behavioral approaches to health care planning in the construction of the computer model.
The project illustrated several methodological and theoretical themes: 1) the value
of a combined technological and behavioral approach to the study of health care planning
problems; 2) the use of computer modeling as a strategy for health care planning; and
3) the dynamics of implementing a health care program in a rural environment.
The following paper focuses on the contextual variables that shape or limit the
development of regional emergency medical services programs in rural American
environments, and the dynamics of implementing the program. Illustrations will be
drawn largely from a rural County in Western Pennsylvania.

ALLAN AINSWORTH, VALERIE O'REILLY (Utah) ADJUSTMENT OF GOVERNMENT SPONSORED HEALTH
PROFESSIONALS INTO SMALL COMMUNITIES: A STUDY IN FIVE WESTERN STATES Anthropologists
are increasingly examining health beliefs, utilization practices and health care
delivery systems in American communities. One important aspect of the analysis of
health systems is the understanding of subcultural value differences between persons
dwelling in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas which exist despite the heterogeneous
character of both groups. This paper focuses on those differences as they affect the
placement and utilization of federally-sponsored health professionals in nonmetropolitan
communities in five western states. Participant observation and a questionnaire survey
were employed to examine the adaptation and adjustment of the families of 63 National
Health Service Corps health professionals living in nonmetropolitan practice sites.
Objectives of the research included the examination of 1) satisfaction of these
families with small community life -2) subcultural differences between nonmetropolitan
residents and urban-trained health professionals 3) value conflicts, including
differences in health-care philosophy between the two groups. Each of the above proved
to be a significant factor affecting local health care systems. Assistance in the
careful matching of expectations of the small community with those of the health
professional can be a valuable contribution of anthropologists involved in the study
of U.S. communities.












FRANK P. ARAUJO (Washington St U) SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF
SYPHILIS IN RURAL WASHINGTON STATE The highest prevalence rate of venereal syphilis
(infection from Treponema pallidum) for recent years has been reported in the rural,
central portion of the state of Washington. This feature seems to be quite unusual
since the occurrence of syphilis at the national level is most frequent in large urban
areas, among populations of male homosexuals and prostitutes. The prevalence of
syphilis among migrant farmworkers is discussed in terms of the behavioral aspects,
e.g., sexual practices, life styles, and knowledge of the symptomology and treatment
of this disease, and other factors such as the prevalence of nonvenereal pinta
S(infections from Treponema carateum).

DEBRA ANN SCHUMANN (S Methodist) "IF THERE IS MONEY, THEY LIVE. IF NOT, THEY DIE."
ECONOMICS AND ILLNESS IN A MAYAN VILLAGE This paper discusses the economic impact of
illness in a Tzeltal Mayan agricultural community in Chiapas, Mexico. As both
Indigenous curing and western health care are costly, families with seriously ill
members must take various economic measures to obtain treatment. Depending upon the
nature and longevity of the illness, economic adaptations on a family level range from
selling agricultural produce to, in extreme cases, migratory wage labor to areas where
economic opportunities and health care are readily available. The impact of illness on
family economics is important in understanding economic stratification in this community
and, thus, has wider implications important to regional development planning.

(101) APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY AND MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMS

GWEN STERN (Pilsen Comm Mental Health Center) APPLIED RESEARCH AND PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
IN COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH: THE LATINA MOTHER INFANT PROJECT This paper describes the
development of a collaborative model between applied anthropologists and community
activists for research and action in community mental health. This model has emerged
in the predominantly Mexican/Chicano community of El Barrio in Chicago, where 5 years
ago a group of community women and staff from the community mental health center began
meeting to plan programs in the area of perinatal health. They felt that preventive
programs for pregnant women and for high risk families were an important community health
issue. Frustrated in their attempts to obtain support from major city and state institu-
tions, they enlisted the assistance of applied anthropologists to design and implement a
collaborative research project on perinatal health among Latina women. The Latina Mother
Infant Research Project was initiated, which resulted not only in the needed data but
also in stimulating cooperation between agencies to develop services for children and
families. The anthropologists have continued their role beyond the research itself to
be active in program planning and funding. The outcome of this applied research and
action process has been the development within the community mental health center of a
family component which includes prenatal education, an intervention program for child
abuse and neglect, and a treatment model based on family therapy.

THOMAS C. NATTELL (Schenectady Shared Services) DEINSTITUTIONALIZATION OF PSYCHIATRIC
PATIENTS: A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE This paper presents a discussion of the deintitution-
alization of psychiatric patients with an emphasis on the implications of this process
for both the individual who is released and the community into whichs/he takes up
residence. It focuses on the cultural change that is involved in this process and the
problems of cultural lag that are occurring in both the community based service delivery
systems that are evolving, and the attitudes of the American public toward the presence
of the chronically mentally ill in their communities. The author has conducted research
for both the N.Y. State Officse of Mental Health and Schenectady Shared Services, a
multi-service community based mental health agency. He is currently conducting research
on the problems of serving the needs of the chronically mentally ill under the
Community Support Program Grant awarded to N.Y. State by the National Institute of
Mental Health.










LOIS P. BURGNER, PHILLIP M. COMPTON (Florida Consortium) CITIZEN INVOLVEMENT IN THE
EVALUATION OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CENTERS The Florida Consortium for Research and
Evaluation has involved seven mental health facilities in Florida, in collaboration
with the National Institute 9f Mental Health, to develop, field-test, and disseminate
cost-effective mechanisms for citizen involvement in the evaluation of Community Mental
Health Centers. This interdisciplinary project has tested three strategies of citizen
review groups: staff-based, governing board-based and external group-based citizen
review over the past three years. Different types of citizens from the community (e.g.
high risk, referral agents, community informants, and former clients of the centers)
met in a formal structure of meetings to review evaluation materials and develop recom-
mendations for presentation to the center governing boards. Small group techniques were *
used to facilitate the task. The response of the centers to the 15 groups and the
implementation of their recommendations have been followed. Assessment of the impact
of citizens' recommendations upon the centers and the impact of the citizen review
group process is a viable means of citizen involvement, and one that provides input to
policy decisions by subgroups in the community that may be under represented on center *
governing boards.

BILLY FOGLEMAN, ESTHER P. ROBERTS (Tennessee) PROVIDING MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMS TO AN
INDOCHINESE REFUGEE POPULATION Within the last two years a sizeable group of Indochinese
refugees have been relocated to a Southern metropolitan center. A federal grant has
been awarded to assess the mental health needs of this refugee group. The refugees'
loss of family and native land, inability to speak English, and perceived lack of
control over their own lives are some issues considered in structuring mental health
programs for this refugee group. The impact of relocation on these resettled families,
steps in the acculturation process and attendance strategies for mental health maintenance
are discussed.

ADELE K. ANDERSON (SUNY Buffalo) GRASSROOTS ORGANIZING FOR THE MENTALLY ILL: SOME
PROSPECTS The severely mentally ill have been frequently described as a forgotten
minority. This paper examines some potential sources of organization and social action
for this minority at the grassroots level. It draws upon existing organizational forms
as well as ethnographic material from a year of urban fieldwork among exmental patients
in aftercare in Buffalo, New York. Both internally oriented support and externally
oriented political action functions are important for this group. Mutual aid, voluntary
social welfare, and family and friend advocacy types of organization will be considered
in light of their relative merits and deficiencies for bringing about social change and
improving the quality of life and care for the seriously mentally ill.

JERRY A. SCHULTZ (Kansas) This paper analyzes an applied research project dealing with
the factors which influence the successful employment of physically and psychiatrically
disabled individuals. In particular, the structure of the agency and the larger medical
and cultural influences are looked at. Finally, suggestions are made concerning improving
this approach to rehabilitation.

(102) THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF HEALTH CARE SITES

JILL E. KORBIN, MAXINE JOHNSON (UC Irvine) THE ANTHROPOLOGIST AS CONSULTANT IN A
PEDIATRIC HOSPITAL SETTING A case study will be presented to illustrate the role of
the anthropologist in providing consultation in a pediatric hospital. The case involved
a conflict between a patient's parent, who refused medical treatment on the basis of
deeply rooted Caribbean cultural beliefs about the etiology of disease and the dangers of
blood loss, and the house staff whose medical beliefs and treatment interventions were at
odds with those of the mother. The disease was highly infectious and the resolution of
the conflict involved police intervention to maintain the child in the hospital prior
to physician seeking of anthropological consultation. The presentation will discuss
the particular cultural aspects of the case as well as the means by which the single











case study was translated into a teaching vehicle for illustrating principles and
techniques useful to pediatricians in dealing with culturally diverse populations.
Because of the nature of the parent-child dyad, negotiating of cultural boundaries puts
the medical anthropologist in a unique position in a pediatric setting. The progression
from collaboration on the case, to ethnographic interviewing, to teaching of the
pediatric house staff will be incorporated in the presentation.

LOIS GRAU (Columbia), SUE MacALLISTER (PSRO) SUCCESSFUL NURSING IN THE HOSPITAL SETTING:
A RELATIVE MATTER Intensive interviews and observations of professional nurses in four
"clinical units in a general hospital indicate that "successful nursing", as determined
by peers, radically differs from one unit to the next. The norms against which nurses
evaluate each other vary depending upon the formal authority structure and the informal
power relationships that obtain among staff members. In turn, the type and affect of
power exchanges among personnel and patients are influenced by the clinical specialization
*of the unit and the extent to which physicians intervene and control patient care.

IAN G. RAWSON (Pittsburg) SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF A HOSPITAL EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT
Utilizing participant observation techniques, interactions of emergency department
personnel and clients are analyzed to develop a description of the social structure of
the department. Analytical categories of role, status, symbols, rituals and myths are
used to provide a background to understand the logic of patterned behavior by the ER
staff. The study includes recommendations for in-service training for staff members to
heighten their awareness of the implications of social structural variables for the
healing process in the emergency department.

DAVID C. BARROWS (UC Berkeley) INFORMAL INTERACTIONS AT AN ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOME
A participant observation study was conducted of a recovery home or halfway house for
alcoholics. Storytelling and the nature of the informal interactions emerged as
important variables. An explanation is developed of how storytelling and informal
interactions are an element of the process of the residents' development of new self-
identities. It is suggested that anthropological research methods are ideal for
identifying processes which occur in such treatment or training settings--processes which
are often not identified through the more usual outcome measurement research.

JOSEPH M. KAUFERT, PATRICIA L. KAUFERT, ANDREW KOSTER (Manitoba) THE USE OF A "TROUBLE
CASE" APPROACH TO CONFLICT IN CLINICAL INTERACTION: APPLICATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF
AUDIO-VISUAL TEACHING MATERIALS This paper describes the development of video tape
programs illustrating ethnomedical aspects of interaction between Cree and Saulteaux
speaking patients and clinicians in urban medical facilities. Extended participant
observation and in-depth interviews with clinicians, other medical personnel and patients
were completed before the media development stage of the project. The objective was to
record an inventory of situations which would include cases of communication breakdown
between physicians and the native patients who had been brought to Southern Manitoba
hospitals to receive medical care. The use of media to show medical students the patterns
of interaction in physician-patient encounters is common; the model has been taken from
the clinical case histories used in other areas of medical education. In clinical
teaching cases, situations associated with doctor/patient encounters are not representative
in any statistical sense. They are, however, chosen because they illustrate a generaliz-
able situation characterized by a recognizable set of symptoms or approaches to diagnosis
and treatment in which interaction between doctor and patient is well defined. The
objective of selecting interaction sequences for video-tape modules was to illustrate
conflict situations or so called 'trouble cases'. The concept of 'trouble cases' as it
was used in research on the anthropology of law by Llewellyn and Hoebel; and is based
upon the assumption that more can be learned from situations in which there is tension
and disturbance than from situations which are routine. As an approach, it is akin to
the one used by the ethnomethodologists working in the area of clinicial/patient
interactions. They argue this relationship is best understood when the structure of the










interaction is not normal; when, for example, the patient is 'special (Richman and
Goldthorp, 1977) or the norms which define a clinical encounter are threatened (Emerson,
1970). Conflict situations included in videotapes emphasize the differences in the
physician's and patient's definition of the situation. For example, from the medical
perspective, conflict occurs when the patient is non-compliant; failing to take medica-
tion or follow-through on diet instructions. From the patient perspective, the physician
may be making unreasonable demands.

(103) ANTHROPOLOGY OF MENTAL HEALTH: STRESS AND GRIEF

HOLLY F. MATHEWS (Duke) THE ROLE OF STRESS IN THE ETIOLOY AND TREATMENT OF HIGH BLOOD
BY ROOT DOCTORS Previous research on the folk medical beliefs and practices of root
doctors in rural North Carolina revealed the importance of the disease entity high blood.
In many curcial aspects of diagnosis and treatment, this folk entity parallels the
disease entity of hypertension as defined by modern medical practioners. This paper will
report on recent research into the role of stress as a factor in the etiology and treat-
ment of high blood by root doctors. Subsequently, the current state of stress research
in the modern medical system will be presented and comparisons drawn. The theoretical
and practical value of such a comparative approach will be emphasized as a means for
increasing communication and improving treatment of a serious disease affecting the
population under study.

KATHLEEN M. CARGILL (Florida) WAITING FOR THE BIG ONE: STRESS AND ITS RESOLUTION
WITHIN ONE GROUP OF RURAL FIREFIGHTERS Fire fighting is the most hazardous occupation
in the U.S. The job requires specialized skills, team effort and an ability to with-
stand intense stress for varying lengths of time. In rural areas the stress of fire
combat is balanced by the stress of boredom while "waiting for the big one." It is
considered a man's job. Social scientists have not concerned themselves with the study
of fire fighters in the way they have studies the police and military combat units.
Groups of fire fighters have been the subject of some job performance analyses but few
natural group studies have been done. This research focused on one group of rural
southern firefighters with a view to their role in the rural health care delivery
system. In this paper, the data specifically centered around the group dynamics of 18
men who served a dual role as fire fighters and EMTs or paramedics. The paramilitary
group was stressed by the demands of their job, organizational disintegration based on
a loss of confidence in their leadership, and by their inability to correct the organiz-
ational and social problems facing them. Exploration of male bonding and ritualized
group coping mechanisms elucidated a situation in which an informal group of fire fighters
tried to relieve group tension and hold the department together. Implications for the
research are clear: the findings may be used to formulate in-service training programs
to address problems of leadership as well as other intragroup problems as they affect
job performance.

MAXENE JOHNSTON (Childrens Hospital LA) GRIEF AMERICAN STYLE: CULTURAL RESPONSES OF
FAMILIES AND CHILDREN TO LOSS American culture has produced many sub-cultures that seem
alien to physicians, nurses, and other health professionals. The range of cultural
differences represented in the United States, often interferes with attempts to increase
the well-being of individual members of these sub-cultures. However, when disease is
acute, medical understanding outweighs cultural misunderstanding. But, as the emphasis
in the next decade moves from medical curing to health caring and psycho-social issues,
cultural barriers will become increasingly difficult to surmount. In this regard,
theories and practices regarding loss and responses to loss warrant a cross-cultural
review in an attempt to bridge the gaps in understanding that are inherent in these
events. This paper examines some of the contemporary practices and beliefs on grief
and loss in western and non-western societies and identifies practical and reasonable
approaches for practitioners caring for children and families representing a range of
cultural beliefs and behaviors.











RICHARD W. MORRIS (Rice) MALADAPTIVE RESPONSES TO SOCIAL CHANGE: CASE STUDIES OF
MEXICAN MIGRANTS WHO BECAME PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS The incidence of migration associated
with disease onset in a Mexican psychiatric patient population suggests that the Mexican
migrant and/or members of his family experience stress which may lead to clinically
diagnosed mental illness. A survey of those patients receiving ambulatory care at the
clinic reveals that 57% (N=105) have a history of recent migration, either among them-
selves or among members of their families. The psychiatrists who treated these patients
believed that the suffering of 38% was causally related to migration. Investigation into
the actual experiences of those patients who were migrating at the time their symptoms
commenced and into the impacts of migration on family systems suggests that the social
changes presented by migration may have had a deleterious effect in even more cases than
those recognized by clinicians. Culture contact, absence from the home community, and
separation from the family -- all of which are part of the migrant's experience -- are
shown to be potentially distressing. Those migration strategies which resulted in (1)
prolonged or repeated separation of family members, (2) sudden or complete immersion in
the host culture, or (3) the lack of available social support are discussed as disruptive
influences on families and contributing factors in mental illness causation. The
analysis of data gathered on the direction, duration, and style of migration reveals that,
of all Mexican migrants, those who are exposed to the highest risk of incurring emotional
distress are those who (1) migrate internationally to the United States and become
suddenly immersed in the host culture; (2) migrate for extended periods of time with
infrequent return visits; (3) lose contact with members of their domestic household or
extended family, either through their own solo-migration or the mobility of significant
others; (4) show little history of migration in previous generations of their families.

ATHENA McLEAN (Pittsburgh) FAMILY CULTURAL STYLES AS RELATED TO RELAPSE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
Recurrent relapse and institutionalization is an unfortunate, but realistic, prospect for
patients suffering from schizophrenia. Researchers of schizophrenia are seeking factors
which might contribute to relapse in order to provide clinical predictors of relapse and
strategies to reduce it. As a disorder in processing stimuli, schizophrenia is probably
influenced by environmental stimulation. For example, an international study recently
implicated social and cultural environment in outcome, demonstrating better outcome in
patients from developing countries. In Britain, researchers developed a method to
predict relapse by measuring "Expressed Emotion" (criticism and emotional overinvolvement)
in family environments. As a predictor of relapse, however, "EE" is uneconomical, offers
little guidance to treatment, is problematic in cross cultural application, and possibly
reflects patient clinical state rather than styles of family interaction. This paper
introduces a cultural model to provide an alternative predictor of relapse, deepen
understanding of intrafamilial dynamics underlying "EE", and offer clues for treatment.
This model distinguishes Basil Bernstein's Positional and Person-oriented families as two
cultural value systems differing in role type, social control and communication coding.
The structured Positional family was hypothesized to provide greater protection from
relapse than the ambiguously defined Person-oriented family which imposes more stimulation.
A pilot study within a major "EE" study classified ten patients by family type, examining
role type, social control and communication coding. In nine of ten cases, Person-oriented
families correlated with high "EE" (high risk) and Positional with low "EE" environments,
suggesting family type as an alternative predictor of relapse. If continuing research
corroborates these results, profilactic treatments will hopefully reduce frequency of
relapse and institutionalization.

(104) QUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE TEAM RESEARCH: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS The theme for
the organized symposium reflects some of the concerns and experiences of anthropologists
and other qualitative researchers working individually, in team research and in organized
grassroots support groups. The overall aim is to share some of the new approaches and
ways of resolving the new kinds of issues and problems when we practice outside of
academic settings. The papers address a range of problems from several different
perspectives but are organized around a theme of conflict, conflict at several levels
and in many of its aspects. Mirocha, Pitman, and Raiche, Richardson and Zander outline











the nature of conflicts stemming from paradigmatic differences. These authors however
take different perspectives. Raiche argues for synthesis whereas Pitman advocates
maintaining conflict. Opposing strategies are further illustrated from on-going inter-
disciplinary research projects. Maxwell suggests new roles and directions for
anthropologists as consultants to organizations in such areas as corporate responsibility
mission statements and community relations. Brokering illustrates innovative approaches
to communicating results to clients. Finally, Elias and Dolphin discuss conflict at the
level of grassroots support groups.

JOHN MIROCHA (Minnesota) MIXING QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: A DELINEATION
OF TYPE AND PROCESSES The paper explores several models for inclusion of both qualitative"
and quantitative methods in applied social science research and evaluation. A major
purpose of the paper is to introduce those models which have been proposed by authors
such as Pelto (1970), Filstead (1971), and Douglas (1976), as well as some that are being
used but have not made their way into the literature as yet. The models will be delin-
eated in terms of their strengths and weaknesses so that we may better understand when a
particular type can be most appropriately utilized. The models include the naturalistic
approach which attempts to quantify observational data. The approach imitates and builds
upon methodological ideas from studies of apes, wolf packs, and other behavioral group-
ings. The natural science model stresses that qualitative research is a supplement to
quantification, and provides description for the setting in which the research takes
place. The mixed inductive approach stresses that research should begin with simple
natural interaction in the setting and to proceed to more controlled types of research.
Through the independent approach, qualitative and quantitative researchers work independ-
ently from each other with only the common notion of what it is they are studying. As
the data is analysed, researchers attempt to synthesize information into meaningful
generalizations.

MARY ANNE PITMAN (Minnesota) A CONFLICT MODEL FOR MULTI-PARADIGM RESEARCH PROJECTS
Theorists and practioners disagree on the presence of, extent of, and nature of para-
digmatic conflict in interdisciplinary research. This presentation will contend that
the problems of mixing qualitative and quantitative research methodologies are real and
substantial and that the potential solution lies in maximizing the conflict toward an
eventual dialectic. That contention will be documented by using a case study of a team
documentation effort which the presenter is currently participating in. The research
team in question, which consists of an historian, an anthropologist, a psychologist and
a sociologist, exemplifies the complexities of multi-paradigmatic research. When
applied to this particular case, the conflict model seems to be emerging as the most
fruitful one for producing useable and valid analysis of data.

J. RAICHE, B. RICHARDSON, D.B. ZANDER (Minnesota) THE QUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE DEBATE:
A STRATEGY FOR COMPLEMENTARY RESEARCH METHODS Traditionally, the literature concerned
with qualitative and quantitative methods has focused on the divergence of the two
approaches. These discussions have for the most part been polemical in nature, arguing
for one paradigm over the other. In the last decade or so, while dilatory, the polemical
nature of these discussions has abated and there is some indication that the social
sciences are coming to grips with the need for both methodologies. However, this discourse
remains couched in the rhetoric of "supplementary" rather tham complementary methods.
The thrust of this paper is to explicate a research strategy that utilizes both methods
in an eclectic research "gestalt". The paper contends that the objectives of social
science can only be met when methodological dogmatism is eliminated. After delineating
a strategy for complementary methods and briefly examining some of the research that is
currently being pursued in this vein, we will present a case study (a research project
investigating employee deviance) that is utilizing the concept of interdependent
scientific research.











PAUL MAXWELL (Minnesota) CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
The extent and nature of the corporation's relationship to the wider community is of
continued concern to a number of corporations. Anthropology's experience in the
definition of community boundaries, elicitation and clarification of community values,
and discovery of community structure and process is relevant to the understanding of
a corporation and its responsibilities. The transfer of anthropological theories and
skills to the specific tasks of mission statement formation, corporate planning, and
other procedures for integrating social responsibility with corporate operation is
problematic. This paper relates the experience of an anthropologist responsible for
staffing a board level committee of a medium-sized corporation in trying to make this
transfer. The paper further raises questions for consideration of the discipline on the
direction of its expansion in application of anthropological methods and theory.

P. BETH BROKERING (Film in the Cities) THE APPLICATION OF ANTHROPOLOGY TO PUBLIC
CONCERNS : WHEN ANTHROPOLOGY AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY MERGE Anthropologists
have increasingly used film documentary as a way to further their investigations.
However, the anthropologist as image-maker is a new application of the science. Visual
arts provide the researcher with an effective means of symbolic interaction for mass
communication and social change. In 1977, the Minnesota Dept. of Ecomomic Security
funded an evaluation of Youth Employment Programs. Qualitative research methods were
primarily used to assess the impact of government-subsidized work programs on youth
participants--from the youths' point of view. Safety and supervision were defined as
critical areas for further investigation in a second study. The findings were used to
develop a model safety program for replication and to produce resource materials,
including slide shows. In looking at safety and supervision through the perceptions
of adolescents, a description and analysis of various behaviors and cognitive strategies
emerged. These adaptive mechanisms were sorted and compared using content analysis of
interview data. Thus, it was possible to design a method to influence necessary changes
or reinforcement in these strategies. Two slide-sound presentations were developed to
accomplish just that. Because the quality of dyadic interaction was found to be the single
most important variable that shaped the work culture, "Caring for Safety's Sake" was
produced. This piece enables supervisors to view themselves and their work place as
teenagers do, strengthens the safety ethic, and encourages adoption of a philosophy of
youth development. "Fishes & Water", (for youths), presents cognitive skills found to
be necessary for preventative thinking and behavior. These skills are illustrated in
vignettes which depict factors informants said affected their safety, (e.g. maturity,
peer pressure, secuality, drug use). These two presentations, additional resource
materials, and the program model are examples of the application of anthropology to public
concerns.

(105) ANTHROPOLOGICAL VIEWS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

SHELDON G. WEEKS (U of Papua New Guinea) TEACHERS AS EXTENSION WORKERS: VILLAGE
DEVELOPMENT CENTRES IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA In 1977 five former Vocational Centres and 25
instructors were asked to change from centre-based training of male and female youth
to village-based training for adults. It was a joint project of a number of divisions
of Government (education, agriculture, health, business development, provincial affairs,
and information). With few exceptions the project has failed. A World Bank expert
confined himself to giving unacceptable advice and failed to launch the expected re-
training programme for staff. A national coordinator at Headquarters lacked administra-
tive follow-through. The general bureaucracy, particularly financial requirements,
blocked effective administrative support to staff in the five centres. Centre staff were
generally not selected, nor was any adequate training programme launched. Dissatisfactions
have resulted in a high rate of transfer out of the project. A dependence on vehicle
transport to reach distant villages resulted in frequent blockages to extension when
vehicles were not running or roads not passable. A general lack of cooperation between
divisions in each province also retarded the project. Lack of commitment to the goals
of the project, general inexperience and unfamiliarity with extension methods, frustrations










with villagers and an incomprehension of the potential for village-based training has
hampered the effective attainment of original objectives. Poor choice of the original
five centres (only two conformed to objectives) and the need to maintain centre-based
programmes has blocked goal attainment. Yet in certain circumstances and respects there
have been successes in the project. Former vocational centre instructors have been
transformed into didimen (extension workers). This research report also explores these
successes and considers ways in which the project might be transferred to other
institutions.

BARBARA D. JACKSON (Indiana/Purdue), TERRY MILLER (AMOS) SEX ROLES IN A PRE-VOCATIONAL
EDUCATION PROJECT In January, 1979 a model pre-vocational education program was estab-
lished by AMOS, Inc., an organization which provides supportive services to the predom-
inantly chicano migrant and seasonal farmworker population in Indiana. The program
accomodates, in a comprehensive and integrated fashion, the specific language, social,
cultural, and basic educational needs of both in-stream farmworkers who are contemplating
lifestyle change, as well as those who have recently committed themselves to the "settling.
out" process. The project utilizes anthropologists as technical assistants to identify
cognitive and behavioral responses of clients, especially as these may relate to cultural
differences. Sex role has emerged as an interesting and significant factor in program
delivery. Differences in male and female responses to program structure, curriculum,
and personnel, as well as their perceptions of occupational and educational goals have
been identified. The dynamics of sex-role interaction have had implications for the
conducting of classes and in counseling bonded male/female pairs. This paper will
present qualitative and quantitative data establishing sex role as a significant factor
of intra-cultural variation among hispanic farmworkers in a particular educational
program. General recommendations will be made for adult education programs serving
similar populations.

SARA McGRAW GEITE (Conn) COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL
CAREER EDUCATION CENTER The development of a Youth Adult Metal Machining training
program has illustrated some unique and important features of career education programs
in urban schools. The initiation and design of this program has included involvement
by organizations representing education and training institutions, area industry and
business as well as city and state. Because of this multi-sector involvement and the
requirement for numerous funding sources, issues concerning the relationship between
education, industry and urban poor communities have been raised. These issues include
the role of community residents in the development, implementation and monitoring of
career education programs, the commitment of business and industry to offer mature action
and the degree to which public school systems can support adequate secondary level career
education programs. This paper will discuss these issues and suggest new directions for
career education. Possible roles for anthropologists will be described. Although the
training component of this program has been well-received, students have experienced
limited employment continuity. This paper will explore the reasons for this difference.
Program staff, employer and student perspectives will be discussed with particular
reference to student needs and staff-employer expectations.

MERRILL NAIMAN (Conn) THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FEDERAL SUBSIDIES ON CAREER EDUCATION IN
PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS Federal subsidies for youth employment have shifted urban public
school career education from an emphasis on career choice and options to job training and
placement. Minimum wage subsidies are intended to encourage employers to hire youth and
to act as incentives in new job development. Some programs have chosen to use the subsidy
for related purposes including desegregation of specific employment sectors. The middle
city youth employment in the suburbs program trains and places urban high school students
in retail positions in a large enclosed suburban mall. A wage subsidy is available to
employers who agree to accept YES students as employees. Students are recruited for an
intensive after school training program and are then placed at selected job sites.











(106) AMERICAN INDIAN EDUCATION

MARK S. FLEISHER (Washington St U) THE EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF AMERICAN INDIAN
ENGLISH The paper discusses the hypothesis that American Indian English is a creole
language. The hypothesis is illustrated with data from the Makah Indian Reservation,
Olympic Peninsula, Washington State. A model is presented showing the development of
Neah Bay English Creole over, at least, 150 years of contact with both European and
native Northwest Coast languages. The model outlines the social and linguistic variables
which affected the formation of Neah Bay English Creole. Educational linguists have
focused their attention on analyzing and teaching native languages to monolingual
English-speaking Indian children. While doing this they have paid little attention
to the English sopken by American Indians. My hypothesis that American Indian English is
a creole has important implications for primary, secondary and post-secondary schooling
for American Indians.

KENNETH Y. BEGISHE, EDWARD R. GARRISON (Navajo Comm C) THE NAVAJO UNIVERSE: THE
TAXONOMIC STRUCTURE OF NATIVE KNOWLEDGE AS THE BASIS FOR CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION AND
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AT NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE The taxonomic structure of the
Navajo Universe has been previously outlined through the Ethnoscience research of Werner
and his associates. By utilizing this structure, and providing greater depth and detail
through further research where needed, the staff at Navajo Community College are develop-
ing a comprehensive collegiate level curriculum that is truly Navajo in content and
organization. Details of this research and development are described, including
(a) areas where the organization of Navajo knowledge has led to different "disciplinary"
boundaries than those found in the typical college, and (b) areas where the specific
content and philosophy of individual courses have emerged in unique ways that show
noteworthy contrasts with their "parallel" courses in other types of colleges.

KATHRYN T. MOLOHON (Laurentian) TRUANCY AMONG URBAN INDIANS A Study of 24 American
Indians enrolled in public schools in the San Francisco Bay area found that those who
were truant fell into two general groups: 1) Those who were truant as a result of family
problems, and 2) those who were truant for purposes of adventure or entertainment.
There was also one case of a Pueblo girl who refused to attend school in order to avoid
fighting on the school playground. This paper concludes with suggestions for handling
truancy among American Indians in urban public schools.

ANN T. McGUIGAN (Washington St U) BICULTURAL EDUCATION AND NATIVE AMERICANS
The hypothesis of the paper is that the United States government uses normative criteria
for establishing the need for bilingual/bicultural programs on Native American Indian
Reservations. My argument is that the government-selected normative criteria do not
reflect the social, cultural and educational needs of Native Ameraicans. A complete
switch has occurred in the educational policy for Native Americans as created by non-
Indian bureaucracy. Their educational policy has changed from absolute assimilation to
the position encouraging bilcuturalism. The bicultural education of Native American
children is essentially symbolic of a past culture and not representative of the culture
and society in which Indian children will be expected to live and succeed. The paper
explores the historical development of the change in educational policy. Moreover, this
intellectual development of educational policy is a barometer of interethnic attitudes.

JOHN COLLIER JR (San Francisco St U) MULTI-CULTURAL EDUCATION AND THE PERSISTENCE OF
ETHNICITY The surviving ethnicity of Native Americans and the future of cultural
pluralism in American culture are directly related to the philosophy of education of
both federal and public school education. This paper reports on eight years of film
research in Eskimo, Navajo and multi-ethnic education in the San Francisco city schools.
The research began in the National Study of American Indian Education, which probed
"Why are Native Americans consistently getting an inferior education?" I examined this
question among the Eskimos of Alaska. In search of "how can Native Americans obtain
survival education," I researched the Rough Rock Demonstration Community School that is










remedying psychological injuries that have blocked education for Navajo children. The
research then moved into the multi-ethnic classrooms in San Francisco where the more
critical problem of ethnicity rests. The fulfillment of this research has been to probe
the future solution of plural ethnicity that can only be fulfilled by a new philosophy
of multi-ethnic education that supports and strengthens ethnic diversity in American
democracy.

(107) ANTHROPOLOGY OF LEISURE ACTIVITY

RITA SRIVASTAVA, THOMAS MELCHIONNE (Rutgers) NEW YORK NEW WAVE]PUNK ROCK CULTURE AS A
MECHANISM OF BALANCE IN AMERICAN SOCIETY New Wave]Punk Rock is an important music-
focused subcultural phenomenon. It has been interpreted as a reaction to the over-
engineered, over-commercialized world of Disco, but in another sense, it is the protest
of flesh and blood people against the confines of traditional modernity. The music
expresses the frustrations and anger of those who take part in it: anger at the broken
dreams and unfulfilled promises radiated by mega-industrial mass culture. This paper
demonstrates how punk rock culture serves as a socio-psychological validating mechanism,
and how it provides a valuable cultural vehicle in which the resentment of disenfranchised
youth can be safely defused. Rather than dismiss punk rock as just another transitory
fad, or condemning it as violent, aberrant, or destructive, it should be recognized for
its functional value in adding balance to American culture.

ELIZABETH L. MATHIAS (St. Johns U) CULTURAL CODES AND GAMBLING AMONG SOUTH PHILADELPHIA
ITALIANS Research in gambling activity in American society has been conducted primarily
by sociologists and psychologists who have studies gamblers as a relatively homogenous
group, the members of which share such traits as compulsive-addictive behavior and
deviance. The ethnicity and cultural backgrounds of white Americans who gamble has
been largely glossed over or ignored. A study of the gambling behavior of Italian-
Americans reveals that certain of the cultural codes of southern Italian society, such
as the honor/shame orientation, operate in and form a basis for attitudes toward gambling
and the social organization of gambling within this ethnic group. Cultural values and
male and female gambling patterns in the Italian community of South Philadelphia will be
examined in historical and environmental context.

LARRY J. SCHMIDT (Syracuse) SMALL TOWN LIFE AND THE ARRIVAL OF THE CB RADIO: A STUDY
OF STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN THE RURAL NORTHEASTERN U.S. In "Woodboro", a hamlet in rural
New York where the author did his dissertation research, and many other communities
where the local farm-based economy has collapsed and commuting to work prevails, village
organizations and local life in general have declined dramatically. Testimony that this
development is more situational than motivational comes from the arrival and overwhelming
acceptance of the CB radio. Almost every family in Woodboro now has a base station and
at least one mobile unit. Informants agreed that although the "craze" has now passed,
the CB radio is in Woodboro to stay. The result has been people talking with friends
that they haven't spoken to in years, with conversations soon leading to plans to get
together. The CB will never restore the community life that existed in the days of local
organizational prosperity, but it does provide an intermediate gap-filling institution
which people in Woodboro admit was sorely needed.

W. GERALD GLOVER (Edison Comm C) HOTEL MANAGEMENT STYLES IN THE BEHAMAS: A PRELIMINARY
STUDY Hotel organization and management reflects cultural attitudes for tourism and
economic development in Third World nations. This paper presents the results of a pilot
study conducted in the Bahama Islands. Hotel management and organization are investigated
with regard to "success" criteria such as profit, use of local resources, integration
with local culture, conservation of natural resources, and employee job satisfaction.













(108) CRITICAL ISSUES IN ASIAN COMMUNITIES: RESEARCH AND APPLICATION

WEN H. KUO (Utah) COLONALISM AND ASIAN AMERICAN STUDIES As an extension of the
author's recent publication on Asian American assimilation studies, the paper further
examines the thesis of internal colonalism. Discussion first focuses on the major
theoretical arguments of this perspective, the empirical confirmation status of its
propositions, and then concludes with a critical note on its limitations. Remedies
are offered by presenting a revised model which incorporates thoughts from neo-
"colonalism and world system scholars. To demonstrate the potential utility of this
revised perspective, data of recent immigration from Asia and changes in the community
structure of Asian American communities are analyzed. The implication of this
perspective for studies of other immigrant groups is also elaborated.

-GAIL DEMPSEY (WICD-TV Urbana) GROWING UP FEMALE IN PRE-REVOLUTIONARY CHINA
This paper represents material extrapolated from an archival thesis written on the
subject of suicidal responses of women in China before the Socialist Revolution in 1949.
In this study, I set the stage for suicide by devoting the first half of the work to an
analysis of what it was like to grow up, female, in China. From the age of Confucius
(the Chou Dynasty) to thirty years ago, the birth of a female child proved little cause
for celebration. My research focuses upon the dynamics of infacticide, the painful
process of footbinding, the sale of female children (infants), forced marriage, and a
myriad of degrading and destructive experiences which made up the life stages of the
majority of growing girls (regardless of class or economics) in the Celestial Kingdom.

GEORGE CERNADA, CHING-CHING CHEN (Mass) PASTING UMBRELLAS BEFORE RAIN: A CASE STUDY
In 1971, copies of the first "population education" booklet had found their way to some
400,000 students throughout Taiwan. The chronological record of the planning and
production of the "Paste Your Umbrella Before the Rain" booklet assesses the many
political and cultural as well as bureaucratic barriers to an expansion of population
programming from the public health realm to include other social development agencies.
The case study is drawn from the detailed diary notes of the co-investigators who drafted
the booklet for the Ministry of Education, as well as other sources collected during
the period (1969-71). The case also moves into the general realm of population education,
the heavy hand of foreign influence, and the lack of cultural context in materials,
texts, curriculum and teacher training. Of special interest is the conflict between
population education goals and deep-rooted cultural and social development planning goals
of the Government.

RUTH ANN SANDO (Hawaii) ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND THE FARMER IN TAIWAN This paper will
examine the implications of economic development for agriculture. The data is based on
research in the Republic of China 1977-78. Industrialization was financed by the
agricultural sector; as it developed it drew further on agricultural resources until
today agriculture represents less than 14% of the GNP. Today's farmer sees himself as a
member of the last generation of farmers. He is not training anyone to take his place,
having sent his children out to work in the cities. The high level of out-migration from
villages has led to a substitution of capital intensive machinery for the now scarce and
expensive human labor, and to changes in the crop cycle. Currently farmers are receiving
little or no profit, becoming more and more dependent on outside income. This encourages
further migration, producing a vicious cycle depleting rural communities. Industrializa-
tion has already produced a crisis in agriculture. With the increased dependency on
international markets and the continued fuel shortage, a dangerous situation on a larger
scale may also be developing.

PAMELA A. DEVOE (Arizona) RURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION IN TAIWAN, AN ALTERNATIVE TO URBAN
MIGRATION As with many third world countries, Taiwan's rural area had exhibited problems
of overpopulation per available agricultural land; however, due to rural industrialization,
alternatives to urban migration are now available. As a result of employment/business
opportunities created by rural industrialization, and an improved communication system,
potential urban migrants may now choose to remain in the rural area. This alternative
to urban migration was reflected in the findings of field research carried out in central
Taiwan among rural youths.











(109) THE CONFLICT BETWEEN SELF-HELP/MUTUAL-AID GROUPS AND PROFESSIONALS:
REALITY OR MYTH? Anthropology is investigating a major resource for helping sectors
of society often neglected or overlooked by the conventional human service agencies.
This resource is expressed in the self-help]mutual-aid movement, estimated currently
to involve some twenty million Americans and an equivalent number abroad. Contrary
to both popular and professional beliefs, significant numbers of these groups not only
are not anti-professional, but in fact are or have been initiated or supported by
seasoned professionals. First-hand accounts by exemplars of these professionals and
by lay leaders of prominent self-help]mutual-aid groups are presented, along with
observations of anthropologists working in the self-help realm.

