SOCIETY FORl RPPLIED IfIHTI-ROPOLO5Y
40th ANNUAL MEETING March 19-22, 1980 Denver, Colorado
1980 Annual Meeting
Chairs: Dorothea J Theodoratus
Margaret A. Gibson
Committee: Steve Arvizu (CAE)
Sheila Cosminsky (SMA)
Larry Van Horn (Local Arrangements)
Virginia Olesen (Medical)
Gil Kushner (Publicity)
Bernice Kaplan (Publicity)
Associates: Donna Jean Halstead
Glenda Travis Mary E. Peters
OF THE SOCIETY FOR APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY
President: John Singleton
President-elect: Peter Kong-Ming New
Past President: Alvin W. Wolfe
Secretary: Willis E. Sibley
Treasurer: Billie Dewalt
Editor: H. Russell Bernard
Executive Committee Members:
Theodore Downing Jacquetta Hill Sue-Ellen Jacobs Gilbert Kushner Lorissa Lomnitz Harland Padfield H. Russell Bernard
(100) RURAL-URBAN CONTiNUA IN HEALTH ISSUES
BRUCE BERSTEIN, JEFFREY BACKSTRAND, MEL TAPPER (Conn) MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND HYPERTENSION OUTREACH IN THE CITY: REPORT AFTER ONE YEAR At this Society's meeting last year in Philadelphia we reported on the involvement of University of Connecticut medical anthropologist in the early stages of a C.A.P. agency operated, inner city hypertension outreach program. This follow-up report concerns progress of the program and roles anthropologists have played after one year. Anthropologists have provided on-going assistance in the form of proposal writing, consultation, in-service training, data analysis and program evaluation. The program staff has learned a great deal about hypertensives in the target neighborhood: major concerns at present include 1) the high incidence of obesity and overweight in the hypertensive population being followed and 2) the fact that a majority of hypertensives followed maintain that they are following medical regimen, but have high blood pressure readings when screened by outreach workers. We have also rediscovered the difficulties encountered in getting adequate in-depth information from the community.
MYRNA SILVERMAN, L. SHUMAN, E. RICCI (Pittsburgh) A MODEL FOR RURAL EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES HEALTH CARE DELIVERY: THE CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES Rural health care has not been the traditional focus of anthropological study. In recent years, tis area has begun to attract the interest of both policy-makers and social scientists in the analysis and planning of quality health care programs for rural United States. One such project developed from a contract awarded by the Federal Department of Transportation to the Health Operations Research Group in the School of Engineering at. the University of Pittsburgh. The purpose of the project was to develop a computer model to investigate different alternative configurations for delivering Emergency Medical Service care in a rural environment. An interdisciplinary team of a computer scientist, health care manager, operations researchers, and an anthropologist combined the technological and behavioral approaches to health care planning in the construction of the computer model. The project illustrated several methodological and theoretical themes: 1) the value of a combined technological and behavioral approach to the study of health care planning problems; 2) the use of computer modeling as a strategy for health care planning; and 3) the dynamics of implementing a health care program in a rural environment. The following paper focuses on the contextual variables that shape or limit the development of regional emergency medical services programs in rural American environments, and the dynamics of implementing the program. Illustrations will be drawn largely from a rural County in Western Pennsylvania.
ALLAN AINSWORTH, VALERIE O'REILLY (Utah) ADJUSTMENT OF GOVERNMENT SPONSORED HEALTH PROFESSIONALS INTO SMALL COMMUNITIES: A STUDY IN FIVE WESTERN STATES Anthropologists are increasingly examining health beliefs, utilization practices and health care delivery systems in American communities. One important aspect of the analysis of health systems is the understanding of subcultural value differences between persona dwelling in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas which exist despite the heterogeneous character of both groups. This paper focuses on these differences as they affect the placement and utilization of federally-sponsored health professionals in nonmetropolitan communities in five western states. Participant observation and a questionnaire survey were employed to examine the adaptation and adjustment of the families of 63 National Health Service Corps health professionals living in nonmetropolitan practice sites. Objectives of the research included the examination of 1) satisfaction of these families with small community life -2) subcultural differences between nonmetropolitan residents and urban-trained health professionals 3) value conflicts, including differences in health-care philosophy between the two groups. Each of the above proved to be a significant factor affecting local health care systems. Assistance in the careful matching of expectations of the small community with those of the health professional can be a valuable contribution of anthropologists involved in the study of U.S. communities.
REGISTRATION Registration, which includes a copy of the Program and Abstracts, is required for attendance at all sessions. Registration will be open in the South Convention Lobby from 5pm to 9pm on Wednesday, 8am to 5pm on Thursday, and 8:30am to 4pm on Friday. Members who preregistered should claim their programs and badges at the advance registration desk.
SOUTH CONVENTION LOBBY OFFICE Problems or special requests will be handled at the convention office located adjacent to the registration desks. If this office is closed report to the Registration desk.
MEMBERSHIP SERVICES AND PUBLICATIONS A desk will be maintained in the South Convention Lobby near the registration desk during registration hours for those who wish to purchase SfAA publications or enroll in the Society. SfAA Tee-shirts are also for sale in the registration area.
MESSAGE CENTER A self-service message center will be located in the registration area. A file will be maintained of where participants are staying in the Denver area.
ROUNDTABLE LUNCHEON (By Advance Registration only) A luncheon in honor of the Malinowski Awardee -- DR. FEI XIAOTONG -- 12 to 2pm Thursday, March 20, 1980 in the Silver Room. DR. SOL TAX will lead a discussion of "International Collaboration in Applied Social Sciences."
PLENARY SESSIONS The Margaret Mead Award will be presented to BRIGITTE JORDAN at the SfAA Business Meeting, Friday, March 21, 3 to 6pm in the Junior Ballroom. The Malinowski Award will be presented to DR. FEI XIAOTONG (Deputy Director, Institute of Nationality Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) Friday evening 8 to 9:30pm. A reception honoring Dr. Fei Xiaotong (cash bar and hors d'oeuvres) will be held immediately following the Plenary Session in Assembly I.
A SPECIAL NOTE OF APPRECIATION is due Wenner-Gren Foundation and various local Latin American Institutions for co-sponsoring collaborative activity allowing Latin American participants to be a part of the SfAA program. This is a special effort to try to build better working relationships between the U.S. and Latin American anthropologists.
SFAA CONVENTION ROOMS
Ballroom Complex: First Level:
Junior Ballroom Beverly
Assembly I Biltmore
Silver Second Level:
Spruce Denver Birch Cedar
Abstracts appear in program order, with session numbers shown to the left of session titles. The times and locations of sessions are given in the program. (See also Index of Authors for alphabetical listing.) Persons presenting papers who did not submit
Abstracts are committed from this listing.
* (50) TEAMING: ANTHROPOLOGISTSINON-ANTHROPOLOGISTS PARTNERSHIPS FOR ACTION AND TRAINING This workshop is designed to explore strategies for collaboration between anthropologists and non-anthropologists in developing training settings for social scientists, health, education and social service personnel and community residents and activists. It is based on the premise that anthropologists and non-anthropologists working in community and institutional settings, can combine theory, methods, approaches and resources to enhance social science training, institutional capabilities and community leadership and development. The workshop will center around teams of anthropologists and nonanthropologists currently collaborating in design and implementation of projects and training programs. Teams will focus on health, mental health, social impact assessment, bilingual, community and adult education and research as a leadership development strategy. The workshop will open with the presentation of a framework for considering training and continuing education in contemporary applied anthropology. This framework will address issues such as the establishment of training settings outside the university, the role of research and other skills in community-based training and technical assistance, the role of community and service institutions in training social scientists, and ways in which anthropologist and non-anthropologist can collaborate to facilitate training, technical assistance and community development. Participants will break into five groups, each facilitated by a team of anthropologist/non-anthropologist. Facilitator teams will discuss features of their particular training and continuing education settings with participants. They will then work with participants to assist them in analyzing ways in which similar training and technical assistance opportunities can be created in their own sites. Participants and facilitators will reconvene for a brief summary session and open discussion. Plans for an expanded two day conference in Scotland, 1981 will also be discussed.
7:00 7:20pm J. Kaufert, Introduction
7:20 7:50pm J. Schensul, Presentation of overall framework
8:00 9:15pm Discussion and "technical assistance" at Wine and Cheese
9:15 10:00pm Summary presentation and general discussion; plans for
Edinburgh, Scotland in 1981
1. J. Schensul, E. Caro: Research and leadership development
2. S. Schensul, J. Walker: Medical education
3. P. Pelto, M. Gonzalez: Community-based action research in health
4. W. Partridge, P. Aimes: An ecological approach to social impact assessment 5. S. Arvizu, A. Gil: Bilingual education, parent participation and community
$3.00 to cover materials and refreshments (pay on site). Participation
limited to 40 people. To assure your reservation and for additional
information write Dr. J. Schensul, c/o Research in Action, Inc.,
275 Collins St., Hartford, Conn. 06105.
(100) RURAL-URBAN CONTINUA IN HEALTH ISSUES
BRUCE BERSTEIN. JEFFREY BACKSTRAND, MEL TAPPER (Conn) MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND HYPERTENSION OUTREACH IN THE CITY: REPORT AFTER ONE YEAR At this Society's meeting last year in Philadelphia we reported on the involvement of University of Connecticut medical anthropologists in the early stages of a C.A.P. agency operated, inner city hypertension outreach program. This follow-up report concerns progress of the program and roles anthropologists have played after one year. Anthropologists have provided on-going assistance in the form of proposal writing, consultation, in-service training, data analysis and program evaluation. The program staff has learned a great deal about hypertensives in the target neighborhood: major concerns at present include 1) the high incidence of obesity and overweight in the hypertensive population being followed and 2) the fact that a majority of hypertensives followed maintain that they are following medical regimen, but have high blood pressure readings when screened by outreach workers. We have also rediscovered the difficulties encountered in getting adequate in-depth information from the community.
MYRNA SILVERMAN, L. SHUMAN, E. RICCI (Pittsburgh) A MODEL FOR RURAL EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES HEALTH CARE DELIVERY: THE CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES Rural health care has not been the traditional focus of anthropological study. In recent years, this area has begun to attract the interest of both policy-makers and social scientists in the analysis and planning of quality health care programs for rural United States. One such project developed from a contract awarded by the Federal Department of Transportation to the Health Operations Research Group in the School of Engineering at. the University of Pittsburgh. The purpose of the project was to develop a computer model to investigate different alternative configurations for delivering Emergency Medical Service care in a rural environment. An interdisciplinary team of a computer scientist, health care manager, operations researchers, and an anthropologist combined the technological and behavioral approaches to health care planning in the construction of the computer model. The project illustrated several methodological and theoretical themes: 1) the value of a combined technological and behavioral approach to the study of health care planning problems; 2) the use of computer modeling as a strategy for health care planning; and 3) tbe dynamics of implementing a health care program in a rural environment. The following paper focuses on the contextual variables that shape or limit the development of regional emergency medical services programs in rural American environments, and the dynamics of implementing the program. Illustrations will be drawn largely from a rural County in Western Pennsylvania.
ALLAN AINSWORTH, VALERIE O'REILLY (Utah) ADJUSTMENT OF GOVERNMENT SPONSORED HEALTH PROFESSIONALS INTO SMALL COMMUNITIES: A STUDY IN FIVE WESTERN STATES Anthropologists are increasingly examining health beliefs, utilization practices and health care delivery systems in American communities. One important aspect of the analysis of health systems is the understanding of subcultural value differences between persona dwelling in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas which exist despite the heterogeneous character of both groups. This paper focuses on those differences as they affect the placement and utilization of federally-sponsored health professionals in nonmetropolitan communities in five western states. Participant observation and a questionnaire survey were employed to examine the adaptation and adjustment of the families of 63 National Health Service Corps health professionals living in nonmetropolitan practice sites. Objectives of the research included the examination of 1) satisfaction of these families with small community life -2) subcultural differences between nonmetropolitan residents and urban-trained health professionals 3) value conflicts, including differences in health-care philosophy between the two groups. Each of the above proved to be a significant factor affecting local health care systems. Assistance in the careful matching of expectations of the small community with those of the health professional can be a valuable contribution of anthropologists involved in the study of U.S. communities.
FRANK P. ARAUJO (Washington St U) SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF SYPHILIS IN RURAL WASHINGTON STATE The highest prevalence rate of venereal syphilis (infection from Treponems pallidum) for recent years has been reported in the rural, central portion of the state of Washington. This feature seems to be quite unusual since the occurrence of syphilis at the national level is most frequent in large urban areas, among populations of male homosexuals and prostitutes. The prevalence of syphilis among migrant farmworkers is discussed in terms of the behavioral aspects, e.g., sexual practices, life styles, and knowledge of the symptomology and treatment of this disease, and other factors such as the prevalence of nonvenereal pints
* (infections from Treponema carateum).
DEBRA ANN SCHUMANN (S Methodist) "IF THERE IS MONEY, THEY LIVE. IF NOT, THEY DIE." ECONOMICS AND ILLNESS IN A MAYAN VILLAGE This paper discusses the economic impact of illness in a Tzeltal Mayan agricultural community in Chiapas, Mexico. As both
* indigenous curing and western health care are costly, families with seriously ill members must take various economic measures to obtain treatment. Depending upon the nature and longevity of the illness, economic adaptations on a family level range from selling agricultural produce to, in extreme cases, migratory wage labor to areas where economic opportunities and health care are readily available. The impact of illness on family economics is important in understanding economic stratification in this community and, thus, has wider implications important to regional development planning.
(101) APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY AND MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMS
GWEN STERN (Pilsen Comm Mental Health Center) APPLIED RESEARCH AND PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT IN COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH: THE LATINA MOTHER INFANT PROJECT This paper describes the
development of a collaborative model between applied anthropologists and community activists for research and action in community mental health. This model has emerged in the predominantly Mexican/Chicano community of El Barrio in Chicago, where 5 years ago a group of community women and staff from the community mental health center began meeting to plan programs in the area of perinatal health. They felt that preventive programs for pregnant women and for high risk families were an important community health issue. Frustrated in their attempts to obtain support from major city and state institutions, they enlisted the assistance of applied anthropologists to design and implement a collaborative research project on perinatal health among Latina women. The Latina Mother Infant Research Project was initiated, which resulted not only in the needed data but also in stimulating cooperation between agencies to develop services for children and families. The anthropologists have continued their role beyond the research itself to be active in program planning and funding. The outcome of this applied research and action process has been the development within the community mental health center of a family component which includes prenatal education, an intervention program for child abuse and neglect, and a treatment model based on family therapy.
THOMAS C. NATTELL (Schenectady Shared Services) DEINSTITUTIONALIZATION OF PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS: A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE This paper presents a discussion of the deintitutionalization of psychiatric patients with an emphasis on the implications of this process for both the individual who is released and the community into whichslhe takes up residence. It focuses on the cultural change that is involved in this process and the problems of cultural lag that are occurring in both the community based service delivery systems that are evolving, and the attitudes of the American public toward the presence of the chronically mentally ill in their communities. The author has conducted research for both the N.Y. State Officse of Mental Health and Schenectady Shared Services, a
multi-service community based mental health agency. He is currently conducting research on the problems of serving the needs of the chronically mentally ill under the Community Support Program Grant awarded to N.Y. State by the National Institute of Mental Health.
LOIS P. BUHI3NER, PHILLIP H. COMPTON (Florida Consortium) CITIZEN INVOLVEMENT IN THE EVALUATION OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CENTERS The Florida consortium for Research and Evaluation has involved seven mental health facilities in Florida, in collaboration with the National Institute 9f Mental Health, to develop, field-test, and disseminate cost-effective mechanisms for citizen involvement in the evaluation of Community Mental Health Centers. This interdisciplinary project has tested three strategies of citizen review groups: staff-based, governing board-based and external group-based citizen review over the past three years. Different types of citizens from the community (e.g. high risk, referral agents, community informants, and former clients of the centers)
met in a formal structure of meetings to review evaluation materials and develop recommendations for presentation to the center governing boards. Small group techniques were used to facilitate the task. The response of the centers to the 15 groups end the implementation of their recommendations have been followed. Assessment of the impact of citizens' recommendations upon the centers and the impact of the citizen review
group process is a viable means of citizen involvement, and one that provides input to policy decisions by subgroups in the community that may be under represented on center governing boards.
BILLYE FOGLEMAN, ESTHER P. ROBERTS (Tennessee) PROVIDING MENAL HEALTH PROGRAMS TO AN INDOCHINESE REFUGEE POPULATION Within the last two years a sizeable group of Indochinese refugees have been relocated to a Southern metropolitan center. A federal grant has been awarded to assess the mental health needs of this refugee group. The refugees' loss of family snd native land, inability to speak English, and perceived lack of control over their own lives are some issues considered in structuring mental health programs for this refugee group. The impact of relocation on these resettled families, steps in the acculturation process and attendance strategies for mental health maintenance are discussed.
ADELE K. ANDERSON (SUNY Buffalo) GRASSROOTS ORGANIZING FOR THE MENTALLY IL: SOME PROSPECTS The severely mentally ill have been frequently described as a forgotten minority. This paper examines some potential sources of organization and* social action for this minority at the grassroots level. It draws upon existing-organizational forms as well as ethnographic material from a year of urban fieldwork among exsental patients in aftercare in Buffalo, New York. Both internally oriented support and externally oriented politcal action functions are important for this group. Mutual aid, voluntary social welfare, and family and friend advocacy types of organization will be considered in light of their relative merits and deficiencies for bringing about social change and improving the quality of life and care for the seriously mentally ill.
JERRY A. SCHULTZ (Kansas) This paper analyzes an applied research project dealing with the factors which influence the successful employment of physically and psychiatrically disabled Individuals. In-particular, the structure of the agency and the larger medical and cultural influences are looked at. Finally, suggestions are made concerning improving this approach to rehabilitation.
(102) THE ANTHROPOLOGY 4OP HEALTH CARE SITES
JILL E. KORBIN, MAXINE .JOHNSON (UC Irvine) THE ANTHROPOLOGIST AS CONSULTANT IN A PEDIATRIC HOSPITAL SETTING A case study will be presented to illustrate the role of the anthropologist in providing consultation in a pediatric hospital. The case involved a conflict between a patient's parent, who refused medical treatment on the basis of deeply rooted Caribbean cultural beliefs about the etiology of disease and the dangers of blood loss, and the house staff whose medical beliefs and treatment interventions were at odds with those of the mother. The disease was highly infectious and the resolution of the conflict involved police intervention to maintain the child in the hospital prior
to physician seeking of anthropological consultation. The presentation will discuss the particular cultural aspects of the case as well as the means by which the single
case study was translated into a teaching vehicle for illustrating principles and
techniques useful to pediatricians in dealing with culturally diverse populations. Because of the nature of the parent-child dyad, negotiating of cultural boundaries puts the medical anthropologist in a unique position in a pediatric setting. The progression from collaboration on the case, to ethnographic interviewing, to teaching of the pediatric house staff will be incorporated in the presentation.
LOIS CRAU (Columbia), SUE MacALLISTER (PSRO) SUCCESSFUL NURSING IN THE HOSPITAL SETTING: A RELATIVE MATTER Intensive interviews and observations of professional nurses in four
*clinical units in a general hospital indicate that "successful nursing', as determined by peers, radically differs from one unit to the next. The norms against which nurses evaluate each other vary depending upon the formal authority structure and the informal power relationships that obtain among staff members. In turn, the type and affect of power exchanges among personnel and patients are influenced by the clinical specialization
*of the unit and the extent to which physicians intervene and control patient care.
IAN G. RAWSON (Pittsburg) SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF A HOSPITAL EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT Utilizing participant observation techniques, interactions of emergency department personnel and clients are analyzed to develop a description of the social structure of the department. Analytical categories of role, status, symbols, rituals and myths are
used to provide a background to understand the logic of patterned behavior by the ER staff. The study includes recommendations for in-service training for staff members to heighten their awareness of the implications of social structural variables for the healing process in the emergency department.
DAVID C. BARROWS (UC Berkeley) INFORMAL INTERACTIONS AT AN ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOME A participant observation study was conducted of a recovery home or halfway house for alcoholics. Storytelling and the nature of the informal interactions emerged as important variables. An explanation is developed of how storytelling and informal interactions are an element of the process of the residents' development of new selfidentities. It is suggested that anthropological research methods are ideal for identifying processes which occur in such treatment or training settings--processes which are often not identified through the more usual outcome measurement research.
JOSEPH M. KAUFERT, PATRICIA L. KAUFERT, ANDREW ROSTER (Manitoba) THE USE OF A "TROUBLE CASE" APPROACH TO CONFLICT IN CLINICAL INTERACTION: APPLICATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUDIO-VISUAL TEACHING MATERIALS This paper describes the development of video tape programs illustrating ethnomedical aspects of interaction between Cree and Saulteaux speaking patients and clinicians in urban medical facilities. Extended participant observation and in-depth interviews with clinicians, other medical personnel and patients were completed before the media development stage of the project. The objective was to record an inventory of situations which would include cases of communication breakdown between physicians and the native patients who had been brought to Southern Manitoba hospitals to receive medical care. The use of media to show medical students the patterns of interaction in physician-patient encounters is common; the model has been taken from the clinical case histories used in other areas of medical education. In clinical teaching cases, situations associated with doctorlpatient encounters are not representative in any statistical sense. They are, however, chosen because they illustrate a generalizable situation characterized by a recognizable set of symptoms or approaches to diagnosis and treatment in which interaction between doctor and patient is well defined. The objective of selecting interaction sequences for video-tape modules was to illustrate conflict situations or so called 'trouble cases'. The concept of 'trouble cases' as it was used in research on the anthropology of law by Llewellyn and Noebel; and is based upon the assumption that more can be learned from situations in which there is tension and disturbance than from situations which are routine. As an approach, it is skin to the one used by the ethromethodologists working in the areas of clinicial/patient interactions. They argue this relationship is best understood when the structure of the
interaction is not normal; when, for example, the patient is 'special (Richman and Goldthorp, 1977) or the norms which define a clinical encounter are threatened (Emerson, 1970). Conflict situations included in videotapes emphasize the differences in the physician's and patient's definition of the situation. For example, from the medical perspective, conflict occurs when the patient is non-compliant; failing to take medication or follow-through on diet instructions. From the patient perspective, the physician may be making unreasonable demands.
(103) ANTHROPOLOGY OF MENTAL HEALTH: STRESS AND GRIEF
HOLLY F. MATHEWS (Duke) THE ROLE OF STRESS IN THE ETIOLOY AND TREATMENT OF HIGH BLOOD lb
BY ROOT DOCTORS Previous research on the folk medical beliefs and practices of root doctors in rural North Carolina revealed the importance of the disease entity high blood. In many curcial aspects of diagnosis and treatment, this folk entity parallels the disease entity of hypertension as defined by modern medical practionera. This paper will report on recent research into the role of stress as a factor in the etiology and treatment of high blood by root doctors. Subsequently, the current state of stress research in the modern medical system will be presented and comparisons drawn. The theoretical and practical value of such a comparative approach will be emphasized as a means for increading communication and improving treatment of a serious disease affecting the population under study.
KATHLEEN N. CARGILL (Florida) WAITING FOR THE BIG ONE: STRESS AND ITS RESOLUTION WITHIN ONE GROUP' OF RURAL FIREFIGHTERS Fire fighting is the Most hazardous occupation in the U.S. The job requires specialized skills, team effort and an ability to withstand intense stress for varying lengths of time. In rural areas the stress of fire combat is balanced by the stress of boredom while "waiting for the big one." It is considered a man's job. Social scientists have not concerned themselves with the study of fire fighters in the way they have studies the police and military combat units. Groups of fire fighters have been the subject of some job performance analyses but few natural group studies have been done. This research focused on one group of rural southern firefighters with a view to their role in the rural health care delivery system. In this paper, the data specifically centered around the group dynamics of 18
men who served a dual role as fire fighters and ENTs or paramedics. The paramilitary group was stressed by the demands of their job, organizational disintegration based on a loss of confidence in their leadership, and by their inability to correct the organizational and social problema facing them. Exploration of male bonding and ritualized group coping mechanisms elucidated a situation in which an informal group of fire fighters tried to relieve group tension and hold the department together. Implications for the research are clear: the findings may be used to formulate in-service training programs to address problems of leadership as well as other intragroup problems as they affect job performance.
MAXENE JOHNSTON (Childrens Hospital LA) GRIEF AMERICAN STYLE: CULTURAL RESPONSES OF FAMILIES AND CHILDREN TO LOSS American culture has produced many sub-cultures that seem alien to physicians, nurses, and other health professionals. The range of cultural differences represented in the United States, often interferes with attempts to increase the well-being of individual members of these sub-cultures. However, when disease is
acute, medical understanding outweighs cultural misunderstanding. But, as the emphasis in the next decade moves from medical curing to health caring and psycho-social issues,
cultural barriers will become increasingly difficult to surmount. In this regard. theories end practices regarding loss and responses to loss warrant a cross-cultural review in an attempt to bridge the gaps in understanding that are inherent in these events. This paper examines some of the contemporary practices and beliefs on grief and loss in western and non-western societies and identifies practical and reasonable
approaches for practitioners caring for children and families representing a range of cultural beliefs and behaviors.
RICHARD W. MORRIS (Rice) MALADAPTIVE RESPONSES TO SOCIAL CHANCE: CASE STUDIES OF MEXICAN MIGRANTS WHO BECAME PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS The incidence of migration associated with disease onset in a Mexican psychiatric patient population suggests that the Mexican migrant and/or members of his family experience stress which may lead to clinically diagaoaed mental illness. A survey of those patients receiving ambulatory care at the clinic reveals that 57% (N=l05) have a history of recent migration, either among themselves or among members of their families. The psychiatrists who treated these patients believed that the suffering of 38% was causally related to migration. Investigation into the actual experiences of those patients who were migrating at the time their symptoms covmmenced and into the impacts of migration on family systems suggests that the social changes presented by migration may have had a deleterious effect in even more cases than those recognized by clinicians. Culture contact; absence from the home community, and separation from the family -- all of which are part of the migrant's experience -- are shown to be potentially distressing. Those migration strategies which resulted in (1) prolonged or repeated separation of family members, (2) sudden or complete immersion in the host culture, or (3) the lack of available social support are discussed as disruptive influences on families and contributing factors in mental illness causation. The analysis of data gathered on the direction, duration, and style of migration reveals that, of all Mexican migrants, those who are exposed to the highest risk of incurring emotional distress are those who (1) migrate internationally to the United States and become suddenly immersed in the host culture; (2) migrate for extended periods of time with infrequent return visits; (3) lose contact with members of their domestic household or extended family, either through their own solo-migration or the mobility of significant others; (4) show little history of migration in previous generations of their families.
ATHENA McLEAN (Pittsburgh) FAMILY CULTURAL STYLES AS RELATED TO RELAPSE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA Recurrent relapse and institutionalization is an unfortunate, but realistic, prospect for patients suffering from schizophrenia. Researchers of schizophrenia are seeking factors which might contribute to relapse in order to provide clinical predictors of relapse and strategies to reduce it. As a disorder in processing stimuli, schizophrenia is probably influenced by environmental stimulation. For example, an international study recently implicated social and cultural environment in outcome, demonstrating better outcome in patients from developing countries. In Britain, researchers developed a method to predict relapse by measuring "Expressed Emotion" (criticism and emotional overinvolvement) in family environments. As a predictor of relapse, however, "EF" is uneconomical, offers little guidance to treatment, is problematic in cross cultural application, and possibly reflects patient clinical state rather than styles of family interaction. This paper introduces a cultural model to provide an alternative predictor of relapse, deepen understanding of intrafamilial dynamics underlying "E", and offer clues for treatment. This model distinguishes Basil Bernstein's Positional and Person-oriented families as two
cultural value systems differing in role type, social control and communication coding. The structured Positional family was hypothesized to provide greater protection from relapse than the ambiguously defined Person-oriented family which imposes more stimulation. A pilot study within a major "EE" study classified ten patients by family type, examining role type, social control and communication coding. In nine of ten cases, Person-oriented families correlated with high "E'" (high risk) and Positional with low "FE" environments, suggesting family type as an alternative predictor of relapse. If continuing research corroborates these results, profilactic treatments will hopefully reduce frequency of relapse and institutionalization.
(104) QUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE TEAM RESEARCH: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS The theme for the organized symposium reflects some of the concerns and experiences of anthropologists and other qualitative researchers working individually, in team research and in organized grassroots support groups. The overall aim is to share some of the new approaches and ways of resolving the new kinds of issues and problems when we practice outside of academic settings. The papers address a range of problems from several different perspectives but are organized around a theme of conflict, conflict at several levels and in many of its aspects. N-irocha, Pitman, and Raiche, Richardson and Zander outline
the nature of conflicts stemming from paradigmatic differences. These authors however take different perspectives. Raiche argues for synthesis whereas Pitman advocates maintaining conflict, Opposing strategies are further illustrated from on-going interdisciplinary research projects. Maxwell suggests new roles and directions for anthropologists as consultants to organizations in such areas as corporate responsibility mission statements and community relations. Brokering illustrates innovative approaches to communicating results to clients. Finally, Elias and Dolphin discuss conflict at the level of grassroots support groups.JOHN MIROCHA (Minnesota) MIXING QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: A DELINEATION OF TYPE AND PROCESSES The paper explores several models for inclusion of both qualitative' and quantitative methods in applied social science research and evaluation. A major purpose of the paper is to introduce those models which have been proposed by authors such as Pelto (1970), Filatead (1971), and Douglas (1976), as well as some that are being used but have not made their way into the literature as yet. The models will be delineated in terms of their strengths and weaknesses so that we may better understand when a particular type can be most appropriately utilized. The models include the naturalistic approach which attempts to quantify observational data. The approach imitates and builds upon methodological ideas from studies of apes, wolf packs, and other behavioral groupings. The natural science model stresses that qualitative research is a supplement to quantification, and provides description for the setting in which the research takes
place. The mixed inductive approach stresses that research should begin with simple natural interaction in the setting and to proceed to more controlled types of research. Through the independent approach, qualitative and quantitative researchers work independently from each other with only the common notion of what it is they are studying. As the data is analysed, researchers attempt to synthesize information into meaningful
MARY ANNE PITMAN (Minesota) A CONFLICT MODEL FOR MULTI-PARADIGM RESEARCH PROJECTS Theorists and practioners disagree on the presence of, extent of, and nature of paradigmatic conflict in interdisciplinary research. This presentation will contend that
the problems of mixing qualitative and quantitative research methodologies are real and substantial and that the potential solution lies in maximizing the conflict toward an eventual dialectic. That contention will be documented by using a case study of a team documentation effort which the presenter is currently participating in. The research team in question, which consists of an historian, an anthropologist, a psychologist and a sociologist, exemplifies the complexities of multi-paradigmatic research. When applied to this particular case, the conflict model seems to be emerging as the moat fruitful one for producing useable and valid analysis of data.
J. RAICHE, B. RICHARDSON, D.B. ZANDER (Minnesota) TME QUALITATIVE-QUANTITAT~IVE DEBATE: A STRATEGY FOR COMPLEMENTARY RESEARCH METHODS Traditionally, the literature concerned with qualitative and quantitative methods has focused on the divergence of the two
approaches. These discussions have for the most part been polemical in nature, arguing for one paradigm over the other. In the last decade or so, while dilatory, the polemical nature of these discussions has abated and there is some indication that the social sciences are coming to grips with the need for both methodologies. However, this discourse remains couched in the rhetoric of "supplementary" rather tham complementary methods. The thrust of this paper is to explicate a resarch strategy that utilizes both methods in an eclectic research "gestalt". The paper contendathat the objectives of social science can only be met when methodological dogmatism is eliminated. After delineating a strategy for complementary methods and briefly examining some of the research that is currently being pursued in this vein, we will present a case study (a research project investigating employee deviance) that is utilizing the concept of interdependent scientific research.
PAUJL MAXWELL (Minnesota) CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ANTHROPOLOGY The extent and nature of the corporation's relationship to the wider community is of continued concern to a number of corporations. Anthropology's experience in the definition of community boundaries, elicitation and clarification of community values, and discovery of community structure and process is relevant to the understanding of a corporation and its responsibilities. The transfer of anthropological theories and skills to the specific tasks of mission statement formation, corporate planning, and other procedures for integrating social responsibility with corporate operation is problematic. This paper relates the experience of an anthropologist responsible for staffing a board level committee of a medium-sized corporation in trying to make this transfer. The paper further raises questions for consideration of the discipline on the direction of its expansion in application of anthropological methods and theory.
P. BETH BROKERING (Film in the Cities) THE APPLICATION OF ANTHROPOLOGY TO PUBLIC '"ONCERNS: WHEN ANTHROPOLOGY AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY MERGE Anthropologists have increasingly used film documentary as a way to further their investigations. However, the anthropologist as image-maker is a new application of the science. Visual
arts provide the researcher with an effective means of symbolic interaction for mass communication and social change. In 1977. the Minnesota Dept. of Ecomomic Security funded an evaluation of Youth Employment Programs. Qualitative research methods were primarily used to assess the impact of government-subsidized work programs on youth participants--from the youths' point of view. Safety and supervision were defined as critical areas for further investigation in a second study. The findings were used to develop a model safety program for replication and to produce resource materials, including slide shows. In looking at safety and supervision through the perceptions of adolescents, a description and analysis of various behaviors and cognitive strategies emerged. These adaptive mechanisms were sorted and compared using content analysis of interview data. Thus, it was possible to design a method to influence necessary changes or reinforcement in these strategies. Two slide-sound presentations were developed to accomplish just that. Because the quality of dyadic interaction was found to be the single most important variable that shaped the work culture, "Caring for Safety's Sake" was produced. This piece enables supervisors to view themselves and their work place as teenagers do, strengthens the safety ethic, and encourages adoption of a philosophy of youth development. "Fishes & Water', (for youths), presents cognitive skills found to be necessary for preventative thinking and behavior. These skills are illustrated in vignettes which depict factors informants said affected their safety, (e.g. maturity, peer pressure, secuality, drug use). These two presentations, additional resource materials, and the program model are examples of the application of anthropology to public concerns.
(105) ANTROfPOLOGICAL VIEWS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
SHELDON G. WEEKS (U of Papua New Guinea) TEACHERS AS EXTENSION WORKERS: VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT CENTRES IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA In 1977 five former Vocational Centres and 25 instructors were asked to change from centre-based training of male and female youth
to village-based training for adults. It was a joint project of a number of divisions of Government (education, agriculture, health. business development, provincial affairs, and-information). With few exceptions the project has failed. A World Bank expert confined himself to giving unacceptable advice and failed to launch the expected retraining programme for staff. A national coordinator at Headquarters lacked administrative follow-through. The general bureaucracy, particularly financial requirements, blocked effective administrative support to staff in the five centres. Centre staff were generally not selected, nor was any adequate training programmne launched. Dissatisfaction have resulted in a high rate of transfer out of the project. A dependence on vehicle transport to reach distant villages resulted in frequent blockages to extension when vehicles were nor running or roads nor passable. A general lack of cooperation between divisions in each province also retarded the project, Lack of commitment to the goals of the project, general inexperience and unfamiliarity with extension methods, frustrations
with villages and an incomprehension of the potential for village-based training has hampered the effective attainment of original objectives. Poor choice of the original five centres (only two conformed to objectives) and the need to maintain centre-based programmes has blocked goal attainment. Yet in certain circumstances and respects there have been successes in the project. Former vocational centre instructors have been transformed into didimen (extension workers). This research report also explores these successes and considers ways in which the project might be transferred to other institutions.
BARBARA D. JACKSON (Indiana/Purdue), TERRY MILLER (AMOS) SEX ROLES IN A PEE-VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROJECT In January, 1979 a model pre-vocational education program was established by AMOS, Inc., an organization which provides supportive services to the predominantly chicano migrant and seasonal farmworker population in Indiana. The program accomodates, in a comprehensive and integrated fashion, the specific language, social, cultural, and basic educational needs of both in-stream farmworkers who are contemplating lifestyle change, as well as those who have recently committed themselves to the "settling. out" process. The project utilizes anthropologists as technical assistants to identify cognitive and behavioral responses of clients, especially as these may relate to cultural differences. Sex role has emerged as an interesting and significant factor in program delivery. Differences in male and female responses to program structure, curriculum, and personnel, as well as their perceptions of occupational and educational goals have been identified. The dynamics of sex-role interraction have had implications for the conducting of classes and in counseling bonded male/female pairs. This paper will present qualitative and quantitative data establishing sex role as a significant factor of intra-cultural variation among hispanic farmworkers in a particular educational program. General recommendations will be made for adult education programs serving similar populations.
SARA McGRAW GEITE (Coon) COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL CAREER EDUCATION CENTER The development of a Youth Adult Metal Machining training program has illustrated some unique and important features of career education programs in urban schools. The initiation and design of this program has included involvement by organizations representing education and training institutions, area industry and business as well as city and state. Because of this multi-sector involvement and the requirement for numerous funding sources, issues concerning the relationship between education, industry and urban poor communities have been raised. These issues include the role of community residents in the development, implementation and monitoring of career education programs, the commitment of business and industry to offer mature action and the degree to which public school systems can support adequate secondary level career education programs. This paper will discuss .these issues and suggest new directions for career education. Possible roles for anthropologists will be described. Although the training component of this program has been well-received, students have experienced limited employment continuity. This paper will explore the reasons for this difference. Program ataff, employer and student perspectives will be discussed with particular reference to student needs and staff-employer expectations.
MERRILL NATHAN (Conn) THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FEDERAL. SUBSIDIES ON CAREER EDUCATION IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS Federal subsidies for youth employment have shifted urban public school career education from an emphasis on career choice and options to job training and placement. Minimum wage subsidies are intended to encourage employers to hire youth and to act as incentives in new job development. Some programs have chosen to use the subsidy for related purposes including desegregation of specific employment sectors. The middle city youth employment in the suburbs program trains and places urban high school students in retail positions in a large enclosed suburban mall. A wage subsidy is available to employers who agree to accept YES students as employees. Students are recruited for an intensive after school training program and are then placed at selected job sites.
(106) AMERICAN INDIAN EDUCATION
MARK S. FLEISHER (Washington St U) THE EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF AMERICAN INDIAN ENGLISH The paper discusses the hypothesis that American Indian English is a creole language. The hypothesis is illustrated with data from the Makah Indian Reservation, Olympic Peninsula, Washington State. A model is presented showing the development of Neah Bay English Creole over, at least, 150 years of contact with both European and native Northwest Coast languages. The model outlines the social and linguistic variables
which affected the formation of Neah Bay English Creole. Educational linguists have focused their attention on analyzing and teaching native languages to monolingual English-speaking Indian children. While doing this they have paid little attention to the English sopken by American Indians. My hypothesis that American Indian English is a creole has important implications f or primary, secondary and post-secondary schooling for American Indians.
KENNETH Y. BEGISHE, EDWARD R. GARRISON (Navajo Comm C) THE NAVAJO UNIVERSE: THE TAXONOMIC STRUCTURE OF NATIVE KNOWLEDGE AS THE BASIS FOR CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AT NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE The taxonomic structure of the Navajo Universe has been previously outlined through the Ethnoscience research of Werner and his associates. By utilizing this structure, and providing greater depth and detail through further research where needed, the staff at Navajo Community College are developing a comprehensive collegiate level curriculum that is truly Navajo in content and organization. Details of this research and development are discribed, including
(a) areas where the organization of Navajo knowledge has led to different "disciplinary"
boundaries than those found in the typical college, and (b) areas where the specific content and philosophy of individual courses have emerged in unique ways that show noteworthy contrasts with their "parallel" courses in other types of colleges.