(110) RECIPROCAL DEVELOPMENT: APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGISTS & AMERICAN INDIAN COOPERATION
IN THE ARIZONA STRIP 1972-1980 From 1972 to the present the Kaibab Paiute people of
northern Arizona have participated with four universities in a series of developmental
change projects that have resulted in mutually beneficial products. A model of
reciprocal development is suggested by this experience. In this model participants
enter the relationship expecting to receive direct benefits for normal activities.
For the university this may mean (1) better access to research data, (2) special teaching
environments, and perhaps even (3) improved community service. For the reciprocating
community, benefits should derive from being able (1) to inexpensively draw upon the
expertise of university personnel, (2) to utilize on a short term basis capital intensive
equipment such as computers, photographic laboratories, and media centers, and (3) to
have project specific research and activities conducted that would otherwise be beyond
the resources of the community. Explicit in this model is the (1) requirement of
mutual trust, (2) time to come to understand the goals, resources, and constraints
within which the other partner must operate, (3) the ability to translate organizational
or discipline relevant problems and findings into the language of the other partner,
and (4) project continuity deriving from mutual long term commitments. The following
papers (1) discuss the reciprocal model, (2) describe the 1975 applied archaeology
project, (3) present findings from 1976 and 1978 tourism surveys and their developmental
implications, (4) examine the educational and economic potential of hiking trails,
(5) show how culturally sensitive events can be simultaneously preserved and serve an
economic function through applied visual anthropology, and (6) reevaluate the role of a
linguist working with people who desire to retain their traditional language.

MERLE CODY JAKE (Kaibab Paiute Tribe), RICHARD W. STOFFLE (Wisconsin-Parkside)
RECIPROCAL DEVELOPMENT: A MODEL DERIVED FROM APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGISTS & AMERICAN INDIAN
COOPERATION IN THE ARIZONA STRIP 1972-1979 This paper presents a model of reciprocal
development that appears to be generally applicable to any university with applied
anthropological concerns and any community willing to develop an applied relationship
with the university. The model is derived from almost a decade of applied projects
cooperatively developed between the Kaibab Paiute people of northern Arizona and four
universities. According to this model participants enter the relationship expecting to
receive direct benefits for normal activities. For the university this may mean (1)
better access to research data, (2) special teaching environments, and perhaps even
(3) improved community service. For the reciprocating community, benefits should
derive from being able (1) to inexpensively draw upon the expertise of university
personnel, (2) to utilize on a short term basis capital intensive equipment such as
computers, photographic laboratories, and media centers, and (3) to have project specific
research and activities conducted that would otherwise be beyond the resources of the
community. Explicit in this model is the (1) requirement of mutual trust, (2) time to
come to understand the goals, resources, and constraints within which the other partner
must operate, (3) the ability to translate organization or discipline relevant problems
and findings into the language of the other partner, and (4) need for project continuity
deriving from mutual long term commitments.












DAVID B. HALMO (Wisconsin-Parkside) APPLIED ARCHEOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIVE
AMERICAN TOURISM PROGRAM In the past, field schools concerned with excavation of arch-
eological remains generally serve to enhance academic knowledge of past cultures and
provide experience and training for students interested in making archeology a career.
Rarely, if ever, are they a component of a long range developmental change program
concerned with preserving cultural heritage of a Native American people while opening
avenues to increased economic independence for the recipient population. This paper
will outline the archeological problems that confronted the Kaibab Paiute people of
northern Arizona in developing a successful tourism program in 1975, and the role of
applied anthropologists in alleviating these problems through the use of the field
school strategy. The 1975 applied archeology field school provided experience,
training, and new skills to undergraduate anthropology students while making possible the
continued development of the Kaibab Paiute tourism program. In retrospect, it has served
to lay the ground work for continued positive relationships between hosts and guests and
subsequent developmental change field school projects.

CHERYL A. LAST (Wisconsin-Parkside) RESERVATION-BASED TOURISM AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT:
NEW SURVEY FINDINGS FROM THE ARIZONA STRIP During the summers of 1976 and 1979
administrators of the Kaibab Paiute Tribe and University of Wisconsin-Parkside faculty
and students conducted tourism surveys of the Arizona Strip region. In 1976 15 field
school students interviewed 1806 touring party decision makers at 5 touring locations
scattered throughout southern Utah and northern Arizona. The primary purpose of this
survey was to assess the feasibility of constructing a motel complex on the Kaibab
Paiute reservation. In 1979 15 field school students interviewed 320 touring party
decision makers at Pipe Spring National Monument located on the Kaibab Paiute reservation.
This survey had two purposes: to reassess the 1976 survey findings and to measure the
potential impact of major development projects such as power transmission lines,
electrical generating plants, dams, new road construction, etc. on the willingness of
tourists to return to the region. Implications of the findings for Kaibab Paiute
development and for regional energy development proposals are discussed.

SALLY A. C. WOOD (Wisconsin-Parkside) EDUCATIONAL HIKING TRAILS: ATTRACTING ARIZONA
STRIP TOURISTS AND PROVIDING THEM AN ALTERNATIVE HISTORIC PERSPECTIVE This paper
examines the development of an educational hiking trail project on the Kaibab Paiute
reservation in northern Arizona. The project was designed to attract tourists to a
new tribally owned and operated trailer-camper park by satisfying tourist desires (as
expressed in the 1976 tourism survey) to hike and be educated simultaneously. In
addition to its economic functions, the Kaibab Paiute people recommended that the
hiking trail and its associated guide booklet provide tourists with a Paiute perspective
on local history. During the summer of 1978 persons from the Kaibab Paiute tribe, the
University of Wisconsin-Parkside and Indian University, constructed two hiking trails
on the reservation (one to a W. Powell survey marker of historical importance and
another to an endangered petroglyph site) and a culturally sensitive trail guide book.

DAN RASCH (Wisconsin-Parkside) APPLIED VISUAL ANTHROPOLOGY: THE USE OF VIDEOTAPE AND
STILL PHOTOGRAPHY FOR NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURAL PRESERVATIONAND TOURISM This paper
discusses the use of videotape and still photography as a means of preserving components
of Native American cultural heritage and as a vehicle for meeting the value expectations
of tourists who are attracted to a reservation-based tourism facility. During the summer
of 1979 students and faculty from the University of Wisconsin-Parkside combined their
equipment and skills with those of the Kaibab Paiute people to produce a series of visual
materials for use in a new tribally owned cultural heritage museum. Production of these
materials was stimulated in part by the desire of the Kaibab Paiute people to have
certain components of traditional life visually available for future generations and
in part by an expressed desire of Arizona Strip tourists to learn about Indian life
when visiting a reservation without intruding upon their privacy. Photographic records
were made of tribal elders constructing traditional style housing for an outdoor museum
exhibit and of an endangered petroglyph site located elsewhere on the reservation.












PAMELA BUNTE (New Mexico St U) THE LINGUIST'S ROLE IN CULTURAL PERSISTENCE: A
KAIBAB PAIUTE CASE It is well known that an ethnographer affects the society he
describes. Linguists, however, so many of whom have little or no anthropological
training, often assume that their research and their presence in a linguistic
community has no effect and that if they pay their "informants" they have no further
responsibility to the community. By way of evidence to the contrary, the author will
trace the course that her five years of linguistic field work among the Kaibab Paiutes
has taken and the changes that the status of the Southern Paiute language has undergone
as a result of the presence of the academic community among the Paiutes. In particular,
the author analyses the impact of her presence on the socio-linguistic milieu of the
Kaibab Paiute reservation. This experience makes it clear that the linguist, like the
ethnographer, needs to be able to integrate his needs with those of the linguistic
community.

(111) POPULATION RESEARCH AS APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY The two-part symposium will stress
recent or current anthropological research which relates socio-cultural factors to
population variables. In the first session, papers will be presented covering a range
of topics, from the relationship between cultural factors and fertility to socio-cultural
variables affecting family planning programs. These papers will cover research conducted
in various areas of the world, intentionally encompassing a broad range of cultural
diversity. Following the presentation of papers, there will be a second part which
will consist of a panel discussion about the applications and possible ramifications
of research findings for population policies. An equal part of the discussion will be
devoted to the "culture" and constraints inherent in population or family planning
programs, and how these affect the applicability of research results.

MARGARET S. BOONE (Georgetown U) FERTILITY, DISEASE, AND INFANT MORTALITY IN AN AMERICAN
INNER CITY POPULATION This paper profiles the pregnancy histories of women in a poor,
black population served by a major east coast urban hospital, and suggests ways in which
fertility, disease, and infant mortality combine to perpetuate a culture of poverty.
The paper discusses the utility of research on a particularly disadvantaged group, in
terms of program and policy development. In research on such a group, new variables
emerge and new options are suggested which may contradict previous commitments of more
middle class policy makers and program designers.

MARY ELMENDORF (Consultant) CHANGING PATTERNS OF FERTILITY: THE IMPACT OF CONTRACEPTIVE
TECHNOLOGY ON A MAYA VILLAGE This paper investigates the internal dynamics of the
processes set in motion by social, economic and technical innovations, including the
introduction of maternal/child health and family planning services in a Maya village.
An important dimension of the study lies in the undertaking of this research phase
concurrently with the beginning of the family planning program and the more complex
process of introducing contraceptive technology. By close collaboration with the local
health worker it was possible to identify and understand some of the hopes and constraints
of the women as they began to use more contraceptives and began to assume more control of
their fertility.

ALFONSO VILLA ROJAS (National U Mexico) BEHAVIOR OF MAYA WOMEN IN RELATION TO
DEMOGRAPHIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE: THREE COMMUNITIES IN SYNCHRONIC AND DIACHRONIC
PERSPECTIVES The focus of this research has been in the village of Chan Kom, but this
report includes comparative data from Tusik and Piste and an analysis of traditional
beliefs and customs among the Maya. Urban and traditional communities were used as
social fields as we analyzed influences from the modern sectors, communications between
generations, and the changing world view as they relate to fertility behavior.










JOANN E. GLITTENBERG (Colorado) A SOCIOCULTURAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING FERTILITY AND
ADVOCATING CHANGE: A GUATEMALAN STUDY What conditions influence fertility has been
widely studied, but still the issue remains controversial. In order to investigate
various conditions, Glittenberg in 1974-75 studied fertility and sociocultural factors
in two ethnically different Guatemalan towns: a Ladino and an Indian. The towns are
similar in that they have the same type of agrarian economy and are located in the same
ecological niche. However, the ethnic groups are on opposite ends of a cultural continuum.
Using the Davis and Blake sociocultural framework, the economic classes, educational
achievements ard religious affiliations were assessed in each town. Cultural variables
studied included: ideal family size, marital practices, female status and work role,
inheritance patterns, migration patterns and cultural ideals. The intermediate
"variables affecting fertility investigated were: intercourse, conception, gestation,
and parturition. It was found there were no statistically significant differences in
the fertility rates between these two ethnic groups. However, other significant conditions
which varied between the groups were: inheritance patterns, marriage patterns, cultural
ideals, women's roles and statuses and levels of fatalism. The differences formed a
S"antinatal" and prenatall" profile for each community. A careful analysis of the profiles
suggested different population policies and appropriate family planning programs. The
study indicated mere analysis of fertility rates is superficial and misleading whereas
an in-depth sociocultural study offers a sound base from which to build family planning
programs.

JOYCE BENNETT JUSTUS (UC San Diego) ADOLESCENT FERTILITY AND CONTRACEPTIVE USAGE IN
JAMAICA This paper discusses the relationship among education, female autonomy and
contraceptive usage in Jamaica. It poses and answers the question when, and under what
conditions will adolescents use contraceptives. It also suggests policy implications
based on findings derived from a recent study carried out by the author in conjunction
with a sociologist from the University of the West Indies, Jamaica and makes an argument
for the inclusion of the anthropologist in the research team when the goal of the
research is an evaluation of contraceptive or fertility behavior.

(112) THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN NATIVE AMERICAN COMMUNITIES Community
development processes are those which increase the participation of community residents
in local decision-making. Federal Indian policies of self-determination introduce
the concepts of community development but do little to implement these new processes.
The papers in this session present case studies of citizen participation in Tribal
planning programs. Approaches to citizen participation which relate to the unique
cultural setting of each community were necessary for effective community development.
These approaches are indicative of the effort and resources needed for successful
involvement of community members. Such involvement is imperative, however, if self-
determination is to become a reality for Indian communities.

ALLEN C. TURNER (Kentucky) ACTIVATING CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN A TRIBAL PLANNING
PROGRAM Remote, small scale tribal communities with fluctuating in-residence population
composition have special constraints on effective participatory planning. Furthermore,
formal tribal administrative systems may be antithetical to traditional community patterns
This paper reports on the ways the Kaibab-Paiute Tribe of northern Arizona addressed these
constraints and some of the organizational, material and cognitive results of the tribe's
three-year HUD 701 Planning Assistance program. Ethnohistorical and ethnographic research
provided some operating hypotheses about Southern Paiute patterns of adaptation leading to
the formation of an ad hoc Planning Committee. The committee was homologous with
aboriginal functional band structure. The Planning Committee identified the directions
for development, studied the issues, and made recommendations to the Tribal Council for
action. Areas of participatory planning include housing, tribal land and water works
and health care delivery systems. Major results include a reservation-wide housing
rehabilitation program, the construction of irrigation systems for family gardens and
plans for a community health station on the reservation.












DICK G. WINCHELL (Arizona St U) CITIZEN PARTICIPATION THROUGH TRIBAL SPECIFIC HEALTH
PLANS The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (P.L. 93-638) and
the Indian Health Care Improvement Act (P.L. 94-437) suggest a new approach to Federal
Indian policy called tribal specific planning. Indian Health Services initiated Tribal
specific health planning in its Phoenix area office during fiscal years 1978, 1979 and
1980. Funds and technical assistance were provided to each Indian community in the
area. Local health committees and tribal councils became responsible for the use of
those resources to create a tribal specific health plan. Local communities identified
their own health needs and set priorities to meet them. Each tribal specific health
plan was forwarded to Washington, along with the combined plan for the area office
based upon the tribal specific reports. The policies and funding requests for the
area office were based upon the tribal specific reports, including the operating budget
for fiscal years 1981, 1982 and 1983. For the first time Federal Indian policy was set
by local community participation in documented tribal specific health plans. Tribal
specific planning has great potential in all areas of Indian porgrams, but it requires
adequate funding for local planning processes and for implementation of local plans.

(113) COMMUNITY PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT, SOCIAL CHANGE

ELIZABETH CHINN (City of Oceanside), MARGARET BAKER (Co of San Diego) ANTHROPOLOGISTS
IN PLANNING: BRINGING THE COMMUNITY INTO LOCAL GOVERNMENT There is presently a lack
of community participation in the local government planning process, although it is
the intention of much recent State and Federal legislation to provide for citizen
participation. Community input exists primarily on paper. This paper will examine the
"reality" -- prevailing attitudes and aspects of local governmental processes which
hamper community input and the various "actors" who promote or hinder community input.
The potential roles of anthropologists -- anthropologists as planners, as facilitators,
and as brokers in interaction with the administrator, elected public official, service
deliverers, clients, and the community-at-large -- will be discussed.

JEANNE MARIE STUMPF-CAROME, THOMAS J. DOUGLAS (Cleveland St U) THE CULTURAL DIMENSION
OF A COMMUNITY PLANNING STRATEGY Many culturally defined communities in Cleveland, Ohio
are experiencing demographic and ethnic transformation. Residents often view these
neighborhoods from different perspectives. Long-term residents know the neighborhood
as it was. Recent migrants are dependent on their everyday experience as a definitional
basis. Community conflict can result if these two perspectives cannot be reconciled.
This conflict can be further intensified by the present-time orientation of urban
planning. When community participation is a prerequisite for program success, this
conflict is even more of a liability. A stable community image and tradition is usually
lacking in a changing community. A three part strategy was developed in Cleveland to
address this deficit. First, a survey was used to define the neighborhood planning
priorities. Oral histories were then gathered to give these priorities an historical
perspective. Finally, workshops were used as an enculturation technique to provide
recent migrants with a sense of continuity and community identification. This methodo-
logical synthesis contributed to abating community confrontation.

DAVID M. GIBSON (Missouri) THE URBAN NEIGHBORHOOD: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH TO MEASUREMENT
This paper presents a study of an urban area, examining the concept of 'unit' analysis,
and its appropriatness for urban planning research. This research utilized two methods:
a cognitive mapping technique often used by urban geographers, and an attitude survey.
The results indicate that these two methods, when used together, would be a valuable
strategy for urban researchers involved with such things as impact assessment for
planning programs.

ROBERT E. KNITTEL (Consultant) AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF A CITY PARK This study is on
the use of a city park by neighborhood residents and the part that the park, as an
environment, might play in their lives. Such use may be reflected in concepts of
territoriality, images of the park and behavioral maps. Techniques of research include
observations, interviews, photographs and a review of the literature. Follow-up studies
will attempt to relate characteristics of neighborhood use to characteristics of park
use, to determine the degree of influence that the park as an environment, may have on
the cognitive conception of the neighborhood by its residents.











FLORENCE V. JENSEN (Wisconsin-Parkside) SOCIAL IMPACT OF A CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
ON A UNIVERSITY CAMPUS Following the recommendations of the President's Commission on
Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, the State of Wisconsin (in Spring, 1979)
included two university campuses as possible sites for a medium-minimum security
facility. While economic and environmental impacts of such a project are now routinely
examined, few studies are made of social impacts. This paper will discuss potential
social impacts on the academic resources, climate and future goals of University of
Wisconsin-Parkside. Data for this paper are drawn from a survey of Parkside students,
faculty, and area residents.

MARY MARGARET OVERBEY (Florida) ANALYZING THE IMPACT OF NAVAL BASE DEVELOPMENT ON A
COASTAL COMMUNITY: KINGS BAY, GEORGIA This research project concerns the impact of a
United States Navy submarine base on a small Georgia community. The influx of naval
personnel and dependents have increased the county population by 50% and later will add
another 200%. This may dramatically alter basic social, cultural, economic and political
institutions in the community. That rapid social changes produce severe stress on
community institutions and people is well known from anthropological literature. The
study aims at measuring those changes that occur in community institutions, behavior
and attitudes before and during the initial impact period. This initial analysis
addresses the effects of naval base development on one aspect of the community: its
maritime tradition. The relative importance of the maritime industry to the local
economy has fluctuated first with the advent of a paper mill industry and later with the
development of a munitions plant. Commercial fishing has persisted in several families
over many generations despite these changes. Non-commercial fishing among community
residents is widespread and considered a subsistence as well as recreational activity.
Development of the naval base, however, is affecting both commercial and non-commercial
fishing activities, and may signal important changes in the maritime orientation of the
community.

JOHN F. MULPKE (E Washington U) INDUSTRIAL ANTHROPOLOGY? Applied anthropology now looks
at, among other things, the work-place. Anthropological journals show dramatic increases
in studies, reviews and comments focusing on patterns of human behavior in the job
environments. This paper describes this trend and suggests possible reasons for the
increased attention. The paper then speculates how increased attention to industrial
anthropology may illustrate a basic critical change now occurring in the discipline
itself. With growing sub-specialization, are we learning more and more about less and
less, to the point where overall understanding actually retreats? The author suggests
not, but does predict major changes for applied anthropology soon.

MICHAEL CHATFIELD (CSC Stanislaus) COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND POLITICAL CHANGE IN A
COLOMBIAN ANDEAN COMMUNITY On the assumption that community development programs define
arenas for political action, a dispute over water rights in a rural Colombian municipio
is analyzed in an attempt to understand the significance of the community development
program for local-level political change. The case, which involved a conflict between
local authorities and a neighborhood community action committee over installation of a
water system, shows the campesinos of the committee using a variety of newly-available
political resources to achieve their ends. The campesinos successfully abrogated the
rules of the local patronage system by resort to officials at higher levels of government
thus establishing themselves as an independent force within the local political arena, ant
weakening, perhaps permanently, the ability of the local elite leadership to control
decision-making in public affairs.

PAUL L. DOUGHTY (Florida) A GAME OF STRATEGY: COMMUNITY INTERESTS VS. OUTSIDE AGENCIES
IN DISASTER REDEVELOPMENT IN PERU Traditional political behavior of Peruvian highland
villagers involves the constant seeking of ways to manipulate policy and decisions of
the national government. To obtain needed support to carry out their own projects, it
has long been the strategy of communities to carry out well planned campaigns designed
to win approval of key bureaucrats and political figures who control funds and decisions.
In the midst of a "revolution of the armed forces" and in the aftermath of the vast
destruction of the 1970 earthquake, villagers faced new and threatening conditions and









agencies whose operations were strange to them. This paper analyzes the approaches
employed by communities in their attempts to deal with these outside forces. Although
the effects of these efforts met with mixed success, they demonstrate that these "marginal"
villagers often proceeded in sophisticated ways that reflected a sound understanding of
the larger society and its workings. Relief and redevelopment agencies which greatly
needed this knowledge either choose not to use community resources or were not able to
do so for other reasons. This failure produced serious consequences for many communities
and often curtailed agency effectiveness.

(200) POLITICAL PROCESS AND THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM OF THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA
A variety of descriptive and conceptual models have been put forth for analyzing health
care systems. This panel would like to propose a Political Process model for considera-
tion as a particularly powerful tool for understanding the evolution of a health care
system and utilize the health care system of the Peoples Republic of China as a case
study. Drawing on material gathered during a July-August 1979 seminar and study tour to
the Peoples Republic of China, symposium papers on important and unique features of the .
PRC system will include the attempt to integrate traditional and western medicine,
experiments in medical education, the rural health care system, the barefoot doctors
and child health and economic development. After a brief introduction to the Political
Process model, papers on these components of the PRC system will provide short literature
reviews, material collected during the study tour and what this recent information
reflects about current developments. A brief analysis of the political dynamics shaping
directions for this health care system will end the symposium with reference back to the
conceptual model.

MARILYNN M. ROSENTHAL (Michigan-Dearborn) ATTEMPTS TO INTEGRATE CHINESE TRADITIONAL AND
WESTERN MEDICINE IN THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA: PRACTICAL EXAMPLES AND POLITICAL
EXEGESIS The PRC's official policy of combining Chinese traditional medicine and western
medicine is an experiment unique in the annals of world medical history. This paper
provides historical background, describes current examples of the integration and
discusses them in terms of their implications for the future of Chinese traditional
medicine. Rescued from consignment to medical oblivion by the political and economic
ideology of Mao Tse-tung in 1949, this medical tradition now confronts an unusual set of
scientific, political and economic situations. With the current modernization campaign,
the prediction is that scientific validation and utilization of modern medical technology
to enhance weak diagnostic skills will, ironically, provide the major avenue for continu-
ation of a 4000-year old medical tradition. Without the intervention of a powerful
political leader motivated by pragmatic considerations, this medical approach would have
been swept to its cultural demise by the overarching communist commitment to science and
modernization.

PAUL PONGOR (U of Michigan Medical School) MEETING THE CHALLENGE OF RURAL HEALTH CARE
DELIVERY IN THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA One of Mao Tse-tung's major political debts
was to the rural masses who were the backbone of the successful Chinese Communist
revolutionary effort. Recognizing their serious health care needs, he moved to
establish a rural health care system where none had existed before. That system, its
evolution and organizational strategy and structure is described and explained. It is a
regionalized, 3-tiered system of increasingly complex care, locally funded and locally
administered. Research indicates that although its basic structural characteristics
are the same throughout the country, its function varies relative to geographic
location and economic commitment. Included is descriptive material from Nong An County,
a rural area never before visited by foreign guests. This fresh material is examined
with reference to existing research on the rural health care system.












DONALD DENNIS (U of Pennsylvania Medical School) EXPERIMENTATION WITH MEDICAL EDUCATION
IN THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA The new government of the Peoples Republic of China
faced serious problems of physician mal-distribution and physician training in 1949.
While early priorities were set to address these problems, Mao and the Ministry of
Health continually disagreed over approaches. Implementation of changes that focused
on political and socio-economic class qualifications for medical school admissions,
political study and manual labor in medical school curriculum, and centralized planning
for medical manpower distribution didn't develop easily. Neither government policy nor
-medical schools alone or interactively brought desired change in the PRC health care
system. Rather change came. (and continues) in the context of larger societal adaptations.

.JAY RICHARD GREINER (Michigan State U) HEALTH POLICY AND THE BAREFOOT DOCTOR
An unique factor encountered in the medical care system in the Peoples Republic of
-China is the concept of health care practitioners of equal social stature with the
people in need of medical care: the Barefoot Doctor. Major impetus for training
Barefoot Doctors as agricultural and health workers was Mao Tse-tung's 1965 Directive.
Twenty years later, by 1985, China's current policy calls for elevation of Barefoot
Doctor education to equal that of secondary medical education but remain in their current
position in the health care system. Specific training programs presently range from
three months to twenty-seven months and are conducted by Western and Traditional
Physicians, and previously trained Barefoot Doctors at the commune clinic or county
hospital level. The core of education is pediatrics, general medicine, surgery,
pharmacology, acupuncture and herbal medical therapy. Continuing education beyond
initial training will increase diagnostic and operative skills, but the primary role
will continue to be prevention, diagnosis and treatment of minor illness, family planning
and child care. If a particular commune has very high productivity, a Barefoot Doctor
may become a full time health practitioner. Barefoot doctors appear to be fully
entrenched in the system, but will develop under terms dominated by western-trained
physicians.

WENDY WINTERMUTE (Michigan) CHILD HEALTH IN THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Theories
linking economic development with national health status attempt to interpret a general
correlation between national wealth and national health indices as follows: Economic
development results in increasing national wealth or "social surplus", which can then be
invested in health services, education, and rising standards of living, with consequent
improvements in health status. One notable exception appears to be the Peoples Republic
of China, which reports child health indices much more favorable than would be expected,
given its level of economic development. This paper suggests that health policy results
from a more complicated interaction of the demographic, social, political and economic
structure of the society, rather than from national accumulation of wealth. It concludes
that the political ideology and commitment behind the evolution of this system provided
the underpinnings of its unusual accomplishments.

(201) EXPERIENCES OF ANTHROPOLOGISTS IN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH This symposium will deal
with the experiences of anthropologists who have worked in agricultural research in the
United States or in Canada. Topics discussed by participants will relate to the institu-
tional context in which research was performed. Data collection and analysis of results
will not be of primary concern. Rather, discussion will focus on the characteristics of
modern industrial agriculture, the implicit ideology of the establishments which have
supported and are affected by anthropological research in agriculture, various types of
operating constraints, identity problems and role conflict of the anthropologist, and
the social and political ramifications of anthropological work in agriculture. All
participants have appropriate background and will draw freely upon personal experiences
to illustrate their points.











JOHN A. YOUNG (Oregon St U) INSTITUTIONALIZED BIAS IN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
Relatively few resources are devoted to research on social problems by agricultural
experiment stations. Moreover, any research of a nontechnical nature must be perceived
by administrators as "helpful", i.e. it must either rationalize or accommodate the
institutional status quo. This constraint is supported by an ideology of technological
progress which is characteristic of American culture and dictates a scientific approach
which focuses narrowly on individuals rather than broadly on institutions. Both the
methods and results of anthropological studies are likely to conflict with this ideology.
I will discuss these and other problems that may be confronted by anthropologists
conducting experiment station research. My presentation will be based on several years
of experience working with experiment station scientists in studies of small-scale
farmers and rural communities in the western United States.

HARLAND PADFIELD (Oregon St U) ANTHROPOLOGISTS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE DEFINITION OF
CLIENTELE I will discuss my experience as an anthropologist, at first cooperating
independently with agricultural scientists and later working within the agricultural
experiment station structure itself. One of the implicit premises of agricultural science
is that: Experiment Station scientists are obligated to serve USDA clients--the agri-
business community and the agricultural establishment. I will focus on nonagricultural
scientists as subjects who must discover the implicit culture of the experiment station
system. The process of recognizing the implicit obligations of the experiment station
scientist begins with an illusion of consonance in the definition of clientele, followed
by dissonance, denial and conflict, and eventual cognitive accommodation. I will
illustrate this process with examples drawn from my own individual experience.

JERRY A. MOLES (Pomona College) PURPOSE, METHOD, AND THE ANTHROPOLOGIST IN AGRICULTURE
One of the basic difficulties in working within an agricultural setting is communicating
what it is that anthropologists do in dealing with problems relating to food and fiber.
Part of the difficulty stems from the fact that anthropologists have never really devel-
oped a method and a philosophy relating to any specific set of purposes which has led
to statements concerning performance criteria resulting from our activities. While this
problem is not unique to anthropology in that other social sciences suffer from similar
difficulties, it has inhibited the development of a body of literature concerning the
discipline as representing a set of goal directed human activities. Furthermore, it
has inhibited our actions in attempting to deal with hunan problems of utmost concern.
In essence, if you do not know your objectives, if these objectives have never been
defined, then it is very difficult to direct behavior toward some goal. As a consequence,
it is impossible to develop methods. This paper will explore the development of purpose
and method in an agricultural setting and demonstrate that it is imperative to engage in
such developments if there is to be something which can be called "applied anthropology."

JOHN BENNETT (Washington) ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY OF LARGE-SCALE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS
This presentation will concern the speakers experience in developing methods for the
study of agricultural systems in North America which transcend local production units
of "farms". Research on the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of agriculture in
contemporary North America requires attention to the increasing dispersion of incentives
and factors of production, in order to understand how the operators of local units make
decisions and conduct a viable economic undertaking. The operators develop strategies
of adaption to and manipulation of the agencies that control access to key resources,
but it is necessary to understand how these agencies work in order to comprehend the
strategic responses. This requires "field work" of an investigative nature in government
bureaus, agri-business companies and other agents, often at considerable distance from
the locality under study. The remarks- will be based on a forthcoming book. OF TINE AND
THE ENTERPRISE: AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT AS AN ADAPTIVE SYSTEM IN THE NORTi AMERICAN
AGRIFAMILY.










JERRY B. BROWN (Florida International U) FIGHTING FOR OUR LIVES: ROLE CONFLICTS
AND RURAL RESEARCH A cornerstone of public interest anthropology can be the active
participation by anthropologists in the development of "demonstration projects" that
contribute to the process of rural revitalization. Anthropologists can play important
roles in rural projects such as farm labor unions, rural cooperatives, new town develop-
ments, and ecological research centers. My own experience in building demonstration
projects illustrates the role anthropologists can play in rural revitalization. While
completing field work during the late 1960s for my doctoral dissertation on agricultural
labor unions, I served as research director and Canadian boycott director for the United
Farm Workers (UFW), AFL-CIO, in Delano, California. In that capacity, I was able to
utilize social science research skills to assist Mexican-American farmworkers in their
non-violent struggle to gain collective bargaining rights. My involvement as a
"participant-as-observer" in the farm labor movement forced me to confront three major
role conflicts: (1) the difficulty of carrying out an "objective" community study in
rural California town polarized by agricultural labor strife; (2) the role conflict of
the anthropologist caught between the time demands of an academic study and the urgent
manpower needs of rural farmworkers locked in a power struggle with agribusiness corpora-
tions; and (3) the lack of professional rewards within the university system for anthro-
pologists, or other social scientists, engaged in building social demonstration projects
as an integral part of an academic career.

DEAN MacCANNELL (UC Davis) INSTITUTIONAL OBSTACLES TO AN ETHNOGRAPHY OF MODERN
AGRICULTURE In this presentation I want to make some observations of the status
structure of social research in academic and government settings, specifically of the
ways existing status arrangements serve to inhibit ethnographic research on modern
agricultural systems. In the academic, the following pairs of terms are not innocent
distinctions--one of the pair is set above the other as superior: pure vs. applied
research; quantitative vs. ethnographic and/or qualitative research; social science
in the college of agriculture vs. in Letters and Sciences; anthropological research
on modern agricultural systems as opposed to traditional systems; economic vs. ethno-
graphic models of agricultural systems; etc. The invidious attitudes shaped by these
opposition are not found in most parts of Eastern and Western Europe or in the Third
World, but in the United States they act as an obstacle to any sustained, organized
effort to study modern agriculture. I would like to initiate discussion of this
research status hierarchy, how it originated and sustains itself, and how to change
it in such a way as to create a base of institutional support for anthropological
research on modern agricultural systems.

WALTER GOLDSCHMIDT (UCLA) ANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH AT THE BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL
ECONOMICS, 1940-1946 Under the leadership of John Province, the BAE utilized anthro-
pological personnel to make anthropologically oriented community studies under the
general heading of Culture of a Contemporary Community. My own work on a California
rural community, ultimately published as As You Sow, was broadly contained within this
framework but not a part of the series. Work in the BAE entailed certain advantages
and disadvantages. The major advantage lay in the opportunity for a close collaboration
with sociologists and economists and this collaborative opportunity was what made
possible the success of the comparative study of Arvin and Dinuba. On the other hand,
the BAE personnel--sociologists as well as economists--was overwhelmingly affected by
the agricultural practices and rural life in the East and Middle West and inadequately
appreciated the problems of research in the far West. This resulted in diverse forms
of difficulties in conceptualizing problems and utilizing the plans that emanated from
Washington. More important to the character of my work, was the controversy engendered
by the Arvin-Dinuba study. It involved a matter of major social policy that resulted
in political interference at high levels of the governmental bureaucracy. The implication
of this involvement which is fully documented, will be discussed.











(202) CURRENT RESEARCH ON THE HOLISTIC HEALTH MOVEMENT Holistic Health is a new
approach to health care, gaining popularity among well-educated, sophisticated urbanites.
Only recently has it become the subject of anthropological inquiry. There are many
researchable subjects: In language and linguistics, what is the language of the
movement? In social structure what are the,relationships between-patients and healers,
and between different kinds of healers? Are there class differences and ethnic differ-
ences? In religion, how is holistic health contributing to a new world view? What are
the symbols and rituals? In culture and personality, what can be said of the patients
or followers? Why do they become involved in the movement? What have been their
experiences? What of the healers? In culture change, how is holistic health being
disseminated to the established medical system? Who are the willing receivers, or
culture brokers? In comparative medical systems, how does holistic health compare with
western and other medical systems?

CAROLYN NORTH (Princeton) HOLISTIC HEALTH AS A REVITALIZATION MOVEMENT This paper
examines the Holistic Health Movement as a form of revitalization movement. An overview
of the Movement (Mattson, 1977; LaPatra, 1978; Tubesing, 1979; and others) indicates
that many traditional forms of non-allopathic healing practiced long before there was a
Holistic Health Movement by name, have found their way into the Movement. And these
studies also indicate that the Movement itself carries a load of agendas, purposes and
meanings specific to these many separate sub-groups and vice versa, making the Movement
one of extraordinary elasticity. Literature on the Movement is examined to determine
the unifying factors -- the underlying beliefs, needs, motivations which bring these
diverse groups under the nominal umbrella of Holistic Health. Here it will be demon-
strated that the Holistic Health movement bears strong resemblance to some New Religious
Movements. Finally, an attempt is made to understand the revival of non-traditional
healing groups and their surge of popularity by drawing from the anthropological
literature on revitalization movements. The question posed for this analysis is, "To
what extent are the theories and explanations of revitalization movements useful in
informing a study of the Holistic Health Movement?" Sources include Whitehead (1974),
Wallace (1958), Aberle (1958, and Zaretsky and Leone (1974).

PHYLLIS H. MATTSON (DeAnza Community College) A COURSE IN MIRACLES: CURRICULUM FOR
PERSONAL TRANSFORMATION A Course in Miracles is a three volume book consisting of a
basic text, a workbook and a Manual for Teachers. It was first published in 1976 and
since then has been sold to more than 20,000 people, all without the usual methods of
marketing of printed materials. It is very popular among holistic health devotees.
The origin of the course is fascinating: bewteen 1965 and 1975, the three books were
"dictated" by an "inner voice" to a woman, a middle-aged, atheistic Jew, research
psychologist by profession, employed by a very prestigious academic institution. The
dictation was taken by shorthand and transcribed and typed the next day by a male
colleague, also a psychologist at the same institution. The material, bound in loose-
leaf binders, was kept a secret until 1975 when they met a woman who undertook to
publish it. The authors remain anonymous, for they do not claim to be authors, but only
recorders. The purpose of this paper is to tell more of the origin of the Course, to
describe its contents, its following, and finally, to suggest how it fits into a model
of revitalization of the holistic health movement.

R. J. BOESE (British Columbia) HOLISTIC HEALTH IN PRACTICE AT A "WELLNESS CENTER"
Some concepts which underlie the idea of "(w)holistic health" are presented. Some
basic presuppositions regarding scheme of interpretation that health professionals
utilize in making sense of activities that are organized as holistic. Experiences
about the author's own participant-observational work in a wellness center are presented.
Wellness as contrasted to sickness is suggested as a more meaningful concept than
holistic and reasons are given for that assumption.










KATHERINE BROWN-KEISTER (Columbia) LEGITIMATION STRATEGIES OF AN ALTERNATIVE HEALTH
OCCUPATION: HOLISTIC HEALTH PRACTITIONER Recently in America we have seen the growth
of an alternative health occupation: the holistic health practitioner. Beyond what is
found in journalistic accounts, very little has been written about this emerging occupa-
tion. Who are these practitioners? What services do they offer? What are the patterns
of their training and the structure of their practices? This paper will present findings
which address these questions and it will discuss a conceptualization of the social
process of occupational legitimation.

MARIA-LUISA URDANETA (Texas-San Antonio) HOLISTIC HEALTH AND THE NURSING PROFESSION
Holistic health is best understood when the loose spelling holistici" is used. When
applied to health, the importance of seeing the person as a whole--body, plus mind,
and spirit--is emphasized. Its philosophy stresses that interaction of the different
planes of existence--physical, mental, and spiritual--affects the causation and cure of
disease, e.g. physical health or illness is affected frequently by the health of the
person's intellectual and spiritual being. Mental or emotional tension may show up in
the physical realm as headaches, ulcers, allergies, heart attacks, and even cancer.
But often health care providers, including nurses, limit their care to the physical
symptoms without endeavoring to care for the non-physical causes. Nurses are aware of
how much less time we spend with the patient than with his ailing part. But, just as we
assist the parts that we have separated people into, so we can help a much different
entity: the whole person. In so doing nurses are greatly extending their conception
of total patient care. The purpose of this paper is to examine the holistic health
movement and the involvement of the nursing profession; and to suggest that this whole-
health movement offers some solutions to our current health care crisis.

ALMA L. LOWERY-PALMER (UC Riverside) A SEARCH FOR HOLISTIC HEALTH: A STUDY OF THE
YORUBA TRADITIONAL HEALING SYSTEM This paper analyzes the traditional Yoruba medical
system in terms of its holistic approach to health and illness. It has been suggested
that while modern medicine has made many advances in the treatment of physical illnesses,
it has not done as well in treating the majority of illnesses which appear to have their
origin in the traditional healing forms, is viewed here as more efficient in meeting the
psychosocial needs of the patient which results in healing of the body, mind and spirit
or health in the holistic sense. The responses to both modern and traditional medical
treatment by Yoruba individuals in one village community in Southwest Nigeria are
examined in terms of a set of attributes of the healing context -- Yoruba ideas and
beliefs about health and illness; social context of illness; role of healer-priest --
to determine how these attributes influence health-enhancing behavior in the social
context of the Yoruba community. The potential for integrating specific Yoruba holistic
health concepts into modern medicine is explored in order to bridge the gap between
disease treatment and a person-oriented diagnosis and treatment form.

(203) DISABILITY AND COMMUNITY LIVING: BREAKING THROUGH THE BARRIERS
The session opens with reports from individuals who have investigated or addressed
problems engendered by disability and particular strategies for developing and augmenting
an interface between disabled and able-bodied individuals. The individual presentations
will lead up to a 25 minute documentary film on the subject, a film that will capture
through interview and reenactment, problems and resolutions in interactions between able-
bodied and disabled individuals. Following the film there will be a panel discussion of
disability problems and the policy issues engendered by these problems in terms of
bringing disabled individuals more into the mainstream of community life. The panel
comprised of individuals representing social science and government will consider the
tension between the social value and the economic feasibility or viability of overcoming
the traditional barriers separating disabled and able-bodied individuals. Panel members
will suggest initiatives for applied research focused on how people, able-bodied or
disabled, deal with disability and what social and economic costs of solutions to
stigmatization may be.