KATHRYN T. MOLOHON (Laurentian) TRUANCY AMONG URBAN INDIANS A Study of 24 American Indians enrolled in public schools in the San Francisco Bay area found that those who were truant fell into two general groups: 1) Those who were truant as a result of family problems, and 2) those who were truant for purposes of adventure or entertainment. There was also one case of a Pueblo girl who refused to attend school in order to avoid fighting on the school playground. This paper concludes with suggestions for handling truancy among American Indians in urban public schools.
ANN T. McGUIGAN (Washington St U) BICULTURAL EDUCATION AND) NATIVE AMERICANS The hypothesis of the paper is that the United States government uses normative criteria for establishing the need for bilingual/bicultural programs on Native American Indian Reservations. My argument is that the government-selected normative criteria do not reflect the social, cultural and educational needs of Native Ameraicans. A complete switch has occurred in the educational policy for Native Americans as created by nonIndian bureaucracy. Their educational policy has changed from absolute assimilation to the position encouraging bilcuturalism. The bicultural education of Native American children is essentially symbolic of a past culture and not representative of the culture and society in which Indian children will be expected to live and succeed. The paper explores the historical development of the change in educational policy. Moreover, this intellectual development of educational policy is a barometer of interethnic attitudes.
JOHN COLLIER JR (San Francisco St U) MULTI-CULTURAL EDUCATION AND THE PERSISTENCE OF ETHNICITY The surviving ethnicity of Native Americans and the future of cultural
pluralism in American culture are directly related to the philosophy of education of both federal and public school education. This paper reports on eight years of film research in Eskimo, Navajo and multi-ethnic education in the San Francisco city schools. The research began in the National Study of American Indian Education, which probed "Why are Native Americana consistently getting an inferior education?" I examined this question among the Eskimos of Alaska. In search of "how can Native Americans obtain survival education," I researched the Rough Rock Demonstration Community School that is
remedying psychological injuries that have blocked education for Navajo children. The research then moved into the multi-ethnic classrooms in San Francisco where the more critical problem of ethnicity reats. The fulfillment of this research has been to probe the future solution of plural ethnicity that can only be fulfilled by a new philosophy of multi-ethnic education that supports and strengthens ethnic diversity in American democracy.
(107) ANTHROPOLOGY OF LEISURE ACTIVITY
RITA SRIVASTAVA, THOMAS MELCHIONNE (Rutgers) NEW YORK NEW WAVE]PUNK ROCK CULTUREE AS A MECHANISM OF BALANCE IN AMERICAN SOCIETY New Wave]Punk Rock is an important musicfocused subcultural phenomenon. It has been interpreted as a reaction to the overengineered, over-commercialized world of Disco, but in another sense, it is the protest of flesh and blood people against the confines of traditional modernity. The music expresses the frustrations and anger of those who take part in it: anger at the broken dreams and unfulfilled promises radiated by mega-industrial mass culture. This paper demonstrates how punk rock culture serves as a socio-psychologicsl validating mechanism, and how it provides a valuable cultural vehicle in which the resentment of disenfranchised youth can be safely defused. Rather than dismiss punk rock as just another transitory fad, or condemning it as violent, aberrant, or destructive, it should be recognized for
its functional value in adding balance to American culture.
ELIZABETH L. MATHIAS (St. Johns U) CULTURAL CODES AND GAMBLING AMONG SOUTH PHILADELPHIA ITALIANS Research in gambling activity in American society has been conducted primarily by sociologists and psychologists who have studies gamblers as a relatively homogenous group, the members of which share such traits as compulsive-addictive behavior and
deviance. The ethnicity and cultural backgrounds of white Americans who gamble has been largely glossed over or ignored. A study of the gambling behavior of ItalianAmericans reveals that certain of the cultural codes of southern Italian society, such as the hunor/shame orientation, operate in and form a basis for attitudes toward gambling and the social organization of gambling within this ethnic group. Cultural values and male and female gambling patterns in the Italian commjnity of South Philadelphia will be examined in historical and environmental context.
LARRY J. SCHMIDT (Syracuse) SMALL TOWN LIFE AND THE ARRIVAL OF THE CB RADIO: A STUDY OF STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN THE RURAL NORTHEASTERN U.S. In "Woodboro", a hamlet in rural New York where the author did his dissertation research, and many other communities where the local farm-based economy has collapsed and commuting to work prevails, village organizations and local life in general have declined dramatically. Testimony that this development is more situational than motivational comes from the arrival and overwhelming acceptance of the CS radio. Almost every family in Woodboro now has a base station and at least one mobile unit. Informants agreed that although the "craze" has now passed, the CB radio is in Woodboro to stay. The result has been people talking with friends that thay haven't spoken to in years, with conversations soon leading to plans to get together. The CB will never restore the community life that existed in the days of local organizational prosperity, but it does provide an intermediate gap-filling institution which people in Woodhoro admit was sorely needed.
W. GERALD GLOVER (Edison Comm C) HOTEL MANAGEMENT STYLES IN THE BEHAMAS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY Hotel organization and management reflects cultural attitudes for tourism and economic development in Third World nations. This paper presents the results of a pilot study conducted in the Bahama Islands. Hotel management and organization are investigated with regard to "success" criteria such as profit, use of local resources, integration with local culture, conservation of natural resources, and employee job satisfaction.
(108) CRITICAL ISSUES IN ASIAN COMMUNITIES: RESEARCH AND APPLICATION
WENI H. KUO (Utah) COLONALISM AND ASIA1N AMERICAN STUDIES As an extension of the author's recent publication on Asian American assimilation studies, the paper further examines the thesis of internal colonalism. Discussion first focuses on the major theoretical arguments of this perspective, the empirical confirmation status of its propositions, and then concludes with a critical note on its limitations. Remedies are offerred by presenting a revised model which incorporates thoughts from neo~'colonalism and world system scholars. To demonstrate the potential utility of this revised perspective, data of recent immigration from Asia and changes in the community structure of Asian American communities are analyzed. The implication of this perspective for studies of other immigrant groups is also elaborated.
-GAIL DEMPSEY (WICD-TV Urbana) GROWING UP FEMALE IN PRE-REVOLUTIONARY CHINA This paper represents material extrapolated from an archival thesis written on the subject of suicidal responses of women in China before the Socialist Revolution in 1949. In this study, I set the stage for suicide by devoting the first half of the work to an analysis of what it was like to grow up, female, in China. From the age of Confucius (the Chou Dynasty) to thirty years ago, the birth of a female child proved little cause for celebration. My research focuses upon the dynamics of infacticide, the painful process of footbinding, the sale of female children (infants), forced marriage, and a myriad of degrading and destructive experiences which made up the life stages of the majority of growing girls (regardless of class or economics) in the Celestial Kingdom.
GEORGE CERNADA, CHING-CHING CHEN (Mass) PASTING UMBRELLAS BEFORE RAIN: A CASE STUDY In 1971, copies of the first "population education" booklet had found their way to some 400,000 students throughout Taiwan. The chronological record of the planning and production of the "Paste Your Umbrella Before the Rain" booklet assesses the many political and cultural as well as bureaucratic barriers to an expansion of population programming from the public health realm to include other social development agencies. The case study is drawn from the detailed diary notes of the co-investigators who drafted the booklet for the Ministry of Education, as well as other sources collected during the period (1969-71). The case also moves into the general realm of population education, the heavy hand of foreign influence, and the lack of cultural context in materials, texts, curriculum and teacher training. Of special interest is the conflict between population education goals and deep-rooted cultural and social development planning goals
of the Government.
RUTH ANN SANDO (Hawaii) ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND THE FARNER IN TAIWAN This paper will examine the implications of economic development for agriculture. The data is based on research in the Republic of China 1977-78. Industrialization was financed by the agricultural sector; as it developed it drew further on agricultural resources until today agriculture represents less than 14% of the GNP. Today's farmer sees himself as a member of the last generation of farmers. He is not training anyone to take his place, having sent his children out to work in the cities. The high level of out-migration from villages has led to a substitution of capital intensive machinery for the now scarce and expensive human labor, and to changes in the crop cycle. Currently farmers are receiving little or no profit, becoming more and more dependent on outside income. This encourages further migration, producing a vicious cycle depleting rural communities. Industrialization has already produced a crisis in agriculture. With the increased dependency on international markets and the continued fuel shortage, a dangerous situation on a larger scale may also be developing.
PAMELA A. DEVOE (Arizona) RURAL IKOUSIRIALIZATION IN TAIW4AN, AN ALTERNATIVE TO URBAN MIGRATION As with many third world countries, Taiwan's rural area had exhibited problems of overpopulation per available agricultural land; however, due to rural industrialization alternatives to urban migration are now available. As a result of employment/businesa opportunities created by rural industrialization, and an improved communication system, potential urban migrants may now choose to remain in the rural area. This alternative to urban migration was reflected in the findings of field research carried our in central Taiwan among rural youths.
(109) THE CONFLICT BETWEEN SELF-HELP/MUTUAL-AID GROUPS AND PROFESSIONALS: REALITY OR MYTH? Anthropology is investigating a major resource for helping sectors of society often neglected or overlooked by the conventional human service agencies. This resource is expressed in the self-help.Imutual-aid movement, estimated currently to involve some twenty million Americana and an equivalent number abroad. Contrary to both popular and professional beliefs, significant numbers of these groups not only are not anti-professional, but in fact are or have been initiated or supported by seasoned professionals. First-hand accounts by exemplars of these professionals and by lay leader of prominent self-help/mutual-aid groups are presented, along with
observations of anthropologists working in the self-help realm.
(110) RECIPROCAL DEVELOPMENT: APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGISTS & AMERICAN INDIAN COOPERATION IN THE ARIZONA STRIP 1972-1980 From 1972 to the present the FKaibab Paiute people of northern Arizona have participated with four universities in a series of developmental change projects that have resulted in mutually beneficial products. A model of reciprocal development is suggested by this experience. In this model participants enter the relationship expecting to receive direct benefits for normal activities. For the university this may mean (1) better access to research data, (2) special teaching environments, and perhaps even (3) improved community service. For the reciprocating community, benefits should derive from being able (1) to inexpensively draw upon the expertise of university personnel, (2) to utilize on a short term basis capital intensive equipment such as computers, photographic laboratories. and media centers, end (3) to have project specific research and activities conducted that, would otherwise be beyond the resources of the community. Explicit in this model is the (1) requirement of mutual trust, (2) tine to come to understand the goals, resources, and constraints within which the other partner must operate, (3) the ability to translate organizational or discipline relevant problems and findings into the language of the other partner, and (4) project continuity deriving from mutual long term commitments. The following papers (1) discuss the reciprocal model, (2) describe the 1975 applied archaeology project, (3) present findings from 1976 and 1978 tourism surveys and their developmental implications, (4) examine the educational and economic potential of hiking trails,
(5) show how culturally sensitive events can be simultaneously preserved and serve an economic function through applied visual anthropology, and (6) reevaluate the role of a linguist working with people who desire to retain their traditional language.
MERLE CODY JAKE (Kaibab Paiute Tribe), RICHARD W. STOFFLE (Wisconsin-Parkside) RECIPROCAL DEVELOPMENT: A MODEL DERIVED FROM APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGISTS & AMERICAN INDIAN COOPERATION IN THE ARIZONA STRIP 1972-197 9 This paper presents a model of reciprocal development that appears to be generally applicable to any university with applied anthropological concerns and any community willing to develop an applied relationship with the university. The model is derived from almost a decade of applied projects cooperatively developed between the Kaibab Paiute people of northern Arizona and four universities. According to this model participants enter the relationship expecting to receive direct benefits for normal activities. For the university this may mean (1) better access to research data, (2) special teaching environments, and perhaps even
(3) improved community service. For the reciprocating community, benefits should derive from being able (1) to inexpensively draw upon the expertise of university personnel, (2) to utilize on a short term basis capital intensive equipment such as computers, photographic laboratories, and media centers, sod (3) to have project specific research and activities conducted that would otherwise be beyond the resources of the
community. Explicit in this model is the (1) requirement of mutual trust, (2) time to come to understand the goals, resources, and constraints within which the other partner muat operate. (3) the ability to translate organization or discipline relevant problems and findings into the language of the other partner, and (4) need for project continuity deriving from mutual long term commitments.
DAVID B. HALMO (Wisconsin-Parkside) APPLIED ARCHEOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIVE AMERICAN TOURISM PROGRAM In the past, field schools concerned with excavation of archeological remains generally serve to enhance academic knowledge of past cultures and provide experience and training for students interested in making archeology a career. Rarely, if ever, are they a component of a long range developmental change program concerned with preserving cultural heritage of a Native American people while opening avenues to increased economic independence for the recipient population. This paper will outline the archeological problems that confronted the Kaibab Paiute people of northern Arizona in developing a successful tourism program in 1975, and the role of applied anthropologists in alleviating these problems through the use of the field school strategy. The 1975 applied archeology field school provided experience, training, and new skills to undergraduate anthropology students while making possible the continued development of the Kaibab Paiute tourism program. In retrospect, it has served to lay the ground work for continued positive relationships between hosts and guests and subsequent developmental change field school projects.
CHERYL A. LAST (Wisconsin-Parkside) RESERVATION-BASED TOURISM AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT: NEW SURVEY FINDINGS FROM THE ARIZONA STRIP During the summers of 1976 and 1979 administrators of the Kaibab Paiute Tribe and University of Wisconsin-Parkside faculty and students conducted tourism surveys of the Arizona Strip region. In 1976 15 field school students interviewed 1806 touring party decision makers at 5 touring locations scattered throughout southern Utah and northern Arizona. The primary purpose of this survey was to assess the feasibility of constructing a motel complex on the Kaibab Paiute reservation. In 1979 15 field school students interviewed 320 touring party decision makers at Pipe Spring National Monument located on the Kaibab Paiute reservation. This survey had two purposes: to reassess the 1976 survey findings and to measure the potential impact of major development projects such as power transmission lines, electrical generating plants, dams, new road construction, etc. on the willingness of tourists to return to the region. Implications of the findings for Kaibab Paiute development and for regional energy development proposals are discussed.
SALLY A. C. WOOD (Wisconsin-Parkside) EDUCATIONAL HIKING TRAILS: ATTRACTING ARIZONA STRIP TOURISTS AND PROVIDING THEM AN ALTERNATIVE HISTORIC PERSPECTIVE This paper examines the development of an educational hiking trail project on the Kaibab Paiute reservation in northern Arizona. The project was designed to attract tourists to a new tribally owned and operated trailer-camper park by satisfying tourist desires (as expressed in the 1976 tourism survey) to hike and be educated simultaneously. In addition to its economic functions, the Kaibab Paiute people recommended that the hiking trail and its associated guide booklet provide tourists with a Paiute perspective on local history. During the summer of 1978 persons from the Kaibab Paiute tribe, the University of Wisconsin-Parkside and Indian University, constructed two hiking trails on the reservation (one to a W. Powell survey marker of historical importance and another to an endangered petroglyph site) and a culturally sensitive trail guide book.
DAN RASCH (Wisconsin-Parkside) APPLIED VISUAL ANTHROPOLOGY: THE USE OF VIDEOTAPE AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY FOR NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURAL PRESERVATIONAND TOURISM This paper discusses the use of videotape and still photography as a means of preserving components of Native American cultural heritage and as a vehicle for meeting the value expectations of tourists who are attracted to a reservation-based tourism facility. During the summer of 1979 students and faculty from the University of Wisconsin-Parkside combined their equipment and skill- with those of the Kaibab Paiute people to produce a series of visual materials for use in a new tribally owned cultural heritage museum. Production of these materials was stimulated in part by the desire of the Kaibab Paiute people to have certain components of traditional life visually available for future generations and in part by an expressed desire of Arizona Strip tourists to learn about Indian life when visiting a reservation without intruding upon their privacy. Photographic records were made of tribal elders constructing traditional style housing for an outdoor museum exhibit and of an endangered petroglyph site located elsewhere on the reservation.
PAMELA BUNTE (New Mexico St U) THE LINGUIST'S ROLE.IN CULTURAL PERSISTENCE: A KAIBAB PAIUTE CASE It is well knownthat an ethnographer affects the society he describes. Linguists, however, so many of whom have little or no anthropological training, often assume that their research and their presence in a linguistic community has no effect and that if they pay their "informants" they have no further responsibility to the community. By way of evidence to the contrary, the author will trace the course that her five years of linguistic field work among the Kaibab Paiutes has taken and the changes that the status of the Southern Paiute language has undergone as a result of the presence of the academic community among the Paiutes. In particular, the author analyses the impact of her presence on the socio-linguistic milieu of the Kaibab Paiute reservation. This experience makes it clear that the linguist, like the ethnographer, needs to be able to integrate his needs with those of the linguistic community.
(111) POPULATION RESEARCH AS APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY The two-part symposium will stress recent or current anthropological research which relates socio-cultural factors to population variables. In the first session, papers will be presented covering a range of topics, from the relationship between cultural factors and fertility to socio-cultural variables affecting family planning programs. These papers will cover research conducted in various areas of the world, intentionally encompassing a broad range of cultural diversity. Following the presentation of papers, there will be a second part which will consist of a panel discussion about the applications and possible reamifications of research findings for population policies. An equal part of the discussion will be devoted to the "culture" and constraints inherent in population or family planning programs, and how these affect the applicability of research results.
MARGARET S. BOONE (Georgetown U) FERTILITY, DISEASE, AND INFANT MORTALITY IN AN AMERICAN INNER CITY POPULATION This paper profiles the pregnancy histories of women in a poor, black population served by a major east coast urban hospital, and suggests ways in which fertility, disease, and infant mortality combine to perpetuate a culture of poverty.
The paper discusses the utility of research on a particularly disadvantaged group, in terms of program and policy development. In research on such a group, new variables emerge and new options are suggested which may contradict previous commitments of more middle class policy makers and program designers.
MARY ELMENDORF (Consultant) CHANGING PATTERNS OF FERTILITY: THE IMPACT OF CONTRACEPTIVE TECHNOLOGY ON A MAYA VILLAGE This paper investigates the internal dynamics of the processes set in motion by social, economic and technical innovations, including the introduction of maternallchild health and family planning services in a Maya village. An important dimension of the study lies in the undertaking of this research phase concurrently with the beginning of the family planning program and the more complex process of introducing contraceptive technology. By close collaboration with the local health worker it was possible to identify and understand some of the hopes and constraints of the women as they began to use more contraceptives and began to assume more control of their fertility.
ALFONSO VILLA ROJAS (National U Mexico) BEHAVIOR OF MAYA WOMEN IN RELATION TO DEMOGRAPHIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE: THREE COMMUNITIES IN SYNCHRONIC AND DIACHRONIC PERSPECTIVES The focus of this research has been in the village of Chan Kom, but this report includes comparative data from Tusik and Piste and an analysis of traditional beliefs and customs among the Maya. Urban and traditional communities were used as social fields as we analyzed influences from the modern sectors, communications between generations, and the changing world view as they relate to fertility behavior.
JOANN E. GLITTENBERG (Colorado) A SOCIOCULTURAL FRAMEWORKC FOR ASSESSING FERTILITY AND ADVOCATING CHANGE: A GUATEMALAN STUDY What conditions influence fertility has been widely studied, but still the issue remains controversial. In order to investigate various conditions, Glittenberg in 1974-75 studied fertility and sociocultural factors in two ethnically different Guatemalan towns: a Ladino and an Indian. The towns are similar in that they have the same type of agrarian economy and are located in the same ecological niche. However, the ethnic groups are on opposite ends of a cultural continum Using the Davis and Blake sociocultural framework, the economic classes, educational achievements arid religious affiliations were assessed in each town. Cultural variables studied included: ideal family size, marital practices, female status and work role, inheritance patterns, migration patterns and cultural ideals. The intermediate 'variables affecting fertility investigated were: intercourse, conception, gestation, and parturition. It was found there were no statisfically significant differences in the fertility rates between these two ethnic groups. However, other significant condition which varied between the groups were: inheritance patterns, marriage patterns, cultural ideals, women's roles and statuses and levels of fatalism. The differences formed a "antinatal" and "pronatal" profile for each community. A careful analysis of the profiles suggested different population policies and appropriate family planning programs. The study indicated mere analysis of fertility rates is superficial and misleading whereas an in-depth sociocultural study offers a sound base from which to build family planning programs.
JOYCE BENNETT JUSTUS (UC San Diego) ADOLESCENT FERTILITY AND CONTRACEPTIVE USAGE IN JAMAICA This paper discusses the relationship among education, female autonomy and contraceptive usage in Jamaica. It poses and answers the question when, and under what conditions will adolescents use contraceptives. It also suggests policy implications based on findings derived from a recent study carried out by the author in conjunction with a sociologist from the University of the West Indies, Jamaica and makes an argument for the inclusion of the anthropologist in the research team when the goal of the research is an evaluation of contraceptive or fertility behavior.
(112) THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN NATIVE AMERICAN COMMUNITIES Community development processes are those which increase the participation of community residents in local decision-making. Federal Indian policies of self-determination introduce the concepts of community development but do little to implement these new processes. The papers in this session present case studies of citizen participation in Tribal planning programs. Approaches to citizen participation which relate to the unique cultural setting of each community were necessary for effective community development. These approaches are indicative of the effort and resources needed for successful involvement of community members. Such involvement is imperative, however, if selfdetermination is to become a reality for Indian communities.
ALLEN C. TURNER (Kentucky) ACTIVATING CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN A TRIBAL PLANNING PROGRAM Remote, small scale tribal communities with fluctuating in-residence population composition have special constraints on effective participatory planning. Furthermore, formal tribal administrative systems may be antithetical to traditional community pattern This paper reports on the ways the Kaibab-Psiute Tribe of northern Arizona addressed thea constraints and some of the organizational, material and cognitive results of the tribe's three-year HUD 701 Planning Assistance program. Ethnohistorical and ethnographic researc provided some operating hypotheses about Southern Paiute patterns of adaptation leading t the formation of an ad hoc Planning Committee. The committee was homologous with aboriginal functional band structure. The Planning Committee identified the directions for development, studied the issues, and made recommendations to the Tribal Council for action. Areas of participatory planning include housing, tribal land and water works and health care delivery systems. Major results include a reservation-wide housing rehabilitation program, the construction of irrigation systems for family gardens and plans for a community health station on the reservation.
DICK G. WINCHELL (Arizona St U) CITIZEN PARTICPATION THROUGH TRIBAL SPECIFIC HEALTH PLANS The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act CP.L. 93-638) and the Indian Health Care Improvement Act (P.L. 94-437) suggest a new approach to Federal Indian policy called tribal specific planning. Indian Health Services initiated Tribal specific health planning in its Phoenix area office during fiscal years 1978, 1979 and 1980. Funds and technical assistance were provided to each Indian community in the area. Local health committees and tribal councils became responsible for the use of those resources to create a tribal specific health plan. Local communities identified their own health needs and set priorities to meet them. Each tribal specific health plan was forwarded to Washington, along with the combined plan for the areas office based upon the tribal specific reports. The policies and funding requests for the area office were based upon the tribal specific reports, including the operating budget for fiscal years 1981, 1982 and 1983. For the first time Federal Indian policy was set by local community participation in documented tribal specific health plans. Tribal specific planning has great potential in all areas of Indian porgrams, but it requiresadequate funding for local planning processes and for implementation of local plans.
(113) COMMUNITY PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT, SOCIAL CHARGE
ELIZABETH CHINN (City of Oceanside), MARGARET BAKER (Co of San Diego) ANTHROPOLOGISTS IN PLANNING: BRINGING THE COMMUNITY INTO LOCAL GOVERNMENT There is presently a lack of community participation in the local government planning process, although it is the intention of much recent State and Federal legislation to provide for citizen participation. Community input exists primarily on paper. This paper will examine the "reality" -- prevailing attitudes and aspects of local governmental processes which hamper community input and the various "actors" who promote or hinder community input. The potential roles of anthropologists -- anthropologists as planners, as facilitators, and as brokers in interaction with the administrator, elected public official, service deliverers, clients, and the community-at-large -- will be discussed.
JEANNE MARIE STUMPF-CAROME, THOMAS J. DOUGLAS (Cleveland St U) THE CULTURAL DIMEN-1SION OP A COMMUNITY PLANNING STRATEGY Many culturally defined communities in Cleveland, Ohio are experiencing demographic and ethnic transformation. Residents often view these neighborhoods from different perspectives. Long-term residents know the neighborhood as it was. Recent migrants are dependent on their everyday experience as a definitional basis. Community conflict can result if these two perspectives cannot he reconciled. This conflict can be further intensified by the present-tine orientation of urban planning. Then community participation is a prerequisite for program success, this conflict is even more of a liability. A stable community image and tradition is usually lacking in a changing community. A three part strategy was developed in Cleveland to address this deficit. First, a survey was used to define the neighborhood planning priorities. Oral histories were then gathered to give these priorities an historical perspective. Finally, workshops were used as an enculturation technique to provide recent migrants with a sense of continuity and community identification. This methodological synthesis contributed to abating community confrontation.
DAVID M. GIBSON (Missouri) THE URBAN NEIGHBORHOOD: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH TO MEASUREMENT This paper presents a study of an urban area, examining the concept of 'unit' analysis, and its appropriatness for urban planning research. This research utilized two methods: a cognitive mapping technique often used by urban geographers, and an attitude survey. The results indicate that these two methods, when used together, would be a valuable strategy for urban researchers involved with such things as impact assessment for planning programs.
ROBERT E. KNIrIEL (Consultant) AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF A CITY PARK This study is on the use of a city park by neighborhood residents and the part that the park, as an environment, might play in their lives. Such use may be reflected in concepts of territoriality, images of the park and behavioral maps. Techniques of research include observations, interviews, photographs and a review of the literature. Follow-up studies
will attempt to relate characteristics of neighborhood use to characteristics of park use, to determine the degree of influence that the park as an environment, may have on the cognitive conception of the neighborhood by its residents.
FLORENCE V. JENSEN (Wisconin-Parkside) SOCIAL IMPACT OF A CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION ON A UNIVERSITY CAMPUS Following the recommendations of the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, the State of Wisconsin (in Spring, 1979) included two university campuses as possible sites for a medium-minimum security facility. While economic and environmental impacts of such a project are now routinely examined, few studies are made of social impacts. This paper will discuss potential social impacts on the academic resources, climate and future goals of University of Wisconsin-Parkside. Data for this paper are drawn from a survey of Parkside students, faculty, and areas residents.
MARY MARGARET OVERBEY (Florida) ANALYZING THE IMPACT OF NAVAL BASE DEVELOPMENT ON A COASTAL COMMUNITY: KINGS BAY, GEORGIA This research project concerns the impact of a United States Navy submarine base on a small Georgia community. The influx of naval personnel and dependents have increased the county population hy 5O% and later will add
-another 200%. This may dramatically alter basic social, cultural, economic and political institutions in the community. That rapid social changes produce severe stress on community institutions and people is well known from anthropological literature. The study aims at measuring those changes that occur in community institutions, behavior and attitudes before and during the initial impact period. This initial analysis addresses the effects of naval base development on one aspect of the community: its maritime tradition. The relative importance of the maritime industry to the local economy has fluctuated first with the advent of a paper mill industry and later with the development of a munitions plant. Commercial fishing has persisted in several families over many generations despite these changes. Non-commercial fishing among community residents is widespread and considered a subsistence as well as recreational activity. Development of the naval base, however, is affecting both commercial and non-commercial fishing activities, and may signal important changes in the maritime orientation of the community.
JOHN F. MULPKE (E Washington U) INDUSTRIAL ANTHROPOLOGY? Applied anthropology now looks at, among other things, the work-place. Anthropological journals show dramatic increases in studies, reviews and comments focusing on patterns of human behavior in the job environments. This paper describes this trend and suggests possible reasons for the increased attention. The paper than speculates how increased attention to industrial anthropology may illustrate a basic critical change now occurring in the discipline itself. With growing sub-specialization, are we learning more and more about less and less, to the point where overall understanding actually retreats? The author suggests not, but does predict major changes for applied anthropology soon.
MICHAEL CHIATFIELD (CSC Stanislaus) COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND POLITICAL CHANGE IN A COLOMBIAN ANDEAN COMMUNITY On the assumption that community development programs define arenas for political action, a dispute over water rights in a rural Colombian municipio is analyzed in an attempt to understand the significance of the community development program for local-level political change. The case, which involved a conflict between local authorities and a neighborhood community action committee over installation of a water system, shows the campesinos of the committee using a variety of newly-available political resources to a-chieve their ends. The campesinos successfully abrogated the rules of the local patronage system by resort to officials at higher levels of government thus establishing themselves as an independent force within the local political arena, an weakening, perhaps permanently, the ability of the local elite leadership to control decision-making in public affairs.
PAUL L. DOUGHTY (Florida) A GAME OF STRATEGY: COMMUNITY INTERESTS VS. OUTSIDE AGENCIES IN DISASTER RDEVELOPMENT IN PERU Traditional political behavior of Peruvian highland villagers involves the constant seeking of ways to manipulate policy and decisions of the national government. To obtain needed support to carry out their own projects, it has long been the strategy of communities to carry out well planned campaigns designed
to win approval of key bureaucrats and political figures who control funds and decisions. In the midst of a "revolution of the armed forces" and in the aftermath of the vast destruction of the 1970 earthquake, villagers faced new and threatening conditions and
agencies whose operations were strange to them. This paper analyzes the approaches employed by communities in their attempts to deal with these outside forces. Although the effects of these efforts met with mixed success, they demonstrate that these "Marginal" villagers often proceeded in sophisticated ways that reflected a sound understanding of the larger society and its workings. Relief and redevelopment agencies which greatly needed this knowledge either choose not to use community resources or were not able to do so for other reasons. This failure produced serious consequences for many communities and often curtailed agency effectiveness.
(200) POLITICAL PROCESS AND THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM OF THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA A variety of descriptive and conceptual models have been put forth for analyzing health care systems. This panel would like to propose a Political Process model for consideration as a particularly powerful tool for understanding the evolution of a health care system and utilize the health care system of the Peoples Republic of China as a case study. Drawing on material gathered during a July-August 1979 seminar and study tour to the Peoples Republic of China, symposium papers on important and unique features of the PRC system will include the attempt to integrate traditional and western medicine, experiments in medical education. the rural health care system, the barefoot doctors and child health and economic development. After a brief introduction to the Political Process model, papers on these components of the PRC system will provide short literature reviews, material collected during the study tour and what this recent information reflects about current developments. A brief analysis of the political dynamics shaping directions for this health care system will end the symposium with reference back to the conceptual model.
MARILYNN M. ROSENTHAL (Michigan-Dearborn) ATTEMPTS TO INTEGRATE CHINESE TRADITIONAL AND WESTERN MEDICINE IN THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA: PRACTICAL EXAMPLES AND POLITICAL EXEGESIS The PRC's official policy of combining Chinese traditional medicine and western medicine is an experiment unique in the annals of world medical history. This paper provides historical background, describes current examples of the integration and discusses them in terms of their implications for the future of Chinese traditional medicine. Rescued from consignment to medical oblivion by the political and economic ideology of Mao Tse-tung in 1949, this medical tradition now confronts an unusual set of scientific, political and economic situations. With the current modernization campaign, the prediction is that scientific validation and utilization of modem medical technology to enhance weak diagnostic skills will, ironically, provide the major avenue for continuation of a 4000-year old medical tradition. Without the intervention of a powerful political leader motivated by pragmatic considerations, this medical approach would have been swept to its cultural demise by the overarching communist commitment to science and modernization.
PAUL PONGOR (U of Michigan Medical School) MEETING THE CHALLENGE OF RURAL HEALTH CARE DELIVERY IN THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA One of Mao Tse-tung's major political debts was to the rural masses who were the backbone of the successful Chinese Communist revolutionary effort. Recognizing their serious health care needs, he moved to establish a rural health care system where none had existed before. That system, its evolution and organizational strategy and structure is described and explained. It is a regionalized, 3-tiered system of increasingly complex care, locally funded and locally administered. Research indicates that although its basic structural characteristics are the same throughout the country, its function varies relative to geographic location and economic commitment. Included is descriptive material from Nong An County, a rural area never before visited by foreign guests. This fresh material is examined with reference to existing research on the rural health care system.
DONALD DENNIS (U of Pennsylvania Medical School) EXPERIMENTATION WITH MEDICAL EDUCATION IN THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA The new government of the Peoples Republic of China faced serious problems of physician mal-distribution end physician training in 1949. While early priorities were set to address these problems, Mao and the Ministry of Health continually disagreed over approaches. Implementation of changes that focused on political and socio-economic class qualifications for medical school admissions, political study and manual labor in medical school curriculum, and centralized planning for medical manpower distribution didn't develop easily. Neither government policy nor
-medical schools alone or interactively brought desired change in the PRC health care system. Rather change came. (and continues) in the context of larger societal adaptations.
JAY RICHARD GREINER (Michigan State U) HEALTH POLICY AND THE BAREFOOT DOCTOR An unique factor encountered in the medical care system in the Peoples Republic of
-Chins is the concept of health care practitioners of equal social stature with the people in need of medical care the Barefoot Doctor. Major impetus for training Barefoot Doctors as agricultural and health workers was Mao Isa-tong's 1965 Directive. Twenty years later, by 1985, China's current policy calls for elevation of Barefoot Doctor education to equal that of secondary medical education but remain iii their current position in the health care system. Specific training programs presently range from three months to twenty-seven months and are conducted by Western and Traditional Physicians, and previously trained Barefoot Doctors at the commune clinic or county hospital level. The core of education is pediatrics, general medicine, surgery, pharmacology, acupuncture and herbal medical therapy. Continuing education beyond initial training will increase diagnostic and operative skills, but the primary role will continue to be prevention, diagnosis and treatment of minor illness, family planning and child care. If a particular commune has very high productivity, a Barefoot Doctor may become a full tine health practitioner. Barefoot doctors appear to be fully entrenched in the system, but will develop under terms dominated by western-trained physicians.
WENDY WINTEEMUTE (Michigan) CHILD HEALTH IN THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Theories linking economic development with national health status attempt to interpret a general correlation between national wealth and national health indices as follows: Economic development results in increasing national wealth or "social surplus', which can then be invested in health services, education, and rising standards of living, with consequent improvements in health status. One notable exception appears to be the Peoples Republic of China, which reports child health indices much more favorable than would be expected, given its level of economic development. This paper suggests that health policy results from a more complicated interaction of the demographic, social, political and economic structure of the society, rather than from national accumulation of wealth. It concludes that the political ideology and commitment behind the evolution of this system provided the underpinnings of its unusual accomplishments.
(201) EXPERIENCES OF ANTHROPOLOGISTS IN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH This symposium will deal with the experiences of anthropologists who have worked in agricultural research in the United States or in Canada. topics discussed by participants will relate to the institutional context in which research was performed. Oats collection and analysis of results will not be of primary concern. Rather, discussion will focus on the characteristics of modern industrial agriculture, the implicit ideology of the establishments which have supported and are affected by anthropological research in agriculture, various types of operating constraints, identity problems and role conflict of the anthropologist, and the social and political ramifications of anthropological work in agriculture. All partiacipants have appropriate background and will draw freely upon personal experiences
to illustrate their points.
JOHN A. YOUNG (Oregon St U) INSTITUTIONALIZED BIAS IN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH Relatively few resources are devoted to research on social problems by agricultural experiment stations. Moreover, any research of a nontechnical nature must be perceived by administrators as "helpful", i.e. it must either rationalize or accommodate the institutional status quo. This constraint is supported by an ideology of technological progress which is characteristic of American culture and dictates a scientific approach which focuses narrowly on individuals rather than broadly on institutions. Both the methods and results of anthropological studies are likely to conflict with this ideology. I will discuss these and other problems that may be confronted by anthropologists conducting experiment station research. My presentation will be based on several years of experience working with experiment station scientists in studies of small-scale farmers and rural communities in the western United States.
HARLAND PADFIELD (Oregon St U) ANTHROPOLOGISTS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE DEFINITION OF CLIENTELE I will discuss my experience as an anthropologist, at first cooperating independently with agricultural scientists and later working within the agricultural experiment station structure itself. One of the implicit premises of agricultural science is that: Experiment Station scientists are obligated to serve USDA clients--the agribusiness community and the agricultural establishment. I will focus on nonagricultural scientists as subjects who must discover the implicit culture of the experiment station system. The process of recognizing the implicit obligations of the experiment station scientist begins with an illusion of consonance in the definition of clientele, followed by dissonance, denial and conflict, and eventual cognitive accommodation. I will illustrate this process with examples drawn from my own individual experience.
JERRY A. MOLES (Pomona College) PURPOSE, METHOD, AND THE ANTHROPOLOGIST IN AGRICULTURE One of the basic difficulties in working within an agricultural setting is communicating what it is that anthropologists do in dealing with problems relating to food and fiber. Part of the difficulty stems from the fuct that anthropologists have never really developed a method and a philosophy relating to any specific set of purposes which has led to statements concerning performance criteria resulting from our activities. While this problem is not unique to anthropology in that other social sciences suffer from similar difficulties, it has inhibited the development of a body of literature concerning the discipline as representing a set of goal directed human activities. Furthermore, it has inhibited our actions in attempting to deal with human problems of utmost concern. In essence, if you do not know your objectives, if these objectives have never been defined, then it is very difficult to direct behavior toward some goal. As a consequence, it is impossible to develop methods. This paper will explore the development of purpose and method in an agricultural setting and demonstrate that it is imperative to engage in such developments if there is to be something which can be called "applied anthropology."
JOHN BENNETT (Washington) ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY OF LARGE-SCALE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS This presentation will concern the speaker' experience in developing methods for the study of agricultural systems in North America which transcend local production units of "farms". Research cn the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of agriculture in contemporary North America requires attention to the increasing dispersion of incentives and factors of production, in order to understand how the operators of local units make decisions and conduct a viable economic undertaking. The operators develop strategies of adaption to and manipulation of the agencies that control access to key resources, but it is necessary to understand how these agencies work in order to comprehend the strategic responses. This requires "field work" of an investigative nature in government bureaus, agri-business companies and other agents, often at considerable distance from the locality under study. The remarks will be based on a forthcoming book, OF T LE _1D THE ENTERPRISE: AGRICULTURAL KANAG2I2T AS AN ADAPTIVE SYSTFN IN THE NORTI AMERICAN AGRIFAHILY.
JERRY B. BROWN (Florida International U) FIGHTING FOR OUR LIVES: ROLE CONFLICTS AND RURAL RESEARCH A cornerstone of public interest anthropology can be the active participation by anthropologists in the development of "demonstration projects" that contribute to the process of rural revitalization. Anthropologists can play important roles in rural projects such as farm labor unions, rural cooperatives, new town developments, and ecological research centers. My own experience in building demonstration projects illustrates the role anthropologists can play in rural revitalization. While completing field work during the late 1960s for my doctoral dissertation on agricultural labor unions, I served as research director and Canadian boycott director for the United Farm Workers (UFW), AFL-CIO, in Delano, California. In that capacity, I was able to utilize social science research skills to assist Mexican-American farmworkers in their non-violent struggle to gain collective bargaining rights. My involvement as a "participant-as-observer" in the farm labor movement forced me to confront three major role conflicts: (1) the difficulty of carrying out an "objective" community study in rural California town polarized by agricultural labor strife; (2) the role conflict of the anthropolgist caught between the time demands of an academic study and the urgent manpower needs of rural farmworkers locked in a power struggle with agribusiness corporations; and (3) the lack of professional rewards within the university system for anthropologists, or other social scientists, engaged in building social demonstration projects as an integral part of an academic career.