WALTER WATSON (Brock) LIVING WITH THE NON-DISABLED With the present growth of
"integration" or "mainstreaming" of the disabled into their communities, data are
particularly important which can be used to profile the types of reactions the disabled
feel they face in neighborhoods, stores, schools, work, and recreation and-the types of
responses they feel are appropriate. In the spring of 1977 a housing needs survey was
conducted among 178 randomly selected disabled persons in an economically and socially
diverse region of Southern Ontario, Canada. Data were collected concerning the respon-
dent's experiences with neighbors in the community and were used to construct interaction
profiles, showing key events that the respondents felt altered interaction patterns.
The results were to be used to develop programs to alleviate hostile neighborhood
reactions to housing facilities for the disabled, should they be built. Data regarding
perceived reactions and behavior changes in neighborhood adults and children, store
clerks, students or fellow employees,teachers or supervisors, and individuals sharing
recreation facilities will be examined in terms of demographic variables such as sex,
education, SES, type of community, and the visibility of the disability. Techniques for-
coping with positive, neutral, or hostile reactions will also be examined in terms of
the characteristics noted above. Conclusions regarding policies and programs appropriate
to "mainstreaming" individuals instead of groups will be noted.

GAY BECKER (UCSF) ADAPTION TO DISABILITY This paper is based on research done in the
deaf community of the San Francisco Bay Area that took place in two phases. In-depth
interviewing and participant observation with deaf people over the age of 60 for one
year was followed by a second, nine-month phase focusing on people between the ages of
20 and 60. Deaf identity is a major coping mechanism and underlies the development of
strategies for survival regardless of age. It strongly contributes to a sense of
cohesiveness, decreases the deaf person's perception of stigma, and overrides to some
extent the barriers created by age differences and divergent ethnic backgrounds. Deaf
identity also creates conflicts for the individual because of the divided allegiance
between families or origin and their cultural tradition, and the deaf community. Resolu-
tion of this conflict is seen as a preliminary step to social, emotional, and economic
adaption. The implications of institutional life, mainstreaming, and self-help organiza-
tions for developing deaf identity and learning survival techniques will be discussed.
Practical solutions that would enhance the development of individual coping strategies
will be suggested.

FERDINAND KARRMAN (Research Center for Disabled Americans) DISABLED(S) AND SOCIAL
ACCEPTANCE The stigma that is attached to disabled persons in society must be fought
vigorously and with more effective methods. The old system of placing the burden on
individual disabled(s) to negotiate their own acceptance in an alienating social milieu
is not good enough. The increased use of phenomenological analysis offers hope for the
reduction of stigma because of its emphasis on individual collective consciousness (inter-
subjectivity). It is the collective consciousness of the entire social amalgam that needs
"fine tuning". The tools are in place. The existing media could do the job. During
World War II, motion pictures, radio, newspapers, books, magazines, and music were all
coordinated to maintain a single-minded focus on the war effort. Obviously, a small
fraction of a wartime propaganda machine would suffice (if properly orchestrated) to
turn the corner of social acceptance for disabled(s). Additionally helpful would be the
establishment of interdisciplinary Disabled(s) Studies Program in major universities
as a means of demystifying disabilities, reducing stigma, aiding social integration, and
accelerating social acceptance for disabled(s). If social scientists lend their support
and initiate concerted effort to reduce stigma, eventually (according to the "trickle-
down-theory") progress will occur throughout society.

R. JOHN C. PEARSON (West Virginia U) THE CHALLENGE OF HELPING THE HANDICAPPED
The report is based on the experience of a community physician working as part-time
chief of general practice in a Regional Rehabilitation Center in Ottawa, Canada.
That experience demonstrated the strengths and weaknesses of the range of health and
social services available to the patients both eased and made more difficult the task
of customizing the services for individuals. Health services, appliances and pros-
theses, and needed home or automobile improvements were free according to need.










Patients could be helped to pay for attendant care. Housing and public transportation
were more difficult problems: transportation by special vehicle was available only for
work or doctor visits, during the normal work day hours and would be subsidized only if
deemed necessary. Housing difficulties led to a variety of experiments: independent
living in an apartment building for the handicapped; independent living in an apartment
building with only a few units for the handicapped; communal living in a house with
resident help. There was lacking, however, evaluative data to inform service providers
as to the best discharge disposition for disabled patients. Despite the problems of
effecting community re-entry for rehabilitation center patients in Ottawa, the accomplish-
ments that have been made there show that the United States has a long way to do to enable
the handicapped to live productive lives.

ELIZABETH RANDALL-DAVID, OTTO VON MERING (Florida) PREVENTING THE PRECURSORS OF CHRONIC
DISEASE AND DISABILITY Attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles formed during the adolescent
years greatly influence the future health and well-being of the individual. It follows,
then, that the precursors to chronic disability and disease are also developed during
this critical period of maturation. Unplanned adolescent pregnancies, though of epidemic
proportion, are seldom viewed by social scientists as "disabilities" or "handicaps". The
disabling nature of this condition becomes evident, however, when seen as a precursor
condition with various predictive outcomes: i.e., poor dental health; repeated unwanted,
closely spaced pregnancies; poor nutritional health; untoward psychosocial and emotional
sequelae. Too often, educational attempts to prevent this and other precursor conditions
come too late in the life-cycle. The implementation of a modular health education program
in middle and high school science classrooms with health care specialists from community
agencies and private practice is discussed as an effective tool for addressing adolescents
while primary prevention is still possible. Through this program, current applied life
and health science concepts and informed decision making are emphasized in order to
reinforce the social principal that ultimately the individual is responsible for his/her
own health and well-being.

JOHN G. SCHROEDEL(Gallaudet College) TECHNIQUES FOR MODIFYING ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS
TOWARDS PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES: ASSESSING CONCEPTS AND RESEARCH In recent years
training efforts have been more widely used to induce improvements in attitudes and
behaviors towards persons with disabilities. There is a current need to (1) assess
some of the key concepts underlying these modification techniques, and (2) assess research
studies evaluating some of the various activities which as a group are termed modification
techniques. 1. Clarifying concepts: This paper will define concepts such as pathology,
functional limitations, impairment, disability, and restorative accommodations as these
relate to attitudes towards persons with disabilities. Likewise, the range of such
attitudes, from acceptance, ambivalence, to rejection will be examined. A typology of
attitudes and corresponding manifested behaviors across this range will be presented
to indicate differences and similarities in such attitudes and behaviors. The overall
intent of this section of the paper is towards providing conceptual insights towards
better specification of attitudes and behaviors subjected to modification techniques.
2. Evaluating modification techniques: Research studies will be reviewed which have
assessed such activities as information-sharing, audiovisual media, role playing, and
disability simulations as these have been used in short-term training conferences and
longer-term training programs to change attitudes and behaviors towards persons with
disabilities. Some generalizable points such as appropriate measurement of knowledge,
attitudes and behaviors as well as the need for accurate specification of training
stimuli to training outcomes will also be given. Conclusions from this examination of
base concepts and evaluation procedures will be summarized. Implications for increasing
the effectiveness of training activities will be suggested.












J. THOMAS MAY, ROBERT F. HILL (Oklahoma) CONSORTING WITH THE DISABLED: PROBLEMS AND
PROSPECTS The social science consultant confronts problems of role and identity
analogous to the dilemmas confronting the field researcher. Although differences
obviously exist (for example, "going native" is rarely manifest with the former), this
analogy permits the use of an analytical framework which can inform issues relating to
consulting and research activities. This paper will assess the participation of a group
of academic consultants associated with the preparation of a documentary film on disabled
people and their relationships with the larger able-bodied society. The association
between the consultants and the disabled coalition sponsoring the film ended with the
film's completion in 1980. The analysis will focus on the social scientists in the
consulting group, and assess their shifting roles within the larger consortium. It will
argue that the shifts related to discrepancies in role expectations. The analysis of
these shifts will be placed in the context of problems customarily faced in the field
research experience (viz., entry, rapport, over-identification, etc.), and highlight those
elements which specifically relate to the unique characteristics of the disabled popula- .
tion. The presentation will be accompanied by a viewing of the final version of the
documentary film.

OKLAHOMA EDUCATIONAL TV (OETA-TV) BREAKING THROUGH The film is designed to create
awareness about adult handicapped individuals, especially in regard to their interaction
with able-bodied individuals. The film grows out of questions raised by Section 504 of
the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. These new regulations will bring disabled and able-
bodied people together in a forcible way, many for the first time. Although Section 504
may seem rigid, 504 also has built in latitude for interpretation on a case-by-case
basis. Human values come in here: attitudes, beliefs, and expectations will come into
play (or into conflict) and determine the outcome of each case. The film looks at
barriers -- historical, cultural, philosophical, architectural, social, and personal
barriers -- and shows real people breaking through those barriers. The film includes
interviews with deaf, blind, and mobility impaired people surrounded by re-enacted
scenes, film clips, and other illustrative material. "Breaking Through" is captioned
for hearing-impaired audiences, and its sound track is comprehensive enough to be
intelligible to sight-impaired audiences.

(204) APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY/RADICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: IS THERE A DIFFERENCE? In the context
of the 1960's there emerged a sharp difference between those anthropologists who were
attempting to use anthropology for the benefit of powerless people, and those who felt
;hat anthropology itself was part of the problem in that it helped to render people
powerless. The protagonists of this debate were the so-called 'applied' versus 'radical'
anthropologists, usually self-proclaimed. As we come to face the realities of the
1980's, this debate seems dated because most anthropologists find themselves (regardless
of their past concerns) having to apply anthropology in pressing concrete conditions.
We feel it is now important to discuss how these differences have now come to be less
sharply expressed, what we 'applied' and 'radical' anthropologists are now doing, and
whether or not a synthesis of these two perspectives is not possible. Thus the organiz-
ation of this session will take the form of a round table to enable both participants
and the audience to develop a dialogue which critically addresses what we are doing and
what we ought to be doing.










(205) THE VISUAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF BIRTH This symposium represents an attempt to bring
together some of the filmed and video-taped documents of birth and perinatal events
which have been produced by anthropologists. The symposium's objective is to assess the
state of the field by discussing issues of methodology, analysis, and application in
research and education which are inherent in the use of the audio-visual medium.
Presentations will include cross-cultural materials from the United States, Italy, and
Mexico. Prenatal events and the postpartum period will be discussed as well as the
actual birth process.

JANET M. SCHREIBER (Texas) METHODOLOGIC ISSUES IN THE VISUAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF MOTHER
INFANT FIRST CONTACT A film of the social interaction surrounding birth in a small
southern Italian hospital will be presented as a case study to focus the discussion
of methodologic issues involved in filming births. These issues include: (1) The
impact of theoretical models upon the filming of interactive process; (2) the constraints
imposed by birth location including home and hospital births; (3) the constraints
imposed by the choice of a particular technology for visual recording; (4) the issue
of variation in process and the representativeness of particular filmed sequences of
behavior; (5) the effect of the participants' understanding of the researcher's
perspective. These topics will be illustrated by research footage and still photographs
used in data collection. Unanticipated effects of filming will be discussed to further
our understanding of potential uses of visual anthropology.

STEPHEN L. CABRAL (Brown) VISUAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF A HOME BIRTH: LESSONS IN DECISION
MAKING AND RESPONSIBILITY Current trends in holistic/alternative medical practices have
encouraged many prospective parents to consider the possibility of sharing a home-birth
experience. Advocates of the home birth movement contend that they participate more
fully in the decision-making process and assume a more responsible and active role in
the pre-natal care and delivery of their child than is possible in the hospital setting.
This presentation and the accompanying film will focus on the verbal and non-verbal
exchanges and the subsequent interactions between the expectant mother, mid-wife and
birth attendants during a home-birth. The decision making process of those engaged in
the home-birth will be contrasted with the decision making of the visual anthropologist
in regard to filming and editing.

BRIGITTE JORDAN (Michigan St U) DOCUMENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND MESSAGE: VIDEOTAPING
CHILDBIRTH IN YUCATAN Materials for this presentation come from a crosscultural study
of childbirth and include videotapes of Maya birthing and perinatal practices from
Yucatan, Mexico. Specifically, a segment of raw research footage from a traditional,
midwife-attended Maya chairbirth will be compared to an edited videotape of an external
cephalic version, performed by a Maya midwife to correct a breech presentation. Since
versions have been replaced in American obstetrics by Caesarean sections (though they
continue to form a part of the obstetric repertoire of other scientific obstetric
systems) this tape was edited to speak to medical as well as anthropological issues and
concerns. It will be contrasted with the unedited footage of Maya Indian birth and their
different characteristics and uses will be discussed.

LUCILE NEWMAN (Brown) THE SOCIAL AND SENSORY ENVIRONMENT OF LOW BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANTS
IN A SPECIAL CARE NURSERY This presentation reports on research on the social and
sensory environment of low birthweight infants in a special care nursery. In this
project the organism-environment relation of the preterm infant in an isolette is
investigated through the use of ethological methods of data collection. The extension
of direct observation through audio and video tape technology is discussed. Two approacheE
will be demonstrated. The first involves the use of audiotape as a primary descriptive
tool. The second uses videotaped behavior segments for the testing of hypotheses. In
the first, a tape recorder received auditory environment data from a microphone inside
the isolette. In the second approach, the videotape is used for comparison of facial
expressions in response to a sequence of controlled social experiences.












(206) ETHICS AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE ANTHROPOLOGIST AS CULTURE BROKER
The idea of entrepreneurship as used in this symposium refers to the promoting of
anthropology, primarily by anthropologists in government agencies, for the benefit of
both the agency and of the peoples it serves. That is, data acquired by the skills
of anthropologists through the methods of anthropology are useful in helping an agency
to perform some of its roles in meeting certain specific needs of given peoples. To
do this, however, anthropologists often must serve as culture brokers by interpreting
the values, rituals, and ways of one group to the other. A variety of topics will be
presented such as methods of brokering, types of role models available to the anthro-
pologist, and kinds of problems encountered. Data are from archeology, architecture,
and ethnology. Ethical questions have to do with the degrees of advocacy anthropolo-
gists practice in representing a people to an agency and vice versa; what types of
information, and how much, can and should be shared with each group in the process of
culture brokering; the extent of effectiveness of government anthropologists in trying
to be true to their agency, their discipline, and to a people.

JANET R. MOONE (U Colorado-Denver) AGENT, BROKER, AND ADVOCATE: APPLIED ROLES IN
THEORY AND PRACTICE The recent applied literature contains ample material outlining
ideal-theoretical role definitions for directed change agent, culture broker, and
community advocate. In much of this emic theory, the three roles are held to have
different objectives and performance functions related to different loci of control and
organizational viewpoints. As abstractions, the role definitions regularly correlate
with what are assumed to be different value commitments: to those entailed in public
policy, to maintenance of objective neutrality, to identification with community values
and goals. From the selfsame literature, however, it is possible to critique these
ideal-typical role definitions by drawing on descriptions of actual experiences in
their performance. In practice, each of the three roles tends to diverge significantly
from its theory. Performances become ambiguous, roles are exchanged or confused with
one another, or become subject to the stress of inherent conflict. Practice demonstrates
that the three roles do not involve the mutually exclusive sets of value commitments and
performance functions their theories describe. Since expectations often are built from
such role theories, there is good reason for revisionist appraisal.

MICHAEL K. ORBACH (UC Santa Cruz) THE CULTURAL PARAMETERS OF BUREAUCRACY: AN EXAMPLE
FROM NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AGENCIES Large bureaucracies such as federal agencies
are not homogeneous monoliths. They are collections of small, semi-independent units
having normative internal organizational structures and connections with one another.
Among the individuals comprising each of these units there tend to be commonalities in
background, socialization, perception, agency mission and other characteristics which
can be used to define a "culture" of each particular unit in the sense of common under-
standings concerning pre- and pro-scribed values, beliefs, behaviors, interactions, and
so on. This orientation is important for anthropologists for two reasons. First, it
defines bureaucratic organizations as a subject for study using many of the same theories
and methods anthropology has traditionally used in small-scale, non-Western, or less
complex cultures and societies. Second, as anthropologists become involved in working
with federal agencies (bureaucracies) they must assume roles as "culture brokers"
between members of the anthropologist culture group and the various bureaucratic culture
groups. This paper undertakes an analysis of the culture of one agency unit and its
interaction with the culture of anthropology through the medium of a participant observer
(the author). Conclusions are drawn concerning productive methods of brokering between
these two generic cultural groups; anthropologists and federal bureaucracies.

BARBARA PILLSBURY SAIDI) MAKING THE BUREAUCRACY WORK What happens after the ethnographic
fieldwork is done and the development needs of a people defined? What are the steps
required and the types of communication needed to best assure that a plan or program
recommended by the anthropologist is implemented? How can the anthropologist best stay
with a proposal as it winds its way through a bureaucracy such as the Agency for Inter-
national Development? How can small-scale programs, if called for, be promoted by the
anthropologist in the face of political pressures for bigger projects and large-scale
spending? These are some of the questions addressed by this paper.










LARRY VAN HORN (Natl Park Service) INFORMATION SHARING: BALANCING AGENCY AND PROFESSION)
COMMITMENTS The anthropologist who is a member of a government agency faces special
ethical and practical problems in utilizing ethnographic data. He or she must decide
what data to share, how much, with whom, and for what ends. All of this must be done
in the context of agency defined missions and mandates in relation to specific peoples.
Any problem requiring ethnographic data involves at least two groups, namely, a people
and the government agency. However, a problem may become further complicated at given
stages by additional and sometimes competing groups. These may be ethnic groups; sub-
groups within a group, including the agency; and/or, if contracting is called for, other
anthropologists competing with one another in the bidding process. At certain times,
communication may be required with any or all such groups or key individuals. This
paper paper stresses the role of a government anthropologist as culture broker in
gathering, interpreting, and communicating information. Various types of fieldwork,
research, and communication problems will be presented. And crucial questions will be
asked of the anthropologist whose aim is to meet both agency and professional commitments

KATHRYN M. BORMAN (U Cincinnati) WATCHING THE KIDS: THE ETHICS OF GOVERNMENT SPONSORED
FIELD WORK INVOLVING CHILDREN The dilemmas facing the field worker whose research
focuses upon young children include the usual problems confronted by all field workers
of maintaining vows of confidentiality, avoiding physical fatigue and suppressing one's
own values. However, these difficulties are magnified in field work with children who
lack social power and hence the capacity to function as their own advocates. In this
paper, relationships and responsibilities of the researcher to the governmental funding
agency and to children who serve as cases for study are considered.

GEORGE ESBER (Miami-Ohio) LINKING ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE Data from anthropo-
logical investigations about the way people use space are useful for designing built-
environments that succeed in serving people's needs. Architects are in want of
information about social and cultural needs, but when faced with the actual task of
creating a product, they most often rely on their own unconscious models for solving
problems. This paper addresses problems due, not to any lack of awareness on the parts
of either anthropologists or architects, but to the nonexistence of established lines
of communication. Suggestions are made for the creating of formal linkages between
anthropologists and architects to enhance the utility of social science information
and to create a station to which designers may turn when questions of an anthropological
nature must be answered. The responsibility for initiating action is discussed as a
function of the anthropologists' position as broker.

DANIEL MARTIN (BLM) CULTURE BROKERING WITHIN AN ARCHEOLOGICAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND
RESEARCH ETHICS The Archeologists' interface with cultures and concepts of cultures
provides a view and research opportunities free from many of the pitfalls experienced
by other Anthropologists. Our informant's special interests are generally moot; we
rarely receive complaints from the culture studied concerning our representations of
their culture or their interests. In this setting we are fond of believing we are
scientific and that the products of our labors are knowledge, understanding and "TRUTH"
about cultural matters; however, our stated goals of explaining human behavior and
production of understanding of how culture process occurs are masked in the public
view by archeology as romance, adventure and curiosities. Although the entertainment
value of Anthropology should be capitalized upon, the popular public image is of
archeological techniques, exploration, descriptions and cultural/historical recon-
structions. The public image of "doing" archeology and the "spectacular" often dictates
what is "important" and hence where money is spent for archeology. The funding of
legitimate archeological studies may be resented or denied when the "spectacular"
aspect is missing. This concern introduces ethical issues in how archeology is repres-
ented to the public and creates a need for public understanding of archeologists' true
goals, capabilities and limitations. Archeologists must be honest and candid with
each other and the public due to recent funding sources.












GARY CUMMINS (U Colorado-Denver) ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES AND ETHNIC SIGNIFICANCE
The concept of significance has always been a problem to archeologists in that certain
sites are more important than others, depending on the context in which they are
viewed. One perspective is that of ethnic significance, which pertains to an archeolo-
gical site with religious, mythological, or other values for a given group of people
(Moratto and Kelly 1976:196). Given the boom in archeology in recent years prompted
by federal historic preservation laws, conflicts and confrontations have occurred
between archeologists and ethnic groups, identifying in some way with particular sites.
This paper examines and analyzes, in terms of the concept of ethnic significance, the
means by which ethnic groups relate to archeological sites and other cultural resources
associated with their ancestry. Through an understanding of the processes involved
in ethnic significance, applied anthropologists should be able to function as culture
brokers between archeologists and representatives of ethnic groups to help mitigate
problems that arise.

(207) INDIAN HERITAGE PRESERVATION ISSUES In recent years archaeologists, ethno-
graphers and historians have been increasingly involved in heritage preservation
issues--as government agencies implementing newly enacted state and federal laws call
upon these disciplines to substantiate the cultural continuity and vitality of Native
American peoples. Historically, many Native American groups and individuals have also
been concerned with the continuity and vitality of their respective cultures, and it
is perhaps ironic that only recently have their concerns been considered by agencies
in any meaningful way. The papers in this symposium are concerned with a range of
topics in the arena of cultural heritage preservation, including issues of methodology,
legal and religious rights, political power, economics, and values.

DONNA JEAN HALSTEAD (CSU Sacramento), DOROTHEA J THEODORATUS (CSU Sacramento),
CLINTON M. BLOUNT (Theodoratus Cultural Research) METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF HERITAGE
PRESERVATION: A CASE STUDY Preservation of Native American cultural heritage often
requires research which combines the efforts of archaeologists, ethnographers, and
historians. Some basic methodological problems are inherent in attempts to integrate
research from these differing disciplines. Additional problems arise in attempting
to integrate research efforts with the concerns of local Native American peoples.
These problems are illustrated through consideration of a case study, the Gasquet-
Orleans Road Project, involving contract research for the Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service.

DUDLEY M. VARNER (CSU Fresno) APPLIED ARCHAEOLOGY AND NATIVE AMERICAN VALUES
Archaeology is a complex and diverse science which in recent years has undergone two
major revolutions. The first revolution, beginning in the 1960's, served to make
Archaeology more scientific; the second revolution, beginning in the 1970's, has made
it more practical. Archaeology is now often prefixed with "conservation" or "public";
increasingly, it may be "applied". Cultural Resource Management dominates the field
of North American Archaeology. A major concern is determining the significance of
archaeological resources for management purposes. Archaeology must deal with Native
American values as a type of significance for archaeological sites as well as non-
sites, such as sacred places. The increased interaction and cooperation between
archaeologists and Native Americans has produced a shared awareness of a common goal--
the conservation of Native American cultural heritage. It has also provided new
opportunities for Native American participation in the achievement of that goal.
Examples of such cooperation are recent projects in California.

DAVID R. M. WHITE (So California Edison. Co) RELIGION, POLITICS, AND CULTURAL LOOP-
HOLES: AN EXAMINATION OF THE NATIVE AMERICAN RELIGIOUS FREEDOM ACT An examination of
the recently issued (August, 1979) Federal Agencies Task Force Report on the Native
American Religious Freedom Act (P.L. 85-341) reveals several problematic issues involving
definitions of sociopolitical and sociocultural concepts. It is shown that the report's
definition of religion reflects the Euroamerican sacred/secular dichotomy, while nearly
excluding consideration of contradictory Native American cultural axiomatics. In










addition, the report either glosses over or directly contradicts a range of ethnographic
data which has crucial bearing on interpretation and implementation of the Act.
Possible reasons for the position expressed in the Task Force Report are explored,
and speculation on possible conflicts arising from future attempts at implementation
of the Act leads to a concluding discussion on various philosophies of land use rights.

ROBERT J THEODORATUS (Colorado St U) WESTERN BIAS IN THE ANALYSIS OF "RELIGIOUS SITE"
Up to the present time the concept of the "religious site" has been almost totally
dominated by European thought which is anchored in Judaeo-Christian tradition. In this
tradition the religious site is perceived as being at a specific or concrete location
over time. It has been unfortunate in that this quantitative view has blinded anthro-
pologists and others from becoming aware of other views which are based upon qualitative
conceptualizations. Even more seriously it has kept government officials and other
public policy makers from fully understanding the forms of the religious experience
among Native Americans in their ecological and perspective context whereby those
settings and stimulative contexts could be perceived and protected. In this paper
I wish to present some alternative views based upon those perceptions among Native
Americans along the Northwest Coast, the Plateau and in Northern California. Hopefully
these will bring about a clearer understanding of the problem and a more realistic set
of policies.

SIGRID KHERA (North Dakota) PROTECTION OF NATIVE AMERICAN RELIGIOUS SITES: THE CASE
OF THE YAVAPAI INDIANS IN ARIZONA This paper deals with the question: what constitutes
a religious site from the viewpoint of the politically superordinate Non-Indian
society, and from that of Indian societies? It discusses how acceptibility of a site
as religious, and subsequent protection of this site, varies with different government
agencies. Using the case of the Yavapai Indians of Arizona, this paper is particularly
concerned with the situation of the small tribe which is relatively little known by the
broader Non-Indian public.

KENNETH J. WHYTE (Saskatchewan) ABORIGINAL RIGHTS THE NATIVE AMERICAN'S STRUGGLE
FOR SURVIVAL Aboriginal rights cannot be understood from a strictly legal point of
view. It has important moral, emotional and symbolic value for Native people. Implicit
in the aboriginal rights concept is the fact that native people want to have a part in
the social and economic wealth of the land and the resources but the issue is more than
the Native people simply asserting their ownership of the land. It is a struggle for
the preservation of a people and their way of life because land, in Native reality, is
the soul of their social, economic and political system. Above all it is a struggle
for the most universal of human rights, the right to be a self determining people.
This paper proposes to develop this theme and subsequently examine the major land
claim settlements and disputes in Canada in relation to this theme. The rational
underlying the examination of the legal and economic aspects of the land claim settle-
ments and disputes is the realization that significant economic independence, while
it cannot in itself be sufficient, is nevertheless necessary for self determination.

(208) A SEARCH FOR NEW PERSPECTIVES IN APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY The symposium is intended
to offer a forum for critical analyses of social, economic and political problems and
the role of anthropology in seeking solutions to these problems. The majority of the
papers assume perspectives which are critical of or deviate from applied anthropology
as it has developed in the United States. One of the primary aims is to promote a
re-thinking of some of the assumptions which have guided applied anthropology in recent
years.











ELLIOTT LEYTON (Memorial) CRITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY IN CANADA In Canada, a distinctive
form of applied anthropology has been developing over the last decade. Geared less
to the needs of particular corporations or government agencies, it addresses itself
to the constructive criticisms of institutions, regions, and policies. This paper
will examine several examples of this genre, well known in Canada but unknown in the
United States.

MICHAEL C. HOWARD (Houston) ABORIGINES AND ANTHROPOLOGISTS: STRATEGIES FOR SOLVING
AUSTRALIA'S "ABORIGINAL PROBLEM" Anthropologists have been actively involved in
Aboriginal affairs and particularly in thing to promote beneficial changes for
Aborigines virtually since the beginning of the discipline in Australia. The present
paper is intended to offer a critical assessment of the applied work of anthropologists
in Aboriginal affairs, paying special attention to how anthropologists have viewed their
role and the nature of the problems, as well as the effects of their activities. In
light of the manifest failure of government policy toward Aborigines, the paper will
also suggest possible directions in which anthropologists should move in the future if
an acceptable solution is to be found.

MICHAEL SMITH (SUNY-Geneseo) COMBATTING SCARCITY IN A NEW GUINEA VILLAGE: AGENDAS,
HIDDEN AGENDAS AND ALTERNATIVES The development of Papua New Guinea's economy as one
of capitalist growth and market competition is a result of initial colonial domination
and later economic dependency. The current desires and aspirations of Papua New Guinea
villagers have been shaped by an assymmetrical relationship with an impinging social,
political and economic system. The people of Koragur Village in the East Sepik Province
are painfully aware of the changes that have been wrought in their social environment,
in particular the increasing importance of the market economy. Village meetings in
1975-1976 often began with the construction of an agenda on the European model, and
some reference to the problem of organizing for more temporarily efficient market
production was usually included. But Koragur villagers cannot understand that the
new socio-economic circumstances which demand greater efficiency in the use of time
are also those which foster its scarcity. They cannot know that scarcity is efficiency's
hidden agenda in developed and developing capitalist economies. This creates a dilemma
for any anthropologist with aspirations to something other than a purely contemplative
stance. In facilitating villagers' efforts at more intensive market involvement through
greater efficiency in the use of time one would also abet the creation of an economy
in which scarcity is endemic. What then can be one's attitude toward villagers' efforts
and desires? In approaching this issue one must consider several questions: What are
the potentially liberatory consequences of villagers' current efforts? What are the
objective limits on the range of alternatives currently available? What might be done
to facilitate the availability of a wider range of alternatives? What kind of
relationship to the community would a search for alternatives dictate? What kind of
relationship to established political authority and economic programs would such a
project dictate?

AMY BURCE (Stanford) POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE WARIA VALLEY OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Political consciousness amongst Guhu-Samane villagers and plantation workers finds
expression in everyday discourse and activity as well as in such specialized contexts
as millenarian movements and contemporary politics. Both forms of expression and
content of political consciousness are examined in relation to patterns of class
formation and uneven economic development.

MICHAEL TAUSSIG (Michigan) PUBLISHING FOR THE PROLETARIATE: WRITING FOR WORKERS AND
PEASANTS IN THE CAUCA VALLEY, COLOMBIA Many anthropologists are concerned to feed back
their ethnography and analyses to the people amongst whom they lived and worked. This
paper discusses the motives and effects of a book I wrote (together with Anna Rubbo who
contributed one chapter) for the workers and peasants of the southern Cauca Valley in
Colombia, dealing with the social history of capitalist development in the Valley. In
addition to discussing the problems involved in such a work, I wish to discuss the
role a book like this plays in popular culture, and the role of popular history in
the development of critical consciousness.










ANNA RUBBO (Michigan) ARCHITECTURE AND ANTHROPOLOGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A
RELATIVELY UNEXPLORED CONNECTION With high rates of urbanization and the concentration
of rural populations in agribusiness zones in developing countries, the problem of
people finding adequate and sufficient housing assumes enormous proportions. Attempted
solutions to the housing problem vary greatly, from government provided housing to that
built by the people themselves. In this paper, based on a case study in the Cauca
Valley, Colombia, I wish to discuss the use of architecture as a tool for the domination
of lower class people, the need for anthropological input in formulating solutions to
housing in Third World countries, and the implications of this as a critique of pro-
fessionalism.

ROBERT A. RANDALL (Houston) DEPENDENCY, "DYNAMITE", AND THE SOUTHERN PHILIPPINE FISHERY
The Philippines is the world's 17th most populous state. Its principal source of protein
is fish caught by low-capital, inshore fishing. One nationwide fishing technique,
"dynamite" (or properly "explosives") fishing is unlike other fishing techniques because
it destroys marine ecosystems, fish populations, and those who eat less protein as a
result. Ethnographic data from Southwestern Philippine fishermen and fisheries personnel
helps explain why explosives fishermen practice what they regard as an anti-social and
dangerous occupation. They use explosives because it makes money, because other methods
don't, and because local and regional law enforcement is weak. There are several ways
government could discourage explosives fishing, but success is unlikely while other
techniques are declining in profitability. Low profits seem due to inflation in fishing
costs relative to sales prices, so a real solution must deal with cost inflation.
Cost inflation appears to be related to a 20-year decline in the Philippine currency's
value relative to international currencies. Indirectly--and directly--imported fishing
inputs inflate as the peso devalues, but fish-consumers' incomes need not. The result
is a profit squeeze. The Philippines' dependency on imported first and second-order
marine producers goods, and a lack of foreign exchange to support the currency thus
seems to encourage explosives fishing. Until this dependency is ended, explosives
fishing will continue.

(209) HISPANIC COMMUNITY FIELD STUDIES

MANUEL L. CARLOS (UC Santa Barbara) MEXICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES AND COMMUNITY SOCIAL
SERVICES: THEORETICAL APPROACHES AND APPLIED IMPLICATIONS Mexican American households
tend to use fewer community social services than mainstream society. Several theories
have been advanced to explain this phenomenon. Some argue that there are household and
family related variables which account for the utilization variance between the two
populations. Other theoretical approaches hold that Mexican American families underuse
social services because of a cultural and linguistic gap between agencies and households.
More recently, familial and information network models have been used by the present
author and others to explain the discrepancy. The present paper systematically explores
the applicability of widely used explanatory paradigms pertaining to Mexican American
under utilization of social services. It also examines the implications each has for
applied programs and social services deliverers. The paper draws on field data from
a recently completed study to suggest how aspects of all the major approaches can be
confirmed into an effective set of guidelines for servicing Mexican American households.
It is argued that effective service delivery rests on a number of socio-cultural and
institutional factors, but especially on social and familial network access by a
household to individuals.

CARLOS G. VELEZ-I (UCLA) UNA UNION DE CONFIANZA (A UNION OF TRUST): THE DISTRIBUTION
OF REVOLVING CREDIT ASSOCIATIONS AMONG MEXICANS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE RIO BRAVO--
RETHINKING ATTRIBUTIONAL EXPLANATIONS FOR A POPULATION My current research has found
that Mexican revolving credit associations are distributed extensively through urban
Mexico, parts of the urban U.S. Southwest, and perhaps the midwest. Research has
located such practices in twenty-nine urban and suburban municipalities on both sides
of the Rio Bravo and widely distributed across class sectors such as among wealth
matrons in the Lomas de Chapultepec, among high echelon bureaucrats in economic planning
offices, and among restaurant workers in Beverly Hills, California. Such associations












were found to range in complexity from simply organized, episodic structures based on
confianza (trust) to highly complex, State-sanctioned commercial operations organized
by corporations. As will be reported, the latter associations as well as "middle rung"
types have never previously appeared in the literature nor investigated. The theoretical
implications from the data contradicts the attributional explanations regarding Mexicans'
social and economic statuses on both sides of the Rio Bravo. As will also be reported,
the distribution of such reciprocal practices across class sectors preclude monocausal
explanations of "scarcity of needs" as the central condition for such associations to
appear. Alternative explanations will be preferred.

RITA L. AILINGER, JORGE ACCAME (George Mason U) CULTURAL IDENTIFICATION OF HISPANICS
The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural identification of a Hispanic
population as measured by an instrument. The instrument was developed for this study
and has content validity. It contains 20 items which include language, dieting habits,
social relations and etc. Three hundred households in census tracts with high concentra-
tions of Hispanics were visited. Informants were interviewed in Spanish using the
cultural identification instrument as a guide. Findings indicate that the respondents
were on a continuum of traditional to non-traditional in their cultural identification.

ARTHUR D. DEMPSEY (Florida Intl U) BUT NICE GIRLS DON'T LEAVE HOME UNTIL THEY'RE
MARRIED: THE UNIVERSITY AS AN AGENT FOR CULTURE CHANGE Dade County, Florida has had
an unique cultural mix since the Cuban Revolution of 1959. A substantial number of
Cuban refugees have settled in Dade County and the first generation of Cuban-Americans
are now attending local colleges and universities. Research into the employment
preferences for unmarried, female Cuban-American preservice elementary school teachers
suggests that the Cuban culture of the late 1950's remains the standard for the Dade
County Cuban population.

ALBERTO MATA (Wisconsin-Milwaukee) CHICANO COMMUNITY FIELD STUDY IN THE MIDWEST
This paper presents a critique of urban ethnographic work on Chicanos and explores
symbolic interaction as a theoretical framework for future studies. Two cases are
described to analyze the promise and limitations of symbolic interaction, the zoot
suit riots in Los Angeles and Chicano youth drug use in Chicago. The concepts of
amplification and escalation are used to explain how U.S. society creates deviance in
Chicano barrios. (Joint paper with ALFRED GONZALEZ [CSU Los Angeles])

JAMES DIEGO VIGIL (Chaffey C) SOCIOCULTURAL DYNAMICS OF CHICANO GANGS IN SOUTHERN
CALIFORNIA: A RESEARCH NOTE The historical roots of the formation of gangs provides
a backdrop from which to examine major socio-cultural forces shaping contemporary barrio
youth attitudes and behaviors. Recent findings by the Chicano Pinto Research Project,
based in East Los Angeles, have countered existing interpretations of Chicano gang
patterns. Members of that collaborative research team -- academics and community
researchers -- have gathered quantitative and qualitative data outlining some of the
more important conditions and uses of the gang delinquent life style. This presen-
tation will summarize some of those findings from the ongoing study, focusing
specifically on the sociocultural milieu of the barrio habitat.

EDUARDO HERNANDEZ CHAVEZ (Cross Cultural Resource Center) BILINGUAL EDUCATION
COMMUNITY STUDY PROJECT The Bilingual Education Community Study Project research
design is described and analyzed as an example of modifying existing ethnographic and
socio-linguistic methods to study the community contexts in which bilingual education
programs operate. A two site comparison design contrasts a rural California community
with an urban midwestern community. This report of research in progress describes
the major features of this two year study sponsored by the National Institute of
Education.











(275) THE EMERGENCE OF THE FIELD OF "ETHNOTRONICS" AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN
WELL-BEING OF "SMART MACHINES" AND "PEOPLE AMPLIFIERS" DURING THE EIGHTIES
Joseph will lecture non-technically, with profuse illustrations, concerning the high
probability that the "silicon revolution" will produce the following technological
innovations during the Eighties. By 1981: Component processors leading to smart
machines, people appliances, and components becoming end products. By 1984: Component
computers forcing universal computer systems leading to hard programs, and machines/
computers becoming components. Carriable or wearable "people amplifiers" will begin
to be available, capable of making smart decisions in response to human command, and
actuating a process. By 1988: Microprocessing and miniaturization will have pro-
gressed to the point where large sectors of the cognitive content of a subculture
could be stored, for instant retrieval, on a single silicon chip the size of a coin--
and later, by interfacing of chips, large sectors of the cognitive content of a whole
culture on a single silicon wafer. (Joseph will display samples of these chips and
wafers.) In the 1990's, "smart" machines (i.e., those that can be programmed and re-
6programmed by humans) are expected to lead naturally to "intelligent" machines (i.e.,
those that can be programmed by humans to purposively re-program themselves). Should
this come about, some of those in the audience are likely to live to see the beginnings
of something like purposive "non-human cultural systems" with their own built-in values
and dynamics. Given the fact that the most active development of smart machines and
people amplifiers is found in the U.S., a culture that allows wide latitude for
technological developers, we must face the fact that the genie is already out of the
bottle. The speakers and discussants therefore see a profound and urgent need for
social scientists to participate proactively in the design of these systems, so that
they may be harnessed for human welfare rather than despoliation. Harkins has coined
the term "ethnotronics" for an emerging field which will study the cultural, or "systems",
implications of smart and intelligent machines. The cultural invention of being able to
store the content of Culture X on a wafer implies that the hypothetical future behavior
of Culture X under various assumable conditions can be simulated, which itself would
be an act of cultural creativity, which might also impact upon Cultures Y and Z.
The speakers and discussants will also view ethnotronics in the light of other major
current concerns -- e.g., the energy crisis; the potential for lifelong, constantly
updated, consumer-controlled and -actuated education; and the democratization of
political control through the use of incredibly cheap, versatile, and instant information
retrieval capacities.












(301) FIELD WORK AS AN EVALUATION METHOD IN HEALTH AND HEALING SYSTEMS

ORGANIZER: VIRGINIA OLESEN (UC San Francisco) The symposium will consist of three major
papers with comment by the organizer and will deal with the application of field work
methodology (participant observation of various types, interview studies not directed to
quantified results, etc., in evaluation of health and healing systems, both formal and
informal. Field work represents an evaluation methodology which has not had extensive
application in the arena of health systems evaluation, unlike other areas of applied
anthropology.