DEAN MacCANNELL (UC Davis) INSTITUTIONAL OBSTACLES TO AN ETHNOGRAPHY OF MODERN AGRICULTURE In this presentation I want to make some observations of the status structure of social research in academic and government settings, specifically of the ways existing status arrangements serve to inhibit ethnographic research on modern agricultural systems. In the academic, the following pairs of terms are not innocent distinctions--one of the pair is set above the other as superior: pure vs. applied research; quantitative vs. ethnographic and/or qualitative research; social science in the college of agriculture vs. in Letters and Sciences; anthropological research on modern agricultural systems as opposed to traditional systems; economic vs. ethnographic models of agricultural systems; etc. The invidious attitudes shaped by these oppositions are not found in most parts of Eastern and Western Europe or in the Third World, but in the United States they act as an obstacle to any sustained, organized effort to study modern agriculture. I would like to initiate discussion of this research status hierarchy, how it originated and sustains iteself, and how to change it in such a way as to create a base of institutional support for anthropological research on modern agricultural systems.
WALTER GOLDSCHMIDT (UCLA) ANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH AT THE BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, 1940-1946 Under the leadership of John Province, the BAE utilized anthropological personnel to make anthropologically oriented community studies under the general heading of Culture of a Contemporary Community. My own work on a California rural community, ultimately published as As You Sow, was broadly contained within this framework but not a part of the series. Work in the BAE entailed certain advantages and disadvantages. The major advantage lay in the opportunity for a close collaboration with sociologists and economists and this collaborative opportunity was what made possible the success of the comparative study of Arvin and Dinuba. On the other hand, the BAE personnel--sociologists as well as economists--was overwhelmingly affected by the agricultural practices and rural life in the East and Middle West and inadequately appreciated the problems of research in the far West. This resulted in diverse forms of difficulties in conceptualizing problems and utilizing the plans that emanated from Washington. More important to the character of my work, was the controversy engendered by the Arvin-Dinuba study. It involved a matter of major social policy that resulted in political interference at high levels of the governmental bureaucracy. The implication of this involvement which is fully documented, will be discussed.
(202) CURRENT RESEARCH ON THE HOLISTIC HEALTH MOVEMENT Holistic Health is a new approach to health care, gaining popularity among well-educated, sophisticated urbanites. Only recently has it become the subject of anthropological inquiry. There are many researchable subjects: In language and linguistics, what is the language of the movement? In socia1.,structure, what are the relationships between-patients and healers, and between different kinds of healers?, Are there class differences and ethnic differences? In religion. how is holistic health contributing to a new world view? What are the symbols and rituals? In culture and personality, what can be said of the patients or followers? Why do they become involved in the movement? What have been their experiences? What of the healers? In culture change, how is holistic health being disseminated to the established medical system? Who are the willing receivers, or culture brokers? In comparative medical systems, how does holistic health compare with western and other medical systems! .
CAROLYN NORTH (Princeton) HOLISTIC HEALTH AS A REVITALIZATION MOVEMENT This paper examines the Holistic Health Movement as a form of revitalization movement. An overview of the Movement (Mattson, 1977; LaPatra, 1978; Tubesing, 1979; and others) indicates that many traditional forms of non-allopathic healing practiced long before there was a Holistic Health Movement by name, have found their way into the Movement. And these studies also indicate that the Movement itself carries a load of agendas, purposes and meanings specific to these many separate sub-groups and vice versa, making the Movement one of extraordinary elasticity., Literature on the Movement is examined to determine the unifying factors -- the underlying beliefs, needs, motivations which bring these diverse groups under the nominal umbrella of Holistic Health. Here it will be demonstrated that the Holistic Health movement bears strong resemblance to some Mew Religious Movements. Finally, an attempt is made to understand the revival of non-traditional healing groups and their surge of popularity by drawing from the anthropological literature on revitalization movements., The question posed for this analysis is, "To what extent are the theories and explanations of revitalization movements useful in informing a study of the Holistic Health Movement?" Sources include Whitehead (1974), Wallace (1958), Aberle (1958. and Zaretsky and Leone (1974).
PHYLLIS H. MATTSON (DeAnza Community College) A COURSE IN MIRACLES: CURRICULUM FOR
PERSONAL TRANSFORMATION A Course in Miracles is a three volume book consisting of a basic text, a workbook and a Manual for Teachers. It was first published in 1976 and since then has been sold to more than 20,000 people, all without the usual methods of marketing of printed materials. It is very popular among holistic health devotees. The origin of the course is fascinating: bewteen 1965 and 1975, the three books were "dictated" by an "inner voice" to a woman, a middle-aged, atheistic Jew. research psychologist by profession, employed by a very prestigious academic institution. The dictation was taken by shorthand and transcribed and typed the next day by a male colleague, also a psychologist at the same institution. The material, bound in looseleaf binders, was kept a secret until 1975 when they met a woman who undertook to publish it. The authors remain anonymous, for they do not claim to be authors, but only recorders. The purpose of this paper is to tell more of the origin of the Course, to describe its contents, its folowing, and finally, to suggest how it fits into a model of revitalization of the holistic health movement.
R. J. BOESE (British Columbia) HOLISTIC HEALTH IN PRACTICE AT A "WELLNESS CENTER" Some concepts which underlie the idea of "(w)holistic health" are presented. Some basic presuppositions regarding scheme of interpretation that health professionals utilize in making sense of activities that are organized as holistic. Experiences about the author's own participant-observational work in a wellness center are presented. Wellness as contrasted to sickness is suggested as a more meaningful concept than holistic and reasons are given for that assumption.
KATHERINE BROWN-REISTER (Columbia) LEGITIMATION STRATEGIES OF AN ALTERNATIVE HEALTH OCCUPATION: HOLISTIC HEALTH PRACTITIONER Recently in America we have seen the growth of an alternative health occupation: the holistic health practitioner. Beyond what is found in journalistic accounts, very little has been written about this emerging occupation. Who are these practitioners? What services do they offer? What are the patterns of their training and the structure of their practices? This paper will present findings which address these questions and it will discuss a conceptualization of the social process of occupational legitimation.
MARIA-LUISA URDANETA (Texas-San Antonio) HOLISTIC HEALTH AND THE NURSING PROFESSION
Holistic health is best understood when the loose spelling "wholistic" is used. When applied to health, the importance of seeing the person as a whole--body, plus mind, and spirit--is emphasized. Its philosophy stresses that interaction of the different planes of existence--physical, mental, and spiritual--affects the causation and cure of disease, e.g. physical health or illness is affected frequently by the health of the person's intellectual and spiritual being. Mental or emotional tension may show up in the physical rests as headaches, ulcers, allergies, heart attacks, and even cancer. But often health care providers, including nurses, limit their care to the physical symptoms without endeavoring to care for the non-physical causes. Nurses are aware of how much less time we spend with the patient than with his ailing part. But, just as we assist the parts that we have separated people into, so we can help a much different entity: the whole person. In so doing nurses are greatly extending their conception of total patient care. The purpose of this paper is to examine the holistic health movement and the involvement of the nursing profession; and to suggest that this wholehealth movement offers some solutions to our current health care crisis.
ALMA L. LOWERY-PALMER (UC Riverside) A SEARCH FOR HOLISTIC HEALTH: A STUDY OF THE
YORUBA TRADITIONAL HEALING SYSTEM This paper analyzes the traditional Yoruba medical system in terms of its holistic approach to health and illness. It has been suggested that while modern medicine has made many advances in the treatment of physical illnesses, it has not done as well in treating the majority of illnesses which appear to have their origin in the traditional healing forms, is viewed here as more efficient in meeting the psychosocial needs of the patient which results in healing of the body, mind and spirit or health in the holistic sense. The responses to both modern and traditional medical treatment by Yoruba individuals in one village community in Southwest Nigeria are examined in terms of a set of attributes of the healing context -- Yoruba ideas and beliefs about health and illness; social context of illness; role of healer-priest -to determine how these attributes influence health-enhancing behavior in the social context of the Yoruba community. The potential for integrating specific Yoruba holistic health concepts into modern medicine is explored in order to bridge the gap between disease treatment and a person-oriented diagnosis and treatment form.
(203) DISABILITY AND COMMUNITY LIVING: BREAKINC THROUGH THE BARRIERS The session opens with reports from individuals who have investigated or addressed problems engendered by disability and particular strategies for developing and augmenting an interface between disabled and able-bodied individuals. The individual presentations will lead up to a 25 minute documentary fits on the subject, a film that will capture through interview and reenactment, problems and resolutions in interactions between ablebodied and disabled individuals. Following the fits there will be a panel discussion of disability problems and the policy issues engendered by these problems in terms of bringing disabled individuals more into the mainstream of community life. The panel comprised of individuals representing social science and government will consider the tension between the social value and the economic feasibility or viability of overcoming the traditional barriers separating disabled and able-bodied individuals. Panel members will suggest initiatives for applied research focused on how people, able-bodied or disabled, deal with disability and what social and economic costs of solutions to stigmatization may be.
WALTER WATSON (Brock) LIVING WITH THE NON-DISABLED With the present growth of "integration' or "mainstreaming" of the disabled into their communities, data are particularly important which can be used to profile the types of reactions the disabled feel they face in neighborhoods, stores, schools, work, and recreation and-the types of responses they feel are appropriate. In the spring of 1977 a housing needs survey was conducted among 178 randomly selected disabled persons in an economically and socially diverse region of Southern Ontario, Canada. Data were collected concerning the respondent's experiences with neighbors in the community and were used to construct interaction profiles, showing key events that the respondents felt altered interaction patterns. The results were to be used to develop programs to alleviate hostile neighborhood reactions to housing facilities for the disabled, should they be built. Oats regarding perceived reactions and behavior changes in neighborhood adults and children, store clerks, students or fellow employeea,teachers or supervisors, and individuals sharing recreation facilities will be examined in terms of demographic variables such as sex, education, SF5, type of community, and the visibility of the disability. Techniques for.
coping with positive, neutral, or hostile reactions will also he examined in terms of the characteristics noted above. Conclusions regarding policies and programs appropriate
to "mainstreaming" individuals instead of groups will be noted.
GAY BECKER (UCSF) ADAl'TION TO DISABILITY This paper is based on research done in the deaf community of the San Francisco Bay Area that took place in two phases. In-depth interviewing and participant observation with deaf people over the age of 60 for one year was followed by a second, nine-month phase focusing on people between the ages of 20 and 60. Deaf identity is a major coping mechanism and underlies the development of strategies for survival regardless of age. It strongly contributes to a sense of. cohesiveness, decreases the deaf person's perception of stigma, and overrides to some extent the barriers created by age differences and divergent ethnic backgrounds. Deaf identity also creates conflicts for the individual because of the divided allegiance between families or origin and their cultural tradition, and the deaf community. Resolution of this conflict is seen as a preliminary step to social, emotional, and economic adaption. The implications of institutional life, nainstreaming, and self-help organizations for developing deaf identity and learning survival techniques will be discussed. Practical. solutions that would enhance the development of individual coping strategies will be suggested.
FERDINAND KARRMAN (Research Center for Disabled Americans) DISABLED(S) AND SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE The stigma that is attached to disabled persons in society must be fought vigorously and with more effective methods. The old system of placing the burden on individual disabled(s) to negotiate their own acceptance in an alienating social milieu is not good enough. The increased use of phenomenological analysis offers hope for the reduction of stigma because of its emphasis on individual collective consciousness (intersubjectivity). It is the collective consciousness of the entire social amalgam that needs "fine tuning". The tools are in place. The existing media could do the job. During World War II, motion pictures, radio, newspapers, books, magazines, and music were all coordinated to maintain a single-minded incus on the war effort. Obviously, a small fraction of a wartime propaganda machine would suffice (if properly orchestrated) to turn the corner of social acceptance for disabled(s). Additionally helpful would be the
establishment of interdisciplinary Disabled(s) Studies Program in major universities as a means of demystifying disabilities, reducing stigma, aiding social integration, and accelerating social acceptance for disabled(s). If social scientists lend their support and initiate concerted effort to reduce stigma, eventually (according to the "trickledown-theory") progress will occur throughout society.
R. JOHN C. PEARSON (West Virginia U) THE CHALLENGE OF HELPING THE HANDICAPPED The report is based on the experience of a community physician working as part-time chief of general practaice in a Regional Rehabilitation Center in Ottawa, Canada.
That experience demonstrated the strengths and weaknesses of the range of health and social services available to the patients both eased and made more difficult the task of customizing the services for individuals. Health services, appliances and prostheses, and needed home or automobile improvements were free according to need.
Patients could be helped to pay for attendant care. Housing and public transportation were more difficult problems: transportation by special vehicle was available only for work or doctor visits, during the normal work day hours and would be subsidized only if deemed necessary. Housing difficulties led to a variety of experiments: independent living in an apartment building for the handicapped; independent living in an apartment building with only a few units for the handicapped; communal living in a house with resident help. There was lacking, however, evaluative data to inform service providers as to the best discharge disposition for disabled patients. Despite the problems of effecting community re-entry for rehabilitation center patients in Ottawa, the accomplishments that have been made there show that the United States has a long way to do to enable
-the handicapped to live productive lives.
ELIZABETH RANDALL-DAVID, OTTO VON MERGING (Florida) PREVENTING THE PRECURSORS OF CHRONIC DISEASE AND DISABILITY Attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles formed during the adolescent years greatly influence the future health and well-being of the individual. It follows,
-.then, that the precursors to chronic disability and disease are also developed during this critical period of maturation. Unplanned adolescent pregnancies, though of epidemic
proportion, are seldom viewed by social scientists as "disabilities" or "handicaps". The disabling nature of this condition becomes evident, however, when seen as a precursor condition with various predictive outcomes: i.e., poor dental health; repeated unwanted, closely spaced pregnancies; poor nutritional health; untoward psychosocial and emotional sequelae. Too often, educational attempts to prevent this and other precursor conditions come too late in the life-cycle. The implementation of a modular health education program in middle and high school science classrooms with health care specialists from community agencies and private practice is discussed as an effective tool for addressing adolescents while primary prevention is still possible. Through this program, current applied life and health science concepts and informed decision making are emphasized in order to reinforce the social principal that ultimately the individual is responsible for his/her own health and well-being.
JOHN G. SCHROEDEL(Gallaudet College) TECHNIQUES FOR MODIFYING ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS TOWARDS PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES: ASSESSING CONCEPTS AND RESEARCH In recent years training efforts have been more widely used to induce improvements in attitudes and behaviors towards persons with disabilities. There is a current need to (1) assess some of the key concepts underlying these modification techniques, and (2) assess research studies evaluating some of the various activities which as a group are termed modification techniques. 1. Clarifying concepts: This paper will define concepts such as pathology, functional limitations, impairment, disability, and restorative accommodations as these relate to attitudes towards persons with disabilities. Likewise, the range of such attitudes, from acceptance, ambivalence, to rejection will be examined. A typology of attitudes and corresponding manifested behaviors across this range will be presented to indicate differences and similarities in such attitudes and behaviors. The overall intent of this section of the paper is towards providing conceptual insights towards better specification of attitudes and behaviors subjected to modification techniques. 2. Evaluating modification techniques: Research studies will be reviewed which have, assessed such activities as information-sharing, audiovisual media, role playing, and disability simulations as these have been used in short-term training conferences and longer-term training programs to change attitudes and behaviors towards persons with disabilities. Some generalizable points such as appropriate measurement of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors as well as the need for accurate specification of training stimuli to training outcomes will also be given. Conclusions from this examination of base concepts and evaluation procedures will be summarized. Implications for increasing the effectiveness of training activities will be suggested.
J. THOMAS MAT, ROBERT F. HILL (Oklahoma) CONSORTING WITH THE DISABLED: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS The social science consultant confronts problems of role and identity analogous to the dilemmas confronting the field researcher., Although differences obviously exit (for example, "going native" is rarely manifest with the former), this analogy permits the use of an analytical framework which can inform issues relating to consulting and research activities. This paper will assess the participation of a group of academic consultants associated with the preparation of a documentary film on disabled people and their relationships with the larger able-bodied society. The association between the consultants and the disabled coalition sponsoring the film ended with the film's completion in 1980. The analysis will focus on the social scientists in the consulting group, and assess their shifting roles within the larger consortium. it will argue that the shifts related to discrepancies in role expectations. The analysis of these shifts will be placed in the context of problems customarily faced in the field research experience (viz., entry, rapport, over-identification, etc.), and highlight those elements which specifically relate to the unique characteristics of the disabled population. The presentation will be accompanied by a viewing of the final version of the documentary film.
OKLAHOMA EDUCATIONAL TV (OETA-TV) BREAKING THROUGH The film is designed to create awareness about adult handicapped individuals, especially in regard to their interaction with able-bodied individuals. The film grows out of questions raised by Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. These new regulations will bring disabled and ablebodied people together in a forcible way, many for the first tine. Although Section 504 may seen rigid, 504 also has built in latitude for interpretation on a case-by-case basis. Human values come in hare: attitudes, beliefs, and expectations will come into
play (or into conflict) and determine the outcome of each case. The film looks at barriers --historical, cultural, philosophical, architectural, social, and personal barriers --and shows real people breaking through those barriers. The film includes inter-views with deaf, blind, and mobility impaired people surrounded by re-enacted scenes, film clips, and other illustrative material. 'Breaking Through" is captioned for hearing-impaired audiences, and its sound track is comprehensive enough to be intelligible to sight-impaired audiences.
(204) APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY/RADICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: IS THERE A DIFFERENCE? In the context of the 1960's there emerged a sharp difference between those anthropologists who were
-ttempting to use anthropology for the benefit of powerless people, and those who felt That anthropology itself was part of the problem in that it helped to render people powerless. The protagonists of this debate were the so-called 'applied' versus 'radical' anthropologists, usually self-proclaimed. As we come to face the realities of the 1980's, this debate seems dated because most anthropologists find themselves (regardless of their past concerns) having to apply anthropology in pressing concrete conditions. We feel it is now important to discuss how these differences have now come to be less sharply expressed, what we 'applied' and 'radical' anthropologists are now doing, and whether or not a synthesis of these two perspectives is not possible. Thus the organization of this session will take the form of a round table to enable both participants and the audience to develop a dialogue which critically addresses what we are doing and what we ought to be doing.
(205) THE VISUAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF BIRTH This symposium represents an attempt to bring together some of the filmed and video-taped documents of birth and perinatal events which have been produced by anthropologists. The symposium's objective is to assess the state of the field by discussing issues of methodology, analysis, and application in research and education which are inherent in the use of the audio-visual medium. Presentations will include cross-cultural materials from the United States, Italy, and Mexico. Prenatal events end the postpartum period will be discussed as well as the actual birth process.
JANET N. SCHREIBER (Texas) NETHODOLOGIC ISSUES IN THE VISUAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF MOTHER ITNFANT FIRST CONTACT A film of the social interaction surrounding birth in a small southern Italian hospital will he presented as a case study to focus the discussion of methodologic issues involved in filming births. These issues include: (1) The impact of theoretical models upon the filming of interactive process; (2) the constraints imposed by birth location including home and hospital births; (3) the constraints .imposed by the choice of a particular technology for visual recording; (4) the issue of variation in process and the representativeness of particular filmed sequences of behavior; (5) the effect of the participants' understanding of the researcher's perspective. These topics will be illustrated by research footage and still photographs used in data collection. Unanticipated effects of filming will be discussed to further our understanding of potential uses of visual anthropology.
STEPHEN L. CABRAL (Erown) VISUAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF A HONE BIRTH: LESSONS IN DECISION NAKtING AND RESPONSIBILITY Current trends in holistic/alternative medical practices have encouraged many prospective parents to consider the possibility of sharing a home-birth experience. Advocates of the home birth movement contend that they participate more fully in the decision-making process and assumse a mote responsible and active role in the pre-natal care and delivery of their child than is possible in the hospital setting. This presentation and the accompanying film will focus on the verbal and non-verbal exchanges and the subsequent interactions between the expectant mother, mid-wife and birth attendants during a home-birth. The decision making process of those engaged in the home-birth will be contrasted with the decision making of the visual anthropologist in regard to filming and editing.
BRIGITTE JORDAN (Michigan St U) DOCUMENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND MESSAGE: VIDEOTAPING CHILDBIRTH IN YUCATAN Materials for this presentation come from a crosacultural study of childbirth and include videotapes of Nays birthing and perinatal practices from Yucatan, Mexico. Specifically, a segment of raw research footage from a traditional, midwife-attended Maya chsirhirth will be compared to an edited videotape of an external cephalic version, performed by a Maya midwife to correct a breech presentation. Since versions have been replaced in American obstetrics by Caesarean sections (though they continue to form a part of the obstetric repertoire of other scientific obstetric systems) this tape was edited to speak to medical as well as anthropological issues and concerns. It will be contrasted with the unedited footage of Nays Indian birth and their different characteristics and uses will be discussed.
LUCILE NEWMAN (Brown) THE SOCIAL AND SENSORY ENVIRONMENT OF LOW BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANTS IN A SPECIAL CARE NURSERY This presentation reports on research on the social and sensory environment of 16w birthweight infants in a special care nursery. In this project the organism-environment relation of the preterm infant in an isolette is investigated through the use of ethelogical methods of data collection. The extension of direct observation through audio and video tape technology is discussed. Two approacheE will be demonstrated. The first involves the use of audiotape as a primary descriptive tool. The second uses videotaped behavior segments for the testing of hypotheses. In the first, a tape recorder received auditory environment data from a microphone inside the isoletre. In the second approach, the videotape is used for comparison of facial expressions in response to a sequence of controlled social experiences.
(206) ETHICS AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE ANTHROPOLOGIST AS CULTURE BROKER The idea of entrepreneurship as used in this symposium refers to the promoting of anthropology, primarily by anthropologists in government agencies, for the benefit of both the agency and of the peoples it serves. That is, data acquired by the skills of anthropologists through the methods of anthropology are useful in helping an agency to perform some of its roles in meeting certain specific needs of given peoples. To do this, however, anthropologists often must serve as culture brokers by interpreting the values, rituals, and ways of one group to the other. A variety of topics will be presented such as methods of brokering, types of role models available to the anthropologist, and kinds of problems encountered. Data are from archeology, architecture, and ethnology. Ethical questions have to do with the degrees of advocacy anthropologists practice in representing a people to an agency and vice versa; what types of information, and how much, can and should be shared with each group in the process of culture brokering; the extent of effectiveness of government anthropologists in trying to be true to their agency, their discipline, and to a people.
JANET R. MOONE (U Colorado-Denver) AGENT, BROKER, AND ADVOCATE: APPLIED ROLES IN THEORY AND PRACTICE The recent applied literature contains ample material outlining ideal-theoretical role definitions for directed change agent, culture broker, and community advocate. In much of this emic theory, the three roles are held to have different objectives and performance functions related to different loci of control and organizational viewpoints. As abstractions, the role definitions regularly correlate with what are assumed to be different value commitments: to those entailed in public policy, to maintenance of objective neutrality, to identification with community values and goals. From the selfsame literature, however, it is possible to critique these ideal-typical role definitions by drawing on descriptions of actual experiences in their performance. In practice, each of the three roles tends to diverge significantly from its theory. Performances become ambiguous, roles are exchanged or confused with one another, or become subject to the stress of inherent conflict. Practice demonstrates that the three roles do not involve the mutually exclusive sets of value commitments and performance functions their theories describe. Since expectations often are built from such role theories, there is good reason for revisionist appraisal.
MICHAEL K. ORRACH (UC Santa Cruz) THE CULTURAL PARAMETERS OF BLTKAUCRACY: AN EXAMPLE FROM NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AGENCIES Large bureaucracies such as federal agencies are not homogeneous monoliths. They are collections of small, semi-independent units having normative internal organizational structures and connections with one another. Among the individuals comprising each of these units there tend to be commonalities in background, socialization, perception, agency mission and other characteristics which can be used to define a "culture" of each particular unit in the sense of common understandings concerning pre- and pro-scribed values, beliefs, behaviors, interactions, and so on. This orientation is important for anthropologists for two reasons. First, it defines bureaucratic organizations as a subject for study using many of the same theories and methods anthropology has traditionally used in small-scale, non-Western, or less complex cultures and societies. Second, as anthropologists become involved in working with federal agencies (bureaucracies) they must assume roles as "culture brokers" between members of the anthropologist culture group and the various bureaucratic culture groups. This paper undertakes an analysis of the culture of one agency unit and its interaction with the culture of anthropology through the medium of a participant observer (the author). Conclusions are drawn concerning productive methods of brokering between these two generic cultural groups; anthropologists and federal bureaucracies.
BARBARA PILLSBURY (USAID) MAKING THE BUREAUCRACY WORK What happens after the ethnographic fieldwork is done and the development needs of a people defined? What are the steps required and the types of communication needed to best assure that a plan or program
recommended by the anthropologist is implemented? How ran the anthropologist best stay with a proposal as it winds its way through a bureaucracy such as the Agency for International Development? How can small-scale programs, if called for, be promoted by the anthropologist in the face of political pressures for bigger projects and large-scale spending? These are some of the questions addressed by this paper.
LARRY VAN HORN (Natl Park Service) INFORMATION SHARING: BALANCING AGENCY AND PROFESSION COMMITMENTS The anthropologist who is a member of a government agency faces special ethical and practical problems in utilizing ethnographic data. He or she must decide what data to share, how much, with whom, and for what ends. All of this must be done in the context of agency defined missions and mandates in relation to specific peoples. Any problem requiring ethnographic data involves at least two groups, namely, a people and the government agency. However, a problem may become further complicated at given stages by additional and sometimes competing groups. These may be ethnic groups; subgroups within a group, including the agency; and/or, if contracting is called for, other anthropologists competing with one another in the bidding process. At certain times, communication may be required with any or all such groups or key individuals. This paper paper stresses the role of a government anthropologist as culture broker in gathering, interpreting, and communicating information. Various types of fieldwork, research, and communication problems will be presented. And crucial questions will be asked of the anthropologist whose aim is to meet both agency and professional commitments
KATHRYN M. BORMAN (U Cincinnati) WATCHING THE KIDS: THE ETHICS OF GOVERNMENT SPONSORED FIELD WORK INVOLVING CHILDREN The dilemmas facing the field worker whose research focuses upon young children include the usual problems confronted by all field workers of maintaining vows of confidentiality, avoiding physical fatigue and suppressing one's own values. However, these difficulties are magnified in field work with children who lack social power and hence the capacity to function as their own advocates. In this paper, relationships and responsibilities of the researcher to the governmental funding agency and to children who serve as cases for study are considered.
GEORGE ESBER (Miami-Ohio) LINKING ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE Data from anthropological investigations about the way people use space are useful for designing builtenvironments that succeed in serving people's needs. Architects are in want of information about social and cultural needs, but when faced with the actual task of creating a product, they most often rely on their own unconscious models for solving problems. This paper addresses problems due, not to any lack of awareness on the parts of either anthropologists or architects, but to the nonexistence of established lines of communication. Suggestions are made for the creating of formal linkages between anthropologists and architects to enhance the utility of social science information and to create a station to which designers may turn when questions of an anthropological nature must be answered. The responsibility for initiating action is discussed as a function of the anthropologists' position as broker.
DANIEL MARTIN (BLM) CULTURE BROKERING WITHIN AN ARCHEOLOGICAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AIM RESEARCH ETHICS The Archeologists' interface with cultures and concepts of cultures provides a view and research opportunities free from many of the pitfalls experienced by other Anthropologists. Our informant's special interests are generally moot; we rarely receive complaints from the culture studied concerning our representations of their culture or their interests. In this setting we are fond of believing we are scientific and that the products of our labors are knowledge, understanding and "TRUTH" about cultural matters; however, our stated goals of explaining human behavior and
production of understanding of bow culture process occurs are masked in the public view by archeology as romance, adventure and curiosities. Although the entertainment value of Anthropology should be capitalized upon, the popular public image is of archeological techniques, exploration, descriptions and culturaLlhistorical reconstructions. The public image of "doing" archeology and the "spectacular" often dictates what is "important" and hence where money is spent for archeology. The funding of legitimate archeological studies may be resented or denied when the "spectacular" aspect is missing. This concern introduces ethical issues in how archeology is represented to the public and creates a need for public understanding of archeologists' true goals, capabilities and limitations. Archeologists must be honest and candid with each other and the public due to recent funding sources.
GARY CUMMINS (U Colorado-Denver) ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES AND ETHNIC SIGNIFICANCE The concept of significance has always been a problem to archeologists in that certain sites are more important than others, depending on the context in which they are viewed. One perspective is that of ethnic significance, which pertains to an archeological site with religious, mythological, or other values for a given group of people (Moratto and Kelly 1976:196). Given the boom in archeology in recent years prompted by federal historic preservation laws, conflicts and confrontations have occurred between archeologists and ethnic groups, identifying in some way with particular sites. This paper examines and analyzes, in terms of the concept of ethnic significance, the means by which ethnic groups relate to archeological sites and other cultural resources associated with their ancestry. Through an understanding of the processes involved in ethnic significance, applied anthropologists should be able to function as culture brokers between archeologists and representatives of ethnic groups to help mitigate problems that arise.
(207) INDIAN HERITAGE PRESERVATION ISSUES In recent years archaeologists, ethnographers and historians have been increasingly involved in heritage preservation issues--as government agencies implementing newly enacted state and federal laws call upon these disciplines to substantiate the cultural continuity and vitality of Native American peoples. Historically, many Native American groups and individuals have also been concerned with the continuity and vitality of their respective cultures, and it is perhaps ironic that only recently have their concerns been considered by agencies in any meaningful way. The papers in this symposium are concerned with a range of topics in the arena of cultural heritage preservation, including issues of methodology, legal and religious rights, political power, economics, and values.
DONNA JEAN HALSTAD) (CSU Sacramento), DOROTHEA J THEODORATUS (CSU Sacramento), CLINTON M. BLOUNT (Theodoratus Cultural Research) METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OP HERITAGE PRESERVATION: A CASE STUDY Preservation of Native American cultural heritage often requires research which combines the efforts of archaeologists, ethnographers, and historians. Sone basic methodological problems are inherent in attempts to integrate research from these differing disciplines. Additional problems arise in attempting to integrate research efforts with the concerns of local Native American peoples. These problems are illustrated through consideration of a case study, the GasquetOrleans Road Project, involving contract research for the Department of Agriculture, Purest Service.
DUDLEY M. VARNER (CSU Fresno) APPLIED ARCHAEOLOGY AND NATIVE AMERICAN VALUES Archaeology is a complex and diverse science which in recent years has undergone two major revolutions. The first revolution, beginning in the 1960's, served to make Archaeology more scientific; the second revolution, beginning in the 1970's, has made it more practical. Archaeology is now often prefixed with "conservation" or "public"; increasingly, it may be "applied". Cultural Resource Management dominates the field of North American Archaeology. A major concern is determining the significance of
archaeological resources for management purposes. Archaeology must deal with Native American values as a type of significance for archaeological sites as well as nonsites, such as sacred places. The increased interaction and cooperation between archaeologists and Native Americans has produced a shared awareness of a common goal-the conservation of Native American cultural heritage. It has also provided new opportunities for Native American participation in the achievement of that goal. Examples of such cooperation are recent projects in California.
DAVID R. N. WHITE (So California E-dison. Cu) RELIGION, POLITICS, AND CULTURAL LOOPROLES: AN FXAMINATION OP THE NATIVE AMIMICAN RELIGIOUS FREEDOM ACT An examination of the recently issued (August, 1979) Federal Agencies Task Force Report on the Native American Religious Freedom Act (P.L. 85-341) reveals several problematic issues involving definitions of sociopolitical and sociocultural concepts. It is shown that the report's definition of religion reflects the Euroamerican sacred/secular dichotomy, while nearly excluding consideration of contradictory Native American cultural axiomatic. In
addition, the report either glosses over or directly contradicts a range of ethnographic data which has crucial hearing on interpretation and implementation of the Act. Possible reasons for the position expressed in the Task Force Report are explored, end speculation on possible conflicts arising from future attempts at implementation of the Act leads to a condlucing discussion on various philosophies of land use rights.
ROBERT J THEODORATUS (Colorado St U) WESTERN BIAS IN THE ANALYSIS OP "RELIGIOUS SITE" Up to the present time the concept of the "religious site" has been almost totally dominated by European thought which is anchored in Judaeo-Christian tradition. In this tradition the religious site is perceived as being at a specific or concrete location
over time. It has been unfortunate in that this quantitative view has blinded anthropologists and others from becoming aware of other views which are based upon qualitative conceptualizations. Even more seriously it has kept government officials and other public policy makers from fully understanding the forms of the religious experience among Native Americans in their ecological and perspective context whereby those settings and stimulative contexts could be perceived and protected. In this paper I wish to present some alternative views based upon those perceptions among Native Americans along the Northwest Coast, the Plateau and in Northern California. Hopefully these will bring about a clearer understanding of the problem and a more realistic set of policies.
SIGRID KHERA (North Dakota) PROTECTION OF NATIVE AMERICAN RELIGIOUS SITES: THE CASE OF THE YAVAPAI INDIANS IN ARIZONA This paper deals with the question: what constitutes a religious site from the viewpoint of the politically superordinate Non-Indian society, and from that of Indian societies? It discusses how acceptibility of a site as religious, and subsequent protection of this site, varies with different government agencies. Using the case of the Yavapsi Indians of Arizona, this paper is particularly concerned with the situation of the small tribe which is relatively little known by the broader Non-Indian public.
KENNETH J. WHYTE (Saskatchewan) ABORIGINAL RIGHTS THE NATIVE AMERICAN'S STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL Aboriginal rights cannot be understood from a strictly legal point of view. It has important moral, emotional and symbolic value for Native people. Implicit in the aboriginal rights concept is the fact that native people want to have a part in the social and economic wealth of the land and the resources but the issue is more than the Native people simply asserting their ownership of the land. It is a struggle for the preservation of a people and their way of life because land, in Native reality, is the soul of their social, economic and political system. Above all it is a struggle
for the most universal of humsan rights, the right to be a self determining people. This paper proposes to develop this theme and subsequently examine the major land claim settlements and disputes in Canada in relation to this theme. The rational underlying the examination of the legal and economic aspects of the land claim settlements and disputes is the realization that significant economic independence, while it cannot in itself be sufficient, is nevertheless necessary for self determination.
(208) A SEARCH FOR NEW PERSPECTIVES IN APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY The symposium is intended to offer a forum for critical analyses of social, economic and political problems and the role of anthropology in seeking solutions to these problems. The majority of the papers assume perspectives which are critical of or deviate from applied anthropology as it has developed in the United States. One of the primary aims is to promote a re-thinking of some of the assumptions which have guided applied anthropology in recent Fears.
ELLIOTT LEYTON (Memorial) CRITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY IN CANADA In Canada,* a distinctive form of applied anthropology baa been developing over the lst decade. Geared lesa to the needs of particular corporations or government agencies, it addresses itself to the constructive criticisms of institutions, regions, and policies. This paper will examine several examples of this genre, well known in.Canada but unknown in the United States.
MICHAEL C. HOWARD (Houston) ABORIGINES AND ANTHROPOLOGISTS: STRATEGIES FOR SOLVING AUSTRALIA'S "ABORIGINAL PROBLEM" Anthropologists have been actively involved in Aboriginal affairs and particularly in trying to promote beneficial changes for Aborigines virtually since the beginning of the discipline in Australia. The present paper is intended to offer a critical assessment of the applied work of anthropologists in Aboriginal affairs, paying special attention to how anthropologists have viewed their role and the nature of the problems, as well as the effects of their activities. In light of the manifest failure of government policy toward Aborigines, the paper willalso suggest possible directona in which anthropologists should move in the future if an acceptable solution is to be found.
MICHAEL SMITH (SUNY-Geneseo) COMBATTING SCARCITY IN A NEW GUINEA VILLAGE: AGENDAS, HIDDEN AGENDAS AND ALTERNATIVES The development of Papua New Guinea's economy as one of capitalist growth and market competition is a result of initial colonial domination and later economic dependency. The current desires and aspirations of Papua New Guinea villagers have been shaped by an assymmetrical relationship with an impinging social, political and economic system. The people of Koragur Village in the East Sepik Province are painfully aware of- the changes that have been wrought in their social environment, in particular the increasing importance of the market economy. Village meetings in 1975-1976 often began with the construction of an agenda on the European model, and some reference to the problem of organizing for more temporarily efficient market production was usually included. But Koragur villagers cannot understand that the new socio-economic circumstances which demand greater efficiency in the use of time are also those which foster its scarcity. They cannot know that scarcity is efficiency's hidden agenda in developed and developing capitalist economies. This creates a dilemma for any anthropologist with aspirations to something other than a purely contemplative stance. In facilitating villagers' efforts at more intensive market involvement through greater efficiency in the use of time -one would also abet the creation of an economy in which scarcity is endemic. What then can be one's attitude toward villagers' efforts and desires? In approaching this issue one must consider several questions: What are the potentially liberatory consequences of villagers' current efforts? What are the objective limits on the range of alternatives currently available? What might be done to facilitate the availability of a wider range of alternatives? What kind of relationship to the community would a search for alternatives dictate? What kind of relationship to established political authority and economic programs would such a project dictate?
ANY BURGE (Stanford) POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE WARIA VALLEY OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA Political consciousness amongst Guhu-Samane villagers and plantation workers finds expression in everyday discourse and activity as well as in such specialized contexts as millenarian movements and contemporary politics. Both forms of expression and content of political consciousness are examined in relation to patterns of class formation and uneven economic development.
MICHAEL TAUSSIG (Michigan) PUBLISHING FOR THE PROLETARIATE: WRITING FOR WORKERS AND PEASANTS IN THE CAUCA VALLEY, COLOMBIA Many anthropologists are concerned to feed back their ethnography and analyses to the people amongst whom they lived and worked. This paper discusses the motives and effects of a book I wrote (together with Anna Rubbo who contributed one chapter) for the workers and peasants of the southern Cauca Valley in Colombia, dealing with the social history of capitalist development in the Valley. In addition to discussing the problems involved in such a work, I wish to discuss the role a book like this plays in popular culture, and the role of popular history in the development of critical consciousness.
ANNA RUBBO (Michigan) ARCHITECTURE AND ANTHROPOLOGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A RELATIVELY UNEXPLORED CONNECTION With high rates of urbanization and the concentration of rural populations in agribusiness zones in developing countries, the problem of people finding adquate and sufficient housing assumes enormous proportions. Attempted solutions to the housing problem vary greatly, from government provided housing to that built by the people themselves. In this paper, based on a case study in the Cauca Valley, Colombia, I wish to discuss the use of architecture as a tool for the domination of lower class people, the need for anthropological input in formulating solutions to housing in Third World countries, and the implications of this as a critique of professionalism.
ROBERT A. RANDALL (Houston) DEPEDENCY, "DYNAMITE", AND THE SOUTHERN PHILIPPINE FISHERY The Philippines is the world's 17th most populous state. Its principal source of proteir is fish caught by low-capital, inshore fishing. One nationwide fishing technique. dynamitee" (or properly "explosives') fishing is unlike other fishing techniques because it destroys marine ecosystems, fish populations, and those who eat less protein as a result. Ethnographic data from Southwestern Philippine fishermen and fisheries peraonne: helps explain why explosives fishermen practice what they regard as an anti-social and dangerous occupation. They use explosives because it makes money, because other methods don't, and because local and regional law enforcement is weak. There are several ways government could discourage explosives fishing, but success is unlikely while other techniques are declining in profitability. Low profits seem due to inflation in fishing costs relative to sales prices, so a real solution must deal with cost inflation. Cost inflation appears to be related to a 20-year decline in the Philippine currency'sa value relative to international currencies. Indirectly--and directly--imported fishing inputs inflate as the peso devalues, but fish-consumers' incomes need not. The result is a profit squeeze. The Philippines' dependency on imported first and second-order marine producers goods, and a lack of foreign exchange to support the currency thus seems to encourage explosives fishing. Until this dependency is ended, explosives fishing will continue.
(209) HISPANIC COMMUNITY FIELD STUDIES
MANUEL L. CARLOS (UC Santa Barbara) MEXICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES AND COMMUNITY SOCIAL SERVICES: THEORETICAL APPROACHES AND APPLIED IMPLICATIONS Mexican American households
tend to use fewer community social services than mainstream society. Several theories have been advanced to explain this phenomenon. Some argue that there are household and family related variables which account for the utilization variance between the two populations. Other theoretical approaches hold that Mexican American families underuse social services because of a cultural and linguistic gap between agencies and households, More recently, familial and information network models have been used by the present author and others to explain the discrepancy. The present paper systematically explores the applicability of widely used explanatory paradigms pertaining to Mexican American under utilization of social services. It also examines the implications each has for applied programs and social services deliverers. The paper draws on field data from a recently completed study to suggest how aspects of all the major approaches can be confirmed into an effective set of guidelines for servicing Mexican American households. It is argued that effective service delivery rests on a number of socio-cultural and institutional factors, but especially on social and familial network access by a household to individuals.
CARLOS 0. VELEZ-I (UCLA) UNA UNION DE CONFIAMZA (A UNION OF TRUST):, THE DISTRIBUTION OF REVOLVING CREDIT ASSOCIATIONS AMONG MEXICANS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE RIO BRAVORETHINKING ATIRIBL'TIONAL EXPLANATIONS FOR A POPULATION My current research has found that Mexican revolving credit associations are distributed extensively through urban Mexico, parts of the urban U.S. Southwest, and perhaps the midwest. Research has located such practices in twenty-nine urban and suburban municipalities on both sides of the Rio Bravo and widely distributed across class sectors such as among wealth
matrons in the Lemas de Chapultepec, among high echelon bureaucrats in economic planning offices, and among restaurant workers in Beverly Hills, California. Such associations
were found to range in complexity from simply organized, episodic structures based on confianza (trust) to highly complex, State-sanctioned commercial operations organized by corporations. As will be reported, the latter associations as well as "middle rung" types have never previously appeared in the literature nor investigated. The theoretical implications from the data-contradicts the attributional explanations regarding Mexicans' social and economic statuses on both sides of the Rio Bravo. As will also be reported, the distribution of such reciprocal practices across class sectors preclude monocausal explanations of "scarcity of needs" as the central condition for such associations to appear. Alternative explanations will be proferred.
RITA L. AILINGER, JORGE ACCAME (George Mason U) CULTURAL IDENTIFICATION OF HISPANICS The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural identification of a Hispanic population as measured by an instrument. The instrument was developed for this study and has content validity. It contains 20 items which include language, dieting habits, social relations and etc. Three hundred households in census tracts with high concentr&tions of Hispanics were visited. Informants were interviewed in Spanish using the cultural identification instrument as a guide. Findings indicate that the respondents were on a continuum of traditional to non-traditional in their cultural identification.
ARTHUR D. DEMPSEY (Florida Intl U) BUT NICE GIRLS DON'T LEAVE HOME UNTIL THEY'RE MARRIED: THE UNIVERSITY AS AN AGENT FOR CULTURE CHANGE Dade County, Florida has had an unique cultural mix since the Cuban Revolution of 1959. A substantial number of Cuban refugees have settled in Dade County and the first generation of Cuban-Americans are now attending local colleges and universities. Research into the employment preferences for unmarried, female Cuban-American preservice elementary school teachers suggests that the Cuban culture of the late 1950's remains the standard for the Dade County Cuban population.
ALBERTO MATA (Wisconsin-Milwaukee) CHICANO COMMUNITY FIELD STUDY IN THE MIDWEST This paper presents a critique of urban ethnographic work on Chicanos and explores symbolic interaction as a theoretical framework for future studies. Two cases are described to analyze the promise and limitations of symbolic interaction, the zoot suit riots in Los Angeles and Chicano youth drug use in Chicago. The concepts of amplification and escalation are used to explain how U.S. society creates deviance in Chicano barrios. (Joint paper with ALFRED GONZALEZ [CSU Los Angeles])
JAMES DIEGO VIGIL (Chaffey C) SOCIOCULTURAL DYNAMICS OF CHICANO GANGS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA: A RESEARCH NOTE The historical roots of the formation of gangs provides a backdrop from which to examine major socio-cultural forces shaping contemporary barrio youth attitudes and behaviors. Recent findings by the Chicano Pinto Research Project, based in East Los Angeles, have countered existing interpretations of Chicano gang patterns. Members of that collaborative research team -- academics and community researchers -- have gathered quantitative and qualitative data outlining some of the more important conditions and uses of the gang delinquent life style. This presentation will summarize some of those findings from the ongoing study, focusing
specifically on the sociocultural milieu of the barrio habitat.
EDUARDO HERNANDEZ CHAVEZ (Cross Cultural Resource Center) BILINGUAL EDUCATION COMMUNITY STUDY PROJECT The Bilingual Education Community Study Project research design is described and analyzed as an example of modifying existing ethnographic and socio-linguistic methods to study the community contexts in which bilingual education programs operate. A two site comparison design contrasts a rural California community with an urban midwestern community. This report of research in progress describes the major features of this two year study sponsored by the National Institute of Education.
(275) THE EMERGENCE OF THE FIELD OF "ETHNOTRONICS" AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN WELL-BEING OF "SMART MACHINES" AND "PEOPLE AMPLIFIERS" DURING THE EIGHTIES Joseph will lecture non-technically, with profuse illustrations, concerning the high probability that the "silicon revolution" will produce the following technological innovations during the Eighties. By 1981: Component processors leading to smart machines, people appliances, and components becoming end products. By 1984: Component computers forcing universal computer systems leading to hard programs, and achines/ computers becoming components. Carriable or wearable "people amplifiers" will begin to he available, capable of making smart decisions in response to human command, and actuating a process. By 1988: Microprocessing and miniaturization will have progressed to the point where large sectors of the cognitive content of a subculture could be stored, for instant retrieval, on a single silicon chip the size of a coin-and later, by interfacing of chips, large sectors of the cognitive content of a whole culture on a single silicon wafer. (Joseph will display samples of these chips and wafers.) In the 1990's, "smart" machines (i.e., those that can be programmed and re4programmed by humans) are expected to lend naturally to "intelligent" machines (i.e., those that can be programmed by humans to purposively re-program themselves). Should this come bout, some of those in the audience are likely to live to see the beginnings of something like purposive "non-human cultural system" with their own built-in values and dynamics. Given the fact that the most active development of smart machines and people amplifiers is found in the U.S., a culture that allows wide latitude for technological developers, we must face the fact that the genie is already out of the bottle. The speakers and discussants therefore see a profound and urgent need for social scientists to participate proactively in the design of these systems, so that they may be harnessed for human welfare rather than despoliation. Harkins has coined the term "ethnotronics" for an emerging field which will study the cultural, or "Systema" implications of smart and intelligent machines. The cultural invention of being able to store the content of Culture X on a wafer implies that the hypothetical future behavior of Culture X under various assumable conditions can he simulated, which itself would be an act of cultural creativity, which might also impact upon Cultures Y and Z. The speakers and discussants will also view ethnotronics in the light of other major current concerns -- e.g., the energy crisis; the potential for lifelong, constantly updated, consumer-controlled and -actuated education; and the democratization of political control through the use of incredibly cheap, versatile, and instant information retrieval capacities.
(301) FIELD WORK AS AN EVALUATION METHOD IN HEALTH AND HEALING SYSTEMS
ORGANIZER: VIRGINIA OLESEN (UC San Francisco) The symposium will consist of three major papers with comment by the organizer and will deal with the application of field work methodology (participant observation of various types, interview studies not directed to quantified results, etc., in evaluation of health and healing systems, both formal and informal. Field work represents an evaluation methodology which has not had extensive application in the arena of health systems evaluation, unlike other areas of applied anthropology.
LAURA REIF, CUC San Francisco) CONDUCTING POLITY STUDIES IN HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS: MANAGING ADVERSARY RELATIONS TO ACHIEVE RESEARCH GOALS The success of the evaluation of a health care system often hinges on the extent to which the researcher can effectively manage adversary actions by participants of the organization being studied. An adversary relationship between the policy researcher and the subjects of an evaluation* is likely to develop when organizational participants have a high stake in the outcome of the research, and when they have sufficient power to influence the process and outcome of the investigation. Typical adversary tactics used by organizational participants include: (1) curtailing resources necessary to the conduct of the study; (2) restricting the researcher's access to data; (3) attempting to coopt or oppose the research; (4) delaying the study and the decisions based on its findings; and (5) politicizing the research process. In order to establish and retain control over the evaluation, policy researchers employ a variety of strategies: (1) redefining lines of authority to gain greater autonomy; (2) controlling information on the research process and findings;
(3) using negotiation and threat to obtain cooperation; (4) building constituencies which can oppose the interested parties; and (5) forcing public disclosure, so activities and decisions are subject to broader review. Only when researchers succeed in managing adversary relations, are they able to obtain complete and accurate information, produce an unbiased analysis, and adequately disseminate the findings of their research. If organizational participants are able to erode the researcher's autonomy and objectivity, the evaluation--however insightful--will have little or no impact on policies and practices.
JESSICA MULLER (UC San Francisco) BETWIXT AND BETWEEN: DIMENSIONS OF THE FIELD EXPERIENCE IN EVALUATION This paper will consider the experience of fieldwork in qualitative evaluation in relation to several dimensions, including the relationship of the fieldworkers to client and sponsor, the use of qualitative and quantitative data bases, the decision-making authority given to the fieldworkers, and the type of produce to result from the fieldwork. With examples from the author's experience in conducting evaluation research, these issues will be discussed in terms of their general applicability to the use of fieldwork in evaluation. Specific implications for field methodologies in health evaluation will be considered.
CRAIG R. JANES (UC San Francisco) THE VALUES AND LIMITATIONS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH STRATEGIES IN PROGRAM EVALUATION Qualitative methodologies have been proposed as alternative strategies for program evaluation. The resulting methodological debate this has spawned has tended to polarize quantitative and qualitative paradigms into mutually opposing and supposedly irreconcilable categories. The author's own qualitative fieldwork experience in a small health-care program for the elderly is presented. The ethnographic approach yielded considerable detail on program process, the dynamics of staff-patient interactions, and the reactions of the participants to the program itself. However, this research did not yield data suitable for making an evaluative judgement above the subjective level. It is therefore suggested that researchers look very carefully at the structural and organizational characteristics of a program before investingin a single research strategy. Characteristics of a program thought to be relevant are: a) setting, as defined by scale, social structure, and size; b) the problem-orientation of the organization which funds the evaluation; and c) to what use the product of the evaluation is to be put. It is concluded that qualitative and quantitative methods are not irreconcilable, but are complementary; each possessing its owrn particular strengths and weaknesses for evaluation
JAMES C. YOUNG (East Carolina U) DECISION MODELS IN POLICY RELEVANT RESEARCH Drawing on data from a study of illness behavior in a rural Mexican community, this paper examines the usefulness of cognitively oriented decision models in policy relevant research. As compared with approaches involving statistical analysis of aggregate behavioral data, the important advantages of the natural decision making approach are (a) that it describes the specific considerations that lead to the use of non-traditional alternatives in concrete terms meaningful to the actors themselves, and (b) that it also describes, in equally specific terms, why such alternatives are in given instances not chosen for use. To illustrate, findings on the use and non-use of orthodox western medical care in the study community are presented. Applications of the approach in other areas, such as agricultural development and family planning, are also discussed.
(302) HEALTH BELIEFS, IDEOLOGY, AND WORLDVIEW SPONSORED BY THE SOCIETY FOR MEDICAL
ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE SECTION ON MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL
ORGANIZER: LUCILE F. NEWMAN (Brown). This organized symposium is sponsored jointly by the Society for Medical Anthropology and the Medical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association and chaired by Dr. Virginia Olesen of University of California, San Francisco and Dr. Lucile Newman of Brown University. It follows a comparable session at the ASA meetings in Boston in August 1979 titled "Perspectives in Medical Sociology and Medical Anthropology" in which the focus was "What have been some of the influences of social science on health policy and on health practice, or, Does Social Science Really Count?" Our overall purpose has been to enhance the common ground and clarify the differences between medical sociology and medical anthropology, and in so doing to raise some questions central to the interests of both disciplines. This symposium focusing on Health Beliefs, Ideology, and Worldview, will turn around the question and probe values symbolism and cosmologies of health practitioners.
JUDITH SWAZEY (Boston) THE IDEOLOGY OF SOCIAL CONTROLS IN MEDICINE. This paper is a discussion of current medical professional ideology in the fact of social controls from multiple external sources ranging from federal agencies and corporate bodies to popular support groups. How private is private practice and what kinds of ideological conflicts occur between these interest groups?
EUGENE B. BRODY (Maryland) THE DOCTORS DILEMMA: A CASE OF CULTURE CONFLICT. This paper is concerned with the physician's conflict between social Leeds--policies reflecting a desire for universally accessible health care, humanely provided and equitably distributed and the cultural expectations of patients who view the physician as a healer whose charism is as important as his expertise. The conflict arises in how to reconcile the social needs and their institutional constraints with the cultural expectations which are personalistic, consciously or unconsciously paternalistic, and make of the therapeutic encounter a moral event. This latter touches upon his perception of himself as a significant figure in his own culture and one with certain moral expectations regarding his own behavior and that of others. Illustrations will come from observations of physicians at work and as psychiatric patients themselves.
(303) PAPERS: ECONOMIC AND ROLE RELATIONS IN HEALTH CARE
PAUL C. FRIEDMAN, VICTORIA JENNINGS (Texas) PARAPROFESSIONALS AS CULTURE BROKERS IN A HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM. The relationship between the health care provider and the recipient has significant implications for the effectiveness of the health care delivery system. Barriers which frequently exist between providers and recipients can inhibit the effectiveness of health care delivery. In situations where there are vast differences between providers and recipients, the barriers are likely to be extreme. Paraprofessional health care providers are increasingly being used to provide health care, particularly in institutional settings. Traditionally, hospitals, even in ghetto areas, are run by culturally and politically elite groups while the paraprofessionals are often drawn from economically marginal groups. As such, the paraprofessionals subserve
functions beyond the technical provision of health care. The role of a group of paraprofessionals and a largely deprived Chicano patient population was examined. Their function as cultural brokers negotiating between two cultural health systems enabled them to overcome some of the barriers between providers and recipients. The cultural broker function is described.
KATHERINE CARLSON, NOEL CHRISMAN (Washington) MAKING MEDICINE MEANINGFUL: AN ANALYSIS OF DOCTOR-PATIENT ENCOUNTERS AND THEIR SOCIAL CONTENT. The nature of patient/practitioner relationships in the American medical care system has deservedly received increased attention during the last decade. Investigation of this relationship along such dimensions as power, persuasion, and communicative effectiveness has been related to both consumer satisfaction with doctor/patient encounters and the effects of such encounters on compliance. This paper reports an approach to analyzing patient/physician relationships in a family practice setting in which the encounter is viewed as a process of exchange. A system for coding utterances has been developed, a
following Katz et al., which conceives of information, reassurance, instruction, casual conversation, and the like as resources which may be sought, introduced, accepted, or declined by participants. Our preliminary analysis of twenty videotapes has indicated the value of segmenting the encounter into five stages: greetings, medical history, physician examination, treatment suggestions, and closing. These "natural" stages contrast with the strictly "medical" elements of history, examination, andeanclusion used in one study and the artificial quartiles used in another. The inception and conclusion of each of the stages are agreed upon by participants and well marked verbally. The specificity of the coding system and the identification of a limited number of stage shift markers allows the opportunity to make an assessment of the degree of doctor or patient control over the course of the encoun-ter. We will report on the relationships observed between immediate satisfaction and
(1) the number of exchanges in the social stages (1 and 5), (2) the number of exchanges devoted to social and personal issues outside of their specified stage, and (3) the role of the patient in initiating stage change in general, and introducing social elements in particular.
CYNTHIA GILLETTE (Texas A&M) COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS AND HEALTH CARE PLANNING: A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE FROM A KENYAN VILLAGE. The effectiveness of cost-benefit analysis as applied to health care planning is explored. Using data gathered during anthropological fieldwork in a rural Kenyan village, the limitations of cost-benefit analysis are demonstrated, the major limitations being: problems of quantification; inadequate inclusion of socio-cultural variables; and overweighting economic criteria of success as compared to socio-political criteria. It is concluded that costbenefit analysis should not be allowed to displace a more holistic approach to health
ELIZABETH L. BYERLY, CRAIG A. MOLGAARD, AMANDA L. GOLBECK (Intercollegiate Ctr. for Nursing Educ. (Spokane) and The Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minn.) DE MORBIS ARTIFICUM: DISEASES OF WORKERS. Ramazzini's De Morbis Artificum (1700) was the first comprehensive treatise on occupational diseases and their prevention. He discussed in detail the deleterious nature of occupational materials, and the violent and irregular motions and unnatural postures of the body used in handling such materials, for workers in over fifty occupations. This paper presents such an analysis of one occupational group migrant agricultural workers in the State of Washington. The salient diseases of members of this occupational group, and the relationship between their health status and the living and working conditions determined by their social position, are presented as an exercise in the social relations of health as first delineated by Ramazzini.
GERALDINE A. KISIEL (US International) A PROPROSAL FOR IMPROVING HEALTH INDICATORS Social indicators of health are inadequate from a number of standpoints. Most notable of these inadequacies are problems with the construction of them. First, they are entirely quantitative in concept and actuality; second, they have very little in the way of a conceptual base; and third, they are usually developed as if what they are measuring is a constant. One solution to this problem is a methodological one. Qualitative methods are being utilized to gather information which will then be used to clarify the meaning of the concepts involved in the various indices and to clarify the purpose and intended use of the indicators. This information is being gathered through intensive interviews with hospital administrators, physicians and teachers
-in medical schools, public officials and lay-experts on health care who sit on the Boards of organizations such as the Comprehensive Health Planning Organizations and The Experimental Health Delivery System. A content analysis of the data will be performed and the results presented.
SMELANIE DREHER, LOIS GRAD (Columbia) THE INVOLUTION OF PATIENT CARE: THE REAL BOTTOMLESS PIT OF THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM. Under the oppression of bureaucratic constraints and economic sanctions imposed by administrators and third party reimbursers, a seemingly endless series of accommodations and adjustments are made by first level health care providers to ensure at least minimal levels of patient care. The ultimate result of this ever-deepening structure and retardation of the kind of change necessary to truly influence the quality of health services. A micro-analysis of patient-provider relations and case studies from a broad sampling of patient care settings provide the ethnographic basis for generalizations pertaining to social change and health care delivery.
RAQUEL BIALIR FEREL (Instituto Mex. de Psiquistria) POPULAR CONCEPTS ON MENTAL ILLNESS AND THEIR POSSIBLE APPLICATION FOR THERAPEUTIC PURPOSES. We studied a sample of 1,400 informations (200 per group), pertaining to one of the following seven groups: I. students (from high school to postgraduate level; II.housewives; III. domestic servants; IV. workers; V. professionals; VI. mentally ill under treatment; and VII. marginal population. With a structured questionnaire (consisting of closed and open questions) we gathered information on how people define mental illness; what behavior they associate to it; what treatment is to be given; where, for how long and by whom; what is its prognosis; what social consequences are attached to the~ mentally ill and its family; what symptoms are more frequently associated to mental illness or which are disassociated from it, etc. The paper will present a comparison between the answers given by the different groups and suggest how these concepts may be directly applied during treatment, as a means of better understanding the patient, its background and surroundings, leading to more realistic and efficacious results.
(304) PAPERS NUTRITIONAL ANTHROPOLOGY
JOEL MATHLESS TEITELBAUM (Food & Nutrition Service USDA) THE SUCKLING TABOO: IMPACT OF FORCED WEANING ON CHILD HEALTH AND NUTRITION IN TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES. This paper identifies the 'Suckling Taboo" as an indigenous mystical belief leading to premature or abrupt weaning of young children in some traditional societies. A survey of the literature shows that this practice occurs among cultural groups in Africa, the Middle East, Asia and some Pacific Island groupings. Its existence was noted in the early 1900s by anthropologists such as Westermarck in his study of ritual and belief in Morocco. Dr. Cicely Williams characterized this taboo on breastfeeding as a component of Kwashiorkor, i.e., young child protein-calorie malnutrition, among the Ca of Ghana.
My recent study of weaning practices and nutrition in Morocco confirms and expands Westermarck's findings and relate them to the public health concerns of marasmus and Kwashiorkor. Wesnling children considered to be afflicted by maternal infraction of the Suckling Taboo receive homeopathic substances representing the fetus and purgatives to rid the intestinal tract of diarrhea believed caused by the breast milk. The resulting exacerbations of these symptoms simply confirm the belief in the taboo itself. The paper presents recommendations on methods to utilize the Suckling Taboo and other indigenous weaning and lactation beliefs in maternal-child health programs and nutrition education for traditional people in developing countries.
B.C. DU BOIS (San Diego St) AN ANTHROPOLOGIST WORKING IN A NUTRITIONAL HEALTH AGENCY There are means by which an Anthropologist can find non-academic employment and continue to consider oneself an Anthropologist, practicing the tools of the trade. This paper is the result of one such endeavor, that of an Anthropologist working in a nutritional health agency. Those topics highlighted are: the nature and scope of the agency and the training needed for employment, the talents which an Anthropologist can offer to the agency, what the agency can offer in return, how to get your academic toot in the public's door, how the use of anthropological theory can streamline the agency's orientation to health projects, and some problematical areas for prolonged employment which are not insurmountable,
RALPH BOLTON, JAMES J. MC KENNA (Pomona) THE EVOLUTIONARY BASIS OF THE HYPOGLYCEMIAAGGRESSION LINKAGE. Studies of intracultural variability and of cross-cultural differences in aggression have provided some support for the hypothesis that hypoglycemia is: a significant factor in the etiology of agonistic behavior. This paper seeks to calrify the evolutionary basis for the hypothesized linkage between aggressiveness and metabolic processes. If the kinds of behavior that can be subsumed under the label of "aggressive" (e.g., warfare, fighting, and homicide) are at least partially produced by hypoglycemia, directly or indirectly, then it can be asked, To what extent hypoglycemia is likely to be selected for or against, and, further, what are the environmental conditions likely to lead to the widespread occurrence of this metabolic condition in a population.
JOSEPH BOTISQUET, ELIZABETH ARNOLD (Center for the Study of Human Adaptation) INTERIM REPORT ON THE MORAMA BEAN PROJECT. Morama beans (Tylosema esculentum) are a wild staple food of many groups of Kalahari San (Bushmen). The beans' amino acid and edible oil content give them a higher overall protein and calorie value than the major staples and oilseeds of the world. Other portions of the plant are also edible. The plant's ability to survive and produce in an arid to semi-arid environment has drawn the attention of agronomists to its potential for cultivation in other arid lands. Anthropologists at the Center for the Study of
Human Adaptation are coordinating a bi-national research project to discover and disseminate the techniques for cultivating this plant. Drawing from ethnographic literature on Kalahari peoples, we have drawn preliminary conclusions as to the environmental tolerances, preparation techniques, and likelihood of acceptance of these beans by other cultural groups. Further nutritional analyses of wild beans, germination trials, and plantings at various agricultural experiment stations in Texas have begun. We propose to do further fieldwork in Botawans to develop more information about physical characteristics and tolerances, ethnobotany and techniques of use, as well as to share information with Botswana colleagues.
GEETEL H. PELTO (Conn) WOMEN'S WORK, DIET AND WEIGHT IN WEST FINLAND. Modernization in Finland is bringing about rapid changes in the food system, expanding the range of available foods and leading to increased diversity or "individualization of dietary intake. At the sane time, economic pressures, opportunities and changing education patterns have led to increased participation of women in the work force. This study is based on interviews with 110 women from an urban center and surrounding
-rural areas of West Finland. The effect of employment outside the home on food behavior and diet (e.g. dietary complexity, meal scheduling) and on weight is examined. The role of other factors, such as age, family structure and health status is also considered. The results of the analysis are discussed in terms of their implications
-for nutrition education and health planning.
(305) SYMPOSIUM: ETHNOGRAPHY OUTSIDE THE FAMILY: PROBLEMS IN DEFINITION AND METHOD
ORGANIZER: MICHAEL AGAR (Houston) ETHNOGRAPHY OUTSIDE THE FAMILY: PROBLEMS IN LJEFINITIDN AND METHOD. The experiences of a growing population of anthropologists with U.S. agency settings is producing a new focus on some old issues. As a coparticipant in a complex professional niche, an ethnographer must deal with administrators, practitioners and other social scientists who have a variety of purposes and strategies for understanding behavior, the most prominent being the traditional notion of "hypothesis testing." When attempting to characterize ethnography to such a peer group, an ethnographer has at least two problems. The first is represented by the peculiar images that many non-ethnographers have of this type of research. The second problem is the paucity of attempts to articulate the process of doing ethnography. The papers in this symposium, drawing from experiences on a variety of research problems by anthropologists with different theoretical biases, will explore
JACQUETTA HILL (Illinois) THE ETHNOGRAPHY OF EVENTS AND PERSONAL NETWORKS. Recent critiques and position papers on the methodology of ethnography generally start from an implicit framework of peoples in groups, organizations, and places, which ethographers enter to observe and experience through participate observation, or less directly to interview people about. This paper discusses the methodological, epistomological, and conceptual implication of starting from the different framework of the ethnography of individual's personal network in the course of events happening in the everyday round of life. After a brief review of the relevant literature from life histories, social networks, and Wolcott's Man in the Principal's Office, the use of the second framework will be exemplified in the methodology of an ongoing research project on the comparative ethnography of functional uses of literacy. Then, the implications for studying the "ecology of individuals across social settings" and for linking individual level phenomena with socin-centric or socio-cultural systems' level phenomena will be briefly addressed in terms of the two contrasting approaches to field work strategy. -It is proposed the two can be interlinked through the methodological constructs of networks, socin-cultural events and behavioral settings.
JOHN J. GUMPERE (UC Berkeley) ETHNOGRAPHIC METHOD IN CLASSROOM INTERACTION RESEARCH
During the last few years, ethnography has become one of the most talked about terms in educational research, yet there is little agreement on what it means to do ethnographic research. Some scholars suggest that classrooms can be studied as little communities to be described in terms of their culture and social structure. This paper argues against this parallelism and what it implies for research design. It is suggested that education is perhaps best seen as an institution which functions within a broader socio-political environment and is affected by it and be described in terms of goal directed activities, such as the achievement of literacy. Implications for research design and ethnographic method are explored on the basis of field work in urban schools concentrating on participant observation and conversational analysis of key interactive situations.
CAROL MAC LENNAN (Dept of Transportation) ETHNOGRAPHY IN A REGULATORY CONTEXT: THE CASE OF THE U.S. FUEL ECONOMY PROGRAM. The historical and bureaucratic structure of regulatory agencies is a critical determinant affecting the use and non-use of the ethnographic-method in government research. More often than not, the ethnographer finds it difficult to work as an anthropologist within this framework. Why? This paper, using the example of the national fuel economy program, locates the problem in three major factors: 1) The historical and class structures within which regulatory functions are perceived by the agency; 2) The bureaucratic structure of work; and, 3) The dominance of specific professional paradigms in research planning.
DELMOS L. JONES (CUNY) TF.E THEORETICAL CONTEXT OF ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH. More and more nonanthropologists are turning to ethnographic research as a viable and alternative data collection technique. While this trend is gratifying, an inspection of the manner in which the ethnographic approach Is being applied leads to the conclusion that a considerable amount of misunderstanding exists over ethnography as a research technique. This paper will attempt to spell out the theoretical f ramework of ethnography. A discussion of some of the common errors made by researchers inexperienced with the method will be offered, and some suggestions will be made as to how the method can be improved. Specifically, suggestions will be offered on how the computer can be used as a tool in the analysis of data. Many of the nonanthropologists are more familiar with survey research techniques, an approach that is very structured and systematic. In contrast, the ethnographic approach seems to them unsystematic--s "soft" approach to the process of data collection in contrast to the 'hard" and scientific approach of the quantitative research techniques. This paper will argue that the ethnographic approach is neither unstructured, unsystematic, or soft. It is contended here that the major weakness of ethnography is at the level of analysis.
MICHAEL AGAR (Houston) WHEN PARADIGMS COLLIDE: SOME INTERACTIONAL DATA ON THE PROBLEM OF RESEARCH DIFFERENCES. Drawing on experiences in a variety of interdisciplinary settings, this paper attempts to outline a sense of what ethnography is by attending to the kinds of questions non-ethnographers ask of it in proposed or completed form. While the main focus of the paper will be on methodological issues, some theoretical and practical questions will of necessity also be woven into the discussion.
ORGANIZER: JAMES RUSSELL McGOOOWIM (U. Colorado-Boulder) SMALL SCALE FISHERMAN: PROBLEMS IN MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, PART 1 DOMESTIC FISHERIES. The symposium examines management and development issues among small-scale fishermen in diverse parts of the world. Currently, fisheries are an important growth sector in the economies of most world coastal states, and are undergoing rapid changes in organizAtion, management, and development. However, the state of the art for the management and development of small-scale fishermen lags considerably behind that for larger scale, industrial fishermen. Through presentation of a variety of cases--both domestic (USA) and foreign--the diversity and complexity of issues surrounding the management and development of small-scale fishermen will be suggested. The symposium will have two sessions. Session I will focus upon domestic (USA) smallscale fishermen, all of whom are subject to regulation under the Fisheries Conservation and Management Act. Cases from Monterey, California, Bristol Bay, Alaska, and Massachusetts will discuss a variety of issues: for example, problems of definition (i.e., 'What is 'small scale'?); the recalcitrance of small-scale fishermen to he managed as a class; and problems surrounding entry to fisheries. Session 2 will focus upon foreign fisheries in Ireland, Mexico, and Costa Rica. One paper discusses problems in fisheries education; another the inadequacy of fisheries policy for inshore fishermen in Pacific Mexico; while two papers will focus upon fishermen's perceptions with respect to important variables germane in fisheries management and development.
M. ESTELLIE SMITH (SUNY-Oswego) A QUESTION OF SCALE: OR, WHAT ARE WE MEASURING? A comparison of three 'small' fishing ports (Cape Cod, Virgin Islands, and western Scotland) indicates that, although all three ports can be designated as "small," the focus of measurement (e.g., by a government observer) differs in each. In the first, it is the fleet per se which consists of less than 50 vessels of--for the moat part--under 60 GET. in the second, "small" refers to landings: usually less than a couple of hundred pounds made by about 150 fishermen who make short trips in boats averaging about 16-18' with 40-75 horsepower outboard motors, and sell their catches to the housewives or restaurant cooks who go down to the sands to meet the boats at landing time (between 8-10 a.m.). The west Scottish focus is on the "small" marketing infrastructure of the port which inhibits fishermen from buying bigger boats because, connected with the network of relations in the town, there is a limit on the amount of fish which one can expect to be able to market--unless one lands one's fish at a more distant, larger town. The problems of scale (vessel, fleet, landing! processing, and market/shipping) relate to the potential growth in any one of these ectora as well as the extent to which growth will be seen as something to seek out or avoid. The problems which this differential focus and differential "yardstick" create, especially between fishermen and those in government will be explored in, essentially, a programmatic paper.
SUSAN PETERSON (Woods Hole) MAINTAINING YANKEE INDEPENDENCE: MASSACHUSETTS SMALL SCALE FISHERMEN Yankees are known for their independence, abrupt style of interaction and often savage wit; the fishermen in Massachusetts who make all or part of their living fishing the inshore waters can be characterized as Yankees. However, that is the only generalization easily admitted by these men. Their unwillingness to be grouped as a "class of fishermen" for management purposes poses interesting problems under management regimes inflexible to the enormous variability among small scale fishermen. At the same time there are valid generalizations about these fishermen which may be useful to fisheries management, especially where the results of an individual's behavior may be unimportant while the collective efforts of hundreds of men must be considered.
JEFF JOHNSON, MARC L. MILLER (Washington) MODERN TRANSHUMANT FISHERMEN AND THE BRISTOL BAY SOCKEYE SALMON FISHERY In the Bristol Bay sockeye salmon fishery on the southwestern edge of the Alaskan mainland, over thirty million fish ate annually harvested in less than two months by 1500 drift gillnet and 650 set-net fishermen. Access to this extremely lucrative and competitive fishery is regulated by a system of limited entry (transferable permits command over one hundred thousand dollars on the open market); a state management policy imposes temporal, gear-type, and area restrictions to achieve conservation objectives. Fishing activities are further regulated informally according to constraints on processing and cannery operations. This paper examines the 1979 season and the patterns of participation in the fishery of an identified social and occupational category of modern transhumant fishermen.
MICNAEL K. ORBACH (UC Santa Cruz) MONTEREY FISHERMEN: PROBLEMS IN INFORMAL NETWORKS AND FORMAL AD)MINISTRATION The fishing industry and community of Monterey, California is an example of several contemporary social and economic issues in fishery management. The industry is controlled predominantely by a southern Italian ethnnic community. The fishery activity is centered around the exploitation of a limited number of fish species by members of different, distinct social networks. One such network is highly unionized and dependent on labor migration from Italy. Another is highly territorial in local, informal allocation of fishing privileges, and is the subject of disputed formal management jurisdiction because of the distribution of the fishing across boundaries of state and federal jurisdiction. There has been tremendous expansion of fishing effort of all kinds on the west coast in recent years. This has meant more and more boats and fishermen front "outside" intruding on the fisheries and geographical areas over which the Monterey fishermen have traditionally had control. While there are federal laws which legitimize, under certain conditions, preferential rights for those who can demonstrate historical fishing patterns or economic, social,
or cultural dependence on continued participation in fishing, the conflicting state and federal jurisdictions make it administratively difficult to assert such rights. In addition, the fishermen have a strong aversion to dealing with the very authorities who are now their only formal recourse for protection against the incursion of new boats and fishermen. This paper will document the social and economic issues involved in Monterey fisheries, and the ways in which certain social, cultural, and economic data and information might be used to incorporate the goals of the Monterey fishermen into formal administrative structures.
EVELYN PINKERTON (U British Columbia) THE EFFECT OF GOVERNMENT FISHERY LICENSING* POLICY ON THE STRUCTURE OF LOCAL EMPLOYMENT Traditionally in this small village on the northwest coast of British Columbia, fishing was a seasonal activity and part of a diversified, multi-occupational adaptation, including small-scale logging and extensive subsistence activities. Isolated local populations were able to respond to fluctuations in world markets with minimized dislocation. The low incomes of fisher-, men did not necessarily reflect the standard of living, and the number of small and seasonal fishermen did not put pressure on the resource. The rationalized licensing policies of the l960s and 1970s have claimed to respond to three problems in the B.C. fishery: 1) the overcapitalization of some boats, 2) the low incomes of some fishermen, and 3) the growing scarcity of the resource. In fact, however, these policies have acted to force smaller and marginal fishermen out of the industry, to put heavier pressure on the resource, and to grant fishing rights to fewer, large-scale fishermen in note capitalized boats. The effect of these policies on the local economy is increasing occupational specialization, less time for traditional subsistence activities, and a greater local vulnerability to market fluctuations. The paper analyzes how the policy may be seen as reflecting processing company interests, and recommends alternate policies which would more nearly reflect fishing interests of individuals, and protect the future of the resource.
HELEN H. SCHUSTER (Iowa State) INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO ANTHROPOLOGY AND EDUCATION Anthropology and Education have converged at many levels, sometimes accompanied by controversial, explosive mixing and sometimes combined in a creative and innovative blending of theoretical approaches, methodologies, and/or empirical experiences. The emphasis of these papers is on the positive: those fortuitous amalgamations that draw on some anthropological resource to greatly enhance some dimensions of the educational process. The symposium presenters seek to share their discoveries in a combined effort to disseminate, to elicit, and to formalize what has largely been noteworthy but of limited distribution.
HELEN N. SCHUSTER (Iowa State), JANET CONSTAN'TINIDES (Wyoming) "A MICROFIELD
EXPERIENCE FOR AMERICAN AND FOREIGN STUDENTS" Difficulties encountered in a crosscultural experience are not necessarily confined to travelers or to researchers among exotic peoples in distant lines. A common arena for "culture shock" is often to be found in the familiar setting of an American classroom, in particular a multicultural classroom, where the trauma of educational distress may be experienced by teacher. as well as students. This paper describes two separate but common cross-cultural educational problems, (1) inadequate preparation of American university students to teach in multiethnic classrooms, and (2) inadequate preparation of foreign students attending an American university to function according to their ability and knowledge. Each author was faced with one of these problems. By conjoining them in a simple but effective way, they were able to bring about a mutually advantageous resolution of both. Key factors relied on participation by both Amnerican and foreign students in a unique socialization experiment: a one-to-one "tutorial" and "microfield" experience.
PAUL. HEADLEY, JOSEPH HRABA, BRENT BRUTON (Iowa) ETHNIC RELATIONS IN AMERICAN HISTORY THROUGH PHOTOGRAPHS AND) MUSIC Ethnic relations are historical, changing with the larger historical process. American history is identified in the social sciences with three phases: agrarian, industrial and post-industrial. These phases are typically conveyed to students through statistics and abstract commentary on the nature of work, production through statistics and abstract commentary on the nature of work, production and distribution, the division of labor, educational opportunity, etc. Although all of this might reflect the real world for social scientists, it does not always do so for students. For students, understanding ethnic relations in history starts with observing the daily lives of real people. Human scale needs to he in the classroom so that the significance of social change for people's lives can be appreciated. This presentation attempts to demonstrate the use of photographs and music in teaching the human element in the history of ethnicity in America.
JOHN W. CONNOR (CSU Sacramento) TEACHING ANTHROPOLOGY IN HIGH SCHOOL The paper will be a brief presentation of some techniques I developed in teaching an anthropology course in junior high and senior high school. The course involved the utilization of mimeographed material (readers were not available) and then integrating the reading material with appropriate audio-visual films and tapes. Additionally, I had access to archeological artifacts, hoth originals and duplicates. In the latter part of the course the students were encouraged to bring in material from the various countries they had visited and discuss them with the class. This last approach was a logical application inasmuch as two-thirds of the students were from Air Force families and almost all of them had some overseas experience.