LAURA REIF, (UC San Francisco) CONDUCTING POLITY STUDIES IN HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS:
MANAGING ADVERSARY RELATIONS TO ACHIEVE RESEARCH COALS The success of the evaluation
of a health care system often hinges on the extent to which the researcher can effec-
tively manage adversary actions by participants of the organization being studied. An
adversary relationship between the policy researcher and the subjects of an evaluation *
is likely to develop when organizational participants have a high stake in the outcome
of the research, and when they have sufficient power to influence the process and outcome
of the investigation. Typical adversary tactics used by organizational participants
include: (1) curtailing resources necessary to the conduct of the study; (2) restricting
the researcher's access to data; (3) attempting to coopt or oppose the research; (4)
delaying the study and the decisions based on its findings; and (5) politicizing the
research process. In order to establish and retain control over the evaluation, policy
researchers employ a variety of strategies: (1) redefining lines of authority to gain
greater autonomy; (2) controlling information on the research process and findings;
(3) using negotiation and threat to obtain cooperation; (4) building constituencies
which can oppose the interested parties; and (5) forcing public disclosure, so activities
and decisions are subject to broader review. Only when researchers succeed in managing
adversary relations, are they able to obtain complete and accurate information, produce
an unbiased analysis, and adequately disseminate the findings of their research. If
organizational participants are able to erode the researcher's autonomy and objectivity,
the evaluation--however insightful--will have little or no impact on policies and practices.

JESSICA MULLER (UC San Francisco) BETWIXT AND BETWEEN: DIMENSIONS OF THE FIELD EXPER-
IENCE IN EVALUATION This paper will consider the experience of fieldwork in qualita-
tive evaluation in relation to several dimensions, including the relationship of the
fieldworkers to client and sponsor, the use of qualitative and quantitative data bases,
the decision-making authority given to the fieldworkers, and the type of produce to
result from the fieldwork. With examples from the author's experience in conducting
evaluation research, these issues will be discussed in terms of their general applicabil-
ity to the use of fieldwork in evaluation. Specific implications for field methodologies
in health evaluation will be considered.

CRAIG R. JANES (UC San Francisco) THE VALUES AND LIMITATIONS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
STRATEGIES IN PROGRAM EVALUATION Qualitative methodologies have been proposed as alter-
native strategies for program evaluation. The resulting methodological debate this has
spawned has tended to polarize quantitative and qualitative paradigms into mutually oppo-
sing and supposedly irreconcilable categories. The author's own qualitative fieldwork
experience in a small health-care program for the elderly is presented. The ethnographic
approach yielded considerable detail on program process, the dynamics of staff-patient
interactions, and the reactions of the participants to the program itself. However, this
research did not yield data suitable for making an evaluative judgement above the subjec-
tive level. It is therefore suggested that researchers look very carefully at the struc-
tural and organizational characteristics of a program before investingin a single research
strategy. Characteristics of a program thought to be relevant are: a) setting, as defined
by scale, social structure, and size; b) the problem-orientation of the organization which
funds the evaluation; and c) to what use the product of the evaluation is to be put. It
is concluded that qualitative and quantitative methods are not irreconcilable, but are
complementary; each possessing its own particular strengths and weaknesses for evaluation
research.











JAMES C. YOUNG (East Carolina U) DECISION MODELS IN POLICY RELEVANT RESEARCH
Drawing on data from a study of illness behavior in a rural Mexican community, this
paper examines the usefulness of cognitively oriented decision models in policy relevant
research. As compared with approaches involving statistical analysis of aggregate beha-
vioral data, the important advantages of the natural decision making approach are (a)
that it describes the specific considerations that lead to the use of non-traditional
alternatives in concrete terms meaningful to the actors themselves, and (b) that it also
describes, in equally specific terms, why such alternatives are in given instances not
chosen for use. To illustrate, findings on the use and non-use of orthodox western
medical care in the study community are presented. Applications of the approach in other
areas, such as agricultural development and family planning, are also discussed.

(302) HEALTH BELIEFS, IDEOLOGY, AND WORLDVIEW SPONSORED BY THE SOCIETY FOR MEDICAL
ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE SECTION ON MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL
ASSOCIATION

ORGANIZER: LUCILE F. NEWMAN (Brown). This organized symposium is sponsored jointly by
the Society for Medical Anthropology and the Medical Sociology Section of the American
Sociological Association and chaired by Dr. Virginia Olesen of University of California,
San Francisco and Dr. Lucile Newman of Brown University. It follows a comparable session
at the ASA meetings in Boston in August 1979 titled "Perspectives in Medical Sociology and
Medical Anthropology" in which the focus was "What have been some of the influences of
social science on health policy and on health practice, or, Does Social Science Really
Count?" Our overall purpose has been to enhance the common ground and clarify the dif-
ferences between medical sociology and medical anthropology, and in so doing to raise
some questions central to the interests of both disciplines. This symposium focusing
on Health Beliefs, Ideology, and Worldview, will turn around the question and probe values
symbolism and cosmologies of health practitioners.

JUDITH SWAZEY (Boston) THE IDEOLOGY OF SOCIAL CONTROLS IN MEDICINE. This paper is a
discussion of current medical professional ideology in the fact of social controls from
multiple external sources ranging from federal agencies and corporate bodies to popular
support groups. How private is private practice and what kinds of ideological conflicts
occur between these interest groups?

EUGENE B. BRODY (Maryland) THE DOCTORS DILEMMA: A CASE OF CULTURE CONFLICT. This paper
is concerned with the physician's conflict between social needs--policies reflecting a
desire for universally accessible health care, humanely provided and equitably distributed-
and the cultural expectations of patients who view the physician as a healer whose charisma;
is as important as his expertise. The conflict arises in how to reconcile the social
needs and their institutional constraints with the cultural expectations which are per-
sonalistic, consciously or unconsciously paternalistic, and make of the therapeutic
encounter a moral event. This latter touches upon his perception of himself as a signi-
ficant figure in his own culture and one with certain moral expectations regarding his
own behavior and that of others. Illustrations will come from observations of physicians
at work and as psychiatric patients themselves.

(303) PAPERS: ECONOMIC AND ROLE RELATIONS IN HEALTH CARE

PAUL C. FRIEDMAN, VICTORIA JENNINGS (Texas) PARAPROFESSIONALS AS CULTURE BROKERS IN A
HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM. The relationship between the health care provider and the
recipient has significant implications for the effectiveness of the health care delivery
system. Barriers which frequently exist between providers and recipients can inhibit
the effectiveness of health care delivery. In situations where there are vast differ-
ences between providers and recipients, the barriers are likely to be extreme. Para-
professional health care providers are increasingly being used to provide health care,
particularly in institutional settings. Traditionally, hospitals, even in ghetto areas,
are run by culturally and politically elite groups while the paraprofessionals are often
drawn from economically marginal groups. As such, the paraprofessionals subserve












functions beyond the technical provision of health care. The role of a group of para-
professionals and a largely deprived Chicano patient population was examined. Their
function as cultural brokers negotiating between two cultural health systems enabled
them to overcome some of the barriers between providers and recipients. The cultural
broker function is described.

KATHERINE CARLSON, NOEL CHRISMAN (Washington) MAKING MEDICINE MEANINGFUL: AN ANALYSIS
OF DOCTOR-PATIENT ENCOUNTERS AND THEIR SOCIAL CONTENT. The nature of patient/practi-
tioner relationships in the American medical care system has deservedly received
increased attention during the last decade. Investigation of this relationship along .
such dimensions as power, persuasion, and communicative effectiveness has been related
to both consumer satisfaction with doctor/patient encounters and the effects of such
encounters on compliance. This paper reports an approach to analyzing patient/physi-
cian relationships in a family practice setting in which the encounter is viewed
as a process of exchange. A system for coding utterances has been developed, a
following Katz et al., which conceives of information, reassurance, instruction,
casual conversation, and the like as resources which may be sought, introduced,
accepted, or declined by participants. Our preliminary analysis of twenty video-
tapes has indicated the value of segmenting the encounter into five stages: greet-
ings, medical history, physician examination, treatment suggestions, and closing.
These "natural" stages contrast with the strictly "medical" elements of history,
examination, and eanclusion used in one study and the artificial quartiles used in
another. The inception and conclusion of each of the stages are agreed upon by par-
ticipants and well marked verbally. The specificity of the coding system and the iden-
tification of a limited number of stage shift markers allows the opportunity to make
an assessment of the degree of doctor or patient control over the course of the encoun-
ter. We will report on the relationships observed between immediate satisfaction and
(1) the number of exchanges in the social stages (1 and 5), (2) the number of exchanges
devoted to social and personal issues outside of their specified stage, and (3) the
role of the patient in initiating stage change in general, and introducing social ele-
ments in particular.

CYNTHIA GILLETTE (Texas A&M) COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS AND HEALTH CARE PLANNING: A
CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE FROM A KENYAN VILLAGE. The effectiveness of cost-benefit
analysis as applied to health care planning is explored. Using data gathered during
anthropological fieldwork in a rural Kenyan village, the limitations of cost-benefit
analysis are demonstrated, the major limitations being: problems of quantification;
inadequate inclusion of socio-cultural variables; and overweighting economic criteria
of success as compared to socio-political criteria. It is concluded that cost-
benefit analysis should not be allowed to displace a more holistic approach to health
care.

ELIZABETH L. BYERLY, CRAIG A. MOLGAARD, AMANDA L. GOLBECK (Intercollegiate Ctr. for
Nursing Educ. (Spokane) and The Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minn.) DE MORBIS ARTIFICUM:
DISEASES OF WORKERS. Ramazzini's De Morbis Artificum (1700) was the first compre-
hensive treatise on occupational diseases and their prevention. He discussed in
detail the deleterious nature of occupational materials, and the violent and irregu-
lar motions and unnatural postures of the body used in handling such materials, for
workers in over fifty occupations. This paper presents such an analysis of one occu-
pational group migrant agricultural workers in the State of Washington. The
salient diseases of members of this occupational group, and the relationship between
their health status and the living and working conditions determined by their social
position, are presented as an exercise in the social relations of health as first
delineated by Ramazzini.











GERALDINE A. KISIEL (US International) A PROPOSAL FOR IMPROVING HEALTH INDICATORS
Social indicators of health are inadequate from a number of standpoints. Most notable
of these inadequacies are problems with the construction of them. First, they are
entirely quantitative in concept and actuality; second, they have very little in the
way of a conceptual base; and third, they are usually developed as if what they are
measuring is a constant. One solution to this problem is a methodological one. Quali-
tative methods are being utilized to gather information which will then be used to
clarify the meaning of the concepts involved in the various indices and to clarify
the purpose and intended use of the indicators. This information is being gathered
through intensive interviews with hospital administrators, physicians and teachers
- in medical schools, public officials and lay-experts on health care who sit on the
Boards of organizations such as the Comprehensive Health Planning Organizations
and The Experimental Health Delivery System. A content analysis of the data will be
performed and the results presented.

MELANIE DREHER, LOIS GRAU (Columbia) THE INVOLUTION OF PATIENT CARE: THE REAL
BOTTOMLESS PIT OF THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM. Under the oppression of bureaucratic
constraints and economic sanctions imposed by administrators and third party re-
imbursers, a seemingly endless series of accommodations and adjustments are made by
first level health care providers to ensure at least minimal levels of patient care.
The ultimate result of this ever-deepening structure and retardation of the kind of
change necessary to truly influence the quality of health services. A micro-analysis
of patient-provider relations and case studies from a broad sampling of patient care
settings provide the ethnographic basis for generalizations pertaining to social
change and health care delivery.

RAQUEL BIALIK PEREL (Instituto Mex. de Psiquiatria) POPULAR CONCEPTS ON MENTAL
ILLNESS AND THEIR POSSIBLE APPLICATION FOR THERAPEUTIC PURPOSES. We studied a
sample of 1,400 informations (200 per group), pertaining to one of the following
seven groups: I. students (from high school to postgraduate level; II.housewives;
III. domestic servants; IV. workers; V. professionals; VI. mentally ill under treat-
ment; and VII. marginal population. With a structured questionnaire (consisting of
closed and open questions) we gathered information on how people define mental
illness; what behavior they associate to it; what treatment is to be given; where,
for how long and by whom; what is its prognosis; what social consequences are
attached to the mentally ill and its family; what symptoms are more frequently
associated to mental illness or which are disassociated from it, etc. The paper
will present a comparison between the answers given by the different groups and
suggest how these concepts may be directly applied during treatment, as a means of
better understanding the patient, its background and surroundings, leading to more
realistic and efficacious results.

(304) PAPERS NUTRITIONAL ANTHROPOLOGY

JOEL MATHLESS TEITELBAUM (Food & Nutrition Service USDA) THE SUCKLING TABOO: IMPACT
OF FORCED WEANING ON CHILD HEALTH AND NUTRITION IN TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES. This
paper identifies the "Suckling Taboo" as an indigenous mystical belief leading to
premature or abrupt weaning of young children in some traditional societies. A
survey of the literature shows that this practice occurs among cultural groups in
Africa, the Middle East, Asia and some Pacific Island groupings. Its existence was
noted in the early 1900s by anthropologists such as Westermarck in his study of rit-
ual and belief in Morocco. Dr. Cicely Williams characterized this taboo on breast-
feeding as a component of Kwashiorkor, i.e., young child protein-calorie malnutri-
tion, among the Ga of Ghana.











My recent study of weaning practices and nutrition in Morocco confirms and expands
Westermarck's findings and relate them to the public health concerns of marasmus
and Kwashiorkor. Weanling.children considered to be afflicted by maternal infrac-
tion of the Suckling Taboo receive homeopathic substances representing the fetus
and purgatives to rid the intestinal tract of diarrhea believed caused by the
breast milk. The resulting exacerbations of these symptoms simply confirm the
belief in the taboo itself. The paper presents recommendations on methods to util-
ize the Suckling Taboo and other indigenous weaning and lactation beliefs in mater-
nal-child health programs and nutrition education for traditional people in develop-
ing countries.

B.C. DU BOIS (San Diego St) AN ANTHROPOLOGIST WORKING IN A NUTRITIONAL HEALTH AGENCY
There are means by which an Anthropologist can find non-academic employment and
continue to consider oneself an Anthropologist, practicing the tools of the trade.
This paper is the result of one such endeavor, that of an Anthropologist working in
a nutritional health agency. Those topics highlighted are: the nature and scope
of the agency and the training needed for employment, the talents which an Anthro-
pologist can offer to the agency, what the agency can offer in return, how to get
your academic foot in the public's door, how the use of anthropological theory can
streamline the agency's orientation to health projects, and some problematical
areas for prolonged employment which are not insurmountable.

RALPH BOLTON, JAMES J. MC KENNA (Pomona) THE EVOLUTIONARY BASIS OF THE HYPOGLYCEMIA-
AGGRESSION LINKAGE. Studies of intracultural variability and of cross-cultural
differences in aggression have provided some support for the hypothesis that hypo-
glycemia is a significant factor in the etiology of agonistic behavior. This paper
seeks to calrify the evolutionary basis for the hypothesized linkage between aggres-
siveness and metabolic processes. If the kinds of behavior that can be subsumed
under the label of "aggressive" (e.g., warfare, fighting, and homicide) are at
least partially produced by hypoglycemia, directly or indirectly, then it can be
asked, To what extent hypoglycemia is likely to be selected for or against, and,
further, what are the environmental conditions likely to lead to the widespread
occurrence of this metabolic condition in a population.

JOSEPH BOUSQUET, ELIZABETH ARNOLD (Center for the Study of Human Adaptation)
INTERIM REPORT ON THE MORAMA BEAN PROJECT. Morama beans (Tylosema esculentum)
are a wild staple food of many groups of Kalahari San (Bushmen). The beans'
amino acid and edible oil content give them a higher overall protein and calorie
value than the major staples and oilseeds of the world. Other portions of the
plant are also edible. The plant's ability to survive and produce in an arid to
semi-arid environment has drawn the attention of agronomists to its potential for
cultivation in other arid lands. Anthropologists at the Center for the Study of
Human Adaptation are coordinating a bi-national research project to discover and
disseminate the techniques for cultivating this plant. Drawing from ethnographic
literature on Kalahari peoples, we have drawn preliminary conclusions as to the
environmental tolerances, preparation techniques, and likelihood of acceptance of
these beans by other cultural groups. Further nutritional analyses of wild beans,
germination trials, and plantings at various agricultural experiment stations in
Texas have begun. We propose to do further fieldwork in Botswans to develop more
information about physical characteristics and tolerances, ethnobotany and techniques
of use, as well as to share information with Botswana colleagues.










GRETEL H. PELTO (Conn) WOMEN'S WORK, DIET AND WEIGHT IN WEST FINLAND. Moderniza-
tion in Finland is bringing about rapid changes in the food system, expanding the
range of available foods and leading to increased diversity or "individualization"
of dietary intake. At the same time, economic pressures, opportunities and changing
education patterns have led to increased participation of women in the work force.
This study is based on interviews with 110 women from an urban center and surrounding
rural areas of West Finland. The effect of employment outside the home on food
behavior and diet (e.g. dietary complexity, meal scheduling) and on weight is examined.
The role of other factors, such as age, family structure and health status is also
considered. The results of the analysis are discussed in terms of their implications
-for nutrition education and health planning.

(305) SYMPOSIUM: ETHNOGRAPHY OUTSIDE THE FAMILY: PROBLEMS IN DEFINITION AND METHOD

ORGANIZER: MICHAEL AGAR (Houston) ETHNOGRAPHY OUTSIDE THE FAMILY: PROBLEMS IN
LDEFINITION AND METHOD. The experiences of a growing population of anthropologists
with U.S. agency settings is producing a new focus on some old issues. As a copar-
ticipant in a complex professional niche, an ethnographer must deal with adminis-
trators, practitioners and other social scientists who have a variety of purposes
and strategies for understanding behavior, the most prominent being the traditional
notion of "hypothesis testing." When attempting to characterize ethnography to such
a peer group, an ethnographer has at least two problems. The first is represented
by the peculiar images that many non-ethnographers have of this type of research.
The second problem is the paucity of attempts to articulate the process of doing
ethnography. The papers in this symposium, drawing from experiences on a variety of
research problems by anthropologists with different theoretical biases, will explore
these issues.

JACQUETTA HILL (Illinois) THE ETHNOGRAPHY OF EVENTS AND PERSONAL NETWORKS. Recent
critiques and position papers on the methodology of ethnography generally start from
an implicit framework of peoples in groups, organizations, and places, which ethno-
graphers enter to observe and experience through participate observation, or less
directly to interview people about. This paper discusses the methodological, episto-
mological, and conceptual implication of starting from the different framework of the
ethnography of individual's personal network in the course of events happening in the
everyday round of life. After a brief review of the relevant literature from life
histories, social networks, and Wolcott's Man in the Principal's Office, the use of
the second framework will be exemplified in the methodology of an ongoing research
project on the comparative ethnography of functional uses of literacy. Then, the
implications for studying the "ecology of individuals across social settings" and
for linking individual level phenomena with socio-centric or socio-cultural systems'
level phenomena will be briefly addressed in terms of the two contrasting approaches
to field work strategy. It is proposed the two can be interlinked through the
methodological constructs of networks, socio-cultural events and behavioral settings.

JOHN J. GUMPERZ (UC Berkeley) ETHNOGRAPHIC METHOD IN CLASSROOM INTERACTION RESEARCH
During the last few years, ethnography has become one of the most talked about terms
in educational research, yet there is little agreement on what it means to do ethno-
graphic research. Some scholars suggest that classrooms can be studied as little
communities to be described in terms of their culture and social structure. This
paper argues against this parallelism and what it implies for research design. It
is suggested that education is perhaps best seen as an institution which functions
within a broader socio-political environment and is affected by it and be described
in terms of goal directed activities, such as the achievement of literacy. Implica-
tions for research design and ethnographic method are explored on the basis of field
work in urban schools concentrating on participant observation and conversational
analysis of key interactive situations.












CAROL MAC LENNAN (Dept of Transportation) ETHNOGRAPHY IN A REGULATORY CONTEXT:
THE CASE OF THE U.S. FUEL ECONOMY PROGRAM. The historical and bureaucratic struc-
ture of regulatory agencies is a critical determinant affecting the use and non-use
of the ethnographic-method in government research. More often than not, the ethno-
grapher finds it difficult to work as an anthropologist within this framework. Why?
This paper, using the example of the national fuel economy program, locates the
problem in three major factors: 1) The historical and class structures within which
regulatory functions are perceived by the agency; 2) The bureaucratic structure of
work; and, 3) The dominance of specific professional paradigms in research planning.

DELMOS L. JONES (CUNY) THE THEORETICAL CONTEXT OF ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH. More
and more nonanthropologists are turning to ethnographic research as a viable and
alternative data collection technique. While this trend is gratifying, an inspec-
tion of the manner in which the ethnographic approach is being applied leads to the
conclusion that a considerable amount of misunderstanding exists over ethnography *
as a research technique. This paper will attempt to spell out the theoretical frame-
work of ethnography. A discussion of some of the common errors made by researchers
inexperienced with the method will be offered, and some suggestions will be made as
to how the method can be improved. Specifically, suggestions will be offered on how
the computer can be used as a tool in the analysis of data. Many of the nonanthro-
pologists are more familiar with survey research techniques, an approach that is
very structured and systematic. In contrast, the ethnographic approach seems to them
unsystematic--a "soft" approach to the process of data collection in contrast to
the "hard" and scientific approach of the quantitative research techniques. This
paper will argue that the ethnographic approach is neither unstructured, unsystematic,
or soft. It is contended here that the major weakness of ethnography is at the level
of analysis.

MICHAEL AGAR (Houston) WHEN PARADIGMS COLLIDE: SOME INTERACTIONAL DATA ON THE
PROBLEM OF RESEARCH DIFFERENCES. Drawing on experiences in a variety of interdis-
ciplinary settings, this paper attempts to outline a sense of what ethnography is
by attending to the kinds of questions non-ethnographers ask of it in proposed or
completed form. While the main focus of the paper will be on methodological issues,
some theoretical and practical questions will of necessity also be woven into the
discussion.

(306) SYMPOSIUM

ORGANIZER: JAMES RUSSELL McGOODWIN (U. Colorado-Boulder) SMALL SCALE FISHERMAN:
PROBLEMS IN MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, PART 1 DOMESTIC FISHERIES. The symposium
examines management and development issues among small-scale fishermen in diverse
parts of the world. Currently, fisheries are an important growth sector in the econ-
omies of most world coastal states, and are undergoing rapid changes in organization,
management, and development. However, the state of the art for the management and
development of small-scale fishermen lags considerably behind that for larger scale,
industrial fishermen. Through presentation of a variety of cases--both domestic
(USA) and foreign--the diversity and complexity of issues surrounding the management
and development of small-scale fishermen will be suggested.
The symposium will have two sessions. Session I will focus upon domestic (USA) small-
scale fishermen, all of whom are subject to regulation under the Fisheries Conservation
and Management Act. Cases from Monterey, California, Bristol Bay, Alaska, and
Massachusetts will discuss a variety of issues: for example, problems of definition
(i.e., "What is 'small scale'"?); the recalcitrance of small-scale fishermen to be
managed as a class; and problems surrounding entry to fisheries. Session 2 will
focus upon foreign fisheries in Ireland, Mexico, and Costa Rica. One paper discusses
problems in fisheries education; another the inadequacy of fisheries policy for inshore
fishermen in Pacific Mexico; while two papers will focus upon fishermen's perceptions
with respect to important variables germane in fisheries management and development.









M. ESTELLIE SMITH (SUNY-Oswego) A QUESTION OF SCALE: OR, WHAT ARE WE MEASURING?
A comparison of three "small" fishing ports (Cape Cod, Virgin Islands, and western
Scotland) indicates that, although all three ports can be designated as "small,"
the focus of measurement (e.g., by a government observer) differs in each. In the
first, it is the fleet per se which consists of less than 50 vessels of--for the most
part--under 60 GRT. In the second, "small" refers to landings: usually less than a
couple of hundred pounds made by about 150 fishermen who make short trips in boats
averaging about 16-18' with 40-75 horsepower outboard motors, and sell their catches
to the housewives or restaurant cooks who go down to the sands to meet the boats at
landing time (between 8-10 a.m.). The west Scottish focus is on the "small" market-
ing infrastructure of the port which inhibits fishermen from buying bigger boats
because, connected with the network of relations in the town, there is a limit on
the amount of fish which one can expect to be able to market--unless one lands one's
fish at a more distant, larger town. The problems of scale (vessel, fleet, landing/
processing, and market/shipping) relate to the potential growth in any one of these
sectors as well as the extent to which growth will be seen as something to seek out
or avoid. The problems which this differential focus and differential "yardstick"
create, especially between fishermen and those in government will be explored in,
essentially, a programmatic paper.

SUSAN PETERSON (Woods Hole) MAINTAINING YANKEE INDEPENDENCE: MASSACHUSETTS SMALL
SCALE FISHERMEN Yankees are known for their independence, abrupt style of interac-
tion and often savage wit; the fishermen in Massachusetts who make all or part of
their living fishing the inshore waters can be characterized as Yankees. However,
that is the only generalization easily admitted by these men. Their unwillingness to
be grouped as a "class of fishermen" for management purposes poses interesting prob-
lems under management regimes inflexible to the enormous variability among small
scale fishermen. At the same time there are valid generalizations about these fish-
ermen which may be useful to fisheries management, especially where the results of
an individual's behavior may be unimportant while the collective efforts of hundreds
of men must be considered.

JEFF JOHNSON, MARC L. MILLER (Washington) MODERN TRANSHUMANT FISHERMEN AND THE
BRISTOL BAY SOCKEYE SALMON FISHERY In the Bristol Bay sockeye salmon fishery on
the southwestern edge of the Alaskan mainland, over thirty million fish are annually
harvested in less than two months by 1500 drift gillnet and 650 set-net fishermen.
Access to this extremely lucrative and competitive fishery is regulated by a system
of limited entry (transferable permits command over one hundred thousand dollars on
the open market); a state management policy imposes temporal, gear-type, and area
restrictions to achieve conservation objectives. Fishing activities are further
regulated informally according to constraints on processing and cannery operations.
This paper examines the 1979 season and the patterns of participation in the fishery
of an identified social and occupational category of modern transhumant fishermen.

MICHAEL K. ORBACH (UC Santa Cruz) MONTEREY FISHERMEN: PROBLEMS IN INFORMAL NETWORKS
AND FORMAL ADMINISTRATION The fishing industry and community of Monterey, California
is an example of several contemporary social and economic issues in fishery manage-
ment. The industry is controlled predominantly by a southern Italian ethnic commu-
nity. The fishery activity is centered around the exploitation of a limited number of
fish species by members of different, distinct social networks. One such network is
highly unionized and dependent on labor migration from Italy. Another is highly
territorial in local, informal allocation of fishing privileges, and is the subject of
disputed formal management jurisdiction because of the distribution of the fishing
across boundaries of state and federal jurisdiction. There has been tremendous expan-
sion of fishing effort of all kinds on the west coast in recent years. This has meant
more and more boats and fishermen from "outside" intruding on the fisheries and geo-
graphical areas over which the Monterey fishermen have traditionally had control.
While there are federal laws which legitimize, under certain conditions, preferential
rights for those who can demonstrate historical fishing patterns or economic, social,











or cultural dependence on continued participation in fishing, the conflicting state
and federal jurisdictions make it administratively difficult to assert such rights.
In addition, the fishermen have a strong aversion to dealing with the very authori-
ties who are now their only formal recourse for protection against the incursion of
new boats and fishermen. This paper will document the social and economic issues
involved in Monterey fisheries, and the ways in which certain social, cultural, and
economic data and information might be used to incorporate the goals of the Monterey
fishermen into formal administrative structures.

EVELYN PINKERTON (U British Columbia) THE EFFECT OF GOVERNMENT FISHERY LICENSING
POLICY ON THE STRUCTURE OF LOCAL EMPLOYMENT Traditionally in this small village on
the northwest coast of British Columbia, fishing was a seasonal activity and part of
a diversified, multi-occupational adaptation, including small-scale logging and exten-
sive subsistence activities. Isolated local populations were able to respond to
fluctuations in world markets with minimized dislocation. The low incomes of fisher-4
men did not necessarily reflect the standard of living, and the number of small and
seasonal fishermen did not put pressure on the resource. The rationalized licensing
policies of the 1960s and 1970s have claimed to respond to three problems in the B.C.
fishery: 1) the overcapitalization of some boats, 2) the low incomes of some fisher-
men, and 3) the growing scarcity of the resource. In fact, however, these policies
have acted to force smaller and marginal fishermen out of the industry, to put heavier
pressure on the resource, and to grant fishing rights to fewer, large-scale fishermen
in more capitalized boats. The effect of these policies on the local economy is
increasing occupational specialization, less time for traditional subsistence activi-
ties, and a greater local vulnerability to market fluctuations. The paper analyzes
how the policy may be seen as reflecting processing company interests, and recommends
alternate policies which would more nearly reflect fishing interests of individuals,
and protect the future of the resource.

(307) SYMPOSIUM

HELEN H. SCHUSTER (Iowa State) INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO ANTHROPOLOGY AND EDUCATION
Anthropology and Education have converged at many levels, sometimes accompanied by
controversial, explosive mixing and sometimes combined in a creative and innovative
blending of theoretical approaches, methodologies, and/or empirical experiences. The
emphasis of these papers is on the positive: those fortuitous amalgamations that
draw on some anthropological resource to greatly enhance some dimensions of the edu-
cational process. The symposium presenters seek to share their discoveries in a
combined effort to disseminate, to elicit, and to formalize what has largely been
noteworthy but of limited distribution.

HELEN H. SCHUSTER (Iowa State), JANET CONSTANTINIDES (Wyoming) "A MICROFIELD
EXPERIENCE FOR AMERICAN AND FOREIGN STUDENTS" Difficulties encountered in a cross-
cultural experience are not necessarily confined to travelers or to researchers among
exotic peoples in distant dines. A common arena for "culture shock" is often to be
found in the familiar setting of an American classroom, in particular a multicultural
classroom, where the trauma of educational distress may be experienced by teacher, as
well as students. This paper describes two separate but common cross-cultural edu-
cational problems, (1) inadequate preparation of American university students to
teach in multiethnic classrooms, and (2) inadequate preparation of foreign students
attending an American university to function according to their ability and knowledge.
Each author was faced with one of these problems. By conjoining them in a simple but
effective way, they were able to bring about a mutually advantageous resolution of
both. Key factors relied on participation by both American and foreign students in
a unique socialization experiment: a one-to-one "tutorial" and "microfield" exper-
ience.











PAUL HEADLEY, JOSEPH HRABA, BRENT BRUTON (Iowa) ETHNIC RELATIONS IN AMERICAN HISTORY
THROUGH PHOTOGRAPHS AND MUSIC Ethnic relations are historical, changing with the
larger historical process. American history is identified in the social sciences
with three phases: agrarian, industrial and post-industrial. These phases are
typically conveyed to students through statistics and abstract commentary on the
nature of work, production through statistics and abstract commentary on the nature
of work, production and distribution, the division of labor, educational opportunity,
etc. Although all of this might reflect the real world for social scientists, it does
not always do so for students. For students, understanding ethnic relations in his-
'tory starts with observing the daily lives of real people. Human scale needs to be
in the classroom so that the significance of social change for people's lives can be
appreciated. This presentation attempts to demonstrate the use of photographs and
music in teaching the human element in the history of ethnicity in America.

JOHN W. CONNOR (CSU Sacramento) TEACHING ANTHROPOLOGY IN HIGH SCHOOL The paper
will be a brief presentation of some techniques I developed in teaching an anthro-
pology course in junior high and senior high school. The course involved the util-
ization of mimeographed material (readers were not available) and then integrating
the reading material with appropriate audio-visual films and tapes. Additionally,
I had access to archeological artifacts, both originals and duplicates. In the
latter part of the course the students were encouraged to bring in material from the
various countries they had visited and discuss them with the class. This last
approach was a logical application inasmuch as two-thirds of the students were from
Air Force families and almost all of them had some overseas experience.

GRETCHEN M. BATAILLE (Iowa) INSIDE THE CIGAR STORE: IMAGES OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN
Many students in predominantly "white" universities are only vaguely aware of the
stereotypes they hold about American Indians and certainly they do not know enough
American cultural history to understand the basis for any of their misconceptions.
Because these images of the American Indian by and large have been created by non-
Indians, it is useful to examine why certain'stereotypes have emerged. The stoic
wooden figure offering tobacco to a passer-by on the planked walk of a frontier town
is firmly entrenched in the minds of most Americans as are other images of noble or
ignoble savage, child of nature, or beautiful princess, which are further perpetuated
in textbooks, novels, and educational films. It is only recently that educators have
made serious attempts to examine teaching materials and to scrutinize the visual aids
which tell of various minority groups. In order to examine the sources of these
stereotypes and to replace the inaccuracies with more realistic images of Native
American experiences, we offer a course, "Images of the American Indian," in our
cross-disciplinary American Indian Studies Program, and have produced a shortened
version of this course as a slide presentation, "Inside the Cigar Store: Images of
the American Indian." This presentation discusses the stereotypes which have been
presented in mass media and textbooks and then goes on to examine the realities of
contemporary American Indian experiences.

HARRY F. WOLCOTT (Oregon) ANTHROPOLOGY'S "SPOILER ROLE"AND "NEW" MULTI-CULTURAL
TEXTBOOKS Requests from publishers to review educator-authored manuscripts deal-
ing with the pedagogy of pluralism (and that incredible phenomenon, the "plural-
istic culture") have caused me to exercise what Alan Beals has termed anthropology's
"spoiler role." Though the authors of these manuscripts may be well-meaning, they
are not anthropologically well-informed. I am not of the opinion that bad books
about multi-culturalism are better than no books at all. Although playing a de-
innovative "spoiler" role for the noble goal of cultural awareness is not terribly
satisfying, it is nonetheless one responsibility in the anthropology of education.











DAVID M. FETTERMAN (Stanford) NEW USES FOR OLD TOOLS: THE CAMERA, THE TAPE-
RECORDER, AND THE TELEPHONE IN CONTRACT ETHNOGRAPHY Applied anthropology has
much to contribute to educational evaluation. Currently the author is responsible
for the ethnographic component of a National Institute of Education-Department of
Labor study of alternative high schools for dropouts and potential dropouts.
Traditional techniques were used in the study such as fieldwork, participant-
observation, expressive-autobiographic interviews, use of key informants and so on.
One of the more useful techniques developed during the course of the study involves
the use of the tape recorder and the camera. These tools have been used to record
and generate reliable data as well as to establish an immediate intimacy between
interviewer and informant. In addition, the telephone tool not discussed in the
contract ethnography literature represented one of the most important tools for
gathering data informally. A network of communication was established on an on-
going basis. These tools are particularly useful in contract research given its
stringent time constraints. The new use of these old instruments is recommended
highly to other researchers in future studies.

STEVE SHERLOCK (Minnesota) THE ROLE OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO EVALUATION
IN EDUCATION The evaluation of social programs, including education, has pri-
marily been the province of social sciences other than Anthropology. Evaluators
have emerged from many disciplines, among them are psychology, sociology, and
educational psychology. The predominant orientation in evaluation has been, and
is presently, quantitative. However, there is a growing interest in qualitative
approaches to evaluation. This interest exists both among the clients who con-
tract evaluations and those who conduct evaluation research. The issue of whether
anthropologists can or should adapt their skills to evaluation research has been
explored in recent literature (Clinton 1975, Everhart 1975, lanni 1976, Mulhauser
1976, Sherlock 1978, Wolcott 1975). I acknowledge that there are problems and
difficulties in assuming the role of anthropolgoist/evaluator. Yet, I believe that
it is both a possible and a fruitful role. In this paper, I will discuss one of
my experiences with contract evaluation work. The subject of the evaluation is a
federally funded tutorial program in a private non-profit clinic. I will describe
my role as the program evaluation consultant and the work performed. In conclusion
I will discuss issues and options for the anthropologist as evaluator.

RICHARD L. WARREN (Kentucky) FINDINGS, RECIPROCITY AND APPLICATIONS: A REPORT ON
A CASE STUDY OF A BILINGUAL PROGRAM This paper describes two follow-up research
and training activities which are proceeding from an ethnography of an elementary
school bilingual program. The activities reflect a judgment about logical next
steps in the research process and about the comparative importance and potential
use of selected ethnographic data in program development and improvement. The
activities are: (1) a longitudinal study of a sixth grade graduating class, being
carried out cooperatively by school personnel and me, and (2) in-service training
and information dissemination through a documentary film of the program.









(308) SYMPOSIUM

ORGANIZER: JOHN J. WOOD (Arizona) APPLIED RESEARCH AND THE NAVAJO-HOPI LAND
SETTLEMENT ACT The Navajo and Hopi Settlement Act (Public Law 93-531) was
passed by Congress in 1974 in an attempt to resolve a long-standing dispute
between the Navajo and Hopi Tribes concerning a large area of northeastern
Arizona established as a reservation by Executive Order in 1882. This reserva-
tion, formerly known as the Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area, was partitioned equally
between the Navajo and Hopi Tribes in 1977, and several thousand Navajos and less
than one hundred Hopis will eventually have to relocate, voluntarily or involun-
.tarily, as a result. Livestock reduction and range restoration, which began in
1976, were also provisions of the act. The papers in this symposium will address
the interrelated questions of the effects of a construction freeze and neglect in
an institutional context; the economic impacts of livestock reduction and range
restoration; and mental health effects of the land dispute.

MICHAEL J. ANDREWS (No Arizona) IMPACTS OF INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE IN THE FORMER
NAVAJO-HOPI JOINT USE AREA The people living in the Former Navajo-Hopi Joint
Use Area in Arizona are administered to by a variety of institutions including
Federal, State, Tribal, and private agencies. The services provided by these
agencies has been restricted for a number of reasons, not the least of which have
been political. As a result the Former Joint Use Area has witnessed service dis-
tribution different from the Navajo reservation as a whole. With the partitioning
of the Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area in 1977, the stage was set for dynamic institu-
tional change. Increasing regional and national attention to the Navajo situation
in the 1882 Executive Order Reservation has caused agencies to re-evaluate their
role to these people. This paper examines the history of agencies on the Former
Joint Use Area and presents some of the implications for the dearth of services
prior to 1977. Institutions for impact on the people as a result of a sudden influx
of services are examined in the context of traditional Navajo culture.

JOHN J. WOOD (No Arizona U) ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF NAVAJO LIVESTOCK REDUCTION
In April 1976, the Flagstaff Administrative Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs
commenced reduction of livestock numbers in the former Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area
in compliance with the Navajo-Hopi Land Settlement Act (PL 93-531). Research,
sponsored by the Flagstaff Administrative Office, on the effects of the livestock
reduction program was carried out between September 1977 and July 1978. Our data
coupled with other research present a detailed, quantitative look at the role of
livestock in the region.
Members of over 90 percent of the households in a probability sample of 146
Navajo households owned livestock before reduction. Most herds were small, but
livestock income accounted for about 29 percent of the aggregate income for the
sample during the study period. Livestock are also pivotal in the web of social
relationships. Thus the impacts of livestock reduction are numerous and complex.
The major economic impacts of the loss of productive livestock capital are in
income, credit, and home consumption. The decline in reciprocity involving live-
stock has been equally important. One measurable application of the research thus
far has been in helping to establish new grazing regulations for the Navajos await-
ing relocation on the Hopi side of the partitioned former Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area.