GRETCHEN N. BATAILLE (Iowa) INSIDE THE CIGAR STORE: IMAGES OF THE AMERICAN INDIIAN Many students in predominantly "white" universities are only vaguely aware of the stereotypes they hold about American Indians and certainly they do not know enough American cultural history to understand the basis for any of their misconceptions. Because these images of the American Indian by and large have been created by nonIndians, it is useful to examine why certain'stereotypes have emerged. The stoic wooden figure offering tobacco to a passer-by on the planked walk of a frontier town is firmly entrenched in the minds of most Americans as are other images of noble or ignoble savage, child of nature, or beautiful princess, which are further perpetuated in textbooks, novels, and educational films. It is only recently that educators have made serious attempts to examine teaching materials and to scrutinize the visual aids which tell of various minority groups. In order to examine the sources of these stereotypes and to replace the inaccuracies with more realistic images of Native American experiences, we offer a course, 'Images of the American Indian," in our cross-disciplinary American Indian Studies Program, and have produced a shortened version of this course as a slide presentation, "Inside the Cigar Store: Images of the American Indian." This presentation discusses the stereotypes which have been presented in mass media and textbooks and then goes on to examine the realities of contemporary American Indian experiences.
HARRY F. WOLCOTT (Oregon) ANTHROPOLOGY'S "SPOILER ROLE"ANI) "NEW" MULTI-CULTURAL TEXTBOOKS Requests from publishers to review educator-authored manuscripts dealing with the pedagogy of pluralism (and that incredible phenomenon, the "pluralistic culture") have caused me to exercise what Alan Beals has termed anthropology's "Spoiler role." Though the authors of these manuscripts may be well-meaning, they are not anthropologically well-informed. I am not of the opinion that bad books about multi-culturalism are better than no books at all. Although playing a deinnovative "spoiler" role for the noble goal of cultural awareness is not terribly satisfying, it is nonetheless one responsibility in the anthropology of education.
DAVID M. FETTERMAN (Stanford) NEW USES FOR OLD TOOLS: ThE CAMERA, THE TAPERECORDER, AND THE TELEPHONE IN CONTRACT ETHNOGRAPHY Applied anthropology has much to contribute to educational evaluation. Currently the author is responsible for the ethnographic component of a National Institute of Education-Department of
Labor study of alternative high schools for dropouts and potential dropouts. Traditional techniques were used in the study such as fieldwork, participantobservation, expressive-autobiographic interviews, use of key informants and so on. One of the more useful techniques developed during the course of the study involves the use of the tape recorder and the camera. These tools have been used to record and generate reliable data as well as to establish an immediate intimacy between interviewer and informant. In addition, the telephone tool not discussed in the contract ethnography literature represented one of the most important tools for gat hering data informally. A network of communication was established on an ongoing basis. These tools are particularly useful in contract research given its stringent time constraints. The new use of these old instruments is recommended highly to other researchers in future studies.
STEVE SHERLOCK (Ninnesota) THE ROLE OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO EVALUATION IN EDUCATION The evaluation of social programs, including education, has primarily been the province of social sciences other than Anthropology. Evaluators have emerged from many disciplines, among them are psychology, sociology, -and educational psychology. The predominant orientation in evaluation has been, and is presently, quantitative. However, there is a growing interest in qualitative approaches to evaluation. This interest exists both among the clients who con*tract evaluations and those who conduct evaluation research. The issue of whether anthropologists can or should adapt their skills to evaluation research has been explored in recent literature (Clinton 1975, Everhart 1975, Ianni 1976, Mulbauser 1976, Sherlock 1978, Wolcott 1975). I acknowledge that there are problems and difficulties in assuming the role of anthropolgoistlevaluatur. Yet, I believe that it is both a possible and a fruitful role. In this paper, .1 will discuss one of my experiences with contract evaluation work. The subject of the evaluation is a federally funded tutorial program in a private non-profit clinic. I will describe my role as the program evaluation consultant and the work performed. In conclusion I will discuss issues and options for the anthropologist as evaluator.
RICHARD L. WARREN (Kentucky) FINDINGS, RECIPROCITY AND APPLICATIONS: A REPORT ON A CASE STUDY OF A BILINGUAL PROGRAN This paper describes two follow-up research and training activities which are proceeding from an ethnography of an elementary school bilingual program. The activities reflect a judgment about logical next steps in the research process and about the comparative importance and potential use of selected ethnographic data in program development and improvement. The activities are: .(1) a longitudinal study of a sixth grade graduating class, being carried out cooperatively by school personnel and me, and (2) in-service training and information dissemination through a documentary film of the program.
ORGANIZER: JOHN J. WOOD (Arizona) APPLIED'RESEARCH AND THE NAVAJO-HOPI LAND SETTLEMENT ACT The Navajo and Hopi Settlement Act (Public Law 93-531) was passed by Congress in 1974 in an attempt to resolve a long-standing dispute between the Navajo and Hopi Tribes concerning a large area of northeastern Arizona established as a reservation by Executive Order in 1882. This reservation, formerly known as the Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area, was partitioned equally between the Navajo and Hopi Tribes in 1977, and several thousand Navajos and less than one hundred Hopis will eventually have to relocate, voluntarily or involun.tarily, as a result. Livestock reduction and range restoration, which began in 1976, were also provisions of the act. The papers in this symposium will address the interrelated questions of the effects of a construction freeze and neglect in an institutional context; the economic impacts of livestock reduction and range restoration; and mental health effects of the land dispute.
MICHAEL J. ANDREWS (No Arizona) IMPACTS OF INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE IN THE FORMER NAVAJO-HOPI JOINT USE AREA The people living in the Former Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area in Arizona are administered to by a variety of institutions including Federal, State, Tribal, and private agencies. The services provided by these agencies has been restricted for a number of reasons, not the least of which have been political. As a result the Former Joint Use Area has witnessed service distribution different from the Navajo reservation as a whole. With the partitioning of the Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area in 1977, the stage was set for dynamic institutional change. Increasing regional and national attention to the Navajo situation in the 1882 Executive Order Reservation has caused agencies to re-evaluate their role to these people. This paper examines the history of agencies on the Former Joint Use Area and presents some of the implications for the dearth of services prior to 1977. Institutions for impact on the people as a result of a sudden influx of services are examined in the context of traditional Navajo culture.
JOHN J. WOOD (No Arizona U) ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF NAVAJO LIVESTOCK REDUCTION In April 1976, the Flagstaff Administrative Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs commenced reduction of livestock numbers in the former Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area in compliance with the Navajo-Hopi Land Settlement Act (PL 93-531). Research, sponsored by the Flagstaff Administrative Office, on the effects of the livestock reduction program was carried out between September 1977 and July 1978. Our data coupled with other research present a detailed, quantitative look at the role of livestock in the region.
Members of over 90 percent of the households in a probability sample of 146 Navajo households owned livestock before reduction. Most herds were small, but livestock income accounted for about 29 percent of the aggregate income for the sample during the study period. Livestock are also pivotal in the web of social relationships. Thus the impacts of livestock reduction are numerous and complex. The major economic impacts of the loss of productive livestock capital are in income, credit, and home consumption. The decline in reciprocity involving livestock has been equally important. One measurable application of the research thus far has been in helping to establish new grazing regulations for the Navajos awaiting relocation on the Hopi side of the partitioned former Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area.
MARTIN D. TOPPER, LUCITA JOHNSON (USPES) EFFECTS OF FORCED RELOCATION ON NAVAJO MENTAL HEALTH PATIENTS FROM THE FORMER NAVAJO-HOPI JOINT USE AREA A minimum of 3900 Navajos face involuntary relocation over the next six years from their homes in what was formerly the Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area. This paper reports the findings of two clinical surveys (patient profiles) which were designed to determine the effects which this forced relocation is having upon Navajo mental health patients who are being aeen by the Mental Health Branch of the Navajo Area of the Indian Health Service. The results of this research indicate that the Navajo-Hopi Land Dispute, and especially the forced relocation and livestock reduction which were mandated under P.L. 93-531 which was designed to settle the dispute, were A
significant contributors to the psychiatric complaints of Navajos who are to be relocated. In fact, it was shown that the land dispute (and especially stuck reduction) was a significant contributor to the psychiatric complaints of Navajos who would not have to be relocated from the Former JUA. Finally, it was found that relocatees utilized the mental health facilities of the Navajo Area of the Indian 4 Health Service at a rate which was more than two and one-half times that of Navajos in general, and that they suffered from depression at a rate which was three times that for the Navajo Reservation as a whole during the same period of time.
In addition to presenting this data, the paper goes on to discuss the role of the anthropologist in the generation of research and treatment plans for federallyserved high-risk populations. It describes the duties of the anthropologist within the structure of a treatment-oriented federal bureaucracy and, in addition, shows how these duties, in this instance, were translated into the development of specific strategies for serving the population in need.
(309) SYMPOSIUM CHAIR: PETER NEW SYMPOSIUM: APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCE IN CHINA
PAPERS: JAMES P. McGOUGH (Middlebury C) APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCE IN CHINA SOCIAL WORK, SOCIOLOGY, AND SOCIALISM: IRE GROWTH OF APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCE IN CHINA ANNE S. THURSTON (SSRC) REPORT FROM A RECENT VISIT WITH CHINESE SOCIAL SCIENTISTS Two reports, one historical and one contemporary, provide an overview of applied social science in the peoples republic of China. The prerevolutionary origins of Chinese social science are described in terms of the applied service orientation of early social researchers. The contemporary status of social science in Chinese academic circles isdescribed by a member of the U.S. group that visited China this year to reestablish US-Chinese social science contacts and exchange through the invitation of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
ORGANIZER: DAVID BROKENSHA (UC Santa Barbara) ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND US AID PROJECTS This symposium consists of papers by five anthropologists, all of whom have had recent experience with USAID projects. Papers have been selected to provide a broad geographical and topical coverage. Authors have been asked to address some specific issues, which will include: brief description of the project; at what stage did
anthropologist become associated with project? was there a Social Soundness Analysis? was it effective? what were the expectations for the anthropologist? were there any constraints on effectiveness of anthropologist's contribution from AID,
*Washington; AID, Mission; host-country government officials; local people; contracting firm or agency? The aim is not to make general comments on idea relationships and on possible contributions, but to explore some specific types of involvements, to assess their effectiveness and to determine how future involvements by anthropologists could be more efficient. Discussants will include one experienced development anthropologist, and at least one representative from USAID.
WILLIAM H. JANSEN II (USAID) INCORPORATING SOCIO-CULTURAL VARIABLES INTO TMCH: THE ROLE OF AN ANTHROPOLOGIST IN THE PLANNING OF A PHILIPPINE NUTRITION PROJECT In 1977 and early 1978, preparations were being made to continue and expand the Targeted Maternal and Child Health (TMCH) project in the Philippines. That general effort involved a team of individuals representing a variety of backgrounds--one of which was an anthropologist employed by the U.S. Agency for International Development.
The anthropologist was expected to: evaluate the TMCH project's earlier results; prepare a "social soundness analysis" for the expanded TMCH project plan; and, coordinate and disseminate the findings of the analysis within the multidisciplinary team responsible for designing the expanded project. The fact that the planning exercise was for the expansion of a pre-existing project presented some opportunities for the application of anthropology not commonly available in a completely new project. However, the same characteristic offered some novel complications as well.
$DENNIS M. WARREN (Iowa St) PRIMARY HEALTH CARE TRAINING FOR INDIGENOUS HEALERS IN GHANA The role of the development anthropologist in the design, social soundness analysis, and implementation of an integrated approach to primary health care training for indigenous healers in Ghana is discussed. The PRHETIH Project (Primary Health Training for Indigenous Healers) was inaugurated in Techiman District, Ghana, in June 1979. Based in part on the successful training programs for TBAs (Traditional Birth Attendants) in Techiman, the PRHETIH Project is designed to improve the capacity of indigenous healers (herbalists and priest/priestess-healers) to assist in environmental, preventive and promotive health programs at the district level, and to foster and enhance mutually positive relationships between district level Ministry of Health officials and the various indigenous healers in the district.
JOSETTE MURPHY (Purdue) ON-GOING MONITORING OF A RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN UPPER VOLTA A government agency has been created in Upper Volta in 1974 to organize the settlement of 50,000 families and promote the agricultural development of underpopulated areas in the Volta Valleys. From 1977 to 1980, an anthropologist has been in charge of a USAID project to design and implement an on-going monitoring system of the socio-economic situation in the newly created villages, including farming techniques, agricultural production, and emerging community structures.
There is a basic ambivalence when an anthropologist, trained to work as an independent researcher, is placed in a position of technical assistant to a host country agency. The paper will discuss the problems encountered during this project and will explain how the methodologies used in anthropological fieldwork must be adapted if we are to cooperate successfully with agronomists and other development experts, and with host country and USAID administrators. It will be shown that this effort of adaptation is beneficial to anthropological knowledge and to the development project itself.
DAVID BROKENSHA, BERNARD W. RILEY (UC Santa Barbara) RURAL ACCESS ROADS IN WESTERN KENYA: SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STUDIES, 1979-1983 The authors are part of a three-person team contracted to evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impact of Rural Access Roads in Western Kenya. The evaluation is unusual in that it is (a) long-term (1979-1983), (b) multi-disciplinary (anthropologist, geographer, economist), (c) well-inegrated with Kenyan planning and statistical agencies, (d) carefully thought-out. The paper summarizes the results and recommendations of the first year's fieldwork and analysis, describes the data gathering by the Kenya Central Bureau of Statistics, and considers prospects,methods and problems for the remaining four years.
GORDON APPLEBY (Cal Tech) WHO CONTROLS WHOM: THE PROBLEMS OF RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION IN AN A.I.D. MARKETING STUDY AID-Washington contracted for a marketing study in highland Guatemala, to be conducted by Research Triangle Institute, a private research firm. This arrangement permitted a professional study for an eventual guideline booklet on marketing projects. However, the tensions between AID-Washington and the Guatemala mission ensure that the study will not contribute to present plans for producer cooperatives in Guatemala.
Misunderstanding and lack of respect characterized the relationship between the Institute and the anthropologist. Indicative of economists' views of anthropological research, there were funds only for the anthropologist's maintenance. But each professional was given great latitude in defining his goals and methodology, so this "oversight" was corrected. Fortunately so, since in the event, the anthropologist defined the nature and methods of the project, did all the research, and organized and wrote most of the final report.
Misunderstanding and lack of respect characterized the relationship between AID-Washington and AID-Guatemala. AID-Guatemala correctly considered that Washington's "theme of the year," marketing, would be an implicit evaluation of their program for producer cooperatives, which are, in essence, public monopolies. AIDGuatemala therefore tried to thwart the study. Because of such bureaucratic infighting, a professional study that may contribute to development policy generally will not help define policy goals in Guatemala, where the study is most relevant.
JOHN B. SLATTERY (USAID) INVOLVING PEOPLE IN DEVELOPMENT: HOW ANTHROPOLOGY CAN HELP Over the past five years developing countries and donor agencies have been trying to evolve projects which can directly meet the basic human needs of the "poorest of the poor". Although there has been progress, there is still an urgent need to find effective ways to reach the poor majority given limited resources of donors and developing countries. There is a growing recognition that communitybased projects could substantially supplement both the financial and human resources of governments.
This paper will discuss the applicability of three or four anthropological techniques previously used by the author in an agricultural decision-making study in South India for gathering data that could be useful in designing and implementing community-based projects. Specific points to be discussed include: 1) selecting representative communities and households and conducting community surveys and individual interviews; 2) the importance of data collected from such surveys and interviews for identifying the socio-cultural, economic, environmental and psychological setting of a project; for gathering baseline data to design, implement, evaluate, monitor and redesign the activity; for generating community involvement and responsibility for the design and implementation of the project activity; and for identifying the type and extent of responsibility a community is able and willing to undertake; and 3) suggested time frame and method for integrating these techniques into the overall design, implementation and evaluation process.
These techniques will be discussed in the context of two or three specific project activities, e.g., the introduction of high-yielding varieties of paddy in the Tungabhadra Project Area in South India, establishment of grazing blocks among nomadic pastoralists in northern Kenya and proposed community-based health and water projects in Kenya.
(311) PAPERS: EVALUATIVE RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SERVICES AND PRACTICE
M.G. TREND (ATAC), J.W. FREES (Abt Assoc) "A FAIR HEARING: WELFARE RIGHTS AND CLIENT ADVOCACY IN TWO MANDATORY WORK PROGRAMS The paper examines conflict and conflict resolution among welfare recipients and program staff in two publiclyfunded social programs that require low-income individuals to register for work or vocational training as a condition for receiving aid. Specifically, the paper compares advocacy procedures and outcomes in the existing Work Incentive (LIN) program with those of an experimental program, the Minnesota Work Equity Project (WEP), which offers client advocacy services in several different forms and intensities.
The paper discusses welfare rights and due process in their ideal formulation and compares these with program reality. Our research shows that client advocacy varies along three major dimensions: (1) resources and organizational sponsorship,
(2) philosophy, and (3) ease of-access for low-income individuals. This, in turn, appears to have some influence upon the incidence and outcomes of conflict or 11 trouble cases." We have further found that differences in these three variables appear to account for variations in client advocacy services offered in different local offices administering the same program, as well as differences between pro,grams.
Data for the paper comes from the work of several on-site researchers stationed in program offices for 18 months, statistical information from management information systems, welfare case records, surveys of several hundred program registrants, and interviews with clients and client advocates.
MARY JO SCHNEIDER, DIANA DANFORTH, DONALD VOTH (Arkansas) AN EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF SENIOR SERVICE PROGRAMS IN WESTERN ARKANSAS This paper summarizes the results of a longitudinal study of elderly citizens in two predominantly rural counties in west central Arkansas. A panel of 500 elderly persons was inter-viewed before senior programs were established in the two counties and again after services had been in operation for two years. Those from the panel who became program participants were compared with those who did not. Changes in health status, wellbeing, and in utilization of other social services (Food Stamps, Medicaid, and SSI) were measured. The effect that participation had on institutionalization was studied, and the cost-effectiveness of the programs assessed. Results showed that program participants were a select group of elderly persons (healthier and more sociable). Preliminary results also suggested that few changes could be attributed to participation in senior programs, and that the program costs cannot be justified in terms of the impact on institutionalization.
PATRICIA W. REMMINGTON (Bowling Green St U) PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION OF THE ATLANTA POLICE DEPARTMENT: PRACTICAL APPLICABILITY OF ETHNOGRAPHIC DATA The isolation of the police subculture in American Society and the difficulties in maintaining satisfactory police-community relations has been a recurrent problem in our Criminal Justice System. This paper indicates how ethnographic data can increase understanding of this dilemma and generate suggestions to ameliorate the situation.
The methodology employed in the researcher's year long study of the Atlanta Police Department included participant observation and in-depth interviews of fifty informants. The research yielded the following insights into police alienation from the public. 1.) Officers generally have extremely ethnocentric attitudes toward certain subcultures including the lower class; lower class "redneck" white; winos; and "hip ies" which are manifested in the brevity and brusqueness of the officers' behavior in encounters with members of these groups. 2.) The prevalence of nonregulatory and deviant activities by officers which increases their in-group strength by reinforcing a secrecy code. 3.) The failure of female officers to bridge the gap with citizenry due to the formers' acculturation into police group attitudes toward the public and their concurrent inability to manifest a unique behavior style due to male officers' over-protection.
Suggested remedial practices could include closer supervision of field officers; instruction in a cultural relativistic orientation, and more effective deployment of females.
JAMES D. LOWE (Abt Assoc) WORK AND WELFARE: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH To EVALUATION RESEARCH The provision of public jobs to employable welfare recipients is a key aspect of current welfare reform legislation. The Minnesota Work Equity Project is a federally funded demonstration project that is testing the feasibility of this approach to welfare reform. Research is in progress to evaluate the implementation, operation, and effect of the Work Equity Project on the lives and economic status of participants. The evaluation includes anthropological field
research in which there is intensive study of the project's delivery of jobs and other services. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the jobs, their place in the Work Equity Project, and their significance to participants. A central hypothesis is that the jobs, which are sponsored through public and non-profit employers, will not provide the skills or experience necessary to enable the participants to become self-supporting. Instead, the participants will rely on the program jobs themselves as a way of getting a living or supplementing welfare payments. The study combines intensive field research and quantitative methods: observation, interviewing, and case studies; a census of jobs; and analysis of the project's automated client tracking system.
RUTH BUSCH, JAMES GUNDLACH (Auburn U) MEASURING THE QUALITY OF LIFE A social values analysis done by the authors for the Bureau of Land Management is briefly summarized. The analysis of social well being is evaluated using the quality f life standards proposed for cross cultural use by Keesing (1978). Measures o social well being and the quality of life currently used in the United States are shown to be less convincing. Ethnographic and demographic approaches relying heavily on available data are suggested to bring U.S. studies closer to the proposed standard. Focused, and thus inexpensive, field checks are proposed where necessary. Examples from the author's work are cited.
JUSTINE McCABE (UC Davis) THE ROLE OF THE KEY INFORMANT TECHNIQUE IN NEEDS ASSESSMENT SURVEYS As anthropologists increasingly enter non-academic and applied areas of endeavor, adaptations of their traditional ethnographic methods are being utilized as resources for projects sponsored by various public and private agencies. one such method is the key informant technique, widely regarded as virtually synonymous with the discipline of cultural anthropology. This paper discusses the value of employing key informants in needs assessment surveys which are frequently conducted by local area planning agencies.
Specifically, in conjunction with a multi-county survey designed to specify the problems of the elderly, the author conducted meetings of a small group of key informants in each of several counties, who were asked to provide supplemental information regarding the existence and provision of services for older people in these areas. This paper includes an examination of the advantages and problems of using key informants in needs assessments surveys, and the qualifications and method of selecting "key informants," especially those chosen from a large geographic area unfamiliar to the author. Furthermore, this use of the key informant technique raises some questions regarding its utilization in more traditional ethnographic settings, with particular consideration to the possibility of screening potential key informants by convening small groups of informants in field situations.
ALICE IVEY SNYDER, NANCY M. SPENCER, LAURENCE N. McCULLOUGH (Old Dominion) FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE EVALUATIONS: ANTHROPOLOGICAL INPUT FOR HUMAN SERVICES DELIVERY A family day care provider project in the Tidewater region of Virginia utilized an anthropologist in the creation of both formative and summative evaluations and their analysis. This paper describes the distinction between the two types of evaluations and how the expertise of the anthropologist can be used in the educational/human services utilization of such evaluation procedures. A brief description of the project and both theoretical and applied concerns are presented, and it is argued that the increasing use of anthropologists in such projects enhances the possibilities of positive outcomes from intervention programs.
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MIRIAM J. WELLS (UC Davis) SUCCESS IN WHOSE TERMS? PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PUBLICLY-ASSISTED COOPERATIVES Assessments of the relative success of publiclysponsored cooperatives necessarily reflect the standards of effective performance employed. Fieldwork with strawberry production cooperatives organized by Chicanos in California reveals that policy-makers' and participants' goals may differ, and may in some cases be mutually contradictory. This paper explores these tensions and proposes that evaluations of such projects take into account the agendae of participants and gear expectations of levels and directions of performance to the diversity of functions which cooperatives serve.
DAVID J. ROZEN (City-County Clinic in Johnstown, Pennsylvania) THE HASIDIC REBBEN AS A PATRON: AM APPLICATION OF THE PATRON-CLIENT MODEL IN THE ANALYSIS OF HEALTH CARE BEHAVIOR AMONG HASIDIC JEWS This paper Is concerned with the analysis of health care behavior among Hasidic Jews found with the metropolitan New York City area. The data resulted from field work utilizing participant-observer techniques beginning in 1972 and is still ongoing. Hasidic Jews living in New York City represent a parochial people with a unique sociocultural identity and are characterized by low socioeconomic status and isolation from "main stream" American culture. Nonetheless, Hasidic Jews meet their medical needs through the utilization of the modern health care delivery system.
The paper concludes with a discussion of the Hasidic patron-client relationship in terms of its medical anthropological implications. Of principal concern is the impact of Hasidic patronage upon the quality of medical care received by Hasidic people, i.e. does the intervention of the Rebbeh actually improve the level of medical services received by the Hasidic patient.
KENNETH J. COOPER (Stanford) QUALITY OF LIFE, PARTICIPATION AND BALANCED DEVELOPMENT At Stanford University I direct a program Ethics of Development in a Global Environment (EDGE) in which some 400 students and 30 faculty participate during the year in lectures, workshops end research focused on an understanding of existing approaches to international development and a search for new alternatives.
One recurring and provocative question is beginning to dominate many of our discussions: How can societies that have created their economic/political/technological/ social structures on cheap energy and economic growth make the necessary upcoming transition to a more "balanced development"? How will societies continue to provideand improve the necessary social services to their people in the face of higher energy costs and vanishing non-renewable resources? Can the transition be a democratic one?
Sweden offers a superb laboratory for observing this transition. During July and August, with the aid of a grant from the Swedish Bicentennial Fund, I initiated a joint research project involving faculty at Linkoping, Lulea, Uppala, and Stockholm as well as at Stanford to carry out interviews that will elicit information on people's personal definitions of quality of life, their comprehension of critical problems facing their societies, their motivation to participate, and some insights into existing channels for and barriers to participation. Exchange of information between Stanford and the Swedish universities will continue throughout this academic year, with a final synthesizing report due next summer. In the SFAA paper I would like to present some of our tentative results.
T. ALLEN CAINE (Minn) A CASE STUDY EVALUATION OF LUTHER GERLACH'S SPIN MODEL OF SOCIAL MOVEMENT ORGANIZATION Social Movement theory is characterized by a great deal of intellectual baggage which has dubious relevance to typical social movement actions. The applied social scientist who lacks experience in social movement activity, especially, is faced with a great deal of difficulty in dealing with social movement activities if social movement theory is taken too seriously. However, it is argued here that Luther Gerlach's SPIN model of -social movement organization does reflect well what may be typically expected in social movement actions.
Gerlach's model is evaluated through a participant observation study of the "Willmar Bank Strike.: The Willmar Bank Strike is a three year old effort to unionize and eliminate discrimination against women in a small bank in the rural town of Willmar, Minnesota. Gerlach's model is also briefly evaluated against historical "activist" literature.
BARBARA M. ZAVERUHA (Northwestern) CURRENT ADJUSTMENTS IN GHANAIAN INHERITANCE CUSTOMS: SEARCHING FOR UNITY IN DIVERSITY In Ghana, the Akans, who form approximately 40% of the population, are traditionally matrilineal, while the rest of the population is patrilineal. In recent decades, increased frequency of ethnicallymixed marriages, residential mobility, weakened authority within the lineage, and other factors, have put pressure on the traditional inheritance systems, particularly the Akan matrilineal system. There have been calls for a unified code of inheritance to cover new situations and correct abuses. Individual and collective responses to the pressure are discussed. Special note is taken of cases in which
customary practices have been formulated and/or justified in such a way that they have a built-in flexibility under changing conditions.
EDWARD WELLIN (Wisconsin-Milwaukee) A COMMUNICATION MODEL FOR THE STUDY OF DIRECTED CHANGE -For decades, virtually every important theoretical statement on directed change has called attention to the need to take into account the character andbehavior not only of the recipient population but of the donor or initiating group as well. Nonetheless, many studies of directed change continue to be selective in their fact-finding and partial in their conceptualization, i.e., they focus on recipients of change and pay unsystematic if any attention to the innovating or directing agency. This paper addresses the need to include both donor and recipient groups in the same universe of conceptual and empirical discourse within a broad, but by no means novel, paradigm. The latter is an elaboration of Lasswell's well-known model of the primary elements of communication: Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect?
This converts into a rough and preliminary statement of the elements of directed change: What agency attempts to introduce what elements or modifications by means or channels into what socio-cultural and ecological system with what effects (including feedback effects)? Of course, this model requires an additional set of refinements--the matter of code. That is, how, at both explicit and implicit levels, does the change agency encode the proposed innovation? And how, at similar levels, does the recipient community and its various sectors decode 'it? How do the respective encodings and decodings correspond or fail to correspond with each other? The paper further elaborates the proposed paradigm. It also analyzes (and reanalyzes) case material on directed change in order to document the analytic and comparative utility of the paradigm.
BENNETTA JULES-ROSETTE (UC San Diego) COMMUNITY REVITALIZATION: THE RESPONSE TO PLANNED AND UNPLANNED URBAN CHANGE IN AN AFRICAN CITY This paper examines the perceptions of neighborhood change and the local initiatives made toward community reorganization by residents in an African periurban settlement. When familiar areas are threatened by external change, previously latent perceptions and sentiments of community emerge. The imposition of external plans stimulates community members to
conceive of neighborhoods in an ideological and nonspatial sense. Recently, the Marrapodi suburb of Lusaka, Zambia has been affected by three separate government relocation and development schemes. These external changes are the source of vocal responses and voluntary community resettlement.
There is a fundamental gap between the knowledge of planners and that of community members. The Lusaka planners' cost-effective models overlook cultural aspects of community life. In order for local level initiatives to develop in the context of planned change, three basic prerequisites are necessary: (1) access to adequate official planning information, (2) information presented in a clear and open format to community residents, (3) adequate cooperation between planners and community
residents such that grass-roots initiatives become acceptable. When these conditions are not met in the Harrapodi community, uncertainty about living conditions perpetuates local individualism and ineffective administrative planning. The recognition of neighborhood networks as an integral part of the community revitalization process in African squatter areas where residents are accustomed to influencing administrative policies is critical.
F.L.W. RICHARDSON, JR. (Virg) DONALD A. KENNEDY (Wyoming) ANTHROPOLOGISTS AS CONSULTANTS AND CHANGE AGENTS A number of anthropologists have explored ways to transfer knowledge, skills, and perspectives from anthropology into the mainstream of policy formation, decision-making, and implementation in organizations and communities. Anthropologists have assumed the roles of applied researcher, consultant, or administrator to accomplish this objective. The authors will present a number of case reports based upon experiences as consultants in a variety of organizations and community settings. Recommendations will be made on the essential features of the role of the anthropologist as consultant and as change agent.
W. GERALD CLOVER (Edison Corn C) INSTITUTIONALIZING SOCIAL CHANGE: A METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT The results of a field test of a systems model for innovation diffusion and institutionalization are presented. Transfer of control from feedback regulation to feedback management is demonstrated to be crucial to continuation of the innovation after the change agent has withdrawn. A quantitative index is obtained from diffusion networks to measure feedback control transfer from the change agent to the recipients. The model is purported to be useful in a variety of planned
social change programs.
ART HANSEN (Florida) A COMPARISON OF SPONTANEOUS AND) GOVERNMENT-DIRECTED SETTLEMENT OF ANGOLAN REFUGEES IN ZAMBIA Most African refugees settle spontaneously, i.e., without government direction or assistance. This form of settlement is interpreted by planners and refugee aid agencies in two diametrically opposed ways. One view is positive. It stresses the humanitarian and communal hospitality characteristic of rural Africa. The other, negative view, stresses ecological overload, economic competition and deprivation, and consequent ill effects on both refugees and the poorest laboring hosts. This paper compares the settlement of similar populations of Angolan refugees in Zambia, some spontaneously in villages, others in government camps and schemes. The comparison reveals patterns in both forms of settlement that should interest planners and administrators as well as scholars.
(313) PAPERS: SEX ROLES/WOMEN
KAREN L. BUEHLER (Naval Weapons Center China Lake, CA) THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN FEDERAL EMPLOYMENT: IDEALS ANT) REALITIES There are both subtle and obvious divergences between the ideal and the real status of women in American federal employment. Principles of equal opportunity for women and men, and of merit as the sole basis for employment advancement, are expounded in federal law. However, certain other policies as well as the socio-economic systems within the workforce often contradict or counteract these ideals and their attainment. From a somewhat inside point of view, ,this paper discusses both the overall government employment system and patticipant-observariona from a specific federal employment setting.
JAN DEMAREST (Colorado) ANNETTE ADLER (Colorado School of Mines) WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT IN ENERGY-RELATED INDUSTRIES: RESEARCH DESIGN AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT This presentation is -based on a joint research project in progress at the Colorado School of Mines and the University of Colorado at Boulder which proposes (1) to document the present status of women's employment in Colorado energy-related industries; (2) to assess the obstacles and supports to their entry into and retention and promotion within technical and professional occupations in these industries as well as in educational and training programs directed toward those occupations; and (3) to develop model support, education snd training programs within the energy-related industries themselves. Or. Jan Demarest and Annette Adler, project co-directors, will discuss
(1) the basic research design, which combines comprehensive survey techniques with intensive interview, organizational analysis and ethnographic approaches; and (2) the rationale for end basic principles of the model industry-based programs. The discussion of the research design and the model programs will include a critical analysis of similar projects designed to enhance women's employment in the fields of science and engineering, with attention to relevance of the present design and models to other industries and areas of the country which are experiencing rapid expansion in particular employment sectors.
ANITA SPRING (Florida) THE UNDERSIDE OF DEVELOPMENT: AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND WOMEN IN ZAMBIA This paper concerns a general discussion of women's participation in agriculture in traditional and contemporary Africa. Materials from the Luvale, a matrilineal group in northwest Zambia, and several other Zambian societies (Tongs, Bemba and Lozi) are presented in light of historical events, national development plans, and local conditions. The major thesis focuses on the underside of development, that is, the situation in which women work in subsistence agriculture to support male cash-cropping and labor migration, and national development plans by-pass women. As a result of this underdevelopment, work loads, incomes and family authority patterns become more differential between men and women. The paper suggests some strategies to change the situation at the local level. These include new models of intercropping and marketing.
SIMON D. MESSING (Sou Conn.St C) THE PROBLEM OF FEMALE CIRCUMCISION IN THE MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF AFRICA The recent publication of the Nosken Report indicates that female sexual mutilations still are practiced on many millions of African girls, and that modernization, far from ending the practice, has led to the performance of this totally useless and traumatic operation in modern, government-supervised hospitals in at least two countries.
The report challenges ethnographers to move beyond dispassioned description and rationalization to an application of the knowledge gained, to help solve this problem. Author will draw on his fieldwork experience in Ethiopia to suggest such applicet ions.
MELANIE C. DREHER (Columbia) HUSBANDS, WIVES AND HARIHUANA THE CARE OF THE JAMAICAN RURAL WOMAN The significance of domestic organization in determining patterns and prevalence of female cannabis consumption are explored through a comparison of families in two typical rural Jamaican communities, particular emphasis is given to variation in the roles and status of women in each community and the relevance of these factors for interpreting drug-related behavioral change. As a case of intra-cultural diversity, the ethnography of these women challenges popular, nations regarding normative and deviant behavior as explorations for female drug use.
PAMELA J. BRINK (UCLA) NEOBO: BECOMING A WOMAN AMONG THE ANNANG OF NIGERIA Nbobo is the traditional ritual required for Annang girls prior to marriage. It marks the transition between girlhood and woman hood. The old women state that girls will not conceive if they have not gone through Nbobo and that the ritual ensures fertility. Yet, with the encroachment of Christianity, fewer girls are going through the three traditional transitional rituals: NUAN, NGWOWO, MBOBO validated by the community health/maternity nurse assigned to the area.
Because these traditional rituals are dying out, this paper will describe the process and meaning of the rituals within the context of traditional Annang-Ibibin society.
ANNE-FORREST RETCHIN (Colorado-Boulder) SOCIAL CHANGE AND INDIVIDUAL DOUBLE-BINDS: ONE SOLUTION It is a well-worn platitude that no one can escape personal confrontation with the confusion produced by rapid changes in cultural values and expectations due to shift in roles and behaviour. However, there was one group of people who were considered to be largely removed from such a confrontation. This group was known as the happy and satisfied housewives, who were essentially pleased with their careers and wouldn't change if they could, at least not too much.
However, this group expressed confusion and uncertainty in the face of certain pressures arising from the public image of the Women's Liberation movement. Some have found a unique solution in the form of a wilderness experience: Outward Round courses for women over 30. This experience is carefully structured to affect the participant as a very primitive one, emotionally and physically challenging, although it is carefully geared to their physical abilities.
This paper reports on a study of these Outward Bound courses and participants
over a three year period. Participants ranged in age from 25 to 60, and in physical condition from athletic to extremely sedentary and somewhat overweight (the rule). The goal of the study has been the understanding of emotionally impactful symbolic experiences like Outward Bound for Women in today's world. Such experiences are widely available, in or out of the wilderness and they promise in their public image a personal discovery of peace and understanding amidst the confusion of modern life. Basic to their programs is the assumption that modern life IS confusing, disorienting, and often meaningless because of changes in expectations and values.
ORGANIZERS: TED DOWNING/SCOTT WHITEFORD (Arizona) EXPORT AGRICULTURE AND THE PEASANTRY Certain critical agricultural commodities imported into the United States and other developed nations are produced by either peasant agriculturalists or through the use of inexpensive, seasonal peasant labor. The commodities include green coffee, tea, winter fruits and vegetables, fresh bananas, plantains, cocoa beans, rubber, sisal, honey, beef, cotton, certain species and allied gums. Recent USDA data indicates that over 94% of the 7 billion dollars in complementary agricultural imports consumed by the United States originate in less developed countries. Export oriented agriculture, based on some combination of peasant labor, and land proves as critical to the United State's agricultural imports as OPEC is to U.S. petroleum imports. This symposium assesses the impact of international commodity trade on the growth or stagnation of selected regional peasant-based economies. Questions addressed include: What have been the specific historical patterns of penetration of international commodity markets into traditional peasant regions? What political, economic and ecological changes accompany a region's increased interlocking with a world commodity market? What contradictions occur between the demands for international commodity production and the provisioning of subsistence as it occurs in a traditional economy? What have been the different structural patterns of capitalistic organization of production that have occurred in regions more closely tied to world commodity production? A symposium sponsored by the Latin American Anthropological Group (LAAG)
WILLIAM DEENAN (Michigan St) COMMERCIALIZATION: A VIABLE STRATEGY FOR THE SAHEL The extension of market relations in the Sahel has been regarded as a possible alternative for those regions devastated by the drought and famine. Recent research suggests that such strategies will not succeed for a variety of political and economic reasons and will also conflict with recent development strategies focusing on
"aid to the poorest'.
TED DOWNING (Arizona) HEADS I WIN, TAILS YOU LOSE: PATTERNS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE CAPITALIST PENETRATION OF MEXICAN COFFEE PRODUCING REGIONS In contrast to the Yucatecan henequen plantations and large scale northern ranching, historically specific conditions in Mexico's southern tropical highlands impeded a capitalist penetration of traditional peasant and Indian economies. Populated by a multitude of ethnic groups living in thousands of remote communities, broken by dispersed and fragmented fields, and appropriated by a complex mix of private and communal land tenure, plantation development was almost impossible. Moreover, tropical soils rapidly lost their productivity if intensively cultivated with high valued, European oriented grains. Nonetheless, export oriented coffee agriculture has so effectively overcome these adverse circumstances that coffee is the nation's most valuable agricultural export. Until the Second World War, coffee development was stimulated primarily by the private sector. Then, a series of internal contradictions in this pattern encouraged increased involvement of the government in the agro-industry. This paper analyzes the patterns of private and public sector penetration of traditional economies in eight southern Mexico states. It is demonstrated that the public sector'a increased involvement in coffee production has structurally, spatially and temporally replicated the private sectors' previously established social relations of production. Exploitation and dependency of small scale, peasant-Indian producers accompany both private and public control of the industry. Heads they lose, tails
TON McGUIRE (Arizona) CAPITAL AND LABOR IN THE EXPORT ZONE OF SOUTHERN SONORA, MEXICO The Green Revolution has become institutionalized in the Yaqui Valley of Mexico, and the social costs of export agriculture are readily-apparent. Unemployment and underemployment of a rural proletariat are chronic problems in the capitalintensive agribusiness of the area; illegal renting of lands by peasants is perverring the social welfare schemes of Mexican development agencies; and the heavy demands for scarce capital, land, and technological inputs pit Yaqui Indians against Mexican campesinos. North of the Yaqui delta, capital has also revitalized an export-and tourist-oriented shrimping industry, and the social consequences of investment in modern craft and processing plants may soon replicate those of export agriculture along the Yaqui river. Yaqui Indian fishermen have largely avoided these social costs of capitalism. Their viable shrimp cooperative rests on a simple and inexpensive technology, exploiting an estuarine zone that is inaccessible to the Mexican trawler fleet operating in the open waters off Guaymas. Moreover, the seasonal catches of the Yaqui coincide with peak production of the Guaymas fishery, thus reducing the interest of Mexican processors and marketeers in controlling the distribution of Yaqui shrimp catches. This analysis of factors slowing capital penetration into the Yaqui shrimp industry bodes ill for small-boat fishermen in other ,littoral regions of Latin America, for the particular set of conditions at work in southern Sonora may be generally absent elsewhere.
ROBERT D. SHADOW (Montana St) CATTLE AN]) CAMPESINOS: THE IMPACT OF EXPANDED CATTLE
PRODUCTION ON PEASANT PRODUCERS IN NORTHERN JALISCO, MEXICO United States involvement in the Mexican economy is enormous. In trade alone the U.S. supplies approximately 75% of all Mexico's imports and receives a similar portion of her exports. Since imports consistently out-run exports, Mexico operates with a h-uge trade deficit. In recent years, however, it has managed to improve its trading relationship with the U.S. by boosting exports at a faster rate than imports. Much of this improvement resulted from Mexico's expanded industrial capacity, but agricultural commodities still account for a large share of the country's foreign exchange earnings.
Important among these commodities is beef. Mexico is, in fact, the largest single supplier of live cattle to the U.S. paralleling the rising beef exports has been a steady increase in domestic consumption. To meet these demands production in the Mexican cattle industry has expanded considerably. Unfortunately, however, the impact of this development on regional economies is little understood.
This paper considers this question through the investigation of the agrarian
economy of the municipin of Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. Analysis of production and marketing relations shows that although the exportation of cattle from the municipio is concentrated in the hands of a few landowners and capitalists, a substantial number of animals is produced on small and medium-size farms. This finding suggests that the popular description of peasants as producers who only marginally contribute to the export economy needs clarification. Considered individually, peasants do produce only small amounts f or the market; but when analyzed as an aggregate their contribution to total export production in Villa Guerrero is substantial. Furthermore, it will be shown that due to changing patterns of resource utilization arising from expanded cattle production, labor requirements in the municipal are diminishing and the nunicipio is increasingly unable to feed itself. out-migration and the importation of staple foods are the result. Since many of Mexico's major social and economic
ills are traceable in part to the massive exodus from the countryside and to the erratic ability of the country to feed itself, the Villa Guerrero material mirrors the contradictions that exist at the national level between the needs of local subsistence and economy and the demands of the export economy. Increased export production is considered a critical element in the country's economic development; yet at the same time it creates conditions that threaten the very structure and path of
TED DOWNING/SCOTT WHITEFORD (Mich State U) SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ARGENTINA AND MEXICO: TEE DYNAMICS OF GROWTH AND DOMINATION Mexico and Argentina have utilized different strategies to develop sugar production. This paper compares the strategies and their consequences for producers and laborers. Programs to maintain sugar production in both countries is shown to have political as well as economic dimensions. International agreements which include credit, a secure market for sugar, and the importation of equipment Is shown to play an important role in maintaining the production system.
CHAIR & MODERATOR: MIRIAM LEE KAPROW (Mt. Sinai Sch. of Med., CUNY) PRINCIPAL SPEAKER: IRVING J. SELIROFF, M.D. (Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, CUNY)
RESPONDENTS: ERVE J. CHAMBERS (So Florida) ELLIOTT LEYTON (Memorial U) JOHN H. PETERSON, JR. (Miss St U) ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH: PRACTICAL PROBLEM4S FOR ANTHROPOLOGISTS Industrialized societies try to control hazardous environmental agents rather than ban them. This is a deceptive and superficial "solution," for real control would mean a continuing commitment to long-term surveillance and rigorous regulation. Often, little but lip service follows decisions about control. We did not ban chemical wastes, asbestos, lead, PCBs, dioxins, and many other toxic substances; neither did we control them. As a consequence, we have legacies of disease from our years of inattention. In addition, these hazardous agents have
become integrated into our lives in product use: they are difficult to replace, and are not accompanied by true controls. Disease increases, use continues, safety management is meager, and congressional mandates sometimes read like Ring Canute dicta.
We are learning a bitter lesson: control of environmental hazards is not a
luxury we can choose or not choose while profits and conveniences accumulate. Control is an essential bargain we must make for progress in our technological society.
(401) SYMPOSIUM: ORGANIZER J. McGOODWIN (Colorado-Boulder) SMALL SCALE FISHERHEN: PROBLEMS IN MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT. PART II FOREIGN FISHERIES
BRADLEY A. BLAKE (New Mexico St U) THE IRISH NATIONAL FISHERIES TRAINING SCHOOL: STUDENT STRESS AND ANXIETY IN COUNTY DONEGAL Early in 1979, the Irish National Fisheries Training School located at Greencastle, County Donegal, experienced a major change in administration. Student trainees had received varied amounts of trawler experience with seasoned crew prior to entering the five-month academic training facility at Greencastle. However, at Greencastle students found themselves in a relatively isolated community environment, where the inhabitants resented their intrusion, and school authorities placed seemingly unreasonable restrictions on their academic and social activities.The combined variables of inclement weather, social and geographic isolation, limited mobility, intolerant staff, and a questionable training curriculum resulted in depression, loneliness, and stress and anxiety within the school.
An investigation of trainees, non-school related professionals (such as
skippers and crews), and trawlermen who had graduated from Greencastle, revealed an image of the school that lay somewhere between a "Country Club for Landlubbers", and a "Devil's Island Penal Colony." The consensus among professional fishermen was that the school's graduates would have to be retrained to handle the "real world" of maritime fishing.
The proposed paper will deal specifically with the dynamics of the Greencastle facility, and the use of applied anthropology as a supportive force in the development of a revised educational training scheme for Irish sea fisheries.
JAMES RUSSELL McGOODWIN (Colo/Boulder) MISMANAGEMENT AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF PACIFIC MEXICO'S SMALL SCALE FISHERMEN The management and development of smallscale fisherman may be confounded by a number of factors: (1) the linearity of coastlines; (2) the relatively small contribution of the fisheries--and small scale fishermen in particular--to national GNP'; (3) viewing small-scale fishermen as a pariah group--even in culturally homogeneous societies--by government agents charged with managing and developing them; (4) failure to differentiate between the management exigencies of inshore, small-scale fishermen, versus offshore, largescale industrialized fishermen, particularly in situations where these compete for the same, migratory resources; (5) national level fisheries policy which stresses the maximization of marine-resource exports to the detriment of small-scale fishermens subsistence and local/regional marketing systems; and (6) the seeming reluctance of agents, to spend sufficient time among small-scale fishermen such that the fishermens sociocultural patterns are understood in sufficient depth, so as to facilitate meaningful and beneficial management and development policies for them.
The foregoing problems are exemplified in the case of Pacific Mexico's rural, small-scale fishermen.
JOHN J. POGGIE, JR. )U Rhode Island) BELIEFS ABOUT BENEFITS OF FISHERMEN'S COOPERATIVES AND COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT IN COSTA RICA Although cooperatives have been perceived by change agents as ideal modes of organizing small-scale fishermen into more efficient and productive groupings, most attempts at cooperative development have failed dismally. Given the known importance of sociocultural factors in success and failure of development programs in general, greater understanding of these factors as they apply to small-scale cooperative development is needed.
This paper deals with inter-community patterns of beliefs about the benefits of cooperatives and relates these patterns to efforts in cooperative development on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The development policy implications of the empirical analyses are discussed.
RICHARD B. POLLNAC (U Rhode Island) FUTURE ORIENTATION AMONG THE SMALL-SCALE FISHERMEN OF THE NORTHWEST COAST OF COSTA RICA The paper examines temporal perspective and future investment orientations among small-scale fishermen on the Northwest coast of Costa Rica. An important component to be considered in any situation of techno-economic change is the temporal perspective of the population involved.
It is clear that participation in change programs will be enhanced if the participants are oriented toward the future as opposed to the present or the past. This is true because most development schemes do not pay off immediately--there is usually a delay between the acquisition of new technology and increased income or production. The analysis in the paper indicates that there is a relatively strong situational component influencing differential patterning of future orientations, suggesting that if development funds are invested in a region with the goal of sustained development through reinvestment of reasonable amounts of profit, then the situational determinants of future investment orientations are of utmost significance.
(402) PAPERS: CULTURAL/ETHNOGRAPHIC DIMENSIONS OF EDUCATION CHAIR: WALTER SMITH (Texas-San Antonio)
PETER VAN ARSDALE, EDITH KING (U Denver) TEACHING IN THE ETHNICALLY DIVERSE CLASSROOM: THE APPLICATION OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL MATERIALS The University of Denver was funded by the Office of Education, Ethnic Heritage Studies Programs for a teacher training project in 1979-80, titled "Coping With Ethnic Diversity in the Classroom". The specific thrust of this project is to help elementary and middle school teachers in working with children from a variety of ethnically diverse heritages, children speaking Vietnamese, Laotian, Cambodian, Korean, Mexican and Arabic as their first languages (Lau Categories A and B). An anthropological approach using perspectives and materials from applied educational anthropology forms an important component of this project. The presenters will discuss how anthropological materials on Indonesian refugees are utilized and implemented by the Denver Public Schools teachers involved in this project and how an anthropological perspective is interpreted and applied to a crucial new problem in American education.
WALTER E. SMITH (Texas San Antonio) BICULTURALISM: GRASS-ROOTS REALITY AND ALTERNATIVE CITIZENSHIP IDEOLOGY During the past two decades Biculturalism has emerged from its grass-roots historical origins to public advocacy as an alternative creed for ethnic relations in the U.S. and other nations. The creed (or practical ideology as defined by Mkalimoto, 1974; Bluhm, 1974; and Geertz, 1974) today is in the process of formation and clarification while competing with new versions of Americanization. Based upon the author's research in Texas (1969-79) and Guatemala (1967), and literature analysis from several nations, the position is developed that Biculturalism is a strategy for self-determined ethnic citizenship, not a substitute for primordial identity.
To promote further clarification (theoretical and applied), a working definition of dynamic Biculturalism is proposed and compared with the ideology of Cultural Pluralism. Two types of Biculturalism are identified: that of ethnic citizens only; and that among all citizens on a situational basis, with an introduction to Anglo Biculturalism. Dialogue questions are then raised regarding the role of publib schools in promoting Biculturalism. Following the Lambert (1979 SAAABE Conference, San Antonio, TX) thesis on bilingualism, it is suggested that Biculturalism be de-schooled.
ALICE E. CARTER (Pittsburgh) THE PROSPECTIVE INNER-CITY TEACHER AS ETHNOGRAPHER Teachers' insensitivity to cultural differences between ethnic groups can result in the failure of a student to reach his or her potential. Some teachers have little understanding of the needs and problems of ethnic groups. Many teachers have embraced the melting pot theory and have lost a strong association with their own cultural group making them less tolerant of ethnic loyalty in others.
However, within the same school system or under one board of education, individual schools and teachers within them have important freedom in varying instruction and materials to fit their pupils. Teacher education programs should emphasize this flexibility.
The author developed this point of view in a course for second semester juniors entitled Teaching in the Urban Setting. Built upon the assumption that prospective teachers can become their own ethnographers in a multi-cultural urban setting, the major assignments of the course stressed ethnographic observation of classrooms and the development of a resource unit for teaching about one ethnic group.
This paper deals with the author's experiences in developing this anthropological model for urban education conceived as multi-cultural rather than bi-racial education.
SHIRLEY ACHOR (E Texas St U) UNA BUENA MAESTRA/A GOOD TEACHER: A PRELIMINARY REPORT OF PARENTAL VIEWS IN A TEXAS SCHOOL DISTRICT This paper reports on research in progress among a sample of 160 Mexican American and Anglo mothers in an urban school district in Texas. The study examines parental perceptions of teacher role-behavior, and presents preliminary data on the criteria parents deem most crucial in evaluating teacher performance. One of the questions to be considered is whether Mexican American and Anglo mothers vary in their assessments of desirable characteristics of a "good teacher."
RONALD E. MERTZ (St. Louis Public Schools) BU-XI-BAN IN TAIWAN: A NECESSARY EVIL? Privately operated supplementary schools (bu-xi-ban) are widespread and prosperous in Taiwan despite efforts by the government to discourage their existence. Ranging in size from one teacher tutoring a handful of pupils in his home to large institutions attended by thousands of students, these "cram schools" flourish largely as a result of the exam system by which admission to high schools and colleges is determined. The current study based on recent field work examines the function of bu-xi-ban in the context of a socio-cultural system experiencing rapid technological change with concomitant rising expectations among its youth.
SORAYA NOLAND (Iowa St U) PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION IN RURAL IRAN This paper aims to discuss problems involved in secondary and adult education in rural Iran. Data for this paper were gathered during ethnographic fieldwork in 1974/75 in two agrarian communities northeast of Teheran.
Previously, education was the religious establishment's responsibility (Arasteh 1962 and Siddiq 1931). The 1920s secularization of education did not affect the above area until 1935. By 1975, the majority of the residents over the age of twenty were illiterate. But literacy rates among individuals below twenty had considerably increased mainly due to the introduction in 1968 of the educational corps. The corps being mainly women are responsible for elementary and adult education.
Secondary and adult education have been unsuccessful in the area. Several factors are suggested, the concept of honor and "keeping face" inhibits girls from pursuing secondary education (Peristiany 1966 and Eiler 1978). The shortage of labor prevents most men from continuing beyond elementary education. And the segregation of the sexes prevents adult males from receiving instruction from the female educators.
This study is significant since it demonstrates how cultural factors operate in the process of modern education in rural Iran.
NANCY MODIANO, L.M. MALDONADO & S. VILLASANA (SEP-DGEI, Mexico) PERCEPTION OF COLORED ILLUSTRATIONS BY NON-LITERATE CHILDREN The psychological and anthropological literature is rich in studies exploring the perception of black and white illustrations by non-literate peoples, but most studies are 15 to 40 years old. Current technology has so reduced the cost of color prints that even developing nations can seriously consider their use for inexpensive text books.
In order to determine whether color drawings or photos would be clearer to Mexican Indian first graders from isolated regions of the country, a study was carried out with 71 children of four language groups (Chinanteco, Huave, Mazateco and Mixe) in six regions of the state of Oaxaca. Results indicate no significant difference in the perception of the two types of illustrations, taken from existing, government-sponsored first grade texts, but the children failed to perceive an average of 20 per cent of the material.
(403) PANEL: RESEARCH IN PACIFIC/ASIAN AMERICAN COZMUITIES
ORGANIZER AND MODERATOR: RUSSELL EDO (Colorado-Boulder) This panel will examine some of the major issues concerning contemporary research in Asian and Pacific Islander communities in America. Each of the four panelists will make a brief opening statement after which there will be a general discussion. Laurence Aylesworth will discuss his recent study of Indochinese in Denver and its implications for service delivery efforts. Faye Munoz will review the research concerns of Pacific Island communities based on her work in Southern California. Tai Rang will examine the role of social scientists in the study of Asian Americans using research on elderly Asian immigrants as an example. Peter Park will discuss the role of researcher as a community organizer and draw on his work on Korean immigrants in rural New England.
LAURENCE AYLESWORTH (Indochinese Development Center, Denver) COMMUNITY RESEARCH AND ITS IMPACT ON EXISTING MENTAL HEALTH DELIVERY EFFORTS. During the Spring and Summer of 1979, a study was funded by H.E.W. and conducted cooperatively by the Linguistics Research Institute and the Indochinese Development Center of Colorado. In this study, a stratified sample of (217) Indochinese (Vietnamese, Laotian-N' Hong and Cambodian) were interviewed. Some of the implications which this study's findings had for modifying existing service delivery efforts with Indochinese will be discussed.
FAYE UNTALAN MUNOZ (Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education) RESEARCH ISSUES ON EMERGING PACIFIC ISLAND GROUPS Pacific Islanders, as U.S. Colonists, represent major issues and concerns with regards to anthropological and social research. Research purpose and objectives, and methodologies require understanding of changes and impact of research on the community to be studied. This paper will attempt to describe some of these issues of research particularly among islanders who are experiencing rapid changes and migration into the United States.
TAI RANG (SUNY-Buffalo) THE AGED ANONG RECENT ASIAN IMMIGRANTS Despite the recent rise of interest in the study of the aging, reliable data dealing with elderly Asian Americans are practically nonexistent. A handful of articles focus upon Japanese, Chinese, of Philipino Americans. No published research on the Korean American elderly can be found. The upsurge of aged Asian Americans warrants serious investigation into their social, economic, psychological, and physiological adjustments. The following questions need special attention:
1) ln what manner do they reorient and reorganize their roles within the family, within their ethnic groups, and in the majority society?
2) What are the more specific social psychological and behavioral correlates for the cultural shock they experienced? Do they retreat into the sanctuary of the family, or do they seek out and form subgroups of their own? What are the social and psychological profiles of those who have made successful adjustments in comparison to those who have not? For those who are less successful in their adjustments, what types of social, psychological, and psychosomatic physiological
problems do they encounter?
3) How are their experiences different from the problema encountered by the aged in other ethnic groups?
4) What types of services are provided for the elderly by the family, the
ethnic community, or majority society? What types of services are needed for them?
PETER PARK (Mass) THE RESEARCHER AS A COMMUNITY WORKER A social scientist of long established residence in this country is in a unique position to do valuable research on recent immigrants of the same ethnic background. In doing such research the social scientist can make use of the research facilities to help the new immigrants to organize themselves into a community and to deal with the larger society.
It is not only usually feasible but also morally incumbent on him/her to do so. This dual role of researcher/community worker violates the positivist canons of social science. But it, by the same token, provides an alternative paradigm with a promise of producing richer knowledge and humanizing the social science in general. I will illustrate this ides of social research with materials from my research among Korean immigrants in rural New England.
(404) PANEL PROJECT INREACH: INTERSPECIES COMMUNICATION HENRY M. TRUBY (Scientific Ratch, World Dolphin Found) BETSY SMITH (Florida International U) NANCY C. PHILLIPS (Idaho St U) The hypothesis of Project INREACH will be explained. There will be a presentation and discussion of the slide and video tape data.
H. TRUBY (Scientific Rsrch, World Dolphin Found) B. SMITH (Florida International U) N. PHILLIPS (Idaho St U) CAN ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS AND NEUROLOGICALLY
IMPAIRED CHILDREN COMMUNICATE? The working hypothesis for Project INREACH is that non-communicating children and highly intellectually specialized dolphins (also non-communicating insofar as interspecies communication with humans is concerned) may well find a common wavelength-one that might elicit unprecedented communicatory demonstrations in unusual children and/or elucidate the code sending and code receiving modi-operandi in dolphins. Also, that there is prospective therapeutic benefit to be derived for the neurologically impaired child from providing a tactual and oral-aural communicator' interrelationship between certain children and certain dolphins.
Project INREACH has used the facilities and dolphins of the Wometco Miami Seaquarium. The research to date has been made possible by the cooperation of the Seaquarium Director, Warren Zeiller.
(405) PAPERS CHAIR: WARREN HERN (Boulder Abortion Clinic) NATIVE AMERICAN HEALTH POLICIES AND SERVICES
ALAN; ACKERMAN (Colorado St U) CONVERTING STUDIES ON NATIVE AMERICANS INTO POLICY FOR NATIVE AMERICANS: A PROGRESS REPORT American Indian people are one of the most heavily-studied groups in the U.S. Recognizing that many of the studies would benefit tribal and federal programs which address the health needs of Indians, the National Indian Health Board and the Department of Food Science and Nutrition of Colorado State University are jointly conducting a regional and a national conference on nutrition and public policy for Native Americans. The purpose of these meetings is to assist in the conversion of nutrition studies on Indiana into policy guidelines for Indian people. We use a highly structured conference format, in which scientists who have done studies of Indian nutrition related problems meet with Indian decision makers. The regional meeting was held on January 14-16, 1980 in Flagstaff, Arizona. The guidelines produced at the meeting address the broad nutrition needs on Indian reservations in the Southwest. In order to help implement these suggestions, radio-style plays were produced to stimulate local discussion and movement toward implementation in diverse Indian communities. We will "broadcast" one issue tape to illustrate the method we used for local outreach and discuss the outcomes of the Flagstaff meeting in relation to current food policy in the U.S.
WARREN M. HERN (Boulder Abortion Clinic) NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN RESPONSE TO ABORTION SERVICES Traditional societies throughout the world have devised various means to control fertility prior to the introduction of modern methods. A fertility control method which has been used universally is abortion. There is some evidence that Native American cultures employed this method or at least have traditions which recognize its occurrence.
A case study of a Native American woman's response to induced abortion in an outpatient clinic setting is described. The ritual which she performed over the fetal remains is described along with an account of her interpretation of the ritual. This paper includes a brief description of the use of a private abortion service by Native American women from five western US states.
EDWARD R. GARRISON (Rayenta Research Associates Inc.) COORDINATING SOCIAL
SERVICES AND MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMS: A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT IN THE KAYENTA AREA, NAVAJO INDIAN RESERVATION Coordinating Social Services and Mental Health Programs: A Demonstration Project in the Kayenta area, Navajo Indian Reservation Under a new program initiative from the National Institute of Mental Health, a
"Most In Need" program is being implemented this year for children and youth in the Kayenta area of the Navajo Indian Reservation. One of eight such projects across the nation, the Kayenta project is being conducted by Kayenta Research Associaries, Inc., a local non-profit organization based in the Kayenta community. The project is designed to provide coordination and linkage among the existing programs and providers of services for those children and youth who are, according to the community's own criteria, "Most In Need." In the Kayenta area, this involves a state public school system, four federal BIA schools, both ETA and tribal social services programs, Indian Health Service mental health programs, reservation-based alcoholism and child development program, off-reservation referral services, and others. Even ministers and traditional medicine men and medicine women have been brought into the linkage network. As an applied community program to improve the delivery of services through better linkage, the project staff will present an analysis of the steps taken, problems encountered, and successes achieved within this Navajo community context.
MARTHA A. AUSTIN (Navajo Etho-Medical Navajo Community College) NAVAJO TRADITIONAL CHILDBIRTH AND SOME FORMS OF CULTURAL CONTRAST WITH BIRTHS IN THE TYPICAL HOSPITAL SETTING Navajo Traditional Childbirth and Some Forms of Cultural Contrast with Births in the Typical Hospital Setting The Navajo Ethno-Medical Encyclopedia Project is involved in the compilation and analysis of the entire body of traditional Navajo medical knowledge. Through intensive structured interviews with Navajo medicine men and medicine women, data is collected and then analysed by an all-Navajo staff, with the aid of a text-editing computer which stores transcribed interview material and analyses (only in Navajo). Of the projected ten-volume e ncyclopedia (each volume 500 to 700 pages in length), work is partially or fully completed on four volumes. The volume on Marriage, Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth is the first volume completed. Focusing on the process of Childbirth itself, this paper deals with the perceived advantages of traditional delivery in the hogan, which include a faster and easier birth, without drugs, in an upright position, with the strong social and ceremonial support of family, friends, and medicine man. Specific social activities, birth procedures, and ceremonial actions are compared in their social and psychological effects, both on the mother and on the infant, with the typical birth procedures and their effects as practiced in most hospitals. The social and medical relevance of anthropological research for suggesting changes in hospital procedures in caring for Navajo mothers is emphasized.
FAY C. COHEN, R. DALE WALKER (Washington) URBAN INDIAN ALCOHOL ABUSE AND TREATMENT OUTCOME: A REPORT ON CURRENT RESEARCH IN SEATTLE In""Red Tape-White Tape: Federal-Indian Funding Relationships" (Human Organization, Fall, 1979), Stephens and Agar detail key issues in federally-funded Indian drug abuse and alcoholism treatment programs, and offer a series of recommendations to ameliorate current problems. A major recommendation calls for the establishment of appropriate strategies for research on Indian programs.
This paper describes on-going research that directly addresses this recommendation. This study of urban Indian alcohol abuse and treatment outcome is being conducted by an interdisciplinary ream of Indian and non-Indian professionals (representing the fields of anthopology, nursing, psychiatry, and psychology) in cooperation with the Seattle Indian Alcoholism Treatment Program and the Seattle Indian Health Board. The paper outlines two pilot studies on client characteristics and follow-up methodology and a proposal for a larger longitudinal study now being considered by NIAAA; it provides an overview of research strategy, early findings, and future directions.
(406) PAPERS: ANTHROPOLOGY OF AGING
VIRGIL N. WOODWORTH (CSUgacramento) THE ISLAND: ANOTHER WAY TO RETIRE The backgrounds, pre-retirement and current interests and activities of an atypical retired population in an unusual setting are studied. The locale: An island in the Pacific Northwest--quiet, semi-rural, comparatively isolated, with a small town; not a planned, activity-centered retirement community. The retirees: Eighty-five percent from urban areas, high educational level, strangers to island living, only a few having friends or acquaintances on the island when they arrived. Subjective judgment after 108 interviews was that, as a group, they had adjusted well to their new environment and to an abundance of free time and were leading full and satisfying lives. Later scoring of Life Satisfaction Index questionnaires confirmed this judgment.
For the men, but not the women, there was a strong inverse correlation of Life Satisfaction with age; a strong negative correlation with number of years retired for the women, but not the men. No strong relationship was shown between Life Satisfaction and income, education, or health status for either the men or the women. Search for significant correlates continues; one is hypothesized.
GWENDIOLYN SAFIER (U San Francisco) ORAL LIFE HISTORY AND GERONTOLOGY This paper describes how University of San Francisco nursing students learn to take oral life histories of the elderly. The elderly are Native Americans from the InterTribal Friendship Centre in Oakland, California, Black Americans from the Over-60 Health Clinic in Berkeley, California, and Spanish Americana from the La Clinics de la Raza In Oakland, California. Selection of the interviewee, entry into the culture, establishing rapport, how to conduct the oral life history interview, and some of the qualitative findings will be presented.
There will be comparisons and contrasts to explore among the cultural groups, particularly, in how the individual experiences "being old" and the process of becoming old. Some of the ways in which oral life history can be utilized as a teaching tool, an ethnic identity tool, and a self-actualizing tool will be presented. There will be a discussion of the way in which the nursing students uttt1ized the tool of oral life history within one cultural group and among several diverse cultural groups.
NAL NELSON, BOB SOLEM (St. of Washington) FINANCIAL AND SOCIAL TRAD)EOFFS IN COMMUNITY-BASED ALTERNATIVE CARE FOR POTENTIAL NURSING HONE CLIENTS Rapid growth in the elderly population and spiraling inflation in nursing home care have made alternate care programs appear increasingly attractive. Nonetheless, few field tests of alternate care systems have been conducted. The Community-Based Care Project conducted a two-year demonstration in two small urban/rural sites. Special alternative care units were established to provide intensive case management and enriched supportive services to low-income functionally disabled adults at "high risk" of nursing home placement. A well-known multi-dimensional functional assessment instrument was used to determine level of risk and to assist in service plan development. System measures (including number and characteristics of persons served in the community; quantity and costs of social, income, and medical services provided each person; and trends in Medicaid nursing home usage) were monitored in these sites and in a demographically similar comparison site. Relative to the comparison community (and the state as a whole), a significant decline in Medicaid-supported nursing home usage and a concurrent dramatic increase in the number of persons served in the community were observed. This resulted in lower per capita costs but higher total costs. Implications for public policy will be discussed.
DIANE M. BRESCIA (McGill) THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURAL FACTORS AND HEALTH STATUS OF THE ELDERLY IN A MUNICIPALITY OF MONTREAL, QUEBEC Two hundred older Canadians, aged 65 and over, equally divided between French and English ethnic groups, and stratified by low and middle income levels were interviewed in a survey which inquired into their psychiatric and social problems. It was found that the French Canadian elderly had significantly more and graver health problems than the English Canadian elderly. Living conditions, such as comforts, economic security, and frequency of interpersonal contacts were similar for both groups, and the variables of age, sex and marital status did not explain the difference in health status between them.
Further interviewing and participant-observation was carried out with the respondents in order to find out what other factors contributed to this difference. The findings indicate that the French Canadians experience a greater conflict between traditional attitudes and more modern ones in relation to family life than do the English. The impact of social change on the French was also more dramatic than it was on the English. Alternative resources are also relatively closed to the French because they do not value them as much as the English elderly. Consequently, their range of coping behaviors is reduced, and their stress is greater.
GREGG SMITH REYNOLDS (U.C. San Francisco) COALITION FORMATION IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY Coalition formation in social exchange is one means available to social actors in the health domain for obtaining adequate health care delivery. Various concepts associated with social exchange theory are applied to the theory of coalition formation. Particular attention is given to the concepts of rationality and power as pivotal constructs for understanding coalition formation in health care delivery. The case history of "J", an elderly resident of the Tenderloin District of San Francisco will be presented along with an analysis of the coalition formation accompanying his case. The material dealing with "J" was gathered during fieldwork at a Senior Service Center in San Francisco's Tenderloin District. This presentation has relevance for issues in health care politics, aging, and mental health pertaining to health care delivery.
BARRY R. BAINTON (Arizona) DRINKING PATTERNS AMONG THE RURAL ELDERLY OF ARIZONA. II. ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS ABOUT ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM The attitudes of the rural elderly toward alcohol abuse and alcoholism are examined based on data from a recent survey of the rural elderly of Arizona. Attitudes toward the seriousness of alcohol related problems in the community are explored and beliefs about the nature of alcoholism are analyzed for the population as a whole. Subsequent analysis compare differences between the attitudes and beliefs of drinkers and nondrinklers. A comparison is made between the attitudes and beliefs the rural elderly and the national attitudes (Cahalan, Cisin and Crossley 1968) and urban attitudes (Cahalan and Treiman 1976). The major concerns about alcohol abuse in rural communities is drunk driving which poses a major threat to the elderly. The elderly share the public's ambivalent attitudes toward alcoholism viewing it both as a disease and character defect. These and other findings are discussed. Finally, problems associated with alcohol and the elderly are discussed.
ORGANIZER: J. BRYAN PACE (U Miami) FOP-MAL MODELS AND PRACTICAL QUESTIONS IN HEALTH RELATED URBAN RESEARCH Anthropological research in health related problems has depended on techniques for tracing networks of social relations to identify populations of specific study interest. Especially in urban settings, network tracing techniques have proven useful in contacting drug users, alcoholics, battered wives, and other individuals with specific health problems and studying their respective social environments. Despite their familiarity with the mechanics of network tracing, practitioners of these techniques have not explicitly addressed existing theoretical perspectives on networks forwarded by urban anthropologists who have concentrated on other applied problems, such as acculturation and ethnicity. This symposium proposes
a) to examine the causes of the lack of formal urban modeling in health related urban research, b) to bring together practitioners of urban network tracing and urban network theoreticians, c) to take the first steps toward a synthesis of urban network tracing practices and formal modeling of urban social relations.
J. BRYAN PACE (U Miami) STRUCTURAL FOUNDATIONS FOR URBAN NETWORK MODELING Anthropologists faced with problems in identifying social groupings among city inhabitants have devised theoretical models which in many of their variations are called networks. Network models generally are typological in nature, categorizing social interaction by physical settings, by ethnic proclivities, by social class, or by considerations of morphology such as density and anchorage. These typologies have been difficult to apply to practical problems of urban network tracing as practiced by drug use researchers and researchers in other health related questions. Already constructed typologies are often too cumbersome for use in field situations where preconstructed categories may not apply to observed data. A basic structural principle derived from the norm of reciprocity combined with a limited number of rule-constructing guidelines can be used to formulate network models of specific applicability. The advantage of these network models over typological models lies in their fundamental structural homology, the transformable dyadic paradigm. Research in Costa Rica and among Miami, Florida Cubans has provided basic data for the development of this modeling process.
P. CLECKNER (Miami) ETHNO-SOCIOLOGICAL MAPS AS AN INTERVIEWING TOOL The request
that an interviewee draw a diagram of his or her social environment often yields network-like configurations. These can be used as the basis for an ethnosociological interview which not only incorporates discussion of particular relationships but also exploration of the total "gestalt". The map can be treated as a projective device and approached in the same way that psychological projective tests are handled.
This technique was used in interviewing staff members of a battered women's
shelter. Analysis of the maps demonstrated the importance of informal ties and the isolation of the director from the staff as a whole as well as providing a vehicle for discussion of the isolation of the shelter from the community as a whole.
W. TRUE (St.Louis Hosp) NETWORK TRACING METHODOLOGY AND THE APIDEMIOLOGY OF POSTVIETNAM SYNDROME Use of network theory in health research is implied in work which demonstrates enhanced health outcomes where social support mechanisms complement care interventions. The existence of "social support structures," while lon known to anthropologists, suggest a sampling strategy relevant to health related, epidioniologically based, case-controlled studies.
The research design described here grows from a Veterans Administration effort to establish the extent and dimensions of the "post-Vietnam syndrome" (PVS), a poorly defined condition of apparently increasing incidence, whose symptomology includes generalized neurological symptoms, malaise, disruptive social relations, amotivation, and occasional bizarre behavior.
With the goal of inductively defining the syndrome and recruiting a matched sample of veterans with and without it, ten Vietnam veterans recently given civic recognition for contributions to community life as service men will serve as starting point for tracing Vietnam veteran networks. A number of self-described sufferers of "PVS" belong to the networks of these ten.
Overlap in the networks and their characteristics of range and density suggest the variety of post-Vietnam adjustment enjoyed by the initial ten. Retrospective data based on an interview guide will serve to establish correlates of the etiology and meanings and consequences of "FVS" in this case-controlled study group.
DAVID STRUG SOCIAL NETWORK AND PROBLEM DRINKING: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS The relevance of social network theory to the anthropological atudy of problem drinking ia the topic of thia presentation.
Member of problem drinkers' social networks exert either positive or negative influence on patients entering alcohol uae treatment. The structure of the patients' social support ayatema help to define thoae aystema' influence on alcohol treatment patients.
One of the two populations under study consists of problem drinkers who are
resident in an inpatient alcohol treatment facility. The second population consists of a similar group of males who have received either no treatment or minimal treatment for their drinking.
Social network analysis can be applied to the various "phase sequences of treatment" (identification, triage, entry, initial treatment, etc.). Application of network analysis to the study of untreated problem drinkers presents difficulties, especially in the areas of subject identification, assessment, and evaluation.
E. PREBLE (NY Sc~sych) EL BARRIO REVISITED Life history and field observation data were collected in the years 1965, 1966 during a study of heroin users in East Harlem (New York City). A central feature of the study was the rape recording and verbatim transcription of open-ended, loosely structured interviews in the community with each of 80 volunteer subjects. One-hour interviews were conducted privately with each subject by the present writer. Over 300 interviews were recorded, the range being from two to eight, with an average of four for each subject.
The study community, known as El Barrio, is approximately one square mile in area, with a population of 42,000. The ethnic distribution is: Puerto Rican (45%), black (35%), white (20%). It is one of the lowest socioeconomically ranked communities in New York City.
During the past two years (1978, 1979) the writer has conducted a similar study of drug use in the same community, 13 years having elapsed since the end of the first study. One feature of the current work is-an investigation of the lives of the
-original 80 subjects from 1967 to 1980. Direct, and reliable indirect information on 77 of the subjects has been collected, and is summarized in this presentation. The high data recovery percentage and the detailed intimacy of the data are due to the strength and longevity of the network of social relations--if not of the individual-subjects, 20 of whom have died -- in this community in general, and of the drug-using subculture in particular.-(0)SYMPOSIblf
ORGANIZER: -PAUL ESPINOSA (Stanford) ETHNOGRAPHIC APPROACHES TO THE TELE-HEDIATEO TEXT AND MASS MEDIA This symposium will consider a variety of ethnographic approaches to the use of video tape and television in the study of human behavior. Whether their interests are at the macro or micro levels, researchers have found the tele-mediated text to be a useful tool of analysis. The ability to create a social "text" amenable to analysis through video technology has allowed researchers to pursue new problems and approaches in a number of ethnographic settings. The presentations in this symposium include the analysis of classroom settings in the pa-pers by Carrasco, Mitchell, and Moll, a therapy session in the paper by Lopes, and commercial television production in the paper by Espinosa.
PAUL ESPINOSA (Stanford) ETHNOGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE STUDY OF TEXT BUILDING IN A HOLLYWOOD TELEVISION SERIES Ethnographic fieldwork carried out at a major television production studio in Hollywood, California, serves as the focal point for a discussion of problems encountered in pursuing ethnographic work in this field setting. This paper will consider some of the similarities and differences between such fieldwork and more conventional ethnographic study, especially with regard to the following topics: (1) gaining entry to a restrictive community; (2) problems of developing ethnographic rapport in a busy, professional environment, and (3) data collection difficulties where data is extremely well guarded. Finally this paper examines the appropriateness of the ethnographic approach in the study television text building.
JACQUELYN MITCHELL (UC San Diego) THE READING LESSON: INTERACTION BETWEEN A REFERRED CHILD AND THE TEACHER Students who were referred to the school administration for educational and behavioral reasons were videotaped as they interacted with teachers in the classroom, school psychologists in testing situations and in placement meetings. After students were referred to the school psychologists, ethnographic observations and videotapes of representative classroom events were made. This paper examines the organization of teacher-student interaction during a reading lessor and the patterns of participation that occur within the event. The teacher's behavior with the reading group as a whole and with the referred child within the group will be compared.
LAWRENCE LOPES (UG San Diego) A TWO TIERED ETHNOGRAP'HY OF A COUPLE IN THERAPY: "I'M SORRY I HAVE TO PUT IT THAT WAY," RUT IT'S THE ONLY WAY HE CAN. This paper reports on a two tiered ethnography of a couple in a one hour therapy session, an ethnography which stems from the videotape analysis of the therapy session. At one level, the ethnographic task is for the therapist to locate the social organization assembled by the couple and therapist to locate the social organization assembled by the couple and constraining the couple's interaction, particularly the unconscious actions producing their patterns of behavior. In addition, this work represents an accumulation of information over time (often in the back of the ethnographer's mind) about the couple's life together, information necessary to understand their world, to participate in their world, and hopefully to have some therapeutic impact on that world. As Sapir stated years ago, psychiatry demands an ethnographic approach. So every therapist must be his own ethnographer.