MARTIN D. TOPPER, LUCITA JOHNSON (USPHS) EFFECTS OF FORCED RELOCATION ON NAVAJO
MENTAL HEALTH PATIENTS FROM THE FORMER NAVAJO-HOPI JOINT USE AREA A minimum of
3900 Navajos face involuntary relocation over the next six years from their homes
in what was formerly the Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area. This paper reports the find-
ings of two clinical surveys (patient profiles) which were designed to determine
the effects which this forced relocation is having upon Navajo mental health pa-
tients who are being seen by the Mental Health Branch of the Navajo Area of the
Indian Health Service. The results of this research indicate that the Navajo-Hopi
Land Dispute, and especially the forced relocation and livestock reduction which
were mandated under P.L. 93-531 which was designed to settle the dispute, were
significant contributors to the psychiatric complaints of Navajos who are to be
relocated. In fact, it was shown that the land dispute (and especially stock re-
duction) was a significant contributor to the psychiatric complaints of Navajos
who would not have to be relocated from the Former JUA. Finally, it was found that
relocatees utilized the mental health facilities of the Navajo Area of the Indian 4
Health Service at a rate which was more than two and one-half times that of
Navajos in general, and that they suffered from depression at a rate which was
three times that for the Navajo Reservation as a whole during the same period of
time.
In addition to presenting this data, the paper goes on to discuss the role of
the anthropologist in the generation of research and treatment plans for federally-
served high-risk populations. It describes the duties of the anthropologist within
the structure of a treatment-oriented federal bureaucracy and, in addition, shows
how these duties, in this instance, were translated into the development of specific
strategies for serving the population in need.

(309) SYMPOSIUM CHAIR: PETER NEW SYMPOSIUM: APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCE IN CHINA

PAPERS: JAMES P. McGOUGH (Middlebury C) APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCE IN CHINA
SOCIAL WORK, SOCIOLOGY, AND SOCIALISM: THE GROWTH OF APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCE IN CHINA
ANNE S. THURSTON (SSRC) REPORT FROM A RECENT VISIT WITH CHINESE SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
Two reports, one historical and one contemporary, provide an overview of applied
social science in the peoples republic of China. The prerevolutionary origins of
Chinese social science are described in terms of the applied service orientation of
early social researchers. The contemporary status of social science in Chinese
academic circles is described by a member of the U.S. group that visited China this
year to reestablish US-Chinese social science contacts and exchange through the
invitation of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

(310) SYMPOSIUM

ORGANIZER: DAVID BROKENSHA (UC Santa Barbara) ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND US AID PROJECTS
This symposium consists of papers by five anthropologists, all of whom have had rec-
ent experience with USAID projects. Papers have been selected to provide a broad
geographical and topical coverage. Authors have been asked to address some specific
issues, which will include: brief description of the project; at what stage did
anthropologist become associated with project? was there a Social Soundness Anal-
ysis? was it effective? what were the expectations for the anthropologist? were
there any constraints on effectiveness of anthropologist's contribution from AID,
Washington; AID, Mission; host-country government officials; local people; contrac-
ting firm or agency? The aim is not to make general comments on idea relationships
and on possible contributions, but to explore some specific types of involvements,
to assess their effectiveness and to determine how future involvements by anthropo-
logists could be more efficient. Discussants will include one experienced develop-
ment anthropologist, and at least one representative from USAID.








WILLIAM H. JANSEN II SAIDI) INCORPORATING SOCIO-CULTURAL VARIABLES INTO TMCH:
THE ROLE OF AN ANTHROPOLOGIST IN THE PLANNING OF A PHILIPPINE NUTRITION PROJECT
In 1977 and early 1978, preparations were being made to continue and expand the
Targeted Maternal and Child Health (TMCH) project in the Philippines. That general
effort involved a team of individuals representing a variety of backgrounds--one
of which was an anthropologist employed by the U.S. Agency for International
Development.
The anthropologist was expected to: evaluate the TMCH project's earlier re-
sults; prepare a "social soundness analysis" for the expanded TMCH project plan;
and, coordinate and disseminate the findings of the analysis within the multi-
disciplinary team responsible for designing the expanded project. The fact that the
planning exercise was for the expansion of a pre-existing project presented some
opportunities for the application of anthropology not commonly available in a com-
pletely new project. However, the same characteristic offered some novel complica-
tions as well.

$DENNIS M. WARREN (Iowa St) PRIMARY HEALTH CARE TRAINING FOR INDIGENOUS HEALERS IN
GHANA The role of the development anthropologist in the design, social soundness
analysis, and implementation of an integrated approach to primary health care train-
ing for indigenous healers in Ghana is discussed. The PRHETIH Project (Primary
Health Training for Indigenous Healers) was inaugurated in Techiman District, Ghana,
in June 1979. Based in part on the successful training programs for TBAs (Tradi-
tional Birth Attendants) in Techiman, the PRHETIH Project is designed to improve the
capacity of indigenous healers (herbalists and priest/priestess-healers) to assist
in environmental, preventive and promotive health programs at the district level, and
to foster and enhance mutually positive relationships between district level Ministry
of Health officials and the various indigenous healers in the district.

JOSETTE MURPHY (Purdue) ON-GOING MONITORING OF A RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN UPPER
VOLTA A government agency has been created in Upper Volta in 1974 to organize the
settlement of 50,000 families and promote the agricultural development of under-
populated areas in the Volta Valleys. From 1977 to 1980, an anthropologist has been
in charge of a USAID project to design and implement an on-going monitoring system
of the socio-economic situation in the newly created villages, including farming
techniques, agricultural production, and emerging community structures.
There is a basic ambivalence when an anthropologist, trained to work as an
independent researcher, is placed in a position of technical assistant to a host
country agency. The paper will discuss the problems encountered during this pro-
ject and will explain how the methodologies used in anthropological fieldwork must
be adapted if we are to cooperate successfully with agronomists and other develop-
ment experts, and with host country and USAID administrators. It will be shown that
this effort of adaptation is beneficial to anthropological knowledge and to the dev-
elopment project itself.

DAVID BROKENSHA, BERNARD W. RILEY (UC Santa Barbara) RURAL ACCESS ROADS IN WESTERN
KENYA: SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STUDIES, 1979-1983 The authors
are part of a three-person team contracted to evaluate the socio-economic and envi-
ronmental impact of Rural Access Roads in Western Kenya. The evaluation is unusual
in that it is (a) long-term (1979-1983), (b) multi-disciplinary (anthropologist,
geographer, economist), (c) well-inegrated with Kenyan planning and statistical
agencies, (d) carefully thought-out. The paper summarizes the results and recom-
mendations of the first year's fieldwork and analysis, describes the data gathering
by the Kenya Central Bureau of Statistics, and considers prospects,methods and
problems for the remaining four years.











GORDON APPLEBY (Cal Tech) WHO CONTROLS WHOM: THE PROBLEMS OF RESEARCH AND
IMPLEMENTATION IN AN A.I.D. MARKETING STUDY AID-Washington contracted for a
marketing study in highland Guatemala, to be conducted by Research Triangle Insti-
tute, a private research firm. This arrangement permitted a professional study
for an eventual guideline booklet on marketing projects. However, the tensions
between AID-Washington and the Guatemala mission ensure that the study will not
contribute to present plans for producer cooperatives in Guatemala.
Misunderstanding and lack of respect characterized the relationship between
the Institute and the anthropologist. Indicative of economists' views of anthro-
pological research, there were funds only for the anthropologist's maintenance.
But each professional was given great latitude in defining his goals and methodo-
logy, so this "oversight" was corrected. Fortunately so, since in the event, the
anthropologist defined the nature and methods of the project, did all the research,
and organized and wrote most of the final report.
Misunderstanding and lack of respect characterized the relationship between
AID-Washington and AID-Guatemala. AID-Guatemala correctly considered that Washing-
ton's "theme of the year," marketing, would be an implicit evaluation of their
program for producer cooperatives, which are, in essence, public monopolies. AID-
Cuatemala therefore tried to thwart the study. Because of such bureaucratic in-
fighting, a professional study that may contribute to development policy generally
will not help define policy goals in Guatemala, where the study is most relevant.

JOHN B. SLATTERY SAIDI) INVOLVING PEOPLE IN DEVELOPMENT: HOW ANTHROPOLOGY CAN
HELP Over the past five years developing countries and donor agencies have been
trying to evolve projects which can directly meet the basic human needs of the
"poorest of the poor". Although there has been progress, there is still an urgent
need to find effective ways to reach the poor majority given limited resources of
donors and developing countries. There is a growing recognition that community-
based projects could substantially supplement both the financial and human resources
of governments.
This paper will discuss the applicability of three or four anthropological
techniques previously used by the author in an agricultural decision-making study
in South India for gathering data that could be useful in designing and implementing
community-based projects. Specific points to be discussed include: 1) selecting
representative communities and households and conducting community surveys and
individual interviews; 2) the importance of data collected from such surveys and
interviews for identifying the socio-cultural, economic, environmental and psycho-
logical setting of a project; for gathering baseline data to design, implement,
evaluate, monitor and redesign the activity; for generating community involvement
and responsibility for the design and implementation of the project activity; and
for identifying the type and extent of responsibility a community is able and willing
to undertake; and 3) suggested time frame and method for integrating these techniques
into the overall design, implementation and evaluation process.
These techniques will be discussed in the context of two or three specific pro-
ject activities, e.g., the introduction of high-yielding varieties of paddy in the
Tungabhadra Project Area in South India, establishment of grazing blocks among
nomadic pastoralists in northern Kenya and proposed community-based health and water
projects in Kenya.

(311) PAPERS: EVALUATIVE RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SERVICES AND PRACTICE

M.G. TREND (ATAC), J.W. FREES (Abt Assoc) "A FAIR HEARING: WELFARE RIGHTS AND
CLIENT ADVOCACY IN TWO MANDATORY WORK PROGRAMS The paper examines conflict and
conflict resolution among welfare recipients and program staff in two publicly-
funded social programs that require low-income individuals to register for work
or vocational training as a condition for receiving aid. Specifically, the paper
compares advocacy procedures and outcomes in the existing Work Incentive (WIN)
program with those of an experimental program, the Minnesota Work Equity Project
(WEP), which offers client advocacy services in several different forms and inten-
sities.












The paper discusses welfare rights and due process in their ideal formulation
and compares these with program reality. Our research shows that client advocacy
varies along three major dimensions: (1) resources and organizational sponsorship,
(2) philosophy, and (3) ease of access for low-income individuals. This, in turn,
appears to have some influence upon the incidence and outcomes of conflict or
"trouble cases." We have further found that differences in these three variables
appear to account for variations in client advocacy services offered in different
local offices administering the same program, as well as differences between pro-
grams.
Data for the paper comes from the work of several on-site researchers stationed
in program offices for 18 months, statistical information from management informa-
tion systems, welfare case records, surveys of several hundred program registrants,
and interviews with clients and client advocates.

MARY JO SCHNEIDER, DIANA DANFORTH, DONALD VOTH (Arkansas) AN EVALUATION OF THE
IMPACT OF SENIOR SERVICE PROGRAMS IN WESTERN ARKANSAS This paper summarizes the
results of a longitudinal study of elderly citizens in two predominantly rural
counties in west central Arkansas. A panel of 500 elderly persons was interviewed
before senior programs were established in the two counties and again after services
had been in operation for two years. Those from the panel who became program parti-
cipants were compared with those who did not. Changes in health status, well-
being, and in utilization of other social services (Food Stamps, Medicaid, and SSI)
were measured. The effect that participation had on institutionalization was studied,
and the cost-effectiveness of the programs assessed. Results showed that program
participants were a select group of elderly persons (healthier and more sociable).
Preliminary results also suggested that few changes could be attributed to parti-
cipation in senior programs, and that the program costs cannot be justified in terms
of the impact on institutionalization.

PATRICIA W. REMMINGTON (Bowling Green St U) PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION OF THE ATLANTA
POLICE DEPARTMENT: PRACTICAL APPLICABILITY OF ETHNOGRAPHIC DATA The isolation of
the police subculture in American Society and the difficulties in maintaining satis-
factory police-community relations has been a recurrent problem in our Criminal
Justice System. This paper indicates how ethnographic data can increase understand-
ing of this dilemma and generate suggestions to ameliorate the situation.
The methodology employed in the researcher's year long study of the Atlanta
Police Department included participant observation and in-depth interviews of fifty
informants. The research yielded the following insights into police alienation from
the public. 1.) Officers generally have extremely ethnocentric attitudes toward
certain subcultures including the lower class; lower class "redneck" white; winos;
and "hippies" which are manifested in the brevity and brusqueness of the officers'
behavior in encounters with members of these groups. 2.) The prevalence of non-
regulatory and deviant activities by officers which increases their in-group
strength by reinforcing a secrecy code. 3.) The failure of female officers to bridge
the gap with citizenry due to the former' acculturation into police group attitudes
toward the public and their concurrent inability to manifest a unique behavior style
due to male officers' over-protection.
Suggested remedial practices could include closer supervision of field officers;
instruction in a cultural relativistic orientation, and more effective deployment
of females.

JAMES D. LOWE (Abt Assoc) WORK AND WELFARE: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH TO
EVALUATION RESEARCH The provision of public jobs to employable welfare recipients
is a key aspect of current welfare reform legislation. The Minnesota Work Equity
Project is a federally funded demonstration project that is testing the feasibility
of this approach to welfare reform. Research is in progress to evaluate the
implementation, operation, and effect of the Work Equity Project on the lives and
economic status of participants. The evaluation includes anthropological field












research in which there is intensive study of the project's delivery of jobs and
other services. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the jobs, their place
in the Work Equity Project, and their significance to participants. A central hypo-
thesis is that the jobs, which are sponsored through public and non-profit employers,
will not provide the skills or experience necessary to enable the participants to
become self-supporting. Instead, the participants will rely on the program jobs them-
selves as a way of getting a living or supplementing welfare payments. The study
combines intensive field research and quantitative methods: observation, interview-
ing, and case studies; a census of jobs; and analysis of the project's automated
client tracking system.

RUTH BUSCH, JAMES GUNDLACH (Auburn U) MEASURING THE QUALITY OF LIFE A social
values analysis done by the authors for the Bureau of Land Management is briefly
summarized. The analysis of social well being is evaluated using the quality of
life standards proposed for cross cultural use by Keesing (1978). Measures of social
well being and the quality of life currently used in the United States are shown to
be less convincing. Ethnographic and demographic approaches relying heavily on avail-
able data are suggested to bring U.S. studies closer to the proposed standard.
Focused, and thus inexpensive, field checks are proposed where necessary. Examples
from the author's work are cited.

JUSTINE McCABE (UC Davis) THE ROLE OF THE KEY INFORMANT TECHNIQUE IN NEEDS ASSESS-
MENT SURVEYS As anthropologists increasingly enter non-academic and applied areas
of endeavor, adaptations of their traditional ethnographic methods are being utilized
as resources for projects sponsored by various public and private agencies. One such
method is the key informant technique, widely regarded as virtually synonymous with
the discipline of cultural anthropology. This paper discusses the value of employing
key informants in needs assessment surveys which are frequently conducted by local area
planning agencies.
Specifically, in conjunction with a multi-county survey designed to specify the
problems of the elderly, the author conducted meetings of a small group of key
informants in each of several counties, who were asked to provide supplemental infor-
mation regarding the existence and provision of services for older people in these
areas. This paper includes an examination of the advantages and problems of using key
informants in needs assessments surveys, and the qualifications and method of selec-
ting "key informants," especially those chosen from a large geographic area unfa-
miliar to the author. Furthermore, this use of the key informant technique raises
some questions regarding its utilization in more traditional ethnographic settings,
with particular consideration to the possibility of screening potential key infor-
mants by convening small groups of informants in field situations.

ALICE IVEY SNYDER, NANCY M. SPENCER, LAURENCE N. McCULLOUGH (Old Dominion) FORMATIVE
AND SUMMATIVE EVALUATIONS: ANTHROPOLOGICAL INPUT FOR HUMAN SERVICES DELIVERY
A family day care provider project in the Tidewater region of Virginia utilized an
anthropologist in the creation of both formative and summative evaluations and their
analysis. This paper describes the distinction between the two types of evaluations
and how the expertise of the anthropologist can be used in the educational/human
services utilization of such evaluation procedures. A brief description of the pro-
ject and both theoretical and applied concerns are presented, and it is argued that
the increasing use of anthropologists in such projects enhances the possibilities
of positive outcomes from intervention programs.

























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MIRIAM J. WELLS (UC Davis) SUCCESS IN WHOSE TERMS? PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF
PUBLICLY-ASSISTED COOPERATIVES Assessments of the relative success of publicly-
sponsored cooperatives necessarily reflect the standards of effective performance
employed. Fieldwork with strawberry production cooperatives organized by Chicanos
in California reveals that policy-makers' and participants' goals may differ, and
may in some cases be mutually contradictory. This paper explores these tensions
and proposes that evaluations of such projects take into account the agenda of
participants and gear expectations of levels and directions of performance to the
diversity of functions which cooperatives serve.

DAVID J. ROZEN (City-County Clinic in Johnstown, Pennsylvania) THE HASIDIC REBBEH
AS A PATRON: AN APPLICATION OF THE PATRON-CLIENT MODEL IN THE ANALYSIS OF HEALTH
CARE BEHAVIOR AMONG HASIDIC JEWS This paper is concerned with the analysis of
health care behavior among Hasidic Jews found with the metropolitan New York City
area. The data resulted from field work utilizing participant-observer techniques
beginning in 1972 and is still ongoing. Hasidic Jews living in New York City rep-
resent a parochial people with a unique sociocultural identity and are character-
ized by low socioeconomic status and isolation from "main stream" American culture.
Nonetheless, Hasidic Jews meet their medical needs through the utilization of the
modern health care delivery system.
The paper concludes with a discussion of the Hasidic patron-client relationship
in terms of its medical anthropological implications. Of principal concern is the
impact of Hasidic patronage upon the quality of medical care received by Hasidic
people, i.e. does the intervention of the Rebbeh actually improve the level of
medical services received by the Hasidic patient.

(312) PAPERS

KENNETH J. COOPER (Stanford) QUALITY OF LIFE, PARTICIPATION AND BALANCED DEVELOP-
MENT At Stanford University I direct a program Ethics of Development in a Global
Environment (EDGE) in which some 400 students and 30 faculty participate during
the year in lectures, workshops and research focused on an understanding of existing
approaches to international development and a search for new alternatives.
One recurring and provocative question is beginning to dominate many of our-dis-
cussions: How can societies that have created their economic/political/technological/
social structures on cheap energy and economic growth make the necessary upcoming
transition to a more "balanced development"? How will societies continue to provide -
and improve the necessary social services to their people in the face of higher
energy costs and vanishing non-renewable resources? Can the transition be a demo-
cratic one?
Sweden offers a superb laboratory for observing this transition. During July
and August, with the aid of a grant from the Swedish Bicentennial Fund, I init-
iated a joint research project involving faculty at Linkoping, Lulea, Uppsala, and
Stockholm as well as at Stanford to carry out interviews that will elicit informa-
tion on people's personal definitions of quality of life, their comprehension of
critical problems facing their societies, their motivation to participate, and some
insights into existing channels for and barriers to participation. Exchange of
information between Stanford and the Swedish universities will continue throughout
this academic year, with a final synthesizing report due next summer. In the SFAA
paper I would like to present some of our tentative results.

T. ALLEN CAINE (Minn) A CASE STUDY EVALUATION OF LUTHER GERLACH'S SPIN MODEL OF
SOCIAL MOVEMENT ORGANIZATION Social Movement theory is characterized by a great
deal of intellectual baggage which has dubious relevance to typical social movement
actions. The applied social scientist who lacks experience in social movement
activity, especially, is faced with a great deal of difficulty in dealing with
social movement activities if social movement theory is taken too seriously. How-
ever, it is argued here that Luther Gerlach's SPIN model of social movement organi-
zation does reflect well what may be typically expected in social movement actions.











Gerlach's model is evaluated through a participant observation study of the
"Willmar Bank Strike.: The Willmar Bank Strike is a three year old effort to
unionize and eliminate discrimination against women in a small bank in the rural
town of Willmar, Minnesota. Gerlach's model is also briefly evaluated against
historical "activist" literature.

BARBARA M. ZAVERUHA (Northwestern) CURRENT ADJUSTMENTS IN GHANAIAN INHERITANCE
CUSTOMS: SEARCHING FOR UNITY IN DIVERSITY In Ghana, the Akans, who form approxi-
mately 40% of the population, are traditionally matrilineal, while the rest of the
population is patrilineal. In recent decades, increased frequency of ethnically-
mixed marriages, residential mobility, weakened authority within the lineage, and
other factors, have put pressure on the traditional inheritance systems, particu-
larly the Akan matrilineal system. There have been calls for a unified code of
inheritance to cover new situations and correct abuses. Individual and collective
responses to the pressure are discussed. Special note is taken of cases in which
customary practices have been formulated and/or justified in such a way that they
have a built-in flexibility under changing conditions.

EDWARD WELLIN (Wisconsin-Milwaukee) A COMMUNICATION MODEL FOR THE STUDY OF DIRECTED
CHANGE For decades, virtually every important theoretical statement on directed
change has called attention to the need to take into account the character and
behavior not only of the recipient population but of the donor or initiating group
as well. Nonetheless, many studies of directed change continue to be selective in
their fact-finding and partial in their conceptualization, i.e., they focus on
recipients of change and pay unsystematic if any attention to the innovating or
directing agency. This paper addresses the need to include both donor and recipi-
ent groups in the same universe of conceptual and empirical discourse within a
broad, but by no means novel, paradigm. The latter is an elaboration of Lasswell's
well-known model of the primary elements of communication: Who says what in which
channel to whom with what effect?
This converts into a rough and preliminary statement of the elements of dir-
ected change: What agency attempts to introduce what elements or modifications by
means or channels into what socio-cultural and ecological system with what effects
(including feedback effects)? Of course, this model requires an additional set of
refinements--the matter of code. That is, how, at both explicit and implicit levels,
does the change agency encode the proposed innovation? And how, at similar levels,
does the recipient community and its various sectors decode it? How do the respec-
tive encodings and decodings correspond or fail to correspond with each other? The
paper further elaborates the proposed paradigm. It also analyzes (and reanalyzes)
case material on directed change in order to document the analytic and comparative
utility of the paradigm.

BENNETTA JULES-ROSETTE (UC San Diego) COMMUNITY REVITALIZATION: THE RESPONSE TO
PLANNED AND UNPLANNED URBAN CHANGE IN AN AFRICAN CITY This paper examines the per-
ceptions of neighborhood change and the local initiatives made toward community
reorganization by residents in an African periurban settlement. When familiar areas
are threatened by external change, previously latent perceptions and sentiments of
community emerge. The imposition of external plans stimulates community members to
conceive of neighborhoods in an ideological and nonspatial sense. Recently, the
Marrapodi suburb of Lusaka, Zambia has been affected by three separate government
relocation and development schemes. These external changes are the source of vocal
responses and voluntary community resettlement.
There is a fundamental gap between the knowledge of planners and that of commu-
nity members. The Lusaka planners' cost-effective models overlook cultural aspects
of community life. In order for local level initiatives to develop in the context
of planned change, three basic prerequisites are necessary: (1) access to adequate
official planning information, (2) information presented in a clear and open format
to community residents, (3) adequate cooperation between planners and community










residents such that grass-roots initiatives become acceptable. When these conditions
are not met in the Marrapodi community, uncertainty about living conditions perpetu-
ates local individualism and ineffective administrative planning. The recognition of
neighborhood networks as an integral part of the community revitalization process in
African squatter areas where residents are accustomed to influencing administrative
policies is critical.

F.L.W. RICHARDSON, JR. (Virg) DONALD A. KENNEDY (Wyoming) ANTHROPOLOGISTS AS CON-
SULTANTS AND CHANGE AGENTS A number of anthropologists have explored ways to trans-
fer knowledge, skills, and perspectives from anthropology into the mainstream of
policy formation, decision-making, and implementation in organizations and communi-
ties. Anthropologists have assumed the roles of applied researcher, consultant, or
administrator to accomplish this objective. The authors will present a number of
case reports based upon experiences as consultants in a variety of organizations
and community settings. Recommendations will be made on the essential features of
the role of the anthropologist as consultant and as change agent.

W. GERALD GLOVER (Edison Com C) INSTITUTIONALIZING SOCIAL CHANGE: A METHOD FOR
MEASUREMENT The results of a field test of a systems model for innovation diffusion
and institutionalization are presented. Transfer of control from feedback regula-
tion to feedback management is demonstrated to be crucial to continuation of the
innovation after the change agent has withdrawn. A quantitative index is obtained
from diffusion networks to measure feedback control transfer from the change agent
to the recipients. The model is purported to be useful in a variety of planned
social change programs.

ART HANSEN (Florida) A COMPARISON OF SPONTANEOUS AND GOVERNMENT-DIRECTED SETTLEMENT
OF ANGOLAN REFUGEES IN ZAMBIA Most African refugees settle spontaneously, i.e.,
without government direction or assistance. This form of settlement is interpreted
by planners and refugee aid agencies in two diametrically opposed ways. One view is
positive. It stresses the humanitarian and communal hospitality characteristic of
rural Africa. The other, negative view, stresses ecological overload, economic
competition and deprivation, and consequent ill effects on both refugees and the
poorest laboring hosts. This paper compares the settlement of similar populations
of Angolan refugees in Zambia, some spontaneously in villages, others in government
camps and schemes. The comparison reveals patterns in both forms of settlement
that should interest planners and administrators as well as scholars.

(313) PAPERS: SEX ROLES/WOMEN

KAREN L. BUEHLER (Naval Weapons Center China Lake, CA) THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN FEDERAL
EMPLOYMENT: IDEALS AND REALITIES There are both subtle and obvious divergences
between the ideal and the real status of women in American federal employment. Prin-
ciples of equal opportunity for women and men, and of merit as the sole basis for
employment advancement, are expounded in federal law. However, certain other poli-
cies as well as the socio-economic systems within the workforce often contradict
or counteract these ideals and their attainment. From a somewhat inside point of
view, this paper discusses both the overall government employment system and parti-
cipant-observations from a specific federal employment setting.











JAN DEMAREST (Colorado) ANNETTE ADLER (Colorado School of Mines) WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT
IN ENERGY-RELATED INDUSTRIES: RESEARCH DESIGN AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT This presenta-
tion is based on a joint research project in progress at the Colorado School of
Mines and the University of Colorado at Boulder which proposes (1) to document the
present status of women's employment in Colorado energy-related industries; (2) to
assess the obstacles and supports to their entry into and retention and promotion
within technical and professional occupations in these industries as well as in edu-
cational and training programs directed toward those occupations; and (3) to develop
model support, education and training programs within the energy-related industries
themselves. Dr. Jan Demarest and Annette Adler, project co-directors, will discuss
(1) the basic research design, which combines comprehensive survey techniques with
intensive interview, organizational analysis and ethnographic approaches; and (2)
the rationale for and basic principles of the model industry-based programs. The
discussion of the research design and the model programs will include a critical
analysis of similar projects designed to enhance women's employment in the fields of
science and engineering, with attention to relevance of the present design and models
to other industries and areas of the country which are experiencing rapid expansion
in particular employment sectors.

ANITA SPRING (Florida) THE UNDERSIDE OF DEVELOPMENT: AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND
WOMEN IN ZAMBIA This paper concerns a general discussion of women's participation
in agriculture in traditional and contemporary Africa. Materials from the Luvale,
a matrilineal group in northwest Zambia, and several other Zambian societies (Tonga,
Bemba and Lozi) are presented in light of historical events, national development
plans, and local conditions. The major thesis focuses on the underside of develop-
ment, that is, the situation in which women work in subsistence agriculture to sup-
port male cash-cropping and labor migration, and national development plans by-pass
women. As a result of this underdevelopment, work loads, incomes and family author-
ity patterns become more differential between men and women. The paper suggests some
strategies to change the situation at the local level. These include new models of
intercropping and marketing.

SIMON D. MESSING (Sou Conn.St C) THE PROBLEM OF FEMALE CIRCUMCISION IN THE MEDICAL
ANTHROPOLOGY OF AFRICA The recent publication of the Hosken Report indicates thst
female sexual mutilations still are practiced on many millions of African girls, and
that modernization, far from ending the practice, has led to the performance of this
totally useless and traumatic operation in modern, government-supervised hospitals
in at least two countries.
The report challenges ethnographers to move beyond dispassioned description and
rationalization to an application of the knowledge gained, to help solve this prob-
lem. Author will draw on his fieldwork experience in Ethiopia to suggest such
applications.

MELANIE C. DREHER (Columbia) HUSBANDS, WIVES AND MARIHUANA THE CARE OF THE
JAMAICAN RURAL WOMAN The significance of domestic organization in determining pat-
terns and prevalence of female cannabis consumption are explored through a comparison
of families in two typical rural Jamaican communities, particular emphasis is given
to variation in the roles and status of women in each community and the relevance
of these factors for interpreting drug-related behavioral change. As a case of
intra-cultural diversity, the ethnography of these women challenges popular, nations
regarding normative and deviant behavior as explorations for female drug use.










PAMELA J. BRINK (UCLA) MBOBO: BECOMING A WOMAN AMONG THE ANNANG OF NIGERIA
Mbobo is the traditional ritual required for Annang girls prior to marriage. It
marks the transition between girlhood and woman hood. The old women state that girls
will not conceive if they have not gone through Mbobo and that the ritual ensures
fertility. Yet, with the encroachment of Christianity, fewer girls are going
through the three traditional transitional rituals: NDAM, NGWOWO, MBOBO validated
by the community health/maternity nurse assigned to the area.
Because these traditional rituals are dying out, this paper will describe the
process and meaning of the rituals within the context of traditional Annang-Ibibio
society.

ANNE-FORREST KETCHIN (Colorado-Boulder) SOCIAL CHANGE AND INDIVIDUAL DOUBLE-BINDS:
ONE SOLUTION It is a well-worn platitude that no one can escape personal confron-
tation with the confusion produced by rapid changes in cultural values and expecta-
tions due to shift in roles and behaviour. However, there was one group of people
who were considered to be largely removed from such a confrontation. This group was
known as the happy and satisfied housewives, who were essentially pleased with their
careers and wouldn't change if they could, at least not too much.
However, this group expressed confusion and uncertainty in the face of certain
pressures arising from the public image of the Women's Liberation movement. Some
have found a unique solution in the form of a wilderness experience: Outward Bound
courses for women over 30. This experience is carefully structured to affect the
participant as a very primitive one, emotionally and physically challenging,
although it is carefully geared to their physical abilities.
This paper reports on a study of these Outward Bound courses and participants
over a three year period. Participants ranged in age from 25 to 60, and in physical
condition from athletic to extremely sedentary and somewhat overweight (the rule).
The goal of the study has been the understanding of emotionally impactful symbolic
experiences like Outward Bound for Women in today's world. Such experiences are
widely available, in or out of the wilderness and they promise in their public image
a personal discovery of peace and understanding amidst the confusion of modern life.
Basic to their programs is the assumption that modern life IS confusing, disorienting,
and often meaningless because of changes in expectations and values.

(314) SYMPOSIUM

ORGANIZERS: TED DOWNING/SCOTT WHITEFORD (Arizona) EXPORT AGRICULTURE AND THE PEASAN-
TRY Certain critical agricultural commodities imported into the United States and
other developed nations are produced by either peasant agriculturalists or through
the use of inexpensive, seasonal peasant labor. The commodities include green coffee,
tea, winter fruits and vegetables, fresh bananas, plantains, cocoa beans, rubber,
sisal, honey, beef, cotton, certain species and allied gums. Recent USDA data
indicates that over 94% of the 7 billion dollars in complementary agricultural im-
ports consumed by the United States originate in less developed countries. Export
oriented agriculture, based on some combination of peasant labor, and land proves
as critical to the United State's agricultural imports as OPEC is to U.S. petroleum
imports. This symposium assesses the impact of international commodity trade on the
growth or stagnation of selected regional peasant-based economies. Questions addres-
sed include: What have been the specific historical patterns of penetration of inter-
national commodity markets into traditional peasant regions? What political, economic
and ecological changes accompany a region's increased interlocking with a world commo-
dity market? What contradictions occur between the demands for international commo-
dity production and the provisioning of subsistence as it occurs in a traditional
economy? What have been the different structural patterns of capitalistic organiza-
tion of production that have occurred in regions more closely tied to world commodity
production? A symposium sponsored by the Latin American Anthropological Group (LAAG)











WILLIAM DERMAN (Michigan St) COMMERCIALIZATION: A VIABLE STRATEGY FOR THE SAHEL
The extension of market relations in the Sahel has been regarded as a possible
alternative for those regions devastated by the drought and famine. Recent research
suggests that such strategies will not succeed for a variety of political and econ-
omic reasons and will also conflict with recent development strategies focusing on
"aid to the poorest".

TED DOWNING (Arizona) HEADS I WIN, TAILS YOU LOSE: PATTERNS OF PUBLIC AND PRI-
VATE CAPITALIST PENETRATION OF MEXICAN COFFEE PRODUCING REGIONS In contrast to
the Yucatecan henequen plantations and large scale northern ranching, historically
specific conditions in Mexico's southern tropical highlands impeded a capitalist
penetration of traditional peasant and Indian economies. Populated by a multitude
of ethnic groups living in thousands of remote communities, broken by dispersed and
fragmented fields, and appropriated by a complex mix of private and communal land
tenure, plantation development was almost impossible. Moreover, tropical soils
rapidly lost their productivity if intensively cultivated with high valued, European
oriented grains. Nonetheless, export oriented coffee agriculture has so effectively
overcome these adverse circumstances that coffee is the nation's most valuable agri-
cultural export. Until the Second World War, coffee development was stimulated
primarily by the private sector. Then, a series of internal contradictions in this
pattern encouraged increased involvement of the government in the agro-industry.
This paper analyzes the patterns of private and public sector penetration of tradi-
tional economies in eight southern Mexico states. It is demonstrated that the public
sector's increased involvement in coffee production has structurally, spatially and
temporally replicated the private sectors' previously established social relations of
production. Exploitation and dependency of small scale, peasant-Indian producers
accompany both private and public control of the industry. Heads they lose, tails
they lose.

TOM McGUIRE (Arizona) CAPITAL AND LABOR IN THE EXPORT ZONE OF SOUTHERN SONORA,
MEXICO The Green Revolution has become institutionalized in the Yaqui Valley of
Mexico, and the social costs of export agriculture are readily apparent. Unemploy-
ment and underemployment of a rural proletariat are chronic problems in the capital-
intensive agribusiness of the area; illegal renting of lands by peasants is perver-
ting the social welfare schemes of Mexican development agencies; and the heavy
demands for scarce capital, land, and technological inputs pit Yaqui Indians against
Mexican campesinos. North of the Yaqui delta, capital has also revitalized an
export-and tourist-oriented shrimping industry, and the social consequences of
investment in modern craft and processing plants may soon replicate those of export
agriculture along the Yaqui river. Yaqui Indian fishermen have largely avoided these
social costs of capitalism. Their viable shrimp cooperative rests on a simple and
inexpensive technology, exploiting an estuarine zone that is inaccessible to the
Mexican trawler fleet operating in the open waters off Guaymas. Moreover, the
seasonal catches of the Yaqui coincide with peak production of the Guaymas fishery,
thus reducing the interest of Mexican processors and marketeers in controlling the
distribution of Yaqui shrimp catches. This analysis of factors slowing capital pene-
tration into the Yaqui shrimp industry bodes ill for small-boat fishermen in other
littoral regions of Latin America, for the particular set of conditions at work in
southern Sonora may be generally absent elsewhere.

ROBERT D. SHADOW (Montana St) CATTLE AND CAMPESINOS: THE IMPACT OF EXPANDED CATTLE
PRODUCTION ON PEASANT PRODUCERS IN NORTHERN JALISCO, MEXICO United States involve-
ment in the Mexican economy is enormous. In trade alone the U.S. supplies approxi-
mately 75% of all Mexico's imports and receives a similar portion of her exports.
Since imports consistently out-run exports, Mexico operates with a i.uge trade deficit.
In recent years, however, it has managed to improve its trading relationship with the
U.S. by boosting exports at a faster rate than imports. Much of this improvement
resulted from Mexico's expanded industrial capacity, but agricultural commodities
still account for a large share of the country's foreign exchange earnings.












Important among these commodities is beef. Mexico is, in fact, the largest
single supplier of live cattle to the U.S. paralleling the rising beef exports has
been a steady increase in domestic consumption. To meet these demands production in
the Mexican cattle industry has expanded considerably. Unfortunately, however, the
impact of this development on regional economies is little understood.
This paper considers this question through the investigation of the agrarian
economy of the municipio of Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. Analysis of production and mar-
keting relations shows that although the exportation of cattle from the municipio is
concentrated in the hands of a few landowners and capitalists, a substantial number
of animals is produced on small and medium-size farms. This finding suggests that
the popular description of peasants as producers who only marginally contribute to
the export economy needs clarification. Considered individually, peasants do produce
only small amounts for the market; but when analyzed as an aggregate their contribu-
tion to total export production in Villa Guerrero is substantial. Furthermore, it
will be shown that due to changing patterns of resource utilization arising from
expanded cattle production, labor requirements in the municipio are diminishing and
the municipio is increasingly unable to feed itself. Out-migration and the importa-
tion of staple foods are the result. Since many of Mexico's major social and economic
ills are traceable in part to the massive exodus from the countryside and to the
erratic ability of the country to feed itself, the Villa Guerrero material mirrors
the contradictions that exist at the national level between the needs of local sub-
sistence and economy and the demands of the export economy. Increased export pro-
duction is considered a critical element in the country's economic development; yet
at the same time it creates conditions that threaten the very structure and path of
that development.

TED DOWNING/SCOTT WHITEFORD (Mich State U) SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ARGENTINA AND
MEXICO: THE DYNAMICS OF GROWTH AND DOMINATION Mexico and Argentina have utilized
different strategies to develop sugar production. This paper compares the strategies
and their consequences for producers and laborers. Programs to maintain sugar pro-
duction in both countries is shown to have political as well as economic dimensions.
International agreements which include credit, a secure market for sugar, and the
importation of equipment is shown to play an important role in maintaining the pro-
duction system.

(400) SYMPOSIUM

CHAIR & MODERATOR: MIRIAM LEE KAPROW (Mt. Sinai Sch. of Med., CUNY)
PRINCIPAL SPEAKER: IRVING J. SELIKOFF, M.D. (Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, CUNY)
RESPONDENTS: ERVE J. CHAMBERS (So Florida) ELLIOTT LEYTON (Memorial U) JOHN H.
PETERSON, JR. (Miss St U) ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH: PRACTICAL PROB-
LEMS FOR ANTHROPOLOGISTS Industrialized societies try to control hazardous environ-
mental agents rather than ban them. This is a deceptive and superficial "solution,"
for real control would mean a continuing commitment to long-term surveillance and
rigorous regulation. Often, little but lip service follows decisions about con-
trol. We did not ban chemical wastes, asbestos, lead, PCBs, dioxins, and many other
toxic substances; neither did we control them. As a consequence, we have legacies
of disease from our years of inattention. In addition, these hazardous agents have
become integrated into our lives in product use: they are difficult to replace, and
are not accompanied by true controls. Disease increases, use continues, safety man-
agement is meager, and congressional mandates sometimes read like King Canute dicts.
We are learning a bitter lesson: control of environmental hazards is not a
luxury we can choose or not choose while profits and conveniences accumulate. Con-
trol is an essential bargain we must make for progress in our technological society.











(401) SYMPOSIUM: ORGANIZER J. McGOODWIN (Colorado-Boulder) SMALL SCALE FISHER-
MEN: PROBLEMS IN MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT. PART II FOREIGN FISHERIES

BRADLEY A. BLAKE (New Mexico St U) THE IRISH NATIONAL FISHERIES TRAINING SCHOOL:
STUDENT STRESS AND ANXIETY IN COUNTY DONEGAL Early in 1979, the Irish National
Fisheries Training School located at Greencastle, County Donegal, experienced a
major change in administration. Student trainees had received varied amounts of
trawler experience with seasoned crews prior to entering the five-month academic
training facility at Greencastle. However, at Greencastle students found them-
selves in a relatively isolated community environment, where the inhabitants resented
their intrusion, and school authorities placed seemingly unreasonable restrictions
on their academic and social activities.
The combined variables of inclement weather, social and geographic isolation,
limited mobility, intolerant staff, and a questionable training curriculum resulted
in depression, loneliness, and stress and anxiety within the school.
An investigation of trainees, non-school related professionals (such as
skippers and crews), and trawlermen who had graduated from Greencastle, revealed
an image of the school that lay somewhere between a "Country Club for Landlubbers",
and a "Devil's Island Penal Colony." The consensus among professional fishermen
was that the school's graduates would have to be retrained to handle the "real world"
of maritime fishing.
The proposed paper will deal specifically with the dynamics of the Greencastle
facility, and the use of applied anthropology as a supportive force in the develop-
ment of a revised educational training scheme for Irish sea fisheries.

JAMES RUSSELL McGOODWIN (Colo/Boulder) MISMANAGEMENT AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF
PACIFIC MEXICO'S SMALL SCALE FISHERMEN The management and development of small-
scale fisherman may be confounded by a number of factors: (1) the linearity of
coastlines; (2) the relatively small contribution of the fisheries--and small
scale fishermen in particular--to national GNP; (3) viewing small-scale fishermen as
a pariah group--even in culturally homogeneous societies--by government agents
charged with managing and developing them; (4) failure to differentiate between the
management exigencies of inshore, small-scale fishermen, versus offshore, large-
scale industrialized fishermen, particularly in situations where these compete for
the same, migratory resources; (5) national level fisheries policy which stresses
the maximization of marine-resource exports to the detriment of small-scale fisher-
mens subsistence and local/regional marketing systems; and (6) the seeming reluctance
of agents, to spend sufficient time among small-scale fishermen such that the fisher-
mens sociocultural patterns are understood in sufficient depth, so as to facilitate
meaningful and beneficial management and development policies for them.
The foregoing problems are exemplified in the case of Pacific Mexico's rural,
small-scale fishermen.

JOHN J. POGGIE, JR. )U Rhode Island) BELIEFS ABOUT BENEFITS OF FISHERMEN'S
COOPERATIVES AND COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT IN COSTA RICA Although cooperatives have
been perceived by change agents as ideal modes of organizing small-scale fishermen
into more efficient and productive groupings, most attempts at cooperative develop-
ment have failed dismally. Given the known importance of sociocultural factors in
success and failure of development programs in general, greater understanding of
these factors as they apply to small-scale cooperative development is needed.
This paper deals with inter-community patterns of beliefs about the benefits of
cooperatives and relates these patterns to efforts in cooperative development on the
Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The development policy implications of the empirical
analyses are discussed.

RICHARD B. POLLNAC (U Rhode Island) FUTURE ORIENTATION AMONG THE SMALL-SCALE FISH-
ERMEN OF THE NORTHWEST COAST OF COSIA RICA The paper examines temporal perspective
and future investment orientations among small-scale fishermen on the Northwest
coast of Costa Rica. An important component to be considered in any situation of
techno-economic change is the temporal perspective of the population involved.











It is clear that participation in change programs will be enhanced if the partici-
pants are oriented toward the future as opposed to the present or the past. This
is true because most development schemes do not pay off immediately--there is
usually a delay between the acquisition of new technology and increased income or
production. The analysis in the paper indicates that there is a relatively strong
situational component influencing differential patterning of future orientations,
suggesting that if development funds are invested in a region with the goal of
sustained development through reinvestment of reasonable amounts of profit, then
the situational determinants of future investment orientations are of utmost sig-
nificance.

(402) PAPERS: CULTURAL/ETHNOGRAPHIC DIMENSIONS OF EDUCATION CHAIR: WALTER
SMITH (Texas-San Antonio)

PETER VAN ARSDALE, EDITH KING (U Denver) TEACHING IN THE ETHNICALLY DIVERSE
CLASSROOM: THE APPLICATION OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL MATERIALS The University of Denver
was funded by the Office of Education, Ethnic Heritage Studies Programs for a
teacher training project in 1979-80, titled "Coping With Ethnic Diversity in the
Classroom". The specific thrust of this project is to help elementary and middle
school teachers in working with children from a variety of ethnically diverse heri-
tages, children speaking Vietnamese, Laotian, Cambodian, Korean, Mexican and Arabic
as their first languages (Lau Categories A and B). An anthropological approach
using perspectives and materials from applied educational anthropology forms an
important component of this project. The presenters will discuss how anthropologi-
cal materials on Indonesian refugees are utilized and implemented by the Denver Pub-
lic Schools teachers involved in this project and how an anthropological perspective
is interpreted and applied to a crucial new problem in American education.

WALTER E. SMITH (Texas San Antonio) BICULTURALISM: GRASS-ROOTS REALITY AND ALTER-
NATIVE CITIZENSHIP IDEOLOGY During the past two decades Biculturalism has emerged
from its grass-roots historical origins to public advocacy as an alternative creed
for ethnic relations in the U.S. and other nations. The creed (or practical ideo-
logy as defined by Mkalimoto, 1974; Bluhm, 1974; and Geertz, 1974) today is in the
process of formation and clarification while competing with new versions of
Americanization. Based upon the author's research in Texas (1969-79) and Guatemala
(1967), and literature analysis from several nations, the position is developed that
Biculturalism is a strategy for self-determined ethnic citizenship, not a substitute
for primordial identity.
To promote further clarification (theoretical and applied), a working defini-
tion of dynamic Biculturalism is proposed and compared with the ideology of Cultural
Pluralism. Two types of Biculturalism are identified: that of ethnic citizens
only; and that among all citizens on a situational basis, with an introduction to
Anglo Biculturalism. Dialogue questions are then raised regarding the role of pub-
lib schools in promoting Biculturalism. Following the Lambert (1979 SAAABE Confer-
ence, San Antonio, TX) thesis on bilingualism, it is suggested that Biculturalism
be de-schooled.

ALICE E. CARTER (Pittsburgh) THE PROSPECTIVE INNER-CITY TEACHER AS ETHNOGRAPHER
Teachers' insensitivity to cultural differences between ethnic groups can result
in the failure of a student to reach his or her potential. Some teachers have
little understanding of the needs and problems of ethnic groups. Many teachers
have embraced the melting pot theory and have lost a strong association with their
own cultural group making them less tolerant of ethnic loyalty in others.
However, within the same school system or under one board of education, indi-
vidual schools and teachers within them have important freedom in varying instruc-
tion and materials to fit their pupils. Teacher education programs should emphasize
this flexibility.











The author developed this point of view in a course for second semester
juniors entitled Teaching in the Urban Setting. Built upon the assumption that
prospective teachers can become their own ethnographers in a multi-cultural urban
setting, the major assignments of the course stressed ethnographic observation of
classrooms and the development of a resource unit for teaching about one ethnic
group.
This paper deals with the author's experiences in developing this anthropolo-
gical model for urban education conceived as multi-cultural rather than bi-racial
education.

SHIRLEY ACHOR (E Texas St U) UNA BUENA MAESTRA/A GOOD TEACHER: A PRELIMINARY
REPORT OF PARENTAL VIEWS IN A TEXAS SCHOOL DISTRICT This paper reports on
research in progress among a sample of 160 Mexican American and Anglo mothers
in an urban school district in Texas. The study examines parental perceptions
of teacher role-behavior, and presents preliminary data on the criteria parents
deem most crucial in evaluating teacher performance. One of the questions to be
considered is whether Mexican American and Anglo mothers vary in their assessments
of desirable characteristics of a "good teacher."

RONALD E. MERTZ (St. Louis Public Schools) BU-XI-BAN IN TAIWAN: A NECESSARY EVIL?
Privately operated supplementary schools (bu-xi-ban) are widespread and prosperous
in Taiwan despite efforts by the government to discourage their existence. Ranging
in size from one teacher tutoring a handful of pupils in his home to large insti-
tutions attended by thousands of students, these "cram schools" flourish largely
as a result of the exam system by which admission to high schools and colleges is
determined. The current study based on recent field work examines the function of
bu-xi-ban in the context of a socio-cultural system experiencing rapid technologi-
cal change with concomitant rising expectations among its youth.

SORAYA NOLAND (Iowa St U) PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION IN RURAL IRAN This paper aims
to discuss problems involved in secondary and adult education in rural Iran. Data
for this paper were gathered during ethnographic fieldwork in 1974/75 in two agrar-
ian communities northeast of Teheran.
Previously, education was the religious establishment's responsibility (Arasteh
1962 and Siddiq 1931). The 1920s secularization of education did not affect the
above area until 1935. By 1975, the majority of the residents over the age of
twenty were illiterate. But literacy rates among individuals below twenty had con-
siderably increased mainly due to the introduction in 1968 of the educational corps.
The corps being mainly women are responsible for elementary and adult education.
Secondary and adult education have been unsuccessful in the area. Several
factors are suggested, the concept of honor and "keeping face" inhibits girls from
pursuing secondary education (Peristiany 1966 and Eiler 1978). The shortage of
labor prevents most men from continuing beyond elementary education. And the seg-
regation of the sexes prevents adult males from receiving instruction from the female
educators.
This study is significant since it demonstrates how cultural factors operate
in the process of modern education in rural Iran.

NANCY MODIANO, L.M. MALDONADO & S. VILLASANA (SEP-DGEI, Mexico) PERCEPTION OF
COLORED ILLUSTRATIONS BY NON-LITERATE CHILDREN The psychological and anthropolo-
gical literature is rich in studies exploring the perception of black and white
illustrations by non-literate peoples, but most studies are 15 to 40 years old.
Current technology has so reduced the cost of color prints that even developing
nations can seriously consider their use for inexpensive text books.
In order to determine whether color drawings or photos would be clearer to
Mexican Indian first graders from isolated regions of the country, a study was
carried out with 71 children of four language groups (Chinanteco, Huave, Mazateco
and Mixe) in six regions of the state of Oaxaca. Results indicate no significant
difference in the perception of the two types of illustrations, taken from existing,
government-sponsored first grade texts, but the children failed to perceive an
average of 20 per cent of the material.










(403) PANEL: RESEARCH IN PACIFIC/ASIAN AMERICAN COMMUNITIES

ORGANIZER AND MODERATOR: RUSSELL ENDO (Colorado-Boulder) This panel will
examine some of the major issues concerning contemporary research in Asian and
Pacific Islander communities in America. Each of the four panelists will make a
brief opening statement after which there will be a general discussion. Laurence
Aylesworth will discuss his recent study of Indochinese in Denver and its implica-
tions for service delivery efforts. Faye Munoz will review the research concerns
of Pacific Island communities based on her work in Southern California. Tai Kang
will examine the role of social scientists in the study of Asian Americans using
research on elderly Asian immigrants as an example. Peter Park will discuss the
role of researcher as a community organizer and draw on his work on Korean immi-
grants in rural New England.

LAURENCE AYLESWORTH (Indochinese Development Center, Denver) COMMUNITY RESEARCH
AND ITS IMPACT ON EXISTING MENTAL HEALTH DELIVERY EFFORTS. During the Spring and
Summer of 1979, a study was funded by H.E.W. and conducted cooperatively by the
Linguistics Research Institute and the Indochinese Development Center of Colorado.
In this study, a stratified sample of (217) Indochinese (Vietnamese, Laotian-H'
Mong and Cambodian) were interviewed. Some of the implications which this study's
findings had for modifying existing service delivery efforts with Indochinese will
be discussed.

FAYE UNTALAN MUNOZ (Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education) RESEARCH
ISSUES ON EMERGING PACIFIC ISLAND GROUPS Pacific Islanders, as U.S. Colonists,
represent major issues and concerns with regards to anthropological and social
research. Research purpose and objectives, and methodologies require understand-
ing of changes and impact of research on the community to be studied. This paper
will attempt to describe some of these issues of research particularly among
islanders who are experiencing rapid changes and migration into the United States.

TAI KANG (SUNY-Buffalo) THE AGED AMONG RECENT ASIAN IMMIGRANTS Despite the recent
rise of interest in the study of the aging, reliable data dealing with elderly
Asian Americans are practically nonexistent. A handful of articles focus upon
Japanese, Chinese, of Philipino Americans. No published research on the Korean
American elderly can be found. The upsurge of aged Asian Americans warrants ser-
ious investigation into their social, economic, psychological, and physiological
adjustments. The following questions need special attention:
1) In what manner do they reorient and reorganize their roles within the
family, within their ethnic groups, and in the majority society?
2) What are the more specific social psychological and behavioral corre-
lates for the cultural shock they experienced? Do they retreat into the sanctuary
of the family, or do they seek out and form subgroups of their own? What are the
social and psychological profiles of those who have made successful adjustments
in comparison to those who have not? For those who are less successful in their
adjustments, what types of social, psychological, and psychosomatic physiological
problems do they encounter?
3) How are their experiences different from the problems encountered by the
aged in other ethnic groups?
4) What types of services are provided for the elderly by the family, the
ethnic community, or majority society? What types of services are needed for them?

PETER PARK (Mass) THE RESEARCHER AS A COMMUNITY WORKER A social scientist of
long established residence in this country is in a unique position to do valuable
research on recent immigrants of the same ethnic background. In doing such research
the social scientist can make use of the research facilities to help the new immi-
grants to organize themselves into a community and to deal with the larger society.











It is not only usually feasible but also morally incumbent on him/her to do so.
This dual role of researcher/community worker violates the positivist canons of
social science. But it, by the same token, provides an alternative paradigm
with a promise of producing richer knowledge and humanizing the social science
in general. I will illustrate this idea of social research with materials from
my research among Korean immigrants in rural New England.

(404) PANEL PROJECT INREACH: INTERSPECIES COMMUNICATION HENRY M. TRUBY
(Scientific Rsrch, World Dolphin Found) BETSY SMITH (Florida International U)
NANCY C. PHILLIPS (Idaho St U) The hypothesis of Project INREACH will be
explained. There will be a presentation and discussion of the slide and video
tape data.

H. TRUBY (Scientific Rsrch, World Dolphin Found) B. SMITH (Florida International
U) N. PHILLIPS (Idaho St U) CAN ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS AND NEUROLOGICALLY
IMPAIRED CHILDREN COMMUNICATE? The working hypothesis for Project INREACH is
that non-communicating children and highly intellectually specialized dolphins
(also non-communicating insofar as interspecies communication with humans is con-
cerned) may well find a common wavelength-one that might elicit unprecedented
communicatory demonstrations in unusual children and/or elucidate the code sending
and code receiving modi-operandi in dolphins. Also, that there is prospective
therapeutic benefit to be derived for the neurologically impaired child from pro-
viding a tactual and oral-aural communicator interrelationship between certain
children and certain dolphins.
Project INREACH has used the facilities and dolphins of the Wometco Miami
Seaquarium. The research to date has been made possible by the cooperation of
the Seaquarium Director, Warren Zeiller.

(405) PAPERS CHAIR: WARREN HERN (Boulder Abortion Clinic) NATIVE AMERICAN
HEALTH POLICIES AND SERVICES

ALAN ACKERMAN (Colorado St U) CONVERTING STUDIES ON NATIVE AMERICANS INTO POLICY
FOR NATIVE AMERICANS: A PROGRESS REPORT American Indian people are one of the
most heavily-studied groups in the U.S. Recognizing that many of the studies would
benefit tribal and federal programs which address the health needs of Indians, the
National Indian Health Board and the Department of Food Science and Nutrition of
Colorado State University are jointly conducting a regional and a national confer-
ence on nutrition and public policy for Native Americans. The purpose of these
meetings is to assist in the conversion of nutrition studies on Indians into
policy guidelines for Indian people. We use a highly structured conference format,
in which scientists who have done studies of Indian nutrition related problems meet
with Indian decision makers. The regional meeting was held on January 14-16, 1980
in Flagstaff, Arizona. The guidelines produced at the meeting address the broad
nutrition needs on Indian reservations in the Southwest. In order to help imple-
ment these suggestions, radio-style plays were produced to stimulate local discus-
sion and movement toward implementation in diverse Indian communities. We will
"broadcast" one issue tape to illustrate the method we used for local outreach and
discuss the outcomes of the Flagstaff meeting in relation to current food policy
in the U.S.

WARREN M. HERN (Boulder Abortion Clinic) NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN RESPONSE TO
ABORTION SERVICES Traditional societies throughout the world have devised various
means to control fertility prior to the introduction of modern methods. A fertil-
ity control method which has been used universally is abortion. There is some
evidence that Native American cultures employed this method or at least have tra-
ditions which recognize its occurrence.
A case study of a Native American woman's response to induced abortion in an
outpatient clinic setting is described. The ritual which she performed over the
fetal remains is described along with an account of her interpretation of the
ritual. This paper includes a brief description of the use of a private abortion
service by Native American women from five western US states.










EDWARD R. GARRISON (Kayenta Research Associates Inc.) COORDINATING SOCIAL
SERVICES AND MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMS: A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT IN THE KAYENTA
AREA, NAVAJO INDIAN RESERVATION Coordinating Social Services and Mental Health
Programs: A Demonstration Project in the Kayenta area, Navajo Indian Reservation
Under a new program initiative from the National Institute of Mental Health, a
"Most In Need" program is being implemented this year for children and youth in
the Kayenta area of the Navajo Indian Reservation. One of eight such projects
across the nation, the Kayenta project is being conducted by Kayenta Research
Associates, Inc., a local non-profit organization based in the Kayenta community.
The project is designed to provide coordination and linkage among the existing
programs and providers of services for those children and youth who are, according
to the community's own criteria, "Most In Need." In the Kayenta area, this involves
a state public school system, four federal BIA schools, both BIA and tribal social
services programs, Indian Health Service mental health programs, reservation-based
alcoholism and child development programs, off-reservation referral services, and
others. Even ministers and traditional medicine men and medicine women have been
brought into the linkage network. As an applied community program to improve the
delivery of services through better linkage, the project staff will present an
analysis of the steps taken, problems encountered, and successes achieved within
this Navajo community context.

MARTHA A. AUSTIN (Navajo Ethno-Medical Navajo Community College) NAVAJO TRADI-
TIONAL CHILDBIRTH AND SOME FORMS OF CULTURAL CONTRAST WITH BIRTHS IN THE TYPICAL
HOSPITAL SETTING Navajo Traditional Childbirth and Some Forms of Cultural Con-
trast with Births in the Typical Hospital Setting The Navajo Ethno-Medical
Encyclopedia Project is involved in the compilation and analysis of the entire
body of traditional Navajo medical knowledge. Through intensive structured inter-
views with Navajo medicine men and medicine women, data is collected and then
analysed by an all-Navajo staff, with the aid of a text-editing computer which
stores transcribed interview material and analyses (only in Navajo). Of the pro-
jected ten-volume encyclopedia (each volume 500 to 700 pages in length), work is
partially or fully completed on four volumes. The volume on Marriage, Conception,
Pregnancy, and Childbirth is the first volume completed. Focusing on the process
of Childbirth itself, this paper deals with the perceived advantages of traditional
delivery in the hogan, which include a faster and easier birth, without drugs, in
an upright position, with the strong social and ceremonial support of family,
friends, and medicine man. Specific social activities, birth procedures, and cere-
monial actions are compared in their social and psychological effects, both on the
mother and on the infant, with the typical birth procedures and their effects as
practiced in most hospitals. The social and medical relevance of anthropological
research for suggesting changes in hospital procedures in caring for Navajo mothers
is emphasized.

FAY G. COHEN, R. DALE WALKER (Washington) URBAN INDIAN ALCOHOL ABUSE AND TREAT-
MENT OUTCOME: A REPORT ON CURRENT RESEARCH IN SEATTLE In""Red Tape-White Tape:
Federal-Indian Funding Relationships" (Human Organization, Fall, 1979), Stephens
and Agar detail key issues in federally-funded Indian drug abuse and alcoholism
treatment programs, and offer a series of recommendations to ameliorate current
problems. A major recommendation calls for the establishment of appropriate
strategies for research on Indian programs.
This paper describes on-going research that directly addresses this recom-
mendation. This study of urban Indian alcohol abuse and treatment outcome is
being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of Indian and non-Indian professionals
(representing the fields of anthopology, nursing, psychiatry, and psychology) in
cooperation with the Seattle Indian Alcoholism Treatment Program and the Seattle
Indian Health Board. The paper outlines two pilot studies on client character-
istics and follow-up methodology and a proposal for a larger longitudinal study
now being considered by NIAAA; it provides an overview of research strategy, early
findings, and future directions.











(406) PAPERS: ANTHROPOLOGY OF AGING

VIRGIL M. WOODWORTH (CSUSacramento) THE ISLAND: ANOTHER WAY TO RETIRE
The backgrounds, pre-retirement and current interests and activities of an
atypical retired population in an unusual setting are studied. The locale:
An island in the Pacific Northwest--quiet, semi-rural, comparatively isolated,
with a small town; not a planned, activity-centered retirement community. The
retirees: Eighty-five percent from urban areas, high educational level, strangers
to island living, only a few having friends or acquaintances on the island when
they arrived. Subjective judgment after 108 interviews was that, as a group,
they had adjusted well to their new environment and to an abundance of free time
and were leading full and satisfying lives. Later scoring of Life Satisfaction
Index questionnaires confirmed this judgment.
For the men, but not the women, there was a strong inverse correlation of
Life Satisfaction with age; a strong negative correlation with number of years
retired for the women, but not the men. No strong relationship was shown between
Life Satisfaction and income, education, or health status for either the men or
the women. Search for significant correlates continues; one is hypothesized.

GWENDOLYN SAFIER (U San Francisco) ORAL LIFE HISTORY AND GERONTOLOGY This paper
describes how University of San Francisco nursing students learn to take oral
life histories of the elderly. The elderly are Native Americans from the Inter-
Tribal Friendship Centre in Oakland, California, Black Americans from the Over-60
Health Clinic in Berkeley, California, and Spanish Americans from the La Clinica
de la Raza In Oakland, California. Selection of the interviewee, entry into the
culture, establishing rapport, how to conduct the oral life history interview,
and some of the qualitative findings will be presented.
There will be comparisons and contrasts to explore among the cultural groups,
particularly, in how the individual experiences "being old" and the process of
becoming old. Some of the ways in which oral life history can be utilized as a
teaching tool, an ethnic identity tool, and a self-actualizing tool will be pre-
sented. There will be a discussion of the way in which the nursing students uti.-
ized the tool of oral life history within one cultural group and among several
diverse cultural groups.

HAL NELSON, BOB SOLEM (St. of Washington) FINANCIAL AND SOCIAL TRADEOFFS IN
COMMUNITY-BASED ALTERNATIVE CARE FOR POTENTIAL NURSING HOME CLIENTS Rapid growth
in the elderly population and spiraling inflation in nursing home care have made
alternate care programs appear increasingly attractive. Nonetheless, few field tests
of alternate care systems have been conducted. The Community-Based Care Project
conducted a two-year demonstration in two small urban/rural sites. Special alter-
native care units were established to provide intensive case management and enriched
supportive services to low-income functionally disabled adults at "high risk" of
nursing home placement. A well-known multi-dimensional functional assessment
instrument was used to determine level of risk and to assist in service plan develop-
ment. System measures (including number and characteristics of persons served in the
community; quantity and costs of social, income, and medical services provided each
person; and trends in Medicaid nursing home usage) were monitored in these sites and
in a demographically similar comparison site. Relative to the comparison community
(and the state as a whole), a significant decline in Medicaid-supported nursing home
usage and a concurrent dramatic increase in the number of persons served in the
community were observed. This resulted in lower per capital costs but higher total
costs. Implications for public policy will be discussed.











DIANE M. BRESCIA (McGill) THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURAL FACTORS AND HEALTH
STATUS OF THE ELDERLY IN A MUNICIPALITY OF MONTREAL, QUEBEC Two hundred older
Canadians, aged 65 and over, equally divided between French and English ethnic
groups, and stratified by low and middle income levels were interviewed in a sur-
vey which inquired into their psychiatric and social problems. It was found that
the French Canadian elderly had significantly more and graver health problems than
the English Canadian elderly. Living conditions, such as comforts, economic sec-
urity, and frequency of interpersonal contacts were similar for both groups, and
the variables of age, sex and marital status did not explain the difference in
health status between them.
Further interviewing and participant-observation was carried out with the
respondents in order to find out what other factors contributed to this differ-
ence. The findings indicate that the French Canadians experience a greater conflict
between traditional attitudes and more modern ones in relation to family life than
do the English. The impact of social change on the French was also more dramatic
than it was on the English. Alternative resources are also relatively closed to the
French because they do not value them as much as the English elderly. Consequently,
their range of coping behaviors is reduced, and their stress is greater.

GREGG SMITH REYNOLDS (U.C. San Francisco) COALITION FORMATION IN HEALTH CARE
DELIVERY Coalition formation in social exchange is one means available to social
actors in the health domain for obtaining adequate health care delivery. Various
concepts associated with social exchange theory are applied to the theory of coali-
tion formation. Particular attention is given to the concepts of rationality and
power as pivotal constructs for understanding coalition formation in health care
delivery. The case history of "J", an elderly resident of the Tenderloin District
of San Francisco will be presented along with an analysis of the coalition forma-
tion accompanying his case. The material dealing with "J" was gathered during
fieldwork at a Senior Service Center in San Francisco's Tenderloin District. This
presentation has relevance for issues in health care politics, aging, and mental
health pertaining to health care delivery.

BARRY R. BAINTON (Arizona) DRINKING PATTERNS AMONG THE RURAL ELDERLY OF ARIZONA.
II. ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS ABOUT ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM The attitudes of the
rural elderly toward alcohol abuse and alcoholism are examined based on data from
a recent survey of the rural elderly of Arizona. Attitudes toward the seriousness
of alcohol related problems in the community are explored and beliefs about the
nature of alcoholism are analyzed for the population as a whole. Subsequent anal-
ysis compare differences between the attitudes and beliefs of drinkers and non-
drinklers. A comparison is made between the attitudes and beliefs the rural elderly
and the national attitudes (Cahalan, Cisin and Crossley 1968) and urban attitudes
(Cahalan and Treiman 1976). The major concerns about alcohol abuse in rural commu-
nities is drunk driving which poses a major threat to the elderly. The elderly
share the public's ambivalent attitudes toward alcoholism viewing it both as a dis-
ease and character defect. These and other findings are discussed. Finally, prob-
lems associated with alcohol and the elderly are discussed.

(407) SYMPOSIUM

ORGANIZER: J. BRYAN PAGE (U Miami) FORMAL MODELS AND PRACTICAL QUESTIONS IN HEALTH
RELATED URBAN RESEARCH Anthropological research in health related problems has
depended on techniques for tracing networks of social relations to identify popula-
tions of specific study interest. Especially in urban settings, network tracing
techniques have proven useful in contacting drug users, alcoholics, battered wives,
and other individuals with specific health problems and studying their respective
social environments. Despite their familiarity with the mechanics of network tracing,
practitioners of these techniques have not explicitly addressed existing theoretical
perspectives on networks forwarded by urban anthropologists who have concentrated on
other applied problems, such as acculturation and ethnicity. This symposium proposes












a) to examine the causes of the lack of formal urban modeling in health related
urban research, b) to bring together practitioners of urban network tracing and
urban network theoreticians, c) to take the first steps toward a synthesis of urban
network tracing practices and formal modeling of urban social relations.

J. BRYAN PAGE (U Miami) STRUCTURAL FOUNDATIONS FOR URBAN NETWORK MODELING
Anthropologists faced with problems in identifying social groupings among city
inhabitants have devised theoretical models which in many of their variations are
called networks. Network models generally are typological in nature, categorizing
social interaction by physical settings, by ethnic proclivities, by social class,
or by considerations of morphology such as density and anchorage. These typologies
have been difficult to apply to practical problems of urban network tracing as
practiced by drug use researchers and researchers in other health related questions.
Already constructed typologies are often too cumbersome for use in field situations
where preconstructed categories may not apply to observed data. A basic structural
principle derived from the norm of reciprocity combined with a limited number of
rule-constructing guidelines can be used to formulate network models of specific
applicability. The advantage of these network models over typological models lies
in their fundamental structural homology, the transformable dyadic paradigm. Research
in Costa Rica and among Miami, Florida Cubans has provided basic data for the develop-
ment of this modeling process.

P. CLECKNER (Miami) ETHNO-SOCIOLOGICAL MAPS AS AN INTERVIEWING TOOL The request
that an interviewee draw a diagram of his or her social environment often yields
network-like configurations. These can be used as the basis for an ethnoscciologi-
cal interview which not only incorporates discussion of particular relationships but
also exploration of the total "gestalt". The map can be treated as a projective
device and approached in the same way that psychological projective tests are
handled.
This technique was used in interviewing staff members of a battered women's
shelter. Analysis of the maps demonstrated the importance of informal ties and the
isolation of the director from the staff as a whole as well as providing a vehicle
for discussion of the isolation of the shelter from the community as a whole.

W. TRUE (St.Louis Hosp) NETWORK TRACING METHODOLOGY AND THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF POST-
VIETNAM SYNDROME Use of network theory in health research is implied in work which
demonstrates enhanced health outcomes where social support mechanisms complement
care interventions. The existence of "social support structures," while long known
to anthropologists, suggest a sampling strategy relevant to health related, epidio-
miologically based, case-controlled studies.
The research design described here grows from a Veterans Administration effort
to establish the extent and dimensions of the "post-Vietnam syndrome" (PVS), a
poorly defined condition of apparently increasing incidence, whose symptomology
includes generalized neurological symptoms, malaise, disruptive social relations,
motivation, and occasional bizarre behavior.
With the goal of inductively defining the syndrome and recruiting a matched
sample of veterans with and without it, ten Vietnam veterans recently given civic
recognition for contributions to community life as service men will serve as start-
ing point for tracing Vietnam veteran networks. A number of self-described suffer-
ers of "PVS" belong to the networks of these ten.
Overlap in the networks and their characteristics of range and density suggest
the variety of post-Vietnam adjustment enjoyed by the initial ten. Retrospective
data based on an interview guide will serve to establish correlates of the e:iology
and meanings and consequences of "PFS" in this case-controlled study group.











DAVID STRUG SOCIAL NETWORK AND PROBLEM DRINKING: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS The relevance of social network theory to the anthropological study of
problem drinking is the topic of this presentation.
Members of problem drinkers' social networks exert either positive or negative
influence on patients entering alcohol use treatment. The structure of the patients'
social support systems helps to define those systems' influence on alcohol treatment
patients.
One of the two populations under study consists of problem drinkers who are
resident in an inpatient alcohol treatment facility. The second population consists
of a similar group of males who have received either no treatment or minimal treat-
ment for their drinking.
Social network analysis can be applied to the various "phase sequences of treat-
ment" (identification, triage, entry, initial treatment, etc.). Application of
network analysis to the study of untreated problem drinkers presents difficulties,
especially in the areas of subject identification, assessment, and evaluation.

E. PREBLE (NY ScPsych) EL BARRIO REVISITED Life history and field observation
data were collected in the years 1965, 1966 during a study of heroin users in East
Harlem (New York City). A central feature of the study was the tape recording and
verbatim transcription of open-ended, loosely structured interviews in the commu-
nity with each of 80 volunteer subjects. One-hour interviews were conducted pri-
vately with each subject by the present writer. Over 300 interviews were recorded,
the range being from two to eight, with an average of four for each subject.
The study community, known as El Barrio, is approximately one square mile in
area, with a population of 42,000. The ethnic distribution is: Puerto Rican
(45%), black (35%), white (20%). It is one of the lowest socioeconomically ranked
communities in New York City.
During the past two years (1978, 1979) the writer has conducted a similar study
of drug use in the same community, 13 years having elapsed since the end of the first
study. One feature of the current work is.an investigation of the lives of the
original 80 subjects from 1967 to 1980. Direct, and reliable indirect information
on 77 of the subjects has been collected, and is summarized in this presentation.
The high data recovery percentage and the detailed intimacy of the data are due to
the strength and longevity of the network of social relations--if not of the indi-
vidual subjects, 20 of whom have died -- in this community in general, and of the
drug-using subculture in particular.

(408) SYMPOSIbU

ORGANIZER: PAUL ESPINOSA (Stanford) ETHNOGRAPHIC APPROACHES TO THE TELE-MEDIATED
TEXT AND MASS MEDIA This symposium will consider a variety of ethnographic appro-
aches to the use of video tape and television in the study of human behavior.
Whether their interests are at the macro or micro levels, researchers have found
the tele-mediated text to be a useful tool of analysis. The ability to create a
social "text" amenable to analysis through video technology has allowed researchers
to pursue new problems and approaches in a number of ethnographic settings. The
presentations in this symposium include the analysis of classroom settings in the
papers by Carrasco, Mitchell, and Moll, a therapy session in the paper by Lopes, and
commercial television production in the paper by Espinosa.

PAUL ESPINOSA (Stanford) ETHNOGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE STUDY OF TEXT BUILD-
ING IN A HOLLYWOOD TELEVISION SERIES Ethnographic fieldwork carried out at a major
television production studio in Hollywood, California, serves as the focal point
for a discussion of problems encountered in pursuing ethnographic work in this field
setting. This paper will consider some of the similarities and differences between
such fieldwork and more conventional ethnographic study, especially with regard to
the following topics: (1) gaining entry to a restrictive community; (2) problems of
developing ethnographic rapport in a busy, professional environment, and (3) data
collection difficulties where data is extremely well guarded. Finally this paper
examines the appropriateness of the ethnographic approach in the study television
text building.












JACQUELYN MITCHELL (UC San Diego) THE READING LESSON: INTERACTION BETWEEN A
REFERRED CHILD AND THE TEACHER Students who were referred to the school adminis-
tration for educational and behavioral reasons were videotaped as they interacted
with teachers in the classroom, school psychologists in testing situations and in
placement meetings. After students were referred to the school psychologists,
ethnographic observations and videotapes of representative classroom events were
made. This paper examines the organization of teacher-student interaction during
a reading lessor and the patterns of participation that occur within the event.
The teacher's behavior with the reading group as a whole and with the referred
child within the group will be compared.

LAWRENCE LOPES (UC San Diego) A TWO TIERED ETHNOGRAPHY OF A COUPLE IN THERAPY:
"I'M SORRY I HAVE TO PUT IT THAT WAY," BUT IT'S THE ONLY WAY HE CAN. This paper
reports on a two tiered ethnography of a couple in a one hour therapy session, an
ethnography which stems from the videotape analysis of the therapy session. At one
level, the ethnographic task is for the therapist to locate the social organization
assembled by the couple and therapist to locate the social organization assembled by
the couple and constraining the couple's interaction, particularly the unconscious
actions producing their patterns of behavior. In addition, this work represents
an accumulation of information over time (often in the back of the ethnographer's
mind) about the couple's life together, information necessary to understand their
world, to participate in their world, and hopefully to have some therapeutic impact
on that world. As Sapir stated years ago, psychiatry demands an ethnographic
approach. So every therapist must be his own ethnographer.
At a second level, the analysis presents a description of the couple and the
therapist as they interact to generate the social organization of the therapy hour.
At this level, the ethnographic task of the anthropologist, in this case with the
aid of video tape, is to locate the unconscious patterns of interaction between the
couple and the therapist, the patterns that help maintain the social organization
of the therapy session itself. The use of video tape has had a number of advan-
tages for this analysis. First it has provided a data base that is retrievable as
well as one that preserves events in the social context in which they occurred.
Thus the tape served as an external memory that allowed the extensive and repeated
examination of interactions. Second, it provides a record that is complete and
available for examination by others. Third, the use of videotape has provided a
way of documenting subtle changes in verbal, paralinguistic, and kinesic behavior.
It would have been impossible to identify, let alone analyze, these changes with-
out the aid of video tape.

ROBERT L. CARRASCO (Harvard) SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION OF INTERACTION OF
CLASSROOMS OF BILINGUAL CHILDREN This paper presents an innovative method for the
coding of social interaction recorded on video tape. This example of micro ethno-
graphy breaks down video tape through a system developed by Erikson and Schultz.
The research is conducted in Chicago.

LUIS MOLL (UC-San Diego) BILINGUAL EDUCATION IN A CLASSROOM SETTING Ethnographic
fieldwork in a San Diego bilingual education classroom serves as the base for a
study of social interaction and linguistic code switching. Micro-ethnography of
one of the oldest and more established bilingual programs in the US is conducted
through the use of video tape protocalls.











(500) HOW TO FIND AND OBTAIN A JOB WITH THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT--A WORKSHOP FOR
ANTHROPOLOGISTS

BOB WULFF (HUD), HAL VREELAND (NIMH) The workshop is a full day course designed to edu-
cate the participants about Federal employment opportunities for anthropologists and to
train anthropologists to effectively market their skills/experience to obtain a Civil
Service rating and a Federal job. The course is basic but not general. The focus is on
practical advice, facts, and "hands-on" training. The following is a partial list of
topics: pros/cons of Federal employment; types of appointments; selecting a federal
occupation (emphasizing how to match-up typical anthropological interests/education with
Federal occupation codes); dealing with the U.S. Office of Personnel Management; prepar-
ing the Federal employment application form (item-by-item instruction emphasizing trans-
lating typical anthropological experience/training into categories/concepts acceptable
to prospective Federal employers); deciphering agency vacancy announcement; locating job
openings; and making application for a specific Federal job. These topics will be dis-
cussed in reference to mid- and senior level jobs: GS 9 ($17,035) to GS 15 ($50,100).
The Workshop is designed for anthropologists with an MA or PhD about to enter the job
market for the first time or considering a mid-career change. It will be presented
under the auspices of the Washington Association of Professional Anthropologists.
Workshop faculty are two anthropologists currently in senior level career positions with
the Federal government; Bob Wulff (HUD) and Hal Vreeland (NIMH). Attendance is by
advance registration only. The registration fee is $25.00.

(501) EDUCATIONAL ISSUES IN MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

STEPHEN L. SCHENSUL (Conn) THE AREA HEALTH EDUCATION CENTER PROGRAM: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL
APPROACH TO A MEDICALLY UNDERSERVED AREA In October, 1978, the University of Connecticut
School of Medicine began the Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Program focused on
inner city Hartford, Connecticut. The overall goal of this five year $4.3 million HEW
funded Program is to "...improve the distribution, supply, quality, utilization and
efficiency of health manpower... by linking the academic resources of the University...
with local educational and clinical resources." This partnership of the University and
the community is directed toward three kinds of education programs: continuing education
of health personnel in Hartford, to increase their knowledge and skills in urban health,
health professions education to attract students to innder city health care and health
education and community mobilization for health to increase the role of the patient and
the lay community in the health process. Anthropologists have played an important role
in the design and development of this Program. The Program utilizes cross cultural and
community principles and anthropological research data in the organization of educational
activities within Black and Hispanic communities of Hartford. In this paper, the AHEC
Program director will describe the Program activities and their implications for applied
anthropological research and intervention programs in health.

DAN HUNT, BARBARA NEWMAN, FRITZ HAFER (Idaho St. U.) HUMANITIES COURSES IN HEALTH
STUDIES Health-related curricula in the U.S. and abroad have been criticized for placing
too much emphasis on the technical aspects of scientific medicine and too little on
holistic variables of health care. This paper examines the status quo of this controver-
sy, including recent attempts to introduce sociology into the curricula. We hypothesize
that a humanistic liberal arts education for undergraduates corresponds more closely with
holistic health attitudes and propose to test this hypothesis on approximately 200 under-
graduates at Idaho State University. We plan additional work at two nearby medical
schools.












MARILYN M. WELLS (Mid. Tenn. St. U.) IMPROVED HEALTH CARE THROUGH EDUCATION: A CASE
STUDY IN MEXICO The writer was asked to identify ways health-care delivery might be
improved in a church-sponsored clinic (Mixtepec, Oaxaca). Paramedicals in the clinic
listed four problems which limit their effectiveness: 1) long distances between the
patient's home and the clinic, 2) competition from traditional curers, 3) patient's
failure to follow prescribed treatment, and 4) lack of sanitary practices. Outpatient
visits were recorded for age, sex, and presenting symptoms; diagnosis and treatment were
observed; outpatient/paramedical interaction was monitored; the paramedicals were inter-
viewed; and the belief systems of paramedicals and patients were investigated. Suggest-
ions for improving health-care delivery were developed. This included sessions in which
patients, traditional curers, and paramedicals exchanged viewpoints.

MARTHA SKONER (American Nurses Association) NATIONAL SURVEY RESULTS OF NURSES WITH
DOCTORAL DEGREES This paper reports preliminary results of a National Survey of nurses
with doctoral degrees, which was conducted in the fall of 1979. The survey was intended
to: obtain data for a directory of nurses with doctorates; describe the professional
characteristics of the nurse-doctorate population; and identify factors associated with
professional productivity for doctorally prepared nurses. The paper presents descriptive
data about sociodemographic and professional characteristics of the nurse-doctorate popu-
lation in the United States, including geographic distribution, educational background,
employment setting and professional activities.