At a second level, the analysis presents a description of the couple and the therapist as they interact to generate the social organization of the therapy hour. At this level, the ethnographic task of the anthropologist, in this case with the aid of video tape, is to locate the unconsciots patterns of interaction between the couple and the therapist, the patterns that help maintain the social organization of the therapy session itself. The use of video tape has had a number of advantages for this analysis. First it has provided a data base that is retrievable as well as one that preserves events in the social context in which they occurred. Thus the tape served as an external memory that allowed the extensive and repeated examination of interactions. Second, it provides a record that is complete and available for examination by others. Third, the use of videotape has provided a way of documenting subtle changes in verbal, paralinguistic, and kinesic behavior. It would have been impossible to identify, let alone analyze, these changes without the aid of video tape.
ROBERT L. CARRASGO (Harvard) SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION OF INTERACTION OF CLASSROOMS OF BILINGUAL CHILDREN This paper presents an innovative method for the coding of social interaction recorded on video tape. This example of micro ethography breaks down video tape through a system developed by Erikson and Schultz. The research is conducted in Chicago.
LUIS MOLL (UC-San Diego) BILINGUAL EDUCATION IN A CLASSROOM SETTING Ethnographic fieldwork in a San Diego bilingual education classroom serves as the base for a study of social interaction and linguistic code switching. Micro-ethnography of one of the oldest and more established bilingual programs in the US is conducted through the use of video tape protocalls.
(500) HOW TO FIND AND OBTAIN A JOB WITH THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT--A WORSHOP FOR
BOB WULFF (MUD), HAL VREELAND (NINH) The workshop is a full day course designed to educate the participants about Federal employment opportunities for anthropologists and to train anthropologists to effectively market their skills/experience to obtain a Civil Service rating and a Federal job. The course is basic but not general. The focus is on practical advice, facts, and "hands-on" training. The following is a partial list of topics: pros/cons of Federal employment; types of appointments; selecting a federal occupation (emphasizing how to match-up typical anthropological interests/education with Federal occupation codes); dealing with the U.S. Office of Personnel Management; preparing the Federal employment application form (item-by-item instruction emphasizing translating typical anthropological experience/training into categories/concepts acceptable to prospective Federal employers); deciphering agency vacancy announcement; locating job openings; and making application for a specific Federal job. These topics will be discussed in reference to mid- and senior level jobs: GS 9 ($17,035) to GS 15 ($50,100). The Workshop is designed for anthropologists with an MA or PhD about to enter the job market for the first time or considering a mid-career change. It will be presented under the auspices of the Washington Association of Professional Anthropologists. Workshop faculty are two anthropologists currently in senior level career positions with the Federal government; Bob Wulff (HUD) and Hal Vreeland (MIMH). Attendance is by advance registration only. The registration fee is $25.00.
(501) EDUCATIONAL ISSUES IN MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
STEPHEN L. SCHENSUL (Conn) THE AREA HEALTH EDUCATION CENTER PROGRAM: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH TO A MEDICALLY UNDERSERVED AREA In October, 1978, the University of Connecticut School of Medicine began the Area Health Education Center (ANEC) Program focussed on inner city Hartford, Connecticut. The overall goal of this five year $4.3 million HEW funded Program is to "...improve the distribution, supply, quality, utilization and efficiency of health manpower.., by linking the academic resources of the University... with local educational and clinical resources." This partnership of the University and the community is directed toward three kinds of education programs: continuing education of health personnel in Hartford, to increase their knowledge and skills in urban health, health professions education to attract students to fonder city health care and health education and community mobilization for health to increase the role of the patient and
the lay community in the health process. Anthropologists have played an important role in the design and development of this Program. The Program utilizes cross cultural and community priciples and anthropological research data in the organization of educational activities within Black and Hispanic communities of Hartford. In this paper, the AJIEC Program director will describe the Program activities and their implications for applied anthropological research and intervention programs in health.
DAN HUNT, BARBARA NEWMAN, FRITZ HAFER (Idaho St. U.) HUMANITIES COURSES IN HEALTH STUDIES Health-related curricula in the U.S. and abroad have been criticized for placing too much emphasis on the technical aspects of scientific medicine and too little on holistic variables of health care. This paper examines the status quo of this controversy, including recent attempts to introduce sociology into the curricula. We hypothesize
that a humanistic liberal arts education for undergraduates corresponds more closely with holistic health attitudes and propose to test this hypothesis on approximately 200 undergraduates at Idaho State University. We plan additional work at two nearby medical schools.
MARILYN M. WELLS (Mid. Tenn. St. U.) IMPROVED HEALTH CARE THROUGH EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY IN MEXICO The writer was asked to identify ways health-care delivery might be improved in a church-sponsored clinic (Mixtepec, Oaxaca). Paramedicals in the clinic listed four problems which limit their effectiveness: 1) long distances between the patient's home and the clinic, 2) competition from traditional cures, 3) patient's failure to follow prescribed treatment, and 4) lack of sanitary practices. Outpatient visits were recorded for age, sex, and presenting symptoms; diagnosis and treatment were observed; outpatient/paramedical intereaction was monitored; the paramedicals were interviewed; and the belief systems of paramedicals and patients were investigated. Suggestions for improving health-care delivery were developed. This included sessions in which patients, traditional curers, and paramedicals exchanged viewpoints.
MARTHA SKONER (American Nurses Association) NATIONAL SURVEY RESULTS OF NURSES WITH DOCTORAL DEGREES This paper reports preliminary results of a National Survey of nurses with doctoral degrees, which was conducted in the fall of 1979. The survey was intended to: obtain data for a directory of nurses with doctorates; describe the professional characteristics of the nurse-doctorate population; and identify factors associated with professional productivity for doctorally prepared nurses. The paper presents descriptive data about sociodemographic and professional characteristics of the nurse-doctorate population in the United States, including geographic distribution, educational background, employment setting and professional activities.
(502) ETHNICITY AND INDIGENOUS HEALERS
PAUL F. BROWN (Michigan St. U.) HEALTH CARE DELIVERY IN THE PERUVIAN ANDES: THE INTERFACE BETWEEN INDIGENOUS AND WESTERN MEDICINE Attempts on the part of the Peruvian government and various missionary groups to introduce western health care to the Aymara Indians of Southern Peru have met with little success. Rural clinics have been built and local health promoters have been trained to serve the health needs of the Aymara, but even in the more acculturatedAymara communities, over 70 percent of the people seek treatment exclusively from indigenous practitioners. The low frequency of use of western medical programs is explained by two factors: 1) the structure of western health care delivery in the Aymara area, and 2) Aymara concepts of disease etiology and treatment. While the Aymara recognize the efficacy of western medicine, they perceive its usefulness as limited to the treatment of minor ailments only. According to Aymara etiology, all serious and chronic illnesses are caused by spirits which inhabit the countryside. These illnesses must be treated by a yatiri (a shaman), who alone has the ability to identify the specific spirit agent, and perform the proper ceremony to coax the spirit to remove the disease. Thus, western health practitioners can treat minor ailments, but they lack the powers to diagnose and prescribe treatment for major, supernaturally caused illnesses. Health care programs which incorporate Aymara disease concepts and treatment, and encourage the participation of indigenous practitioners are suggested.
THOMAS WEAVER (Arizona) BECOMING A CURANDERA The paper is a synopsis of the career development of five curanderas from data gathered in life histories in New Mexico Hispano villages. The life history material is placed within the general context of health beliefs and actions.
DENNIS A FRATE (Rockford School of Medicine) INDIGENOUS HEALTH PRACTITIONERS AND PHYSICIAN EXTENDERS: THE ROLE OF THE BLACK MIDWIFE IN RURAL MISSISSIPPI Numerous states have recently passed laws legitimizing the roles of a variety of physician extender types including nurse practitioners and physician assistants. Although considered an innovative health provider role, similar models have existed for years in areas deficient in medical manpower; one such area is rural Mississippi. The role of the black midwife in Holmes County, Mississippi was not tied solely to obstretric care as they also provide primary care services to the majority of the rural population, both black and white. Specifically, their role as frontline diagnosticians and referral agents helps to explain why although Holmes County-experienced a severe shortage of medical manpower (1 physician per 4,160 residents) utilization of services was higher than the national average (4.5 to
3.5). Legislation requiring certification ignored these indigenous health providers and as a consequence disrupted the locally patterned medical care delivery system. This experience gives evidence that new health legislation and delivery programs would prove more effective and at a minimum less disruptive if the existing medical care system, both traditional and nontraditional, were carefully examined and possibly incorporated into the new model being introduced.
ANN KUCKELMAN COBB (Kansas) LAY MIDWIFERY: MEDICAL PLURALISM IN THE UNITED STATES AND PORTUGAL The United States is witnessing the resurgence of the practice of lay midwifery, partially in response to social movements which support "natural" lifestyles and argue against excessive use of technology in childbirth. In parts of rural Portugal, however, lay midwifery is practiced primarily in response to extremely limited health care resources. Both countries also have professional nurse-midwives whose ideology derives from cosmopolitan medicine and whose practice is in close adherence to scientific principles. A four-way comparison among these roles will be made, using corporation theory and the concept of medical pluralism as the theoretical framework. Consequences for mothers and children will also be discussed.
PERTTI J. PELTO (Con) ETHNICITY AND HEALTH CARE: A GENERAL MODEL "Ethnicity" more than any other concept has been a hallmark of the anthropological contribution to the understanding of health care issues. While ethnicity is not by any means the only issue that medical anthropologists address, other medical professionals very frequently expect anthropologists to provide "expert information" on "ethnicity" in the multi-disciplinary health care scene. Ethnicity as a key variable is deceptively simple, and masks situations and interactions of great complexity. Our immediate task is to sort out the different aspects and manifestations of "ethnicity" and ethnic health culture at various stages of the health care process. This paper will present a general model for analysis of "ethnicity" in relation to different contemporary health care contexts. Data from recent research among Puerto Ricans, Blacks and other urban and rural populations will be used to illustrate the main features of the model.
SUSAN C. WELLER (UC-Irvine), JULIE CLAVIS (INCAP) NEW DATA ON INTRA-CCLTURAL VARIABILITY: THE HOT-COLD CLASSIFICATION OF ILLNESS In a recent article, Foster (1979) pointed out the importance of intra-cultural variability. Specifically, he used the hot-cold distinction among illnesses as an example. The hot-cold dichotomy is an important and strategic issue to examine, since it has been widely treated in the literature (Cosminsky, 1977; Foster, 1979; Harwood, 1971; Logan, 1973; and Young, 1978) and lends itself to fairly precise measurement. In this paper we measure intra-cultural variation on the hotcold dimension in two Guatemalan towns, one urban and one rural. In the urban setting we obtained a rank order of 27 illnesses by 24 informants on the hot-cold concept. In the rural setting we obtained hot-cold dichotomous judgments on each of 21 illnesses by 29
informants. The amount of variability on the hot-cold dimension was analysed for both the rural and urban settings. For the urban sample, variability on the hot-cold concept was much higher thsn it was for the concepts of contagion and severity. These findings are compared to previous work and implications are discussed.
(503) CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
MICHAEL MICKLIN (Battelle NHusan Affairs Research Centers) YOUTH ANT) MODERNIZATION: NEGLECTED ANTHROPOLOGICAL ISSUES The objective of this paper is to develop a line of inquiry that has been relatively neglected by anthropologists working in the developing world: the relationship between modernization and youth culture. A conceptual framework is presented that relates demographic composition, structural changes in the family and the labor force, and processes of youth socialization. Central to this argument is the concept of "boundary systems" developed by Tehudi Cohen. Modernization results in increasing structural differentiation within the family and the labor force and alters drastically the mechanisms of youth socialization. Consequently, a youth culture has emerged similar to that observed in the more industrialized societies. The utility of this perspective is illustrated with two substantive issues of youth socialization: family formation and preparation for the labor force. Several issues for anthropological research are presented, with emphasis placed on implications for the development of youth policy in the developing world.
TIMOTHY READY (Children's Heart Program of S. Texas) THE DETERMINANTS OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH OF ADOLESCENTS IN CORPUS CHTRISTI, TEXAS In recent years, health scientists have emphasized the need to prevent cardiovascular diseases during youth, before deleterious health habits have become firmly established, and arteriosclerotic deterioration of the arteries becomes irreversible. If this is to be accomplished, the extent and distribution of cardiovascular risk factors among the various segments of a given community must first be assessed, along with their social, cultural and economic determinants. Experience has demonstrated over the past two years that anthropology can significantly contribute to this task. Reasearch has been conducted among MexicanAmerican, Anglo and Black adolescents in Corpus Christi and surrounding Nueces County, Texas. Results of the research indicate that efforts at primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases during adolescence may have some success. The effectiveness of these efforts will be limited, however, due to the overriding importance of cultural, social and economic features characteristic of the United States in general, as well as the sub-cultures of the youth of Corpus Christi in particular.
ANN FLEURET (NSF), PATRICK FLEURET (USAID) EVALUATING YOUNG CHILD CLINICS IN DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES "Young child" or "under-fives" clinics which provide nutrition education, nutritional surveillance and curative and preventive medical care are common features of health services in developing countries. This paper will provide data evaluating such facilities from the published literature and will provide a case study of young child clinics in Lushoto District, Tanzania. The study will show that while there are features that are common to user acceptance/rejection in different countries, attitudes toward young child health services are particularly sensitive to cultural variations in disease concepts, food preferences, health practice, and supernatural beliefs. Yet this is an old lesson--one that Foster, Paul, Niehoff and others identified long ago. The question arises, what is it about planned development that makes it so difficult for project designers and implementers to recognize, assimilate, and put to use the wealth of information now available about local-level response to health development initiatives. A
number of explanatory factors are identified, including information flow within bureaucracies, constraints on the ability of development managers to "teat reality", and the political relationships between development agencies and host country governments.
JEANNE GUILLE14IN (Boston College) MEDICAL DECISION MAKING IN THE TREATMENT OP HIGH-RISE INFANTS: A COMPARATIVE FIELD WORK STUDY The sophistication of Western technology presents new options for sustaining life beyond the patient's ultimate capacity for consciousness and human interaction. In cases such as those of Karen Quinlan and Joseph Saikewicz, the moral and legal implications of difficult prolongation-of-life decisions received extensive discussion by ethicists and lawyers. Among social scientsists, Crane (1975) has proposed that technical progress requires physicians to give increasing weight to the social viability of the critically ill patient as opposed to strictly clinical evidence. This paper is a preliminary report on a particular age category of the criticcally ill, newborns at high risk because of prematurity, congenital problems or disease. Field work investigations were carried out in the special care nurseries of two large Eastern hospitals. The basic question posed by the research is the extent to which quality-of-life factors, as interpreted by medical staff, do determine patient treatment. Because emphasis is put on the social context for medical decision making, the type of institution, the organization of staff responsibilities and the behavior of parents emerge as the most important predictors of patient care and the level of aggressive intervention deemed appropriate.
PHILIP SINGER (Oakland U) PHENYLKETONIIRIA IN ARAB AN]) JEWISH CHILDREN IN ISRAEL DURING 1978-79 The problem was why Arab families do not follow the necessary low phenylalanine diet which prevents irreversible mental retardation in this genetic disease. The findings were that the obstacles were both cultural and inter-communicational (Jewish medical personnel, Arab patients).
(504) ANTHROPOLOGICAL ISSUES IN REPRODUCTION
KEVIN R. O'REILLY (Conn) USE AND) AVOIDANCE OF CONTRACEPTION IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND Fieldwork was conducted in Dublin, Ireland during 1978 and 1979 to investigate the usage of contraception by Irish women of childbearing age. Ireland has long been known for its restrictive legal as well as cultural atmosphere regarding the usage of artificial contraception. The presence of family planning clinics in Dublin as well as other Irish cities poses interesting questions about who utilizes these clinics in light of the restrictive environment. Two samples of women were interviewed. One was a randomly drawn sample of the general population around Dublin (a sample of 75) and the other a sample of 100 patients at two of Dublin's family planning clinics (one a primarily working-class clinic, the other primarily middle-class). Comparisons are made between the two samples, as well as between the clientele of the two different dlines. The groups are examined for variation in a range of sociocultural as well as economic factors in relation to their usage or avoidance of contraception as well as their opinions about individual methods. Multivariate analysis are used in the analysis of the data, which is both quantitative and qualitative in nature.
W. PENN HANDWERKER (Humboldt St. U) EXPLAINING REPRODUCTIVE VARIATION This paper addresses the issue of how and when we may be able to explain reproductive variation in such a way as to successfully predict a demographic transition. The principal current explanatory strategies are critically evaluated. A consideration of human biological and cultural characteristics leads to the following conclusions: when we focus on the sociocultural determinants of reproduction to the exclusion of infectious disease and nutrition 1) we will never be able to predict a demographic transition with much accuracy, 2) even after the fact we will never be able to explain much variance in reproductive patterns, but 3) we will be (are) able to successfully predict where and when differences in reproductive patterns are to he found.
ROCHELLE N. SHAIN (Texas-San Antonio) THE IMPACT OF REVERSIBILITY ON SELECTION OF TUBAL STERILIZATION Despite continuing interest in development of reversible sterilization, baseline data regarding how much more acceptable reversible procedures would be than currently available methods have not been available. This study provides such data from 1074 randomly selected obstretric/gynecology patients of reproductive age in metropolitan San Antonio. Basit socio-demographic data and attitudinal information with respect to both permanent and hypotehtically reversible tubal ligation were elicited via a selfadministered questionnaire. Responses toward permanent and reversible sterilization were compaired and analyzed for statistically significant differences. Results indicate that approval of, serious consideration of, intent to eventually undergo, and immediate demand for tubal sterilization would be increased 25%, 95%, 178% and 163% respectively, if reversible procedures were available. All increases are statistically significant at P .001. These data, confirming pilot study results reported a year ago, indicate that the option of reversibility is exceedingly important to potential candidates for sterilization and its availability would significantly increase the acceptibility of femal surgical sterilization as an alternative method of contraception.
MAUREEN J. GIOVANNINI (Boston U) SOCIAL NETWORKS AND CHILDBIRTH IN WORKING-CLASS AMERICAN FAMILIES Using the concepts of social network and life crisis this paper analyzes the cultural management of childbirth in working-class urban-based North American families. The paper argues that childbirth is neither an illness nor a normal routine event. Rather, as a life crisis, childbirth is an important critical episode in the life cycle of a woman and her "significant others" which marks the transition from one set of roles to another. As in most life crises the individuals involved in childbirth often require emotional support, information, and instrumental assistance to aid them in the adjustment process. Drawing upon twenty-two case studies--working-class families that had recently undergone the childbirth experience--the paper discusses the familial and friendship networks characterizing these families. It then goes on to delineate the support roles--emotional, instrumental, informational--that network members assumed during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and the post-partum period. The existence of social supports as well as the kinds of supports available are related to the overall adjustment to childbirth as reported by the twenty-two families. The paper concludes by suggesting appropriate support roles which holistically oriented health care workers can assume during the life crisis of childbirth when familial and friendship supports are minimal.
GLENDA TRAVIS (CSU Sacramento) CONTRACEPTIVE CHANGES IN ITALY Italian family legislation has undergone significant innovations in the past decade, attempting to reduce the disparity between the law and existing social structure. The legalization of abortion and counseling services to provide birth control information has reinforced certain principles in the culture, while neglecting their implementation. This neglect has limited women's ac ess to abortion which has been the traditional system of birth control in Italy. Th s paper will discuss the incongruities between the real changes and ideal legal reforms in these contraceptive practices.
JOY P. CLAUSEN (Duke) PICA DURING PREGNANCY: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE The term pica is used for those food cravings that are compulsive in nature, and has been traditionally associated with eating habits of women during pregnancy. How widespread this phenomena is is not definitely known, but it is found frequently among the blacks, American Indians, and Spanish Americans throughout the United States. Pica has been the focus of study by the writer, a nurse-anthropologist, during the past 18 months while residing in North Carolina. Nearly 100 women have been interviewed about the practice of pica during pregnancy, and a variety of food and non-food stuffs are being eaten by this population as revealed by these women. The analysis of data collected to date will focus on whether pica is exclusive to pregnancy as it has been previously thought, and implications of pica for the nutritional well-being of women during the pregnancy cycle.
(505) SYMPOSIUM ORGANIZERS: DIMITRI B. SHIMKIN/SOL TAX APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY FOR THE
FUTURE: CONCEPTS AND PROMISING AREAS OF EFFORT
DIMITRI B. SHIMKIN (Illinois), SOL TAX (Chicago) APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY FOR THE FUTURE: AN OVERVIEW Since its inception in 1976, the project on Anthropology For the Future has sought to develop cooperative efforts by anthropologists, nationally and internationally, to identify the key intellectual tasks and practical contributions challenging our discipline in coming years. A successful conference at Houston, Texas in 1977 yielded valuable results from the efforts of some 70 American anthropologists. This was followed by a somewhat less productive input into the Xth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences in Delhi, India in 1978. Out of that Congress grew a commitment by SfAA to explore the feasibility and desirability of developing studies--"modules"--that would eventually yield a widely useful compendium on Applied Anthropology For the Future. We are convinced that in this period of serious international disarray it is precisely correct to examine what our discipline can do in applied fields, and how our applications can best be communicated and accepted internationally. In particular, we need to visualize how best the needs and initiatives of less industrialized countries can be met in this process. In past months, our Committee has been forming initial approaches to the issues we have raised. We came to the conclusion that a selective rather than aencyclopedic approach would be most fruitful. In this selection, we felt that five aspects would bring out relevant issues, concepts, and illustrative materials most effectively: 1) Developing local institutiens:administration vs political action. This deals with a central dilemma, application from above or from below. 2) Clinical anthropology--an emerging vocation? What are the possibilities and problems in the shift from an academic to a therapeutic orientation? 3) New methods in applied anthropology. How can new data gathering and analytical tools aid in applied efforts? 4) Documentation and data management in applied anthropology. How can our efforts become cumulative, how can our scattered experiences and findings be made accessible in making applied anthropology more useful and reliable? What risks exist in so doing? 5) Apllied anthropology by whom? Client groups, power systems, and anthropological roles. The ultimate questions: who is benefited, who controls, how can ethical acceptability and practicability be satisfied? In our deliberations, we know that we will be merely laying out major problems. We hope that what we do, however, will stimulate a continuing, joint effort, internationally, including collegues from less industrialized nations.
BARRY R. BAINTON (Arizona), WILLIAM MILLSAP (Southwest Texas St. U.) DEVELOPING LOCAL INSTITUTIONS: ADMINISTRATION IN POLITICAL ACTION Lucian Pye writing in 1963 observed that a major problem in third world development arises from the gap between the political development of new nations and the administrative structures required in nation building. While his remarks were addressed to the problems of the newly decolonized nations of Africa and Asia, his observations are equally applicable today to the federal colonization of local communities in the United States. In this paper we will examine the political and administrative problems facing the development of local institutions both in the United States and the third world. By local institutions, we mean legal constituted agencies for social action. Such agencies, either as creatures of the state or beneficiaries of state sponsored programs of social action, are caught between the public demand for services and the need to account for their actions to political and administrative structures which hold absolute power over the agency's future. Planning and program evaluation are major techniques available to local institutions to balance the competing demand placed on them. The authors will explore the political, administrative and interactive systems of local institutions. From this exploration, a set of principles will be derived and their implications for applied anthropology discussed.
PEGGY GOLDEN (Illinois), SUE ELLEN JACOBS (Washington) CLINICAL ANTFROPOLOGY: A PROPOSED DELINEATION OF A SUBFIELD Historically, seminal contributions to this inchoate specialty begin with a paper by Clyde Kluckhohn on the influence of psychiatry in America and end with Robert A. LeVine's Culture, Behavior and Personality (1943). My personal training and experience relevant to the case history will be described. A single definition to
encompass all clinical anthropology is premature; however commonn core elements include 1) Clinical practice from a psychological and individual frame of reference 2) Clients from other culture 3) Subscribing to immediate intervention on ways of thinking currently revealed by clients 4) Research endeavors likely to be "culture and personality" 5) Training of future clinical anthropologists to include experienced practitioners supervising performance. The role of consultant will be presented as employment example. A lawyer from another state requested diagnostic evaluation of a mother's year-long grief over the death of her three-year old son. The lawyer's question: was her prolonged grief culturally determined or individual pathology? Diagnosis required anthropological techniques of observation aod interviewing. The consultant spent one weekend with the client and her Mexican-born husband in their home (several hours by plane from California), and another weekend with her parents and eight sisters a day's drive away. It became evident that her cultural beliefs were influenced less by her parents than by the stepping-stone socialization of her seven preceding sisters. The case was settled out of court; unfortunately, the client remains angry and depressed.
BARTON M. CLARK (Illinois), JOHN VAN WILLIGEN (Kentucky) DOCUMENTATION AND DATA MANAGEMENT IN APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY During the past three decades, the literature within the social sciences has experienced a phenomenal rate of growth. This information explosion has far outpaced our ability to successfully manage and disseminate the information. Within the applied social sciences, where much of the information only receives limited publication if it is published at all, this has been a particularly critical problem. Many of these "naturally-occuring" documents are valuable as a means of understanding the social/cultural situation to which they are addressed and as depictions of problem solving techniques. If, however, applied anthropologists are to rapidly and effectively communicate their reserach to each other, it will be necessary to develop computer based systems to handle the information. To resolve this problem three levels of information control are examined: bibliographic, quantitative data, and textual. Current technology, including on-line bibliographic systems, data archives, electronic journals, and electronic mail is reviewed. Inter-relating technology with the levels of information control, a model ia developed for improving information dissemination among applied anthropologists.
(506) ANTICIPATORY AND PREVENTIVE DIMENSIONS OF RESEARCH AND PRACTICE: POLICY AND EQUITY
RELATED PROGRAMS, PART I ORGANIZER: ELLEN A HERDA This symposium brings together a variety of researchers and practitioners working toward equity for handicapped, minorities, and women. They will explore the social and political dimensions of implementing equity-based programs. Emphasis will be placed on the kinds of data needed to inform practice and policy decisions, and to aid in anticipating and preventing some problems in complying with equity-based legislation. Along with the rapidly growing body of research critically examining the rational dissemination model, there is increasing evidence that top-down neutral interventions through legislation and technical information flow do not produce change in equity status. The quity problem goes beyond any one interest group and demands new research questions. The presenters will provide specific cases, and discuss questions promoting research that addresses intervention, community involvement and grounded policy decisions. Implications for community and organizational members in general will be discussed from a holistic perspective rather than focusing solely on the special interest perspectives.
FERNIE BACA-MOORE WHAT KINDS OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS ARE NEEDED TO INFORM BILINGUAL/ BICULTURAL LEGISLATION AND POLICY? Most federal legislation has been made without adequate data. The Title VII programs for bilingual/bicultural society members face numerous problems, some of which can be approached by gats generated with research agendas that speak to the nature of the problems faced by individuals speaking languages other than English and/or in addition to English. The cultural dimension are often ignored in research in favor of statistics reflecting a "neutral" bias toward the problems. The parctitioner, as an informed research participant, has an important place in research, practice and policy decisions. This paper will provide case studies and discussion of the implications of Title VII programs affecting bicultural members as well as community members other than those involved in such federal programs.
WILLIAM W. MALLOY (Milwaukee Public Schools) BEYOND ADVOCACY: RACIAL DESEGREGATION AND SOCIOPOLITICAL IMPERATIVES Recent court decisions across the country are forcing racial desegregation which in turn is affecting communities, families and school program. These consequences in several cases are not understood, discussed or researched in terms of the people the court decisions were designed to "help" in the first place. Examples of these consequences will be presented and research agendas will be suggested that speak to theae emergent problems.
A. CHUCK ROSS (Western Colorado) THE ORIGINAL TEACHINGS OF THE RED MAN This presentation on research findings reflects a holistic/historical approach to understanding the Red Man in today's world. Philosophies and theories of quantum physics, metaphysics, religion, mythology and folklore were used in integrating and interpreting the findings. Implications for making future policy decisions will be discussed. Part I in the morning of March 22 and Part II (report and slide presentation) in the afternoon of March 22, 1980.
GERALD A. 01FF (U.S. Office of Indian Education) COMMUNITIES AND FEDERAL LEGISLATION Communities need to have their ideas and needs expressed to those in positions of making policy decisions. In the past, there have often been inappropriate spokespersons who determined what programs were deemed necessary for Native Americans and other minorities. Consequently, legislation and policy have not always addressed actual situations. Ways by which communities can better serve themselves in terms of federal legislation will be discussed.
NANCY L. KNAPP (No. Illinois U.) POLITIES, POLITICS AND EQUITY Special Relationships often evolve between policy makers and groups labeled vulnerable or deviant (e.g. woman; minorities; and individuals who are handicapped, poor, ill, very young or old). Each group--policy makers and vulnerable polity members--has access to different-information and may also have different modes of processing information. Policy makers and polity members often therefore perceive different, even opposing, current policy needs, with even greater discrepancy in sensing emerging policy issues. Policy is made based on whatever information is available, often in the form of dramatic individual cases or easily quantified mass data. Special types of research, preferrably crested by vulnerable polity members, is needed to provide information appropriate to equitable policy process and content. Potential for such equal exchange basis will be explored from the federal and state level.
WALTER L. FANED (UCEA) LEGISLATION, POLICY, AND GRASS ROOTS INVOLVEMENT: THE HANDICAPPED AND THE NON-HANDICAPPED Legislation intended to assure equity for handicapped individuals has been targeted at the educational activities of public schools and universities and the hiring practices of business and industry. The idea that equity can be legislated, however, is a myth. The benefits to handicapped and non-handicapped individuals and society when such equity is attempted can only accrue, if at all, when all factions of the community are involved in a holistic approach to the effort. Before undertaking such a grass roots approach, we must understand what equity is, ask appropriate research questions, and know how to recognize that it has been achieved.
(507) SYMPosIUN CROSS CULTURAL ISSUES IN ALASKAN EDUCATION Alaska provides a unique
-laboratory for the analysis and exploration of issues associated with education in a cross-cultural environment. This symposium will encompass a variety of such issues and will reflect varied perspectives on how those issues are being addressed in Mlasks today.
-Specific issues to be addressed include those associated with research, program development, teacher education, instructional practices, language use, technology, and village life in a cross-cultural setting. Participants in the symposium are all directly involved with the issues they will discuss and often represent the "rutting edge" in crosscultural educational development. The Alaskan experience can provide much useful insight into the issues facing educators in any cross-cultural setting. A prize-winning film depicting contemporary village life will be shown.
PATRICK J. DUBBS (Alaska) CULTURAL DEFINITIONS AND EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS After a brief examination of how, in general, conceptual definitions have definite implications for action programs, this paper then focuses on 1) how various cultural definitions, implicitly or explicitly. result in certain directions for educational programs, 2) the general educational and societal consequences of these directions, and 3) the need for educational program planners/developers to adopt cognitively oriented definitions of culture. Examples are derived from Alaskan educational programs labelled bi-cultural, multicultural, cultural heritage and cross cultural.
C.D. RIDER (Alaska) COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION:
APPLYING PSYCHOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CROSS-CULTURAL TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Questions covering the nature of cultural influences on psychololgical processes are, as yet, mostly unanswered. Throughout the world, however, programs in higher education continue to declare their dedication to the development of a crosscultural curriculum. A foci of this paper then, is the identification of general theoretical orientations that led to the development of the curriculum of one such cross-cultural teacher education program. Data for this endeavor are obtained from intereviews with program developers, current staff, and from published and unpublished program documents. Another foci of this paper is the application of anthropology, influenced by developmental psychology, to the task of improving curriculum for a cross-cultural teacher education program. Several allied areas of study are examined for their utility in developing a curriculum that demonstrates cultural influences on human development. These areas are cognitive anthropology, culture and cognition, and psychological anthropology. Finally, this paper suggests methods of implementing changes in the teacher education program that will address questions of cultural influences on thinking and learning.
EDWIN BOSTROM (Alaska) A MODEL FUR CROSS-CULTURALLY RELEVANT, COMPREHENSIVE POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION IN RURAL ALASKA The failure of the American poet-secondary educational Establishment to achieve the ideal that rural peoples receive equity in university education with urban peoples in nowhere better exemplified than in rural Alaska. The fact that imported non-Native persons residing in villages with largely Native populations continue to occupy most of the positions requring post-secondary educational preparation speask to this condition. The pruposes of this paper are to discuss the social/cultural problems associated with urban-oriented post-secondary education in rural Alaska, to present and report upon a field tested and evaluated post-secondary curricular model and delivery system designed for rural Alaska, and to discuss the implications of this model for providing a structure of cross-culturally oriented post-secondary education in rural Alaska.
BILL PARRETT (Alaska) AN OVERVIEW OF INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES COMMON TO ALTERNATIVE SCHOOLS AND THE IMPLICATIONS THEY HOLD FOR THE PREPARATION OF TEACHERS FOR RURAL ALASKAN SCHOOLS The past decade has been characterized by the emergence of alternative schools as a major trend in public education. It is estimated that over 10,000 of these programs were in operation by 1976 with continual growth occurring to the present. A limited body of empirical research has evolved in conjunction with this development. These studies have addressed the needs of definition and documentation of the concept of alternative schools and the components which characterize their operation. The State of Alaska has recently enacted legislation providing for the establishment of rural high schools. Rural communities, through the process of developing local programs, have demonstrated operational needs closely aligned to those which prompted the development of many alter-native schools. One need in particular focuses on the preservice and inservice development of instructional personnel responsible for the successful implementation of these schools. This paper will address the potential relationship between successfully operating alternative schools and the development of small high schools in rural Alaska in reference to instructional practices. Additionally, this paper will investigate the current status of teacher preparation for alternative schools and discuss the implications it holds for the preparation of teachers for rural Alaskan schools.
MARIC KUHN, WENDY ROSEN (Alaska) NATIVE TEACHERS IN THE SCHOOL: SOME PROMISES AND LIMITATIONS This paper will examine the power of the culture of the school in village Alaska to perpetuate itself as an imposed and foreign institution, despite the introduction of certificated native teachers and paraprofessionals. The village school's culture has not been significantly altered, and is, for the most part, in conflict with the culture of the community. The paper will analyze the gate-keeping process that native teachers go through to guarantee that they will not disrupt the fundamental structure of the school. It will also examine the methodologies that teachers use in schools that reflect the values of the school in opposition to the community, and that these are inherent in the expectations of a teacher's role in the school, no matter what the teacher's background (native or non-native). We will examine the culture of the educational institutions in village Alaska, the enculturarion/acculturation of native teachers into this culture, and the culture of the school vis-a-vis thie culture of the local community.
EILEEN MACLEAN EDUCATION AND THE INUPIAQ LANGUAGE PROGRAM IN THE NORTH SLOPE BOROUGH SCHOOL DISTRICT The North Slope Borough School District is the largest and potentially the richest school district in the United States, encompassing over 80,000 square miles and including the Prudhoe Bay oil fields. The schools in the district are in the hands of a Borough school board which is attempting to develop programs that build on the cultural and physical environment of the region. This paper will trace the development of the district, with a particular emphasis on the Inupiaq language program and the issues it is attempting to address.
RON SCOLLON (Alaska) COMMUNICATIVE STYLE AND RESEARCH STYLE: A PROBLEM IN DISCOVERY, APPLICATION, AND REPORTAGE Communicative style has been seen to play a central role in gatekeeping situations (Erickson). Differences in communicative style between the gatekeeper and the "applicant' may produce a kind of leakage into the encounter that subverts objectivity of the situation and ultimately may result in discrimination against the applicant whose communicative styld is different. It has been argued (Scollon and Scollon to appear) that situations in which there are strict constraints on time, where there are multiple participants, or where some medium introduces distance between the participants tend to become focused or to allow for little negotiation among the participants. These focused interactions limit negotiation of individual difference and tend toward unilateral sense making by the more powerful participants. Research is a form of communication and is therefore strongly associated with particular communicative styles. Researchers as they influence educational and social services policy become gatekeepers for the subjects of their studies. Research may be focused or non-focused. I argue that where the communicative style of the subjects of research shows a preference for negotiated, non-focused interaction the research itself must be conducted in a negotiated non-focused manner. Among the implications of non-focused research are the centrality of dialogue between the researcher and the subject, a high degree of negotiability of topics, times, participants and agendas, and strict limitations on distancing media and other systems of reportage.
LAWRENCE KAPLAN, STEVEN MCNABB (Alaska, and Chukchi Comm. College) VILLAGE ENGLISH IN NORTHWEST ALASKA In Northwest Alaska, as well as in other rural areas of the state, local people speak a non-standard variety of English. This dialect, commonly known as "village English" has been regarded as the cause of many of the educational problems found in rural schools. Although no one has studied the question for Northwest Alaska, the issue of village English is crucial to an understanding of many aspects of life in the region, educa nion asong them. The proposed paper intends to provide an overview of the status of English among the Inupiaq Eskimo population of Northwest Alaska, including the following topics: 1) What village English represents in linguistic terms, i.e. the types of nonstandard features which distinguish it and their probable sources; 2) the relative roles of village and standard English in the region, explaining generally when each is used and why; 3) attitudes about village English versus standard English; 4) suggested goals of an educational policy which would take village English into account. Although many educators and local people alike recognize the value of learning the standard dialect, many speakers of village English in fact appear unwilling to abandon their way of speaking. This fact is
often misinterpreted by those who fail to understand the role of village English in identifying the speaker's Inupiaq ethnicity. This function of village English makes many people prefer it to standard English in a great many contexts; the failure of outsiders, generally, to recognize this function makes the perpetuation of village English appear pointless or even obstinate. When the involvement of village English with~ethnicity is understood, it should be possible to teach standard English without devaluing the predominant speech form of the community.
RAY BARNHARDT (Alaska) SMALL HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR RURAL ALASKA In 1976 the State of Alaska signed a Consent Decree agreeing to make a high school program available to any community with one or more secondary age students and an elementary program. This has resulted in the development of over 100 new high schools in the rural areas over the past three years and has led to some innovative programs as well as some interesting problems. This paper will discuss some of those problems and programs and outline some of the considerations that are necessary in developing small high sahools in a rural cross-cultural setting
ERIC MADSEN (Alaska) DECISION-MAKING IN RURAL ALASKAN COMMUNITIES This paper discusses the communication and decision-making patterns currently used in one small Alaskan village. I will suggest that there exists a discontinuity between these patterns and the strategies used by the school district to gather the information it uses in formulating educational policy for high school age young people in that village. I contend significantly this initial communication/decision-making discontintuity figures significantly in the students' and parents' stated perception that the local high school program lacks appropriateness and meaning.
JAMES M. ORVIK (Alaska) CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS IN TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS There is extensive pressure for Native Alaskans to adopt sophisticated technology to overcome educational delivery problems. Paradoxically, while technological development is controlled by human beings, the subtlety of the social mechanisms by which human control is exerted gives the appearance that technological innovations are inevitable and hence irresistible. The locus of control over innovation needs to be shifted to those in a culture most likely to be affected adversely by technological innovations. This paper presents a set of decision rules by which to mitigate the unwanted elements of any proposed technological system: 1) The development of all new systems should proceed from inside a culture rather than be externally imposed. 2) New systems should allow the sequence of problem solving to proceed from the individual to the education professional. 3)Systems should not require new hardware for its own sake. 4) Sytems should not be based on presumed cultural deficits. 5) Sytems that enhance local autonomy are preferable to those that erode it. 6) Systems should be implemented on a basis of fair competition with existing systems. Each rule is discussed in detail and examples are given that illustrate how a rule can be used systematically to evaluate existing technologies as well as proposals for future use.