(502) ETHNICITY AND INDIGENOUS HEALERS

PAUL F. BROWN (Michigan St. U.) HEALTH CARE DELIVERY IN THE PERUVIAN ANDES: THE INTER-
FACE BETWEEN INDIGENOUS AND WESTERN MEDICINE Attempts on the part of the Peruvian
government and various missionary groups to introduce western health care to the Aymara
Indians of Southern Peru have met with little success. Rural clinics have been built and
local health promoters have been trained to serve the health needs of the Aymara, but
even in the more acculturated Aymara communities, over 70 percent of the people seek
treatment exclusively from indigenous practitioners. The low frequency of use of western
medical programs is explained by two factors: 1) the structure of western health care
delivery in the Aymara area, and 2) Aymara concepts of disease etiology and treatment.
While the Aymara recognize the efficacy of western medicine, they perceive its usefulness
as limited to the treatment of minor ailments only. According to Aymara etiology, all
serious and chronic illnesses are caused by spirits which inhabit the countryside. These
illnesses must be treated by a yatiri (a shaman), who alone has the ability to identify
the specific spirit agent, and perform the proper ceremony to coax the spirit to remove
the disease. Thus, western health practitioners can treat minor ailments, but they lack
the powers to diagnose and prescribe treatment for major, supernaturally caused illnesses.
Health care programs which incorporate Aymara disease concepts and treatment, and encour-
age the participation of indigenous practitioners are suggested.

THOMAS WEAVER (Arizona) BECOMING A CURANDERA The paper is a synopsis of the career
development of five curanderas from data gathered in life histories in New Mexico Hispano
villages. The life history material is placed within the general context of health
beliefs and actions.












DENNIS A FRATE (Rockford School of Medicine) INDIGENOUS HEALTH PRACTITIONERS AND
PHYSICIAN EXTENDERS: THE ROLE OF THE BLACK MIDWIFE IN RURAL MISSISSIPPI Numerous states
have recently passed laws legitimizing the roles of a variety of physician extender
types including nurse practitioners and physician assistants. Although considered an
innovative health provider role, similar models have existed for years in areas deficient
in medical manpower; one such area is rural Mississippi. The role of the black midwife
in Holmes County, Mississippi was not tied solely to obstretric care as they also provide
primary care services to the majority of the rural population, both black and white.
Specifically, their role as frontline diagnosticians and referral agents helps to explain
why although Holmes County experienced a severe shortage of medical manpower (1 physician
per 4,160 residents) utilization of services was higher than the national average (4.5 to
3.5). Legislation requiring certification ignored these indigenous health providers and
as a consequence disrupted the locally patterned medical care delivery system. This
experience gives evidence that new health legislation and delivery programs would prove
more effective and at a minimum less disruptive if the existing medical care system, both
traditional and nontraditional, were carefully examined and possibly incorporated into
the new model being introduced.

ANN KUCKELMAN COBB (Kansas) LAY MIDWIFERY: MEDICAL PLURALISM IN THE UNITED STATES AND
PORTUGAL The United States is witnessing the resurgence of the practice of lay midwifery,
partially in response to social movements which support "natural" lifestyles and argue
against excessive use of technology in childbirth. In parts of rural Portugal, however,
lay midwifery is practiced primarily in response to extremely limited health care
resources. Both countries also have professional nurse-midwives whose ideology derives
from cosmopolitan medicine and whose practice is in close adherence to scientific princi-
ples. A four-way comparison among these roles will be made, using corporation theory and
the concept of medical pluralism as the theoretical framework. Consequences for mothers
and children will also be discussed.

PERTTI J. PELTO (Conn) ETHNICITY AND HEALTH CARE: A GENERAL MODEL "Ethnicity" more than
any other concept has been a hallmark of the anthropological contribution to the under-
standing of health care issues. While ethnicity is not by any means the only issue that
medical anthropologists address, other medical professionals very frequently expect
anthropologists to provide "expert information" on "ethnicity" in the multi-disciplinary
health care scene. Ethnicity as a key variable is deceptively simple, and masks situa-
tions and interactions of great complexity. Our immediate task is to sort out the
different aspects and manifestations of "ethnicity" and ethnic health culture at various
stages of the health care process. This paper will present a general model for analysis
of "ethnicity" in relation to different contemporary health care contexts. Data from
recent research among Puerto Ricans, Blacks and other urban and rural populations will be
used to illustrate the main features of the model.

SUSAN C. WELLER (UC-Irvine), JULIE GLAVIS (INCAP) NEW DATA ON INTRA-CULTURAL VARIABILITY:
THE HOT-COLD CLASSIFICATION OF ILLNESS In a recent article, Foster (1979) pointed out
the importance of intra-cultural variability. Specifically, he used the hot-cold dis-
tinction among illnesses as an example. The hot-cold dichotomy is an important and
strategic issue to examine, since it has been widely treated in the literature (Cosminsky,
1977; Foster, 1979; Harwood, 1971; Logan, 1973; and Young, 1978) and lends itself to
fairly precise.measurement. In this paper we measure intra-cultural variation on the hot-
cold dimension in two Guatemalan towns, one urban and one rural. In the urban setting we
obtained a rank order of 27 illnesses by 24 informants on the hot-cold concept. In the
rural setting we obtained hot-cold dichotomous judgments on each of 21 illnesses by 29












informants. The amount of variability on the hot-cold dimension was analysed for both
the rural and urban settings. For the urban sample, variability on the hot-cold concept
was much higher than it was for the concepts of contagion and severity. These findings
are compared to previous work and implications are discussed.

(503) CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

MICHAEL MICKLIN (Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers) YOUTH AND MODERNIZATION:
NEGLECTED ANTHROPOLOGICAL ISSUES The objective of this paper is to develop a line of
inquiry that has been relatively neglected by anthropologists working in the developing
world: the relationship between modernization and youth culture. A conceptual framework
is presented that relates demographic composition, structural changes in the family and
the labor force, and processes of youth socialization. Central to this argument is the
concept of "boundary systems" developed by Yehudi Cohen. Modernization results in
increasing structural differentiation within the family and the labor force and alters
drastically the mechanisms of youth socialization. Consequently, a youth culture has
emerged similar to that observed in the more industrialized societies. The utility of
this perspective is illustrated with two substantive issues of youth socialization:
family formation and preparation for the labor force. Several issues for anthropological
research are presented, with emphasis placed on implications for the development of youth
policy in the developing world.

TIMOTHY READY (Children's Heart Program of S. Texas) THE DETERMINANTS OF THE CARDIO-
VASCULAR HEALTH OF ADOLESCENTS IN CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS In recent years, health
scientists have emphasized the need to prevent cardiovascular diseases during youth,
before deleterious health habits have become firmly established, and arteriosclerotic
deterioration of the arteries becomes irreversible. If this is to be accomplished, the
extent and distribution of cardiovascular risk factors among the various segments of a
given community must first be assessed, along with their social, cultural and economic
determinants. Experience has demonstrated over the past two years that anthropology can
significantly contribute to this task. Research has been conducted among Mexican-
American, Anglo and Black adolescents in Corpus Christi and surrounding Nueces County,
Texas. Results of the research indicate that efforts at primary and secondary prevention
of cardiovascular diseases during adolescence may have some success. The effectiveness
of these efforts will be limited, however, due to the overriding importance of cultural,
social and economic features characteristic of the United States in general, as well as
the sub-cultures of the youth of Corpus Christi in particular.

ANN FLEURET (NSF), PATRICK FLEURET SAIDI) EVALUATING YOUNG CHILD CLINICS IN DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES "Young child" or "under-fives" clinics which provide nutrition education,
nutritional surveillance and curative and preventive medical care are common features of
health services in developing countries. This paper will provide data evaluating such
facilities from the published literature and will provide a case study of young child
clinics in Lushoto District, Tanzania. The study will show that while there are features
that are common to user acceptance/rejection in different countries, attitudes toward
young child health services are particularly sensitive to cultural variations in disease
concepts, food preferences, health practice, and supernatural beliefs. Yet this is an
old lesson--one that Foster, Paul, Niehoff and others identified long ago. The question
arises, what is it about planned development that makes it so difficult for project
designers and implementers to recognize, assimilate, and put to use the wealth of inform-
ation now available about local-level response to health development initiatives. A











number of explanatory factors are identified, including information flows within bureau-
cracies, constraints on the ability of development managers to "test reality", and
the political relationships between development agencies and host country governments.

JEANNE GUILLEMIN (Boston College) MEDICAL DECISION MAKING IN THE TREATMENT OF HIGH-RISK
INFANTS: A COMPARATIVE FIELD WORK STUDY The sophistication of Western technology
presents new options for sustaining life beyond the patient's ultimate capacity for
consciousness and human interaction. In cases such as those of Karen Quinlan and Joseph
Saikewicz, the moral and legal implications of difficult prolongation-of-life decisions
received extensive discussion by ethicists and lawyers. Among social scientists, Crane
(1975) has proposed that technical progress requires physicians to give increasing weight
to the social viability of the critically ill patient as opposed to strictly clinical
evidence. This paper is a preliminary report on a particular age category of the critic-
cally ill, newborns at high risk because of prematurity, congenital problems or disease.
Field work investigations were carried out in the special care nurseries of two large
Eastern hospitals. The basic question posed by the research is the extent to which
quality-of-life factors, as interpreted by medical staff, do determine patient treatment.
Because emphasis is put on the social context for medical decision making, the type of
institution, the organization of staff responsibilities and the behavior of parents
emerge as the most important predictors of patient care and the level of aggressive
intervention deemed appropriate.

PHILIP SINGER (Oakland U) PHENYLKETONURIA IN ARAB AND JEWISH CHILDREN IN ISRAEL DURING
1978-79 The problem was why Arab families do not follow the necessary low phenylalanine
diet which prevents irreversible mental retardation in this genetic disease. The
findings were that the obstacles were both cultural and inter-communicational (Jewish
medical personnel, Arab patients).

(504) ANTHROPOLOGICAL ISSUES IN REPRODUCTION

KEVIN R. O'REILLY (Conn) USE AND AVOIDANCE OF CONTRACEPTION IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND
Fieldwork was conducted in Dublin, Ireland during 1978 and 1979 to investigate the usage
of contraception by Irish women of childbearing age. Ireland has long been known for its
restrictive legal as well as cultural atmosphere regarding the usage of artificial contra-
ception. The presence of family planning clinics in Dublin as well as other Irish cities
poses interesting questions about who utilizes these clinics in light of the restrictive
environment. Two samples of women were interviewed. One was a randomly drawn sample of
the general population around Dublin (a sample of 75) and the other a sample of 100 pat-
ients at two of Dublin's family planning clinics (one a primarily working-class clinic,
the other primarily middle-class). Comparisons are made between the two samples, as well
as between the clientele of the two different dines. The groups are examined for vari-
ation in a range of sociocultural as well as economic factors in relation to their usage
or avoidance of contraception as well as their opinions about individual methods. Multi-
variate analysis are used in the analysis of the data, which is both quantitative and
qualitative in nature.

W. PENN HANDWERKER (Humboldt St. U) EXPLAINING REPRODUCTIVE VARIATION This paper
addresses the issue of how and when we may be able to explain reproductive variation in
such a way as to successfully predict a demographic transition. The principal current
explanatory strategies are critically evaluated. A consideration of human biological and
cultural characteristics leads to the following conclusions: when we focus on the socio-
cultural determinants of reproduction to the exclusion of infectious disease and nutrition,
1) we will never be able to predict a demographic transition with much accuracy, 2) even
after the fact we will never be able to explain much variance in reproductive patterns,
but 3) we will be (are) able to successfully predict where and when differences in repro-
ductive patterns are to be found.













ROCHELLE N. SHAIN (Texas-San Antonio) THE IMPACT OF REVERSIBILITY ON SELECTION OF TUBAL
STERILIZATION Despite continuing interest in development of reversible sterilization,
baseline data regarding how much more acceptable reversible procedures would he than
currently available methods have not been available. This study provides such data from
1074 randomly selected obstretric/gynecology patients of reproductive age in metropolitan
San Antonio. Basic socio-demographic data and attitudinal information with respect to
both permanent and hypotehtically reversible tubal ligation were elicited via a self-
administered questionnaire. Responses toward permanent and reversible sterilization were
compared and analyzed for statistically significant differences. Results indicate that
approval of, serious consideration of, intent to eventually undergo, and immediate demand
for tubal sterilization would be increased 25%, 95%, 178% and 163% respectively, if revers-
ible procedures were available. All increases are statistically significant at P .001.
These data, confirming pilot study results reported a year ago, indicate that the option of
reversibility is exceedingly important to potential candidates for sterilization and its
availability would significantly increase the acceptibility of femal surgical sterilization
as an alternative method of contraception.

MAUREEN J. GIOVANNINI (Boston U) SOCIAL NETWORKS AND CHILDBIRTH IN WORKING-CLASS
AMERICAN FAMILIES Using the concepts of social network and life crisis this paper
analyzes the cultural management of childbirth in working-class urban-based North American
families. The paper argues that childbirth is neither an illness nor a normal routine
event. Rather, as a life crisis, childbirth is an important critical episode in the life
cycle of a woman and her "significant others" which marks the transition from one set of
roles to another. As in most life crises the individuals involved in childbirth often
require emotional support, information, and instrumental assistance to aid them in the
adjustment process. Drawing upon twenty-two case studies--working-class families that had
recently undergone the childbirth experience--the paper discusses the familial and friend-
ship networks characterizing these families. It then goes on to delineate the support
roles--emotional, instrumental, informational--that network members assumed during pregnan-
cy, labor and delivery, and the post-partum period. The existence of social supports as
well as the kinds of supports available are related to the overall adjustment to childbirth
as reported by the twenty-two families. The paper concludes by suggesting appropriate
support roles which holistically oriented health care workers can assume during the life
crisis of childbirth when familial and friendship supports are minimal.

GLENDA TRAVIS (CSU Sacramento) CONTRACEPTIVE CHANGES IN ITALY Italian family legislation
has undergone significant innovations in the past decade, attempting to reduce the dispar-
ity between the law and existing social structure. The legalization of abortion and
counseling services to provide birth control information has reinforced certain principles
in the culture, while neglecting their implementation. This neglect has limited women's
access to abortion which has been the traditional system of birth control in Italy.
Th s paper will discuss the incongruities between the real changes and ideal legal reforms
in these contraceptive practices.

JOY P. CLAUSEN (Duke) PICA DURING PREGNANCY: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE The term
pica is used for those food cravings that are compulsive in nature, and has been tradition-
ally associated with eating habits of women during pregnancy. How widespread this
phenomena is is not definitely known, but it is found frequently among the blacks, American
Indians, and Spanish Americans throughout the United States. Pica has been the focus of
study by the writer, a nurse-anthropologist, during the past 18 months while residing in
North Carolina. Nearly 100 women have been interviewed about the practice of pica during
pregnancy, and a variety of food and non-food stuffs are being eaten by this population as
revealed by these women. The analysis of data collected to date will focus on whether pica
is exclusive to pregnancy as it has been previously thought, and implications of pica for
the nutritional well-being of women during the pregnancy cycle.











(505) SYMPOSIUM ORGANIZERS: DIMITRI B. SHIMKIN/SOL TAX APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY FOR THE
FUTURE: CONCEPTS AND PROMISING AREAS OF EFFORT

DIMITRI B. SHIMKIN (Illinois), SOL TAX (Chicago) APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY FOR THE FUTURE:
AN OVERVIEW Since its inception in 1976, the project on Anthropology For the Future has
sought to develop cooperative efforts by anthropologists, nationally and internationally,
to identify the key intellectual tasks and practical contributions challenging our
discipline in coming years. A successful conference at Houston, Texas in 1977 yielded
valuable results from the efforts of some 70 American anthropologists. This was followed
by a somewhat less productive input into the Xth International Congress of Anthropological
and Ethnological Sciences in Delhi, India in 1978. Out of that Congress grew a commitment
by SfAA to explore the feasibility and desirability of developing studies--"modules"--that
would eventually yield a widely useful compendium on Applied Anthropology For the Future.
We are convinced that in this period of serious international disarray it is precisely
correct to examine what our discipline can do in applied fields, and how our applications
can best be communicated and accepted internationally. In particular, we need to visual-
ize how best the needs and initiatives of less industrialized countries can be met in
this process. In past months, our Committee has been forming initial approaches to the
issues we have raised. We came to the conclusion that a selective rather than aencyclo-
pedic approach would be most fruitful. In this selection, we felt that five aspects would
bring out relevant issues, concepts, and illustrative materials most effectively: 1)
Developing local institutions:administration vs political action. This deals with a
central dilemma, application from above or from below. 2) Clinical anthropology--an
emerging vocation? What are the possibilities and problems in the shift from an academic
to a therapeutic orientation? 3) New methods in applied anthropology. How can new data
gathering and analytical tools aid in applied efforts? 4) Documentation and data manage-
ment in applied anthropology. How can our efforts become cumulative, how can our
scattered experiences and findings be made accessible in making applied anthropology more
useful and reliable? What risks exist in so doing? 5) Apllied anthropology by whom?
Client groups, power systems, and anthropological roles. The ultimate questions: who is
benefited, who controls, how can ethical acceptability and practicability be satisfied?
In our deliberations, we know that we will be merely laying out major problems. We hope
that what we do, however, will stimulate a continuing, joint effort, internationally,
including colleagues from less industrialized nations.

BARRY R. BAINTON (Arizona), WILLIAM MILLSAP (Southwest Texas St. U.) DEVELOPING LOCAL
INSTITUTIONS: ADMINISTRATION IN POLITICAL ACTION Lucian Pye writing in 1963 observed
that a major problem in third world development arises from the gap between the political
development of new nations and the administrative structures required in nation building.
While his remarks were addressed to the problems of the newly decolonized nations of
Africa and Asia, his observations are equally applicable today to the federal coloniza-
tion of local communities in the United States. In this paper we will examine the
political and administrative problems facing the development of local institutions both
in the United States and the third world. By local institutions, we mean legal consti-
tuted agencies for social action. Such agencies, either as creatures of the state or
beneficiaries of state sponsored programs of social action, are caught between the public
demand for services and the need to account for their actions to political and administra-
tive structures which hold absolute power over the agency's future. Planning and program
evaluation are major techniques available to local institutions to balance the competing
demand placed on them. The authors will explore the political, administrative and inter-
active systems of local institutions. From this exploration, a set of principles will be
derived and their implications for applied anthropology discussed.

PEGGY GOLD (Illinois), SUE ELLEN JACOBS (Washington) CLINICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: A PROPOSED
DELINEATION OF A SUBFIELD Historically, seminal contributions to this inchoate specialty
begin with a paper by Clyde Kluckhohn on the influence of psychiatry in America and end
with Robert A. LeVine's Culture, Behavior and Personality (1943). My personal training
and experience relevant to the case history will be described. A single definition to












encompass all clinical anthropology is premature; however ,common core elements include
1) Clinical practice from a psychological and individual frame of reference 2) Clients
from other culture 3) Subscribing to immediate intervention on ways of thinking current-
ly revealed by clients 4) Research endeavors likely to be "culture and personality" 5)
Training of future clinical anthropologists to include experienced practitioners super-
vising performance. The role of consultant will be presented as employment example. A
lawyer from another state requested diagnostic evaluation of a mother's year-long grief
over the death of her three-year old son. The lawyer's question: was her prolonged grief
culturally determined or individual pathology? Diagnosis required anthropological tech-
niques of observation and interviewing. The consultant spent one weekend with the client
and her Mexican-born husband in their home (several hours by plane from California), and
another weekend with her parents and eight sisters a day's drive away. It became evident
that her cultural beliefs were influenced less by her parents than by the stepping-stone
socialization of her seven preceding sisters. The case was settled out of court;
unfortunately, the client remains angry and depressed.

BARTON M. CLARK (Illinois), JOHN VAN WILLIGEN (Kentucky) DOCUMENTATION AND DATA
MANAGEMENT IN APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY During the past three decades, the literature within
the social sciences has experienced a phenomenal rate of growth. This information
explosion has far outpaced our ability to successfully manage and disseminate the inform-
ation. Within the applied social sciences, where much of the information only receives
limited publication if it is published at all, this has been a particularly critical
problem. Many of these "naturally-occuring" documents are valuable as a means of under-
standing the social/cultural situation to which they are addressed and as depictions of
problem solving techniques. If, however, applied anthropologists are to rapidly and
effectively communicate their reserach to each other, it will be necessary to develop
computer based systems to handle the information. To resolve this problem three levels
of information control are examined: bibliographic, quantitative data, and textual.
Current technology, including on-line bibliographic systems, data archives, electronic
journals, and electronic mail is reviewed. Inter-relating technology with the levels of
information control, a model is developed for improving information dissemination among
applied anthropologists.

(506) ANTICIPATORY AND PREVENTIVE DIMENSIONS OF RESEARCH AND PRACTICE: POLICY AND EQUITY
RELATED PROGRAMS, PART I ORGANIZER: ELLEN A HERDA This symposium brings together
a variety of researchers and practitioners working toward equity for handicapped, minor-
ities, and women. They will explore the social and political dimensions of implementing
equity-based programs. Emphasis will be placed on the kinds of data needed to inform
practice and policy decisions, and to aid in anticipating and preventing some problems in
complying with equity-based legislation. Along with the rapidly growing body of research
critically examining the rational dissemination model, there is increasing evidence that
top-down neutral interventions through legislation and technical information flow do not
produce change in equity status. The quity problem goes beyond any one interest group
and demands new research questions. The presenters will provide specific cases, and
discuss questions promoting research that addresses intervention, community involvement
and grounded policy decisions. Implications for community and organizational members in
general will be discussed from a holistic perspective rather than focusing solely on the
special interest perspectives.

FERNIE BACA-MOORE WHAT KINDS OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS ARE NEEDED TO INFORM BILINGUAL/
BICULTURAL LEGISLATION AND POLICY? Most federal legislation has been made without
adequate data. The Title VII programs for bilingual/bicultural society members face
numerous problems, some of which can be approached by gata generated with research
agendas that speak to the nature of the problems faced by individuals speaking languages
other than English and/or in addition to English. The cultural dimension are often
ignored in research in favor of statistics reflecting a "neutral" bias toward the
problems. The parctitioner, as an informed research participant, has an important place
in research, practice and policy decisions. This paper will provide case studies and
discussion of the implications of Title VII programs affecting bicultural members as well
as community members other than those involved in such federal programs.












WILLIAM W. MALLOY (Milwaukee Public Schools) BEYOND ADVOCACY: RACIAL DESEGREGATION AND
SOCIOPOLITICAL IMPERATIVES Recent court decisions across the country are forcing racial
desegregation which in turn is affecting communities, families and school programs.
These consequences in several cases are not understood, discussed or researched in terms
of the people the court decisions were designed to "help" in the first place. Examples
of these consequences will be presented and research agendas will be suggested that speak
to these emergent problems.

A. CHUCK ROSS (Western Colorado) THE ORIGINAL TEACHINGS OF THE RED MAN This presentation
on research findings reflects a holistic/historical approach to understanding the Red Man
in today's world. Philosophies and theories of quantum physics, metaphysics, religion,
mythology and folklore were used in integrating and interpreting the findings. Implica-
tions for making future policy decisions will be discussed. Part I in the morning of
March 22 and Part II (report and slide presentation) in the afternoon of March 22, 1980.

GERALD A. GIPP (U.S. Office of Indian Education) COMMUNITIES AND FEDERAL LEGISLATION
Communities need to have their ideas and needs expressed to those in positions of making
policy decisions. In the past, there have often been inappropriate spokespersons who
determined what programs were deemed necessary for Native Americans and other minorities.
Consequently, legislation and policy have not always addressed actual situations. Ways
by which communities can better serve themselves in terms of federal legislation will be
discussed.

NANCY L. KNAPP (No. Illinois U.) POLITIES, POLITICS AND EQUITY Special Relationships
often evolve between policy makers and groups labeled vulnerable or deviant (e.g. women;
minorities; and individuals who are handicapped, poor, ill, very young or old). Each
group--policy makers and vulnerable polity members--has access to different information
and may also have different modes of processing information. Policy makers and polity
members often therefore perceive different, even opposing, current policy needs, with
even greater discrepancy in sensing emerging policy issues. Policy is made based on
whatever information is available, often in the form of dramatic individual cases or
easily quantified mass data. Special types of research, preferably created by vulner-
able polity members, is needed to provide information appropriate to equitable policy
process and content. Potential for such equal exchange basis will be explored from the
federal and state level.

WALTER L. PANKO (UCEA) LEGISLATION, POLICY, AND GRASS ROOTS INVOLVEMENT: THE
HANDICAPPED AND THE NON-HANDICAPPED Legislation intended to assure equity for handi-
capped individuals has been targeted at the educational activities of public schools and
universities and the hiring practices of business and industry. The idea that equity can
be legislated, however, is a myth. The benefits to handicapped and non-handicapped
individuals and society when such equity is attempted can only accrue, if at all, when
all factions of the community are involved in a holistic approach to the effort. Before
undertaking such a grass roots approach, we must understand what equity is, ask appro-
priate research questions, and know how to recognize that it has been achieved.

(507) SYMPOSIUM CROSS CULTURAL ISSUES IN ALASKAN EDUCATION Alaska provides a unique
laboratory for the analysis and exploration of issues associated with education in a
cross-cultural environment. This symposium will encompass a variety of such issues and
will reflect varied perspectives on how those issues are being addressed in Alaska today.
Specific issues to be addressed include those associated with research, program develop-
ment, teacher education, instructional practices, language use, technology, and village
life in a cross-cultural setting. Participants in the symposium are all directly in-
volved with the issues they will discuss and often represent the "cutting edge" in cross-
cultural educational development. The Alaskan experience can provide much useful insight
into the issues facing educators in any cross-cultural setting. A prize-winning film
depicting contemporary village life will be shown.












PATRICK J. DUBBS (Alaska) CULTURAL DEFINITIONS AND EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS After a brief
examination of how, in general, conceptual definitions have definite implications for
action programs, this paper then focuses on 1) how various cultural definitions, implicit-
ly or explicitly, result in certain directions for educational programs, 2) the general
educational and societal consequences of these directions, and 3) the need for educational
program planners/developers to adopt cognitively oriented definitions of culture. Examples
are derived from Alaskan educational programs labelled bi-cultural, multicultural,
cultural heritage and cross cultural.

C.D. RIDER (Alaska) COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION:
APPLYING PSYCHOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CROSS-CULTURAL TEACHER
EDUCATION PROGRAM Questions covering the nature of cultural influences on psychological
processes are, as yet, mostly unanswered. Throughout the world, however, programs in
higher education continue to declare their dedication to the development of a cross-
cultural curriculum. A foci of this paper then, is the identification of general theoreti-
cal orientations that led to the development of the curriculum of one such cross-cultural
teacher education program. Data for this endeavor are obtained from interviews with
program developers, current staff, and from published and unpublished program documents.
Another foci of this paper is the application of anthropology, influenced by developmental
psychology, to the task of improving curriculum for a cross-cultural teacher education
program. Several allied areas of study are examined for their utility in developing a
curriculum that demonstrates cultural influences on human development. These areas are
cognitive anthropology, culture and cognition, and psychological anthropology. Finally,
this paper suggests methods of implementing changes in the teacher education program that
will address questions of cultural influences on thinking and learning.

EDWIN BOSTROM (Alaska) A MODEL FOR CROSS-CULTURALLY RELEVANT, COMPREHENSIVE POST-SECONDARY
EDUCATION IN RURAL ALASKA The failure of the American post-secondary educational Establish-
ment to achieve the ideal that rural peoples receive equity in university education with
urban peoples in nowhere better exemplified than in rural Alaska. The fact that imported
non-Native persons residing in villages with largely Native populations continue to occupy
most of the positions requiring post-secondary educational preparation speask to this condi-
tion. The pruposes of this paper are to discuss the social/cultural problems associated
with urban-oriented post-secondary education in rural Alaska, to present and report upon a
field tested and evaluated post-secondary curricular model and delivery system designed for
rural Alaska, and to discuss the implications of this model for providing a structure of
cross-culturally oriented post-secondary education in rural Alaska.

BILL PARRETT (Alaska) AN OVERVIEW OF INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES COMMON TO ALTERNATIVE SCHOOLS
AND THE IMPLICATIONS THEY HOLD FOR THE PREPARATION OF TEACHERS FOR RURAL ALASKAN SCHOOLS
The past decade has been characterized by the emergence of alternative schools as a major
trend in public education. It is estimated that over 10,000 of these programs were in
operation by 1976 with continual growth occurring to the present. A limited body of empir-
ical research has evolved in conjunction with this development. These studies have
addressed the needs of definition and documentation of the concept of alternative schools
and the components which characterize their operation. The State of Alaska has recently
enacted legislation providing for the establishment of rural high schools. Rural communi-
ties, through the process of developing local programs, have demonstrated operational
needs closely aligned to those which prompted the development of many alternative schools.
One need in particular focuses on the preservice and inservice development of instructional
personnel responsible for the successful implementation of these schools. This paper will
address the potential relationship between successfully operating alternative schools and
the development of small high schools in rural Alaska in reference to instructional prac-
tices. Additionally, this paper will investigate the current status of teacher preparation
for alternative schools and discuss the implications it holds for the preparation of
teachers for rural Alaskan schools.












MARK KUHN, WENDY ROSEN (Alaska) NATIVE TEACHERS IN THE SCHOOL: SOME PROMISES AND
LIMITATIONS This paper will examine the power of the culture of the school in village
Alaska to perpetuate itself as an imposed and foreign institution, despite the introduc-
tion of certificated native teachers and paraprofessionals. The village school's culture
has not been significantly altered, and is, for the most part, in conflict with the
culture of the community. The paper will analyze the gate-keeping process that native
teachers go through to guarantee that they will not disrupt the fundamental structure of
the school. It will also examine the methodologies that teachers use in schools that
reflect the values of the school in opposition to the community, and that these are inher-
ent in the expectations of a teacher's role in the school, no matter what the teacher's
background (native or non-native). We will examine the culture of the educational institu-
tions in village Alaska, the enculturation/acculturation of native teachers into this
culture, and the culture of the school vis-a-vis the culture of the local community.

EILEEN MACLEAN EDUCATION AND THE INUPIAQ LANGUAGE PROGRAM IN THE NORTH SLOPE BOROUGH
SCHOOL DISTRICT The North Slope Borough School District is the largest and potentially
the richest school district in the United States, encompassing over 80,000 square miles
and including the Prudhoe Bay oil fields. The schools in the district are in the hands of
a Borough school board which is attempting to develop programs that build on the cultural
and physical environment of the region. This paper will trace the development of the
district, with a particular emphasis on the Inupiaq language program and the issues it is
attempting to address.

RON SCOLLON (Alaska) COMMUNICATIVE STYLE AND RESEARCH STYLE: A PROBLEM IN DISCOVERY,
APPLICATION, AND REPORTAGE Communicative style has been seen to play a central role in
gatekeeping situations (Erickson). Differences in communicative style between the gate-
keeper and the "applicant" may produce a kind of leakage into the encounter that subverts
objectivity of the situation and ultimately may result in discrimination against the appli-
cant whose communicative styld is different. It has been argued (Scollon and Scollon to
appear) that situations in which there are strict constraints on time, where there are
multiple participants, or where some medium introduces distance between the participants
tend to become focused or to allow for little negotiation among the participants. These
focused interactions limit negotiation of individual difference and tend toward unilateral
sense making by the more powerful participants. Research is a form of communication and is
therefore strongly associated with particular communicative styles. Researchers as they
influence educational and social services policy become gatekeepers for the subjects of
their studies. Research may be focused or non-focused. I argue that where the communica-
tive style of the subjects of research shows a preference for negotiated, non-focused
interaction the research itself must be conducted in a negotiated non-focused manner. Among
the implications of non-focused research are the centrality of dialogue between the
researcher and the subject, a high degree of negotiability of topics, times, participants
and agendas, and strict limitations on distancing media and other systems of reportage.

LAWRENCE KAPLAN, STEVEN MCNABB (Alaska, and Chukchi Comm. College) VILLAGE ENGLISH IN
NORTHWEST ALASKA In Northwest Alaska, as well as in other rural areas of the state, local
people speak a non-standard variety of English. This dialect, commonly known as "village
English" has been regarded as the cause of many of the educational problems found in rural
schools. Although no one has studied the question for Northwest Alaska, the issue of
village English is crucial to an understanding of many aspects of life in the region, educa-
tion among them. The proposed paper intends to provide an overview of the status of
English among the Inupiaq Eskimo population of Northwest Alaska, including the following
topics: 1) What village English represents in linguistic terms, i.e. the types of non-
standard features which distinguish it and their probable sources; 2) the relative roles of
village and standard English in the region, explaining generally when each is used and why;
3) attitudes about village English versus standard English; 4) suggested goals of an educa-
tional policy which would take village English into account. Although many educators and
local people alike recognize the value of learning the standard dialect, many speakers of
village English in fact appear unwilling to abandon their way of speaking. This fact is










often misinterpreted by those who fail to understand the role of village English in iden-
tifying the speaker's Inupiaq ethnicity. This function of village English makes many
people prefer it to standard English in a great many contexts; the failure of outsiders,
generally, to recognize this function makes the perpetuation of village English appear
pointless or even obstinate. When the involvement of village English with.ethnicity is
understood, it should be possible to teach standard English without devaluing the pre-
dominant speech form of the community.

RAY BARNHARDT (Alaska) SMALL HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR RURAL ALASKA In 1976 the State of
Alaska signed a Consent Decree agreeing to make a high school program available to any
community with one or more secondary age students and an elementary program. This has
resulted in the development of over 100 new high schools in the rural areas over the past
three years and has led to some innovative programs as well as some interesting problems.
This paper will discuss some of those problems and programs and outline some of the con-
siderations that are necessary in developing small high schools in a rural cross-cultural
setting

ERIC MADSEN (Alaska) DECISION-MAKING IN RURAL ALASKAN COMMUNITIES This paper discusses
the communication and decision-making patterns currently used in one small Alaskan village.
I will suggest that there exists a discontinuity between these patterns and the strategies
used by the school district to gather the information it uses in formulating educational
policy for high school age young people in that village. I contend significantly this
initial communication/decision-making discontintuity figures significantly in the students'
and parents' stated perception that the local high school program lacks appropriateness
and meaning.

JAMES M. ORVIK (Alaska) CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS IN TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS There is
extensive pressure for Native Alaskans to adopt sophisticated technology to overcome
educational delivery problems. Paradoxically, while technological development is control-
led by human beings, the subtlety of the social mechanisms by which human control is
exerted gives the appearance that technological innovations are inevitable and hence
irresistible. The locus of control over innovation needs to be shifted to those in a
culture most likely to be affected adversely by technological innovations. This paper
presents a set of decision rules by which to mitigate the unwanted elements of any proposed
technological system: 1) The development of all new systems should proceed from inside a
culture rather than be externally imposed. 2) New systems should allow the sequence of
problem solving to proceed from the individual to the education professional. 3)Systems
should not require new hardware for its own sake. 4) Sytems should not be based on presumed
cultural deficits. 5) Sytems that enhance local autonomy are preferable to those that erode
it. 6) Systems should be implemented on a basis of fair competition with existing systems.
Each rule is discussed in detail and examples are given that illustrate how a rule can be
used systematically to evaluate existing technologies as well as proposals for future use.

C.R. MICHEL (Alaska) THE NATURE OF A FINDING IN CONSTITUTIVE ETHNOGRAPHY AND FORMAL
INTERACTION ANALYSIS Research into the structure of interaction in cross-cultural settings
has recently been enhanced by the perspectives of constitutive ethnography and formal
interaction analysis. The assumptions upon which these investigations are based are exam-
ined with two goals in mind: first, to appreciate the nature of a finding in such
approaches; and second, to asses the relationship between such findings and their possible
applications.

BILL PFISTERER (Alaska) THROUGH THE EYES OF AN 126 YEAR OLD GWITCH'IN ATHABASCAN WOMAN
This paper will discuss how information has been gathered to recreate, in both written
Gwitch'in and English, the life history of a 126 year old Athabascan woman currently living
in a small remote village in interior Alaska. The paper will focus on the methodology used
in obtaining and translating the life history, as well as on some of the experiences
reflected in the life of a person who was a mature woman when the Klondike gold rush brought
the first significant group of whites into the country.










(508) CULTURE CHANGE AND MAINTENANCE: INDOCHINESE REFUGEE ADAPTATION Relatively little
significant research has been conducted on Southeast Asian refugees in the United States.
The papers in this symposium are representative of that which has been done and which
have implications for both resettlement programs and for future research on the subject.
They deal with basic issues surrounding adaptation and ethnicity, while also providing
indications of the relationship between refugees and their new institutional environment.
These papers as a result, provide important and needed perspectives on the processes of
adjustment for refugees and for those who, in various capacities, have contact with them.

DAVID R. HOWELL (ORA/HEW) REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADAPTATION, AND RESEARCH The United
States is engaged in a process of admitting and resetlling refugees from Southeast Asia
in numbers which will significantly exceed one-half million by 1981. While those refu-
gees who entered this country after the fall of Saigon in 1975 were generally educated
and accustomed to modern life to some degree, many of those admitted in the recent past,
and especially those presently in first asylum camps, are functionally or actually
illiterate (the Hmong are non-literate), and without notable life experience which would
aid them in resettlement. In addition, six ethnolinguistic groups are now represented
in significant numbers in the refugee population. This paper traces the development of
various refugee groups to life in the United States. Following this brief history, it
reports on the current resettlement situation, and expectations are provided for refugee
programs and adaptation based on current knowledge and evaluations. This discussion
leads to an assessment of research needs, opportunities, and applications for the future,
and suggests that this situation offers an opportunity for the conduct of interesting
research, as well as that of contributing to the effectiveness of the resettlement
program and the welfare of these refugees.

DARREL MONTERO (Arizona St) VIETNAMESE REFUGEES IN AMERICA As of November 1979, more
than 270,000 Indochinese refugees had come to the United States after a traumatic flight
from their native land, arriving with little preparation for the changes they would face.
The present paper analyzes this unique migration and, employing data from a national
sample, reports on the changing socioeconomic status of the Indochinese refugees. The
paper presents an analysis of data on the refugees' employment, education, income, receipt
of federal assistance, and proficiency in the English language. A model of Spontaneous
international Migration (SIM) is developed which places the Vietnamese immigration experi-
ence in a broader sociohistorical context.

DAVID HAINES (American U) HOUSEHOLD FAMILY AND COMMUNITY: CULTURAL RESPONSE TO ADAPTATION
AMONG VIETNAMESE REFUGEES In attempting to understand the ways in which various family
and community networks mediate between Vietnamese refugees and the receiving American
society, two significant problems emerge. First, despite the heavy French and American
involvements in Indochina, little basic research has been conducted on issues other than
political control. That is, there is no baseline from which to measure social change.
Second, the more recent work on refugees within the United States has suffered from simi-
lar problems. There has been little attempt to understand the cultural differences
between Vietnamese and Americans, and the effects of the long and muddled historical rela-
tions between these two peoples. The practical problem is that without any kind of base-
line work, especially with regard to the issues of household, extended family, and
community organization, it is virtually impossible to develop policies whose social impact
can be predicted, or even roughly visualized. Two particular questions emerge. First,
what are the general support functions that households and other wider networks provide to
the refugee that alleviate the problems of social and economic adjustment? Second, what
are the stress points within these groups or networks that can be positively impacted by
government policies? On the basis of the limited relevant literature, previous experience
in Vietnam, and ongoing field efforts in the Washington, D.C. are, a framework for
research and evaluation is proposed that can meet both immediate and long-term policy
needs, and do so by indicating ways in which the existing resources of household, kinship,
and community can be fostered.











BARBARA W.K. YEE (U. of Denver) CAUCASIAN, JAPANESE AND VIETNAMESE ELDERLY: PERCEPTIONS
OF CONTROL OVER LIFE SITUATIONS The CaucasPin elderly and the Vietnamese elderly equally
perceived themselves to have internal control across seven life situations. The Vietnam-
ese elderly perceived themselves to have significantly more internal control across all
seven life situations than the Japanese elderly. The Vietnamese and Japanese elderly
equally perceived powerful others to have control over their lives, but those Asian
elderly groups perceived that powerful others controlled their lives significantly more
than the Caucasian elderly. The Japanese and Vietnamese elderly groups significantly
percieved themselves to be more helpless to control their lives than the Caucasian
elderly. The Japanese elderly felt significantly more helpless to control their lives in
comparison with the Vietnamese elderly. The actual perceptions of control elderly people
have may provide clues about their adaptation in later life to their real-life situa-
tions.

TIMOTHY DUNNIGAN, CHIA VANG (Minnesota) HMONG ATTITUDES TOWARD LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE:
A COMMUNITY SPONSORED TRANSLATION PROJECT The intentions and specific strategies of the
Laotian Hmong regarding language maintenance are revealed in the results of a community
sponsored project which involved the English to Hmong translation of 6th grade curricular
materials describing the rules followed by the U.S. Congress in making laws. The coining
of new Hmong vocabulary, the avoidance of appropriate Lao terminolgy, the adoption of
English proper nouns with extensive phonetic modification, and other policy decisions of
the translation committee illustrate Hmong attempts to consciously control through group
action the acculturative impact of other cultures.

GEORGE M. SCOTT, JR. (UC San Diego) KINSHIP AND FAMILY IN IMMIGRANT ADJUSTMENT: THE
CASE OF THE HMONG REFUGEES IN SAN DIEGO The Hmong refugee population in San Diego
constitutes a tightly-knit, well-integrated community organized primarily in terms of
their traditional kinship and family system. This cultural conservatism is interpreted
as an initial stage of adjustment of a people whose cultural background is extremely
disparate from that of their host society, in which the maintenance of their traditional
kinship and family practices provides them with a familiar environment of mutual assist-
ance and comfort that would be otherwise difficult to obtain. The extent of the Hmong's
dependency on their traditional kinship and family system is documented and explored, and
its specific functions as a survival mechanism are delineated and illustrated with exemp-
lary cases. Finally, these functions are assessed in the light of the relative balance
of immediate survival versus long-term assimilation.

ROGER HARMON (Indochina Refugee Action Center) LAOTIAN IN MEDICAL CRISIS: A CASE STUDY
Laotian refugees in the United States are cut off from the major religious practitioners
and settings through which they have traditionally met a variety of needs. This paper
examines the innovative way in which improvised forms of traditional Lao religion has
been devised to meet the needs of a Lao woman in crisis. The paper describes a case
study of a woman faced with kidney failure and the need for hemodialysis who utilizes
numerous traditional rituals performed by her husband and friends. The confusion this
caused for medical practitioners is discussed, and recommendations for assisting Laotians
in medical crisis are given.

PETER W. VAN ARSDALE (U of Denver) COMMUNICATION, HEALTH CARE, AND STRESS AMONG VIETNAM-
ESE AND CHICANOS OF TWO DENVER HOUSING PROJECTS This paper is based upon research
conducted from 1976 through 1979 in two Denver low-income housing projects. Information
obtained from key inforsnants, survey respondents. and agency personnel indicate that
Vietnanese immigrants represent more heterogeneous population than Chicanos. Such
heterogeneity is reflected in communication patters and health care seeking behavior.
The "complaint network", especially among Chicanos, is shown to serve a group-unifying
function. In both groups local communication processes and barriers frequently alter
health care seeking activities, especially where Vietnamese-Chicano stress producing
interactions exist. In these situations health per se assumes secondary importance.













PAUL D. STARR (Auburn U) THE IMPACT OF VIETNAMESE FISHERFOLK ON THE GULF COAST
Vietnamese refugees, may of them Catholics from coastal villages have come to play an
important, visible role in the fishing industry of the central Gulf Coast. This study
describes their early resettlement experience, emerging position in different communi-
ties, and relationships with other groups involved in the fisheries. Factors which have
contributed to competition and conflict between the Vietnamese and others are discussed
and implications drawn for the more general study of ethnic relations.

JAMES A. PISAROWICZ (U of Denver) ADAPTATION OF INDOCHINESE REFUGEES: A MULTIVARIATE
SYSTEM Since the majority of past investigations into refugee adaptation process have
been univariate in nature, only isolated aspects of the refugee adaptation process have
been studied. The present research focuses on the adaptation process using multivariate
data analytic methodologies. Both pre-migration characteristics and conditions of the
refugees and the situational determinants in their subsequent communities of resettlement
are considered in terms of both objective and subjective aspects of culture maintenance
and change.

(509) FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY: ISSUES AND PROBLEMS Various forensic anthropologists
will have an open-ended discussion of issues and problems in their discipline. This will
include select cases worked on for various law enforcement agencies, pitfalls and prat-
falls, intended research and the like.

J. MICHAEL HOFFMAN (Colorado C) THE BEAR FACTS AND OTHER PROBLEMS IN FORENSIC ANTHRO-
POLOGY. The problem of distinguishing human hand and foot remains from bear paws is a
classic problem in forensic anthropology. Most published information on this diagnostic
problem deals with already partially defleshed to rather skeletonized remains, thus being
of limited help when remains with most flesh still present are found. A recent case of
the latter type is presented to help investigators in this situation. Another problem,
identifying individuals through facial resemblance, is brought up as a topic for discus-
sion.

MICHAEL CHARNEY (Center for Human Identification) FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGISTS: ARISE AND
BE COUNTED Forensic anthropology is not a new sub-discipline of physical anthropology;
I have been active in the forensic sciences for more than forty years and others before
that. However, the utilization of physical anthropologists knowledgeable in human osteo-
logy in law enforcement work has been spasmodic. The reasons for this are several 1) lack
of knowledge by the police of the existence of such experts 2) reticence of physical
anthropologists to push themselves in this area 3) lack of knowledge of the greater number
of coroners and medical examiners as to the expertise of physical anthropologists 4) ref-
usal of too many medicos to properly evaluate the input of physical anthropologists.
Body identification in this country and others is in a howling mess! Some 20,000 indi-
viduals go unidentified each year. There are no state or federal statutes or guidelines
on this subject! Responsibility for the identification of the body is left up in the air!
Mass disasters are becoming a frequent occurrence. If a total effort is to be made to
rectify the present sad state, then all the forensic scientists, expert in their own areas
concerning the human body, must be organized into a team effort. Physical anthropologists
must be brought into the identification work much more than they are now being used. This
paper will give the reasons for the establishment of the Center of Human Identification
and how it functions to bring some order into body identification.

B. MILES GILBERT (Missouri) THE MCKERN-STEWART AND GILBERT-MCKERN STANDARDS ARE USEFUL
FOR AGE ASSESSMENTS Suchey's work has bought to our attention that our colleagues were
miserably unsuccessful in applying the female standard for aging the os pubis. When deal-
ing with a biological phenomenon as complex and variable as pubic metamorphosis it is
unreasonable to seek "cookbook", foolproof methods of assessment that anyone can cuse-with
little experience. The significant point emerging from Suchey's work is that lots of
experience is indispensable. The inexperienced have most difficulty in differentiating
age related and trauma related metamorphic changes; and in distinguishing male and female
pubic morphology. With experience in these areas, both male and female standards have
been used very successfully to determine age at death in forensic cases.

88









SAM STOUT (Missouri) THE USE OF HISTOMORPHOLOGY TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUALS AMONG MIXED
SKELETAL REMAINS The feasibility of using histology to separate mixed skeletal remains
into individuals is investigated. Those bones which have total visible osteon densities
(the sum of the densities of intact and fragmented osteons) and mean osteonal cross-
sectional areas similar enough to have come from the same individual are grouped. Ambi-
guities, such as those due to similarity in age, are eliminated through comparison of
cortical drift patterns as well as the gross size and appearance of the bones. Ninety-
three percent of bones used in this study are correctly assigned to an individual. The
number of individuals is predicted exactly. These results suggest that histological
analyses can be used to identify bones belonging to the same individual.

GEORGE W. GILL (Wyoming) INTERORBITAL SKELETAL FEATURES IN RACE IDENTIFICATION:
ADDITIONAL FINDINGS A number of successful approaches to sex and race determination have
been developed by forensic anthropologists and anatomists in recent years, but few methods
are available for distinguishing native American Indian crani from those of Caucasians.
Recent development and testing of a method involving shape differences in the interorbital
facial skeleton is proving effective. Preliminary results were reported last year at the
American Academy of Forensic Sciences Meeting in Atlanta, Georgia, but a much broader
sample of both American Indians and Whites has since been added. Measurements have been
taken with a specially modified coordinate caliper, and effective quantification of the
shape differences achieved.

(510) POLICIES, POLITICS, AND PLANNING: CONTEMPORARY NATIVE AMERICAN ISSUES

JOALLYN ARCHAMBAULT (UC Berkeley) INDIAN-WHITE RELATIONS WITHIN A PATRONAGE CONTEXT
Patronage is usually defined as an asymmetrical relationship between social unequals,
involving an exchange of goods and services over lengthy periods of time and possessing a
distinct ethos. It arises in situations of resource scarcity and inequality of access to
services, and unequal influence. Some authors feel that eventually traditional patrons
are replaced by functionally specific patrons operating from within positions of authority
in official bureaucracies and organizations, e.g. government officials and school teach-
ers. Other writers feel that patronage is endemic to the human condition and can be found
in "modern", fully industrialized, bureaucratic societies as often as in a rural, agrar-
ian, peasant village (Schmidt 1977, Legg 1972, Bax 1973) Data from the study of corporate
organization in western New Mexico seems to support the position that bureaucratic patron-
age is possible only within "incompletely centralized" bureaucracies which do not operate
by impartial rules or universalistic criteria. It also illustrates the stability imparted
to an institution through the judicious distribution of patronage favors over a 50 year
period. The process by which patronage moves from its locus with the trader to a bureau-
cratic setting and its final dispersion lends support to those who argue a basic
incompatibility between patronage and modern nationa-states. Finally this is one of the
first applications in explicating dependency situations which have all too often been
described as symptoms of psycho-social pathology.

STEVE TALBOT (U District Of Columbia) THE SO-CALLED "INDIAN PROBLEM": CULTURAL DETERMINISM
AS SOCIAL POLICY It has been common to refer to the depressed state of Native American
life as "the plight of the American Indian", or simply as "the Indian problem". Indian
activists on the other hand, deny they have either a plight or a problem; instead; they
have injustice! Anthropologists have contributed to the racist error of blaming the
victim rather than the institutions of the oppressor nation by their emphasis on the
cultural factor (cultural determinism) to the exclusion of political and economic causes
arising from bourgeois society. Exploitation and injustice are better explanatory con-
cepts than are anthropologically derived theories of cultural and value conflict.

MARK C. BAUER (Northwestern) LEGAL ADVOCACY TRAINING: IMPLICATIONS FOR TRADITIONAL NAVAJO
COMMUNITIES Legal advocate training programs in the Navajo Nation have prepared Navajo
legal advocates to act as middlemen, bridging the gap between the formal, codified legal
system imposed by Federal, State, and Tribal Courts and the more informal traditional ways
of handling conflict in the local community. These legal advocates thus mediate the












impact of formal law on traditional social organization and local political processes.
However, most programs focus their attention on training advocates in formal law with the
objective of extending the availability of legal services to Navajo people, ignoring the
effects on the local community of increasing recourse to formal law. This paper utilizes
a body of case and interview materials obtained through observations of procedures in
dispute-settlement forums (including course) and interciws with legal personnel, litigants
and legal advocates. An analysis of the roles which legal advocates play in mediating the
impact of formal legal systems on traditional local communities will be presented. Impli-
cations of these effects for the planning and operating of legal training programs will be
discussed.

DONALD D. STULL (Kansas) ACTION ANTHROPOLOGY: A HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS Since
its inception with the Fox Project (1948-1959) more than 30 years ago, "action anthropology"
has come to be a recognized, albeit minor subfield in anthropology. The steadily emerging
sophistication and activist of native and ethnic groups, coupled with the changing job
market in anthropology, have led to a steady growth in the number of action-oriented prac-
titioners and programs. The related literature is composed primarily of case studies of
successful action approaches and programs. Unfortunately, the literature has little in
the way of discussions of logistical, methodological and ethical problems in action anthro-
pology. Discussion of problem areas is based on the author's experience with action
anthropology among Native Americans.

ALLEN C. TURNER (Kentucky) ACTIVATING CITIZEN INPUT IN A TRIBAL PLANNING PROGRAM Remote,
small scale tribal communities with fluctuating in-residence population composition have
special constraints of effective participatory planning. Furthermore, formal tribal admin-
istrative systems may be antithetical to traditional community patterns. This paper
reports on the ways the Kaibab-Paiute Tribe of Northern Arizona addressed these constraints
and some of the organizational, material and cognitive results of the tribe's three-year
HUD 701 Planning Assistance Program. Ethnohistorical and ethnographic research provided
some operating hypotheses about Southern Paiute patterns of adaptation leading to the
formation of an ad hoc Planning Committee. The Committee formed was homologous with aborig-
inal functional band structure. The Planning Committe identified the directions for
development, studied the issues and made recommendations to the Tribal Council. Areas of
participatory planning include housing, tribal land and water works and health care delivery
systems. Major results include a reservation-wide housing rehabilitation program, the
construction of irrigation systems for family gardens and plans for a community health
station on the reservation.

SILVESTER J. BRITO (Wisconsin-Milwaukee) AMERICAN INDIAN POLITICS IN CULTURAL PLURALISM
Political power of the American Indian in American society is a crucial problem. Histor-
ically he has never played a viable role in the American political areana. The purpose of
this essay then is to try and determine why this privilege has not been afforded to the
American Indian and also what his chances are of becoming a participating, policy making
force in mainstream American society. Effective participation in American politics has
become a reality for some ethnic minorities such as Jews, Irish, Poles, Italians and Germans
But for the American Indian, this socio-political status has been unattainable. With the
recent exception of the Zuni Indians, American Indian people have had little if any impact
on the policy making laws which guide and control mainstream American society. There is
little doubt that one of the reasons for the political success of the foregoing minorities
is that they mainly came to America willing to change their life style in order to become
fully participating members of a newly created nation. The main difference in their parti-
cularistic political development lies in the fact that the American Indians, unlike the
European immigrants, were already here and participating in ongoing established societies
with their own social models and laws to guide their life styles. Therefore there was no
reason to give up their sociocultural values, especially to please a people from a foreign
society, even though they might be the morepowerful military force--the conquerors. How-
ever, can a political democracy, which is organized to permit its participating citizens to
enjoy freedom of conscience and action, extend its scope to include citizens who, because
they live differently, are not fully participating? How tolerant can a political democracy
be of non-conformity?











MARK T. BAHTI (Tucson) HOPI KACHINA DOLLS: THE IMPACT OF STUDIES ON A NATIVE ART FORM
A brief survey of major studies of Hopi textiles, ceramics and kachinas and their circula-
tion among Hopi artisans, developing an emphasis on Hop kachina dolls and how their
styles, frequency of appearance and other similar aspects have been affected not by the
Anglo buyer as much as the Anglo ethnologist. Concluding with a brief summary of atti-
tudes among certain Hopi religious leaders in regards to the possible impact this might
or might not have on Hopi religion.

LARRY R. STUCKI (Western Carolina U) WILL THE "REAL" INDIAN SURVIVE? TOURIST INDUCED
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHANGE AT CHEROKEE, N.C. In recent years most Indian tribes occupying
scenic but otherwise marginal lands throughout our nation have increasingly turned to
tourism as their best hope of economic salvation. Many such dreams are quickly dashed,
but even the rare "success" story such as that which has not occurred at Cherokee, North
Carolina often creates numerous unanticipated and, at times, unwanted social and cultural
changes as the tourist dollars pour in. Planners of similar ventures elsewhere would be
wise to examine carefully the events that have occurred at Cherokee since the creation of
the nearby Great Smoky Mountains National Park if they wish to minimize the social and
economic division that "successful" tourist programs often induce in native communities.

(511) PANEL: ANTHROPOLOGICAL INPUT INTO PREPARATION, EXECUTION, AND EVALUATION OF
AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS The panelists will present papers and reports based upon their
experiences in working with agricultural projects. These will be followed by open discuss-
ions. The presentations will include discussions of anthropological inputs into 1) The
preparation and planning of two university Title XII projects: University of Florida Malawi
Project and Kansas State small ruminants; 2) a discussion of evaluation of project impact
upon rural poor and the prediction of impact, based upon studies in Bangladesh (FAO) and
Mexico (World Bank); and 3) a discussion of working in agencies such as AID. The panel will
also examine interdisciplinary training and education in anthropology and agriculture. In
addition the panel will present experiences, identify problems, and propose strategies to
be taken up further by the Culture and Agriculture Group (Study Group for Agrarian Systems).

(512) CRITICAL ISSUES IN LATIN AMERICA: RESEARCH AND APPLICATION

FERNANDO CAMERA (Secretaria de Educacion Public Mexico) MEXICAN MIGRATION TO THE BORDER-
LANDS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE Mexican migration has been a permanent causal
factor in developing. However, the process of development means diverse situations and
conditions. Economic development, for instance, is not necessarily accompanied by socio-
cultural development. Some illustrative cases will be presented, mainly in relation to
Mexican borderland cities, and to U.S.A. borderland cities in Texas.

H. DIETER HEINEN (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas) HIGHER LEVEL
PRODUCTION UNITS AND SOCIO-CULTURAL CHANGE AMONG THE YE'KUASA INDIANS OF BOLIVAR STATE,
VENEZUELA. One of the recurrent problems of indigenous societies in Venezuela is how to
organize the production of a surplus above previous subsistence activities in order to
acquire the trade goods that are now desired by the Indians. The activities of traders and
other middlemen, as well as the introduction of a monetary economy frequently leads to a
complete breakdown of the indigenous social organization (see e.g. Murphy and Steward, 1956)
The Ye'kuana Indians of the Upper Erebato River are attempting to set up a production and
marketing organization in such a way as to maintain a tight control over new economic
transactions while not disrupting traditional autosubsistence activities (Clarac and Valdez,
1976; Heinen, 1979). Nevertheless, some socio-cultural changes have occurred. The Ye'kuana
project and resulting changes are discussed in this paper.












WILLIAM DEMAREST (Stanford) EDUCATION AND RURAL/URBAN MIGRATION: THE CASE OF MAYAN
MIGRANTS IN GUATEMALA CITY Mayan Indians from the town of San Pedro la Laguna in Guatamala
have begun migrating to Guatemala City during the past 30 years. The migration stream is
still small and represents about five percent of San Pedro's population of 5000. The group
of migrants with the most secure and the highest-paying employment has twice the number of
years of education as the least secure and lowest paid migrants. Migration rates from San
Pedro and its two closest neighbors, San Juan and San Pablo, reveal that the town with the
most educational resources has the highest rate of migration to Guatemala City. The impact
of education on rural/urban migration is discussed.

DUNCAN MAC LEAN EARLE (SUNY-Albany) HIGHLAND MAYA IN THE LOWLANDS: A CASE OF SELF-
DEVELOPMENT Studies of development typically focus upon programs introduced into communi-
ties by external agencies. While many such programs attempt to respond faithfully to
locally articulated needs, results remain uncertain and problematic, especially in
communities with values and beliefs not in keeping with the West. In the state of Chiapas,
Mexico, I have investigated a group of extremely traditional Maya Indians who have moved
down into the Chiapas jungle to forge new lives, without outside help. In the course of
fifteen years they have transformed many aspects of their lives and have become economic-
ally secure while maintaining independence from external involvements. Floowing their own
development ideas and plans they have achieved development without dependence. In this
paper I look at how such "Self-development" initiatives differ from standard program
approaches, and how such programs might benefit from the experience of this community and
others like it.

(550) CLIENT PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPING AND CONDUCTING APPLIED ANTRHOPOOGY The anthro-
pologist's conduct in a coordinator/researcher position is a crucial area of interest in
the emerging specialty of clinical anthropology. The anthropologist as project coordinator
must properly collect and record the clinical data and act a broker with the supporting
institution and groups involved in the project. At the same time, the anthropologist as
ethnographic evaluator must develop and conduct a research project that will enhance the
participation and coping capacity of the patients and the efficiency and cultural sensitiv-
ity of the professional staff. In most cases, the anthropological research objective must
advance the clinical objective and vice versa. In a specific case study, the clinical
objective was to determine the efficacy of a screening technique to detect early cancer and
in the initial stages of the project, the anthropological research objective was to deter-
mine how to optimize the utilization of the education and screening project. This concern
for the social context of a clinical experiment can resolve problems with the patient
management, power systems, and anthropological roles.

(600) SYMPOSIUM: THE TEACHING OF ETHICAL FIELDWORK The motivation for the session is that
there is an increasing concern about the ethical conduct of fieldworkers. Yet, there is
only a scattering of literature on ethical issues in the field, and almost no literature
directed at how one instructs students so that they are prepared for handling the ethical
dilemmas that will emerge in the field. Moreover, the federally mandated system of Human
Subjects Protective regulations is modelled along the lines of biomedical experimentation,
so that these regulations serve to misdirect students from the significant issues that
emerge within the field.

VIRGINIA OLESEN (UC San Francisco) CONFRONTING ETHICAL ISSUES IN TEACHING STUDENTS
MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY/MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY Teaching ethical field work to students in medical
anthropology and medical sociology understandably partakes of the general range of ethical
issues confronted by field workers in non-health care settings, e.g. respect for partici-
pants, assurances of confidentiality, concern that respondents are adequately informed,
worries over publication of sensitive findings. Additionally, however, ethical problems
which inhere in health care settings become salient for student field workers in these
disciplines because those ethical problems which are not only part of the data in the situ-
ation may also become ethical problems for the student observer/researcher; ethical
problems which may or may not have fateful consequences for persons being studied. Thus,
a particularly critical type of information for the neophyte field worker in medical
anthropology/medical sociology may be what is constructed as an ethical issue for persons
being studied.










MURRAY L. WAX (Washington U) TEACHING FIELDWORK: THE ETHICAL ISSUES Together with
Rosalie H. Wax, I have been teaching a course in fieldwork, whose students have been
drawn from anthropology, sociology, education, and social work. Progressively, in recent
years, we have introduced more detailed discussion of ethical issues and conceptualiza-
tions. We have provided lectures on basic concepts of moral philosophy and have related
these critically to the "logics" employed by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). We have
also analyzed cases in the ethnographic literature. Most important has been the work with
students on their own class projects, where we have been concerned to clary what are the
varieties of ethical research, and theri justifications, while distinguishing these from
the requirements of IRBs.

SUE-ELLEN JACOBS (Washington) THE HUMAN SUBJECTS REVIEW COMMITTEE EXPERIENCE FOR STUDENTS
Students in my kinship course are required to do one field project which involves collect-
ing kinship data from someone whose first language is not English. The University of
Washington requires that fieldwork projects be approved on an individual basis when indi-
vidual student projects vary. The paper will discuss student reactions to, and experiences
in, preparing and submitting HSRC forms, development and use of the "Consent Form", and
their overall reactions to this and the fieldwork experience.

BEA MEDICINE (Wisconsin-Madison) EQUITY IN ETHICS: ISSUES INVOLVING INDIAN (NATIVE
AMERICAN) STUDENTS Since the concerted effort of the Committee on Minorities in Anthropo-
logy report (1973), little has been done to assess the anthropological experience upon
certain minorities. There are some common assumptions regarding Anthropology which Indians
as tribal persons, and possibly as students, hold. There are also some assumptions which
anthropologists hold of the future of such students, as perhaps, that they have the appro-
priate ethics to work in their own communities. What is the nature of professionalism as
it is assumed by persons of American Indian tribal background? This paper will explore the
features of ethical commitments to discipline and to tribal group. Against a backdrop of
research requisites which involve native professionals, the direction of this paper will be
on the responsibilities of anthropologists in training native students to the etiquette of
ethics.

JOHN L. GWALTNEY (Syracuse) EMICS AND ETHICS: TEACHING POLYOCULARITY This paper maintains
that the pre-eminent obligation of ethnological field researchers is to conduct their
investigations with the greatest possible consideration for the security and dignity of the
peoples they work amon. This end is most likely to be approximated if prospective field
ethnographers understand their positions in their own national ethnic hierarchies. The
small class or seminar academic setting is ideal, but by no means indispensable for the
employment of a number of techniques designed to teach ethics in field work. As most
would-be anthropologists are still being drawn from the bourgeoisie of prosperous North
Atlantic Basin cultures, it is the particular arrogance of these settler segments that must
be diminished if equanimity, the sine qua non of the ethical position, is to be imparted.
Failing an "I.Q. Test" based upon the logic of another culture facilitates the awareness
of unconscious presumptions of superiority. The necessity to pose and respond to embarass-
ing questions which concern the prospective ethnographer's personal cultural position is
often the beginning of that person's understanding of what he or she is asking of a field
population. Teachers of anthropology should not limit their exposition of that discipline
to its scope, aims, and methodology. A forthright, carefully documented airing of its
errors and crimes in their cultural, heirarchical contexts, is indispensable to those feel-
ings of caution, compassion, and salubrious chagrin which should be a basic part of the
thinking and action of the anthropologist at work.

MYRON GLAZER (Smith) USING VIDEOTAPE TO EXPLORE METHODOLOGICAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN
TEACHING FIELDWORK During the past several semesters, I have been engaged in a project of
videotaping the experiences of fieldworkers who have visited my classes. These guests
include women and men who have conducted research in the United States, as well as in other
nations. Their investigations have focused on such diverse topics as the destruction of
community, the wives of professional men, and the impact of Israeli occupation on the West
Bank of the Jordan River. In each instance, the researchers have been queried as to the











theoretical and practical motivations for their research, the choice of a particular
methodology, and the ethical and political problems which have derived from their field
work. The videotapes have proved particularly useful in our ability to analyze the
researchers' experiences and to rasie questions with these women and men when they have
returned to our campus for a follow-up visit. The theme of my presentation will focus on
the development of the videotape materials and its utility in teaching both introductory
sociology and a senior seminar where the students are asked to perform their own piece of
field research. In conjunction with the reading of available research accounts, our guests
and the resultant videotapes help provide students with a careful introduction to the
challenges of conducting ethical field work.

(601) ANTICIPATORY AND PREVENTIVE DIMENSIONS OF RESEARCH AND PRACTICE: POLICY AND EQUITY-
RELATED PROGRAMS, PART II (See (506))

(602) EDUCATIONAL ANTHROPOLOGY

TERRY L. HAYNES (UC San Francisco) TRAINING GROUNDS FOR APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGISTS: THE WICHE
INTERNSHIP PROGRAM This paper evaluates the experiences of the authro during four WICHE
internships in rural Alaska between 1976 and 1980. WICHE (the Western Interstate Commis-
sion for Higher Education), in Boulder, Colorado, administers an internship program for
students recruited from colleges and universities in the thirteen Western States. Intern-
ships are desgined to contribute to the development of human and environmental resources
in the West, and permit students to gain practical experience "by honing technical skills
learned in college against the hard whetstone of reality" in projects designed by public
and private organizations. It is argued that the intership program is a little known but
extremely promising training resource for students in applied anthropology (and in the
social sciences more generally) that will acquaint them with the complexities of and pros-
pects for nonacademic employment in the public sector.

JAMES C. PIERSON (CSC, San Bernardino) STUDENT FIELDWORK AND STUDENT ACTIVITIES: APPLYING
ANTHROPOLOGY ON THE COLLEGE CAMPUS This paper examines attempts to resolve two problems
that likely occur on many contemporary university campuses. The first concerns attempts
to provide extra-curricular activities on a predominantly commuter campus; the second
concerns anthropology departments' attempts to conduct undergraduate fieldwork courses. The
latter is often affected by problems of finding manageable similar topics. The case dis-
cussed combines the two situations, with implications for other settings, by allowing
fieldwork students to examine various aspects (different recurring structured activities)
of the same general topic (campus-wide student activities) with eventual benefits for both
the department and the campus.

LARISSA LOMNITZ, MARTHA REES, LETICIA MAYER (Natl Univ. of Mexico) METHODOLOGY OF
INVESTIGATION OF UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS: MEXICO'S VETERINARIANS The role of the university
in training technical personnel needed for development in Latin America is very important,
but little is known about the processes of recruitment, selection, training and employment.
With this in mind, a project to study the professional personnel at the'National University
of Mexico was implemented in the School of Veterinary Medicine. Multiple data sources and
methods were used: curriculum vitae and personnel records, life history interviews with
influential persons and professors in general, and a questionnaire applied to a stratified
random sample. Findings describe politics and power in the Shcool, ideology, the forma-
tion of professionals, professional career steps and other factors. These research
conclusions are discussed in terms of the validity and reliability of the multiple data
sources. Evaluation of the various methods used has resulted in the creation of a multi-
method approach applicable in other schools in the university. This has wide practical
uses for evaluation of individuals within each school, as well as for standardization of
school and university data.

GRETCHEN E SCHAFFT (Gretchen Schafft Assoc.) USING RESEARCH OUTCOMES AS THE FOUNDATION OF
INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAPMMING Applied anthropologists have been concerned that research serve
client groups by providing policy and/or program related suggestions for change. Ethical
issues encountered by those would would be both research initiator and change agent are










topics that repeatedly emerge in our literature. In a study of nursing homes and the
black elderly completed recently, the grantor, the Administration on Aging, and the
grantee, the Foundation of the American College of Nursing Home Administrators, agreed at
the outset of the project that research findings would be translated into a professional
development curriculum and presented as one of the College's Continuing Education courses.
This paper describes the process by which this was done, the anthropological techniques
used in both the research and the curriculum development, and the ethical issues which
emerged.

ELIZABETH A. BRANDT (Arizona St. U) POPULARITY AND PERIL: ETHNOGRAPHY AND EDUCATION
There is a tremendous interest in ethnographic methods in Colleges of Education through-
out the country. A part of this interest is due to dissatisfaction with existing research
paradigms which may fail to provide usable direction for policy and change; but two other
factors may be more salient. One, the interest and funding support provided by National
Institutes of Education (BIE) and two, the retrenchment in faculty positions by research-
oriented administrations. While these trends provide great opportunities for significant
contributions by anthropologists and other trained researchers, they are also times of
peril for the discipline. Ethnography as method is escpaing the control of the discipline
and is being increasingly seen as a "quick and dirty" technique for those who are incapa-
ble of research using other techniques. If this trend continues uncontrolled, it may
result in discreditation of ethnography as a research method and loss of funding opportun-
ities and loss of credibility for the discipline as a whole. This paper reviews the
situation in the field, makes suggestions for the training of ethnographers, and suggests
directions for establishing some quality control.

GAIL MARSHALL (St. Louis PUblic Schools) THE RIGHTS OF PASSAGE: A DESCRIPTION OF
DOMINANCE PATTERNS AMONG NURSERY SCHOOL CHILDREN Observations of a class of nursery
school children were conducted for five months. A record was made of the activities of
the children engaged in, and of the strategies the children used in accommodating themselves
to an open space classroom. The principal finding of the study was that the children's
behavior was similar to types of animal behavior described in ethnographic animal studies.
Specifically, children rarely spoke to one another, but the dominant children used a wide
variety of motions to protect their turf. The non-dominant children also used a variety of
motions to gain the attention of the dominant group, and thus gain access to the dominant
group and their space. The paper concludes with the suggestion that while open space
classrooms may be founded on the ideal that all children gain access to all activities, in
fact children's ability to gain access to, and maintain, space in those classrooms is
limited by their level of dominance.

SHEPARD KRECH, III (George Mason) FORMAL EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC CHANGE IN THE NORTH
AMERICAN SUBARCTIC This paper explores the determinants of changes in economic orientation
in a Northern Athapaskan community in the Canadian Subarctic. During the period 1950-1970,
the Athapaskan Kutchin abandoned a bush orientation in favor of the settlement and its wage
labor and welfare alternatives. This change has been most marked during winter, when tra-
ditionally (post-contact), Kutchin focused their activities on fur-trapping and caribou
hunting. By 1970, relatively few adult males were fur-trapping. The extent of this eco-
nomic change is detailed. Then, the variables which in combination generated this change
are examined. The variables are economic (fur market fluctuations and alternative economic
opportunities), demographic (high birth rate, inmarriages and the growth of a settlement
based metis population), social (a dislike of extended solitary conditions, preference for
ingathering), and educational (formal education). The effects of formal education and
linked family allowance payments have been especially pronounced, and in the post-1950 era,
schooling and resultant settlement orientation arestrongly correlated. This conclusion is
compared with other settings in the North American Subarctic.

JANICE HOGLE (Conn) STUDENT TO PROFESSIONAL RITES OF PASSAGE IN APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY
The study of "rites of passage"--the stages through which an individual passes on the way
to adulthood--has been a traditional anthropological pastime. Within our discipline, the
process of "professionalization" is seen as a rite of passage during which the student is












transformed into the professional. The fieldwork experience, qualifying exams, and other
steps towards the PhD are all parts of that process. Through the number of new PhDs each
year remains comparatively high, the long-range prospects for academic employment continue
to dismally diminish. Many of us will find that the time-honored rites of passage will
fail to "incorporate" us, but will strand us in "transition" after "separating" us from
our former lives with the lure of a professional future. Non-academically employed
anthropologists have frequently reached such a status only after having completed the tra-
ditional rites of passage towards academia. Their circuitous route toward non-academic
professionalization has no official designation as an alternate rite of passage for those
who would prefer a more direct line of training. Thus, the nature of the rite of passage
itself is evolving as some training programs begin to focus on producing professional
anthropologists who will not necessarily teach in universities. This paper explores the
issue of program geared toward preparation for a non-academic professional career. It
analyzes the complexities and contradictions of becoming (as opposed to bing) an applied,
outside-the-academy anthropologist in a system oriented towards producing university-based
scholars. Finally, it discusses the skills, knowledge, techniques and methods which
facilitate the transition from student to applied professional.

JEAN J. SCHENSUL (Hispanic Health Council) ACTION RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS
Applied educational anthropologists frequently find themselves involved in policy research,
multi-cultural curriculum development and evaluation. While these roles represent a
departure from the basic research mode, they are not embedded either in ongoing educational
decision-making or unchanging community relations with educational institutions. This
paper reports on three situations in which an anthropologist has worked with community
residents to design and carry out research intended to generate institutional change.
These include a community-based research and training program designed to assist Hispanic
community residents and professionals to do action research in education-related areas, a
training program to assist Puerto Rican agency staff to assess client needs through collec-
tion of research data and the evaluation of an elementary school with a organized group of
parents. The multiple roles of anthropologist as research trainer, curriculum developer
and advocate will be explored.

(603) STUDYING UP: ANTHROPOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONS, AGENCIES AND LABOR GROUPS

DOUGLAS IRVING (Northern Arizona Comprehensive Guidance Center) CULTURE CONFLICT AMONG
THE COMPUTERS: A CASE STUDY IN COGNITIVE VARIATIONS AMONG MODERN ORGANIZATIONS
Organizational Charts and Management Information Systems (MISs) are ethno-sociological
self-representations of formal organizations in complex society. The Data system is a
refelction of the structure of the organization, and is indicative of the "Theory and
Style" or organization managers. An analysis of a data system can make explicit the
values and conceptual systems of the members of the organization. The aspects of organi-
zational activity monitored and emphasized by the data system in turn shape the conceptual
system of members of the organization. This paper examines the case of a "translation
problem" between the data systems of two intermediate-scale modern organizations. While
some technical problems were discovered in the process of resolving the conflict, the core
of the problem was found to be due to divergent cognitive systems as operationalized in
the two data systems. Key data elements were being classified by different attributes at
distinct levels of the taxonomic hierarchies. The analysis leading to this discovery also
revealed other ways in which the data systems reveal funcitonal differences between the two
organizations. In addition to demonstrating that ethnographic methods may be successfully
applied to high technology cultural features, the paper briefly discusses some opportuni-
ties suggested by this finding. Feedback systems of the tupe studied here represent
consciously constructed self-images of social organizations, designed ot promote system
functioning and system change. The manner in which these feedback systems affect organi-
zation members, the strategies and floklore developed by members to affect the data system,
and the effect of the data system on the organization as a whole offer a potentially rich
area for the anthropological study of modern organizations and complex society.










JASPER INGERSOLL (Catholic U) SOME CONSTRAINTS TO USE OF RESEARCH KNOWLEDGE BY POLICY
MAKERS Serious efforts to make anthropology useful to programs of action (and thus
improve our discipline) must include a critical examination of the perverse difficulties
of managing these programs in the face of opposition and indifference. This presentation
is a preliminary report on field study of some aspects of the Indo-Chinese refugee program
emerging in Congress, federal executive agencies, and selected state and county agencies
in the Washington, D.C. vicinity. Willner has noted that we have been more ready to
conduct studies for public agencies than sustained study of them; the latter should
sharpen understanding of the constraints, external and self-imposed, to substantial use
of rigorous sociocultural analysis by policy makers. Some of these constraints already
appearing in field work are: limited constituencies and limited mandates, conflicting
interests among agencies (within and between federal, state and county levels) and among
refugee groups, political ambivalence, gaps in vertical integration and horizontal coordi-
nation, "crash program" ethos, perceived threat from detached analysis, and the like.

RONALD E. GREGSON (State of Colorado) RULES FOR THE REGULATED: STATE REGULATION OF THE
PROFESSIONS Sally Falk Moore has recently called for more comparative data on how govern-
ments use rules to control behavior. At the same time, she cautions that rule-making
should be studied with rule remaking and rule unmaking, as well as with rule manipulation
and circumvention. As a focus for the study of these processes, Moore suggests the "semi-
autonomous social fields" into which rule-making intrudes, and she urges that particular
attention be paid to the obstructive importance of legal incrementalism and non-legal
forces. One semi-autonomous social field into which government-made rules regularly in-
trudes, and she urges that particular attention be paid to the obstructive importance of
legal incrementalism and non-legal forces. One semi-autonomous field into which government
rules regularly intrude in American society is licensed professions and occupations. In
the past two decades, the historical claim that self-regulation by the professions is just-
ified by their commitment to "the public interest" has been challenged. One device used to
bring the professions to public account is legislation and formal rule promulgation. In
this paper, I use Moore's categories to examine attempts by one state government to change
its regulation of professions and occupations, and the consequences. Conclusions are used
to expand Nader's discussion of regulation and "powerlessness" in American society.

E.B. EISELEIN (Authors & Anthropologists Services) INDUSTRIAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE
BUSINESS OF DOING APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY Applied anthropology has a great potential as a
problem solving approach in private industry, but yet most applied anthropologists are
employed in government oriented human services. Employment of applied anthropologists in
the private sector is still more potential than real. This paper will explore the uses of
applied industrial anthropology, and the role of the anthropologists as an industrial con-
sultant. The possibilities of anthropology as a business will also be discussed.

KAREN L BUEHLER (Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Ca) INSIDE THE SYSTEM: DOING
ANTHROPOLOGY AT A NAVY LABORATORY An anthropologist employed by a federal agency faces
adaptation to a highly complex social and economic system, and experience much akin to
fieldwork. One may be absorbed and integrated as an "insider" by the "society" of an
agency by virtue of employment and yet remain outside many of its social and economic
structures. Of major concern in the adaptive process is the translation of Anthropology
into Governmentese and the interpretation of Governmentese into anthropological perspective.
Professional abilities and skills gained through anthropological training, as well as per-
sonal strategies which I have found valuable as a management analyst at a Navy laboratory
are discussed.

DAVID J. STEEL (Wisconsin) DOING ORGANIZATIONAL ETHNOGRAPHY: TRIALS AND TRIBULATIONS IN
STUDYING UP It has been argued that an understanding of administrative/bureaucratic forms
of social organization and the culture of administrators is fundamental to the effective
practice of applied anthropology. The influence of complex formal organizations and those
who administer them on the change process cannot be denied. From a disciplinary perspect-
ive, the study of bureaucratic organizations and administrative decision-making is
essential for the development of adequate theories of sociocultural change. Ethnographic




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