C.R. MICHEL (Alaska) THE NATURE OF A FINDING IN CONSTITUTIVE ETHNOGRAPHY AND FORMAL INTERACTION ANALYSIS Research into the structure of interaction in cross-cultural settings has recently been enhanced by the perspectives of constitutive ethnography and formal interaction analysis. The assumptions upon which these investigations are based are examined with two goals in mind: first, to appreciate the nature of a finding in such approaches; and second, to asses the relationship between such findings and their possible applications.
BILL PFISTERER (Alaska) THROUGH THE EYES OF AN 126 YEAR OLD GWITCH'IN ATHABASCAN WOMAN This paper will discuss how information has been gathered to recreate, in both written Gwitch'in and English, the life history of a 126 year old Athabascan woman currently living in a small remote village in interior Alaska. The paper will focus on the methodology used in obtaining and translating the life history, as well as on some of the experiences reflected in the life of a person who was a mature woman when the Klondike gold rush brought the first significant group of whites into the country.
(508) CULTURE CHANGE AND MAINTENANCE: INDOCHINESE REFUGEE ADAPTATION Relatively little significant research has teen conducted on Southeast Asian refugees in the United States. The papers in this symposium sre representative of that which has been done snd which have implications for both resettlement programs and for future research on the subject. They deal with basic issus surrounding sdaptstion and ethnicity, while also providing indications of the relationship between refugees and their new institutional environment. These papers as a result, provide important and needed perspectives on the processes of adjustment for refugees and for those who, in various capacities, have contact with them.
DAVID R. HOWELL (DNA/HEW) REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADAPTATION, AND RESEARCH The United States is engaged in a process of admitting and reaetlling refugees from Southeaat Asia in numbers which will significantly exceed one-half million by 1981. While those refugees who entered this country after the fall of Saigon in 1975 were generally educated and accustomed to modern life to some degree, many of those admitted in the recent past, and especially those presently in first asylum camps, are functionally or actually illiterate (the Hmong are non-literate), and without notable life experience which would aid them in resettlement. In addition, six ethnolinguistic groups are now represented in significant numbers in the refugee population. This paper traces the development of various refugee groups to life in the United States. Following this brief history, it reports on the current resettlement situation, and expectations are provided for refugee programs and adaptation based on current knowledge and evaluations. This discussion leads to an assessment of research needs, opportunities, and applications for the future, and suggests that this situation offers an opportunity for the conduct of interesting research, as well as that of contributing to the effectiveness of the resettlement program and the welfare of these refugees.
DARREL NONTERO (Arizona St) VIETNAMESE REFUGEES IN AMERICA As of November 1979, more than 270,000 Indochinese refugees had come to the United States after a traumatic flight from their native land, arriving with little preparation for the changes they would face. The present paper analyzes this unique migration and, employing data from a national sample, reports on the changing socioeconomic status of the Indochinese refugees. The paper presents an anlysia of data on the refugees' employment, education, income, receipt of federal assistance, and proficiency in the English language. A model of Spontaneous nternational Migration (SIM) is developed which places the Vietnamese immigration experience in a broader sociohistorical context.
DAVID HAINES (American U) HOUSEHOLD FAMILY AND COMMUNITY: CULTURAL RESPONSE TO ADAPTATION AMONG VIETNAMESE REFUGEES In attempting to understand the ways in which various family and community networks mediate between Vietnamese refugees and the receiving American society, two significant problems emerge. First, despite the heavy French and American involvements in Indochina, little basic research has been conducted on issues other than political control. That is, there is no baseline from which to measure social change. Second, the more recent work on refugees within the United States has suffered from Similar problems. There has been little attempt to understand the cultural differences between Vietnamese and Americans, and the effects of the long and muddled historical relations between these two peoples. The practical problem is that without any kind of baseline work, especially with regard to the issues of household, extended family, and community organization, it is virtually impossible to develop policies whose social impact can be predicted, or even roughly visualized. Two particular questions emerge. First, what are the general support functions that households and other wider networks provide to the refugee that alleviate the problems of social sod economic adjustment? Second, what are the stress points within these groups or networks that can be positively impacted by government policies? On the basis of the limited relevant literature, previous experience in Vietnam, and ongoing field efforts in the Washington, D.C. are, a framework for research and evaluation is proposed that can meet both immediate and long-term policy needs, and do so by indicating ways in which the existing resources of household, kinship, and community can be fostered.
BARBARA W.K. YEE (U. of Denver) CAUCASIAN, JAPANESE AND VIETNAMESE ELDERLY: PERCEPTIONS OF CONTROL OVER LIFE SITUATIONS The Caucaslan elderly and the Vietnamese elderly equally perceived themselves to have internal control across seven life situations. The Vietnamese elderly perceived themselves to have significantly more internal control across all seven life situations than the Japanese elderly. The Vietnamese and Japanese elderly equally perceived powerful others to have control over their lives, but those Asian elderly groups perceived that powerful others controlled their lives significantly more than the Caucasian elderly. The Japanese and Vietnamese elderly groups significantly percieved themselves to be more helpless to control their lives than the Caucasian elderly. The Japanese elderly felt significantly more helpless to control their lives in comparison with the Vietnamese elderly. The actual perceptions of control elderly people have may provide clues about their adaptation in later life to their real-life situations.
TIMOTHY DUNNIGAN, CHIA VANG (Minnesota) HMONG ATTITUDES TOWARD LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE: A COMMUNITY SPONSORED TRANSLATION PROJECT The intentions and specific strategies of the Laotian Hmong regarding language maintenance are revealed in the results of a community sponsored project which involved the English to Hmong translation of 6th grade curricular materials describing the rules followed by the U.S. Congress in making laws. The coining of new Hmong vocabulary, the avoidance of appropriate Lao terminolgy, the adoption of English proper nouns with extensive phonetic modification, and other policy decisions of the translation committee illustrate Hmong attempts to consciously control through group action the acculturative impact of other cultures.
GEORGE M. SCOTT, JR. (UC San Diego) KINSHIP AND FAMILY IN IMMIGRANT ADJUSTMENT: THE CASE OF THE HMONG REFUGEES IN SAN DIEGO The Hmong refugee population in San Diego constitutes a tightly-knit, well-integrated community organized primarily in terms of their traditional kinship and family system. This cultural conservatism is interpreted as an initial stage of adjustment of a people whose cultural background is extremely disparate from that of their host society, in which the maintenance of their traditional kinship and family proactices provides them with a familiar environment of mutual assistance and comfort that would be otherwise difficult to obtain. The extent of the Hmong's dependency on their traditional kinship and family system is documented and explored, and its specific functions as a survival mechanism are delineated and illustrated with exemplary cases. Finally, these functions are assessed in the light of the relative balance of immediate survival versus long-term assimilation.
ROGER HARMON (Indochina Refugee Action Center) LAOTIAN IN MEDICAL CRISIS: A CASE STUDY Laotian refugees in the United States are cut off from the major religious practitioners and settings through which they have traditionally met a variety of needs. This paper examines the innovative way in which improvised forms of traditional Lao religion has been devised to meet the needs of a Lao woman in crisis. The paper describes a case study of a woman faced with kidney failure and the need for hemodialysis who utilizes numerous traditional rituals performed by her husband and friends. The confusion this caused for medical practitioners is discussed, and recommendations for assisting Laotians in medical crisis are given.
PETER W. VAN ARSDALE (U of Denver) COMMUNICATION, HEALTH CARE, AND STRESS AMONG VIETNA.MESE AND CHICANOS OF TWO DENVER HOUSING PROJECTS This paper is based upon research conducted from 1976 through 1979 in two Denver low-income housing projects. Information obtained from key infor7unnts, survey respondents, and agency personnel indicate that Vietnamese immigrants represent a more heterogeneous population than Chicanos. Such heterogeneity is reflected in communication patters and health care seeking behavior. The "complaint network", especially among Chicanos, is shown to serve a group-unifying function. in both groups local communication processes and barriers frequently alter health care seeking activities, especially where Vietnamese-Chicano stress producing interactions exist. In these situations health per se assumes secondary importance.
PAUL D. STARR (Auburn U) THE IMPACT OF VIETNAMESE FISHERFOLK ON THE GULF COAST Vietnamese refugees, may of them Catholics from coastal villages have come to Play an important, visible role in the fishing industry of the central Gulf Coast. This study describes their early resettlement experience, emerging position in different communities, and relationships with other groups involved in the fisheries. Factors which have contributed to competition and conflict between the Vietnamese and others are discussed and implications drawn for the more general study of ethnic relations.
JAMES A. PISAROWICZ (U of Denver) ADAPTATION OF INDOCHINESE REFUGEES: A MULTIVARIATE SYSTEM Since the majority of past investigations into refugee adaptation process have been univariate in nature, only Isolated aspects of the refugee adaptation process have been studied. The pesent research focuses on the adaptation process using multivariate data analytic methodologies. Both pre-migration characteristics and conditions of the refugees and the situational determinants in their subsequent communities ot resettlement are considered in terms of both objective and subjective aspects of culture maintenance and change.
(509) FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY: ISSUES AND PROBLEMS Various forensic anthropologists will have an open-ended discussion of issues and problems in their discipline. This will include select cases worked on for various law enforcement agencies, pitfalls and pratfalls, intended research and the like..
J. MICHAEL HOFFMAN (Colorado C) THE BEAR FACTS AND) OTHER PROBLEMS IN FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY. The problem of distinguishing human hand and foot remains from bear paws is a classic problem in forensic anthropology. Most published information on this diagnostic problem deals with already partially defleshed to rather skeletonized remains, thus being of limited help when remains with most flesh still present are found. A recent case of the latter type is presented to help investigators in this situation. Another problem, identifying individuals through facial resemblance, is brought up as a topic for discussion.
MICHAEL CHARNEY (Center for Human Identification) FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGISTS: ARISE AND BE COUNTED Forensic anthropology is not a new sub-discipline of physical anthropology; I have been active in the forensic sciences for more than forty years and others before that. However, the utilization of physical anthropologists knowledgeable in human osteology in law enforcement work has been spasmodic. The reasons for this are several 1) lack of knowledge by the police of, the existence of such experts 2) reticence of physical anthropologists to push themselves in this area 3) lack of knowledge of the greater number of coroners and medical examiners as to the expertise of physical anthropologists 4) refusal of too many medicos to properly evaluate the input of physical anthropologists. Body identification in this country and others is in .a howling mesa! Some 20,000 individuals go unidentified each year. There are no state or federal statutes or guidelines on this subject! Responsibility for the identification of the body is left up in the air! Mass disasters are becoming a frequent occurrence. If a total effort is to be made to rectify the present sad state, then all the forensic scientists, expert in their own areas concerning the human body, must be organized into a team effort. Physical anthropologists must be brought into the identification work much more than they are now being used. This paper will give the reasons for the establishment of the Center of Human Identification and how it functions to bring some order into body identification.
B. MILES GILBERT (Missouri) THE MCKERN-STEWART AND) GILBERT-MCERN STANDARDS ARE USEFUL FOR AGE ASSESSMENTS Suchey's work has rbought to our attention that our colleagues were miserably unsuccesful in applying the female standard for aging the os pubis. When dealing with a. biological phenomenon as complex and variable as pubic metamorphosis it is unreasonable to seek "cookbook", foolproof methods of assessment that anyone can cuss with little experience. The significant point emerging from Suchey's work is that lots of experience is indispensible. The inexperienced have most difficulty in differentiating age related and trauma related metamorphic changes; and in distinguishing male and female pubic morphology. With experience in these areas, both male and female standards have been used very successfully to determine age at death in forensic cases.
SAM STOUT (Missouri) THE USE OF HISTOMORPHOLOGY TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUALS AMONG MIXED SKELETAL REMAINS The feasibility of using histology to separate mixed skeletal remains into individuals is investigated. Those bones which have total visible osteon densities (the sum of the densities of intact and fragemented osteons) and mean osteonal crosssectional areas similar enough to have come from the same individual are grouped. Amsbiguities, such as those due to similarity in age, are eliminated through comparison of cortical drift patterns as well as the gross size and appearance of the bones. Ninetythree percent of bones used in this study are correctly assigned to an individual. The number of individuals is predicted exactly. These results suggest that histological analyses can be used to identify bones belonging to the same individual.
GEORGE W. GILL (Wyoming) INTERORBTTAL SKELETAL FEATURES IN RACE IDENTIFICATION: ADDITIONAL FINDINGS A number of successful approaches to sex and race determination have been developed by forensic anthropologists and anatomists in recent years, hut few methods are available for distinguishing native American Indian crani from those of Caucasians. Recent development and testing of a method involving shape differences in the interorbital facial skeleton is proving effective. Preliminary results were reported last year at the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Meeting in Atlanta, Georgia, but a much broader sample of both American Indians and Whites has since been added. Measurements have been taken with a specially modified coordinate caliper, and effective quantification of the shape differences achieved.
(510) POLICIES, POLITICS, AND PLANNING: CONTEMPORARY NATIVE AMERICAN ISSUES
JOALLYN ARCHAMBAULT (UC Berkeley) INDIAN-WHITE RELATIONS WITHIN A PATRONAGE CONTEXT Patronage is usually defined as an asymmetrical relationship between social unequals, involving an exchange of goods and services over lengthy periods of time and possessing a distinct ethos. It arises in situations of resource scarcity and inequality of access to services, and unequal influence. Some authors feel that eventually traditional patrons are replaced by functionally specific patrons operating from within positions of authority in official bureaucracies and organizations. e.g. government officials and school teachers. Other writers feel that patronage is endemic to the human condition and can be found in 'modern", fully industrialized, bureaucratic societies as often as in a rural, agrarian, peasant village (Schmidt 1977, Legg 1972, flax 1973) Data from the study of corporate organization in western New Mexico seems to support the position that bureaucratic patronage is possible only within "incompletely centralized' bureaucracies which do not operate by impartial rules or universalistic criteria. It also illustrates the stability imparted to an institution through the judicious distribution of patronage favors over a 50 year period. The process by which patronage moves from its locus with the trader to a bureaucratic setting and its final dispersion lends support to those who argue a basic incompatibility between patronage and modern nations-states. Finlally this is one of the first applications in explicating dependency situations which have all too often been described as symptoms of psycho-social pathology.
STEVE TALBOT (U District Of Columbia) THE SO-CALLED "INDIAN PROBLEM": CULTURAL DETERMINISM AS SOCIAL POLICY It has been common to refer to the depressed state of Native American life as "the plight of the American Indian", or simply as "the Indian problem". Indian activists on the other hand, deny they have either a plight or a problem; instead; they have injustice! Anthropologists have contributed to the racist error of blaming the victim rather than the instituin of the oppressor nation by their emphasis on the cultural factor (cultural determinism) to the exclusion of political and economic causes arising from bourgeois society. Exploitation and injustice are bettern explanatory concepts than are anthropologically derived theories of cultural and value conflict.
MARK C. BAUER (Northwestern) LEGAL ADVOCACY TRAINING: IMPLICATIONS FOR TRADITIONAL NAVAJO COMMUNITIES Legal advocate training programs in the Navajo Nation have prepared Navajo legal advocates to act as middlemen, bridging the gap between the formal, codified legal system imposed by Federal, State, and Tribal Courts and the more informal traditional ways of handling conflict in the local community. These legal advocates thus mediate the
Impact of formal law on traditional social organization and local political processes. However, most programs focus their attention on training advocates in formal law with the objective of extending the availability of legal services to Navajo people, ignoring the effects on the local community of increasing recourse to formal law. This paper utilizes a body of case and interview materials obtained through observations of procedures in dispute-settlement forums (including cours) and interciws with legal personal, litigants and legal advocates. An analysis of the roles which legal advocates play in mediating the impact of formal legal systems on traditional local communities will be presented. Implications of these effects for the planning and operating of legal training programs will be discussed.
DONALD 0. STULL (Kansas) ACTION ANTHROPOLOGY: A HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS Since its inception with the Fox Project (1948-1959) more than 30 years ago, "action anthropology" has coma to be a recognized, albeit minor subfield in anthropology. The steadily emerging sophistication and activism of native and ethnic groups, coupled with the changing job market in anthropology, have led to a steady growth in the number of action-oriented practitioners and programs. The related literature is composed primarily of case studies of successful action approaches and programs. Unfortunately, the literature has little in the way of discussions of logistical, methodological and ethical problems in action anthropology. Discussion of problem areas is based on the author's experience with action anthropology among Native Americans.
ALLEN C. TURNER (Kentucky) ACTIVATING CITIZEN INPUT IN A TRIBAL PLANNING PROGRAM Remote, small scale tribal communities with fluctuating in-residence population composition have special constraints of effective participatory planning. Furthermore, formal tribal administrative systems may be antithetical to traditional community patterns. This paper reports on the ways the Kaibab-Psiute Tribe of Northern Arizona addressed these constraints and some of the organizational, material and cognitive results of the tribe's three-year HUD 701 Planning Assistance Program. Ethoohistorical and ethnographic research provided some operating hypotheses about Southern Paiute patterns of adaptation leading to the formation of an ad hoc Planning Committee. The Committee formed was homologous with aborig inal functional band structure. The Planning Committe identified the directions for development, studied the issues and made recommendations to the Tribal Council. Areas of participatory planning include housing, tribal land and water works and health care deliverY systems. Major results include a reservation-wide housing rehabilitation program, the construction of irrigation systems for family gardens and plans for a community health station on the reservation.
SILVESTER J. BRITO (Wis cons in-MilIwaukee) AMERICAN INDIAN POLITICS IN CULTURAL PLURALISM Political power of the American Indian in American society is a crucial problem. Historically he has never played a viable role in the American political areana. The purpose of this essay then is to try and determine why this privilege has not been afforded to the American Indian and also what his chances are of becoming a participating, policy making force in mainstream American society. Effective participation in American politics has become a reality for some ethnic minorities such as Jews, Irish, Poles, Italians and German But for the American Indian, this socio-political status has been unattainable. With the recent exception of the Zuni Indians, American Indian people have had little if any impact on the policy making laws which guide and control mainstream American society. There is little doubt that one of the reasons for the political success of the foregoing minorities is that they mainly came to America willing to change their life style in order to become fully participating members of a newly created nation. The main difference in their particularistic political development lies in the fact that the American Indians, unlike the European immigrants, were already here and participating in ongoing established societies with their own social models and laws to guide their life styles. Therefore there was no reason to give up their sociocultural values, especially to please a people from a foreign society, even though they might be the more powerful military force--the conquerors. However, can a political democracy, which is organized to permit its participating citizens to enjoy freedom of conscience and action, extend its scope to include citizens who, because they live differently, are not fully participating? How tolerant can a political democracy be of non-conformity?
MARK T. BAHTI (Tucson) HOPI KACHINA DOLLS: THE IMPACT OF STUDIES ON A NATIVE ART FORM A brief survey of major studies of Hopi textiles, ceramics and kachinas and their circulation among Hopi artisans, developing an emphasis on Hop kachina dolls and how their styles, frequency of appearance and other similar aspects have been affected not by the Anglo buyer as much as the Anglo ethnologist. Concluding with a brief summary of attitudes among certain Hopi religious leaders in regards to the possible impact this might or might not have on Hopi religion.
LARRY R. STUCKI (Western Carolina U) WILL THE "REAL" INDIAN SURVIVE? TOURIST INDUCED SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHANGE AT CHEROKEE, N.C. In recent years most Indian tribes occupying scenic but otherwise marginal lands throughout our nation have increasingly turned to tourism as their best hope of economic salvation. Many such dreams are quickly dashed, but even the rare "success" story such as that which has not occurred at Cherokee, North Carolina often creates numerous unanticipated and, at times, unwanted social and cultural changes as the tourist dollars pour in. Planners of similar ventures elsewhere would be wise to examine carefully the events that have occurred at Cherokee since the creation of the nearby Great Smoky Mountains National Park if they wish to minimize the social and economic division that "successful" tourist programs often induce in native communities.
(511) PANEL: ANTHROPOLOGICAL INPUT INTO PREPARATION, EXECUTION, AND EVALUATION OF AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS The panelists will present papers and reports based upon their experiences in working with agricultural projects. These will be followed by open discussions. The presentations will include discussions of anthropological inputs into 1) The preparation and planning of two university Title XII projects: University of Florida Malawi Project and Kansas State small ruminants; 2) a discussion of evaluation of project impact upon rural poor and the prediction of impact, based upon studies in Bangladesh (FAO) and Mexico (World Bank); and 3) a discussion of working in agencies such as AID. The panel will also examine interdisciplinary training and education in anthropology and agriculture. In addition the panel will present experiences, identify problems, and propose strategies to be taken up further by the Culture and Agriculture Group (Study Group for Agrarian Systems).
(512) CRITICAL ISSUES IN LATIN AMERICA: RESEARCH AND APPLICATION
FERNANDO CAMARA (Secretaria de Educacion Public Mexico) MEXICAN MIGRATION TO THE BORDERLANDS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE Mexican migration has been a permanent causal factor in developing. However, the process of development means diverse situations and conditions. Economic development, for instance, is not necessarily accompanied by sociocultural development. Some illustrative cases will be presented, mainly in relation to Mexican borderland cities, and to U.S.A. borderland cities in Texas.
H. DIETER HEINEN (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas) HIGHER LEVEL PRODUCTION UNITS AND SOCIO-CULTURAL CHANGE AMONG THE YE'KUASA INDIANS OF BOLIVAR STATE, VENEZUELA. One of the recurrent problems of indigenous societies in Venezuela is how to organize the production of a surplus above previous subsistence activities in order to acquire the trade goods that are now desired by the Indians. The activities of traders and other middlemen, as well as the introduction of a monetary economy frequently leads to a complete breakdown of the indigenous social organization (see e.g. Murphy and Steward, 1956) The Ye'kuana Indians of the Upper Erebato River are attempting to set up a production and marketing organization in such a way as to maintain a tight control over new economic transactions while not disrupting traditional autosubsistence activities (Clarac and Valdez, 1976; Heinen, 1979). Nevertheless, some socio-cultural changes have occurred. The Ye'kuana project and resulting changes are discussed in this paper.
WILLIAM DEMAREST (Stanford) EDUCATION AND RURAL/URBAN MIGRATION: THE CASE OF MAYAN MIGRANTS IN GUATEMALA CITY Mayan Indians from the town of San Pedro Im Laguna in Guatemala have begun migrating to Guatemala City during the past 30 years. The migration stream is still small and represents about five percent of San Pedro's population of 5000. The group of migrants with the most secure and the highest-paying employment has twice the number of years of education as the least secure and lowest paid migrants. Migration rates from San Pedro end its two closest neighbors, Sen Juan and San Pablo, reveal that the town with the most educational resources has the highest rate of migration to Guatemala City. The impact of education on rural/urban nieration is discussed.
DUNCAN MAC LEAN EARLE (SUlY-Albany) HIGHLAND MAYA IN THE LOWLANDS: A CASE OF SELFDEVELOPMENT Studies of development typically focus upon programs introduced into communities by external agencies. While many such programs attempt to respond faithfully to locally articulated needs, results remain uncertain and problematic, especially in communties with values and beliefs not in keeping with the West. In the state of Chiapas, Mexico, I have investigated a group of extremely traditional Maya Indians who have moved down into the Chiapas jungle to forge new lives, without outside help. In the course of fifteen years they have transformed many aspects of their lives and have become economically secure while maintaining indpendence from external involvements. Floowing their own development ideas and plans they have achieved development without dependence. In this paper I look at how such "Self-development" initiatives differ from standard program approaches, and how such programs might benefit from the experience of this community and others like it.
(550) CLIENT PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPING AND CONDUCTING APPLIED ANIRNOPOOGY The anthropologist's conduct in a coordinator/researcher position is a crucial area of interest in the emerging specialty of clinical anthropology. The anthropologist as project coordinator must properly collect and record the clinical data and act a broker with the supporting institution and groups involved in the project. At the same time, the anthropologist as ethnographic evaluator must develop and conduct a research project that will enhance the participation and coping capacity of the patients and the efficiency and cultural sensitivity of the professional staff. In most cases, the anthropological research objective must advance the clinical objective and vice versa. In a specific case study, the clinical objective was to determine the efficacy of a screening technique to detect early cancer and in the initial stages of the project, the anthropological research objective was to determine how to optimize the utilization of the education and screening project. This concern for the social context of a clinical experiment can resolve problems with the patient management, power systems, and anthropological roles.
(600) SYMPOSIUM: THE TEACHING OF ETHICAL FIELDWORK The motivation for the session is that there is an increasing concern about the ethical conduct of fieldworkers. Yet, there is only a scattering of literature on ethical issues in the field, and almost no literature directed at how one instructs students so that they are prepared for handling the ethical dilemmas that will emerge in the field. Moreover, the federally mandated system of Human Subjects Protective regulations is modelled along the lines of biomedical experimentation, so that these regulations serve to misdirect students from the significant issues that emerge within the field.
VIRGINIA OLESEN (UC San Francisco) CONFRONTING ETHICAL ISSUES IN TEACHING STUDENTS
MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY/MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY Teaching ethical field work to students in medical anthropology and medical sociology understandably partakes of the general range of ethical issues confronted by field workers in non-health care settings, e.g. respect for participants, assurances of confidentiality, concern that respondents are adequately informed, worries over publication of sensitive findings. Additionally, however, ethical problems which inhere in health care settings become salient for student field workers in these disciplines because those ethical problems which are not only part of the data in the situation may also become ethical problems for the student observer/researcher; ethical problems which may or may not have fateful consequences for persons being studied. Thus, a particularly critical type of information for the neophyte field worker in medical anthropology/medical sociology may be what is constructed as an ethical issue for persons being studied.
MURRAY L. WAX (Washington U) TEACHING FIELDWORK: THE ETHICAL ISSUES Together with Rosalie H. Wax, I have been teaching a course in fieldwork, whose students have been drawn from anthropology, sociology, education, and social work. Progressively, in recent years, we have introduced more detailed discussion of ethical issues and conceptualizations. We have provided lectures on basic concept of moral philosophy and have related these critically to the "logics" employed by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). We have also analyzed cases in the ethnographic literature. Most important has been the work with students on their own class projects, where we have been concerned to clary what are the varieties of ethical research, and then justifications, while distinguishing these from
the requirements of IR~s.
SUE-ELLEN JACOBS (Washington) THE HUMAN SUBJECTS REVIEW COMMITTEE EXPERIENCE FOR STUDENTS Students in my kinship course are required to do one field project which involves collecting kinship data from someone whose first language is not English. The University of Washington requires that fieldwork projects be approved on an individual basis when individual student projects vary. The paper will discuss student reactions to, and experiences in, preparing and submitting HSRC forms, development and use of the "Consent Form", and their overall reactions to this and the fieldwork experience.
BEA MEDICINE (Wisconsin-Madison) EQUITY IN ETHICS: ISSUES INVOLVING INDIAN (NATIVE AMERICAN) STUDENTS Since the concerted effort of the Committee on Minorities in Anthropology report (1973), little has been done to assess the anthropological experience upon certain minorities. There are some common assumptions regarding Anthropology which Indians as tribal persons, and possibly as students, hold. There are also some assumptions which anthropologists hold of the future of such students, as perhaps, that they have the appropriate ethics to work in their own communities. What is the nature of professionalism as it is assumed by persons of American Indian tribal background? This paper will explore the features of ethical commitments to discipline and to tribal group. Against a backdrop of research requisites which involve native professionals, the-direction of this paper will be on the responsibilities of anthropologists in training native students to the etiquette of ethics.
JOHN L. GWALTNEY (Syracuse) EMICS AND ETHICS: TEACHING POLYOCULAITY This paper maintains that the pre-eminent obligation of ethnological field researchers is to conduct their investigations with the greatest possible consideration for the security and dignity of the peoples they work amon. This end is most likely to be approximated if prospective field ethnographers understand their positions in their own national ethnic hierarchies. The small class or seminar academic setting is ideal, but by no means indispensable for the employment of a number of techniques designed to teach ethics in field work. As moat would-be anthropologists are still being drawn from the bourgeoisie of prosperous North Atlantic Basin cultures, it is the particular arrogance of these settler segments that must be diminished if equanimity, the sine qua non of the ethical position, is to be imparted. Failing an "I.Q. Test" based upon the logic of another culture facilitates the awareness of unconscious presumptions of superiority. The necessity to pose and respond to embarassing questions whicp, concern the prospective ethnographer's personal cultural position is often the beginning of that person's understanding of what he or she is asking of a field population. Teachers of anthropology should not limit their exposition of that discipline to its scope, aims, and methodology. A forthright, carefully documented airing of its errors and crimes in their cultural, heirarchical contexts, is indispensable to those feelings of caution, compassion, and salubrious chagrin which should be a basic part of the thinking and action of the anthropologist at work.
MYRON GLAZER (Smith) USING VIDEOTAPE TO EXPLORE METHODOLOCICAI. AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN TEACHING FIELDWORK During the past several semesters, I have been engaged in a project of videotaping the experiences of fieldworkera who have visited my classes. These guests include women and men who have conducted research in the United States, as well as in other nations. Their investigations have focused on such diverse topics as the destruction of community, the wives of professional men, and the impact of Israeli occupation on the West Bank of the Jordan River. In each instance, tbe researchers have been queried as to the
theoretical and practical motivations for their research, the choice of a particular methodology, and the ethical and political problems which have derived from their field work. The videotapes have proved particularly useful in our ability to analyze the researchers' experiences and to rasie questions with these women and men when they have returned to our campus for a follow-up visit. The theme of my presentation will focus on the development of the videotape materials sod its utility in teaching both introdctory sociology sod a senior seminar where the students are asked to perform their own piece of field research. In conjunction with the reading of avsilsble research accounts, our guests and the resultant videotapes help provide students with a careful introduction to the challenges of conducting ethical field work.
(601) ANTICIPATORY AND PREVENTIVE DIMENSIONS OF RESEARCH AND PRACTICE: POLICY AND EQUITYRELATED PROGRAMS, PART II (See (506))
(602) EDUCATIONAL ANTHROPOLOGY
TERRY L. HAYNES (UC San Francisco) TRAINING GROUNDS FOR APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGISTS: THE WICHE INTERNSHIP PROGRAM This paper evaluates the experiences of the *authro during four WICHE internships in rural Alaska between 1976 and 1980. WICHE (the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education), in Boulder, Colorado, administers an internship program for students recruited from colleges and universities in the thirteen Western States. Internships are desgined to contribute to the development of human and environmental resources in the West, and permit students to gain practical experience "by honing technical skills learned in college against the hard whetstone of reality" in projects designed by public and private organizations. It is argued that the intership program is a little known but extremely promising training resource for students in applied anthropology (and in the social sciences more generally) that will acquaint them with the complexities of and prospects for nonacademic employment in the public sector.
JAMES C. PIERSON (CSC, San Bernardino) STUDENT FIELDWORK AND STUDENT ACTIVITIES: APPLYING ANTHROPOLOGY ON THE COLLEGE CAMPUS This paper examines attempts to resolve two problems that likely occur on many contemporary university campuses. The first concerns attempts to provide extra-curricular activities on a predominantly commuter campus; the second concerns anthropology departments' attempts to conduct undergraduate fieldwork courses. The latter is often affected by problems of finding manageable similar topics. The case discussed combines the two situations, with implications for other settings, by allowing fieldwork students to examine various aspects (different recurring structured activities) of the same general topic (campus-wide student activities) with eventual benefits for both the department and the campus.
LARISSA LOMNITZ, MARTHA REES, LETICIA MAYER (Natl Univ. of Mexico) METHODOLOGY OF INVESTIGATION OF UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS: MEXICO'S VETERINARIANS The role of the university in training technical personnel needed for development in Latin America is very important, but little is known about the processes of recruitment, selection, training and employment. With this in mind, a project to study the professional personnel at the4National University of Mexico was implemented in the School of Veterinary Medicine. Multiple data sources and methods were used: curriculum vitae and personnel records, life history interviews with influential persons and professors in general, and a questionnaire applied to a stratified random sample. Findings describe politics and power in the Shcool, ideology, the formation of professionals, professional career steps and other factors. These research conclusions are discussed in terms of the validity and reliability of the multiple data sources. Evaluation of the various methods used has resulted in the creation of a multimethod approach applicable in other schools in the university. This has wide practical uses for evaluation of individuals within each school, as well as for standardization of school and university data.
GRETCHEN E SCHAFFT (Gretchen Schafft Assoc.) USING RESEARCH OUTCOMES AS THE FOt'DATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMMtING Applied anthropologists have been concerned that research serve client groups by providing policy and/or program related suggestions for change. Ethical issues encountered by those would would be both research initiator and change agent are
topics that repeatedly emerge in our literature. In a study of nursing homes and the black elderly completed recently, the grantor, the Administration on Aging, and the grantee, the Foundation of the American College of Nursing Home Administrators, agreed at the outset of the project that research findings would be translated into a professional development curriculum and presented as one of the College's Continuing Education courses. This paper describes the process by which this was done, the anthropological techniques used in both the research and the curriculum development, and the ethical issues which emerged.
ELIZABETH A. BRANDT (Arizona St. U) POPULARITY AND PERIL: ETHNOGRAPHY AND EDUCATION There is a tremendous interest in ethnographic methods in Colleges of Education throughout the country. A part of this interest is due to dissatisfaction with existing research paradigms which may fail to provide usable direction for policy and change; but two other factors may be more salient. One, the interest and funding support provided by National Institutes of Education (BIE) and two, the retrenchment in faculty positions by researchoriented administrations. While these trends provide great opportunities for significant contributions by anthropologists and other trained researchers, they are also times of peril for the discipline. Ethnography as method is escpaing the control of the discipline and is being increasingly seen as a "quick and dirty" technique for those who are incapa.ble of research using other techniques. If this trend continues uncontrolled, it may result in discreditation of ethnography as a research method and loss of funding opportunities and loss of credibility for the discipline as a whole. This paper reviews the situation in the field, makes suggestions for the training of ethnographers, and suggests directions for establishing some quality control.
GAIL MARSHALL (St. Louis PUblic Schools) THE RIGHTS OF PASSAGE: A DESCRIPTION OF DOMINANCE PATTERNS AMONG NURSERY SCHOOL CHILDREN Observations of a class of nursery school children were conducted for five months. A record was made of the activities of the children engaged in, and of the strategies the children used in accomodating themselves to an open space classroom. The principal finding of the study was that the children's behavior was similar to types of animal behavior described in ethnographic animal studies. Specifically, children rarely spoke to one another, but the dominant children used a wide variety of motions to protect their turf. The non-dominant children also used a variety of motions to gain the attention of the dominant group, and thus gain access to the dominant group and their space. The paper concludes with the suggestion that while open space classrooms may be founded on the ideal that all children gain access to all activities, in fact children's ability to gain access to, and maintain, space in those classrooms is limited by their level of dominance.
SHEPARD KRECH, III (George Mason) FORMAL EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC CHANGE IN THE NORTH AMERICAN SUBARCTIC This paper explores the determinants of changes in economic orientation in a Northern Athapaskan community in the Canadian Subarctic. During the period 1950-1970, the Athapaskan Kutchin abandoned a bush orientation in favor of the settlement and its wage labor and welfare alternatives. This change has been most marked during winter, when traditionally (post-contact), Kutchin focused their activities on fur-trapping and caribou hunting. By 1970, relatively few adult males were fur-trapping. The extent of this economic change is detailed. Then, the variables which in combination generated this change are examined. The variables are economic (fur market fluctuations and alternative economic opportunities), demographic (high birth rate, inmarriages and the growth of a settlement based metis population), social (a dislike of extended solitary conditions, preference for ingathering), and educational (formal education). The effects of formal education and linked family allowance payments have been especially pronounced, and in the post-1950 era, schooling and resultant settlement orientation arestrongly correlated. This conclusion is compared with other settings in the North American Subarctic.
JANICE HOGLE (Conn) STUDENT TO PROFESSIONAL RITES OF PASSAGE IN APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY The study of "rites of passage"--the stages through which an individual passes on the way to adulthood--has been a traditional anthropological pastime. Within our discipline, the process of "professionalization" is seen as a rite of passage during which the student is
transformed into the professional. The fieldwork experience, qualifying exams, and other steps towards the PhD are all parts of that process. Through the number of new PhDs each year remains comparatively high, the long-range prospects for academic employment continue to dismally diminish. Many of us will find that the time-honored rites of passage will
fail to "incorporate" us, but will strand us in "transition" after "separating" us from our former lives with the lure of a professional future. Non-academically employed anthropologists have frequently reached such a status only after having completed the traditional rites of passage towards academia. Their circuitous route toward non-academic profeasionalization has no official designation as an alternate rite of passage for those who would prefer a more direct line of training. Thus, the nature of the rite of passage itself is evolving as some training progams begin to focus on producing professional anthropologists who will not necessarily teach in universities. This paper explores theissue of program geared toward preparation for a non-academic professional career. It analyzes the complexities and contradictions of becoming (as opposed to bing) an applied, outside-the-academy anthropologist in a system oriented towards producing university-based scholars. Finally, it discusses the skills, knowledge, techniques and methods which facilitate the transition from student to applied professional.
JEAN J. SCHENSUL (Hispanic Health Council) ACTION RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS Applied educational anthropologists frequently find themselves involved in policy research, multi-cultural curriculum development and evaluation. While these roles represent a departure from the basic research mode, they are not embedded either in ongoing educational decision-making or unchanging community relations with educational institutions. This paper reports on three situations in which an anthropologist has worked with community residents to design and carry out research intended to generate institutional change. These include a community-based research and training program designed to assist Hispanic community residents and professionals to do action research in education-related areas, a training program to assist Puerto Rican agency staff to assess client needs through collection of research data and the evaluation of en elementary school with a organized group of parents. The multiple roles of anthropologist as research trainer, curriculum developer and advocate will be explored.
(603) STUDYING UPl: ANTHROPOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONS, AGENCIES AND LABOR GROUPS
DOUGLAS IRVING (Northern Arizona Comprehensive Guidance Center) CULTURE CONFLICT AMONG
THE COMPUTERS: A CASE STUDY IN COGNITIVE VARIATIONS AMONG MOADERN ORGANIZATIONS Organizational Charts and Management Information Systems (MISs) are ethno-sociological self-representations of formal organizations in complex society. The Data system is a refelction of the structure of the organization, and is indicative of the "Theory and Style" or organization managers. An analysis of a data system can make explicity the values and conceptual systems of the members of the organization. The aspects of organizational activity monitored and emphasized by the data system in turn shape the conceptual system of members of the organization. This paper examines the case of a "translation problem" between the data systems of two intermediate-scale modern organizations. While some technical problems were discovered in the process of resolving the conflict, the core of the problem was found to be due to divergent cognitive systems as operatienalized in the two data systems. Ray data elements were being classified by different attributes at distinct levels of the taxonomic hierarchies. The analysis leading to this discovery also revealed other ways in which the data systems reveal funcitonal differences between the two organizations. In addition to demonstrating that ethnographic methods may be successfully applied to high technology cultural features, the paper briefly discusses some opportunities suggested by this finding. Feedback systems of the tupe studied here represent consciously constructed self-images of social organizations, designed or promote system functioning and system change. The manner in which these feedback systems affect organization members, the strategies and floklore developed by members to affect the data system, and the effect of the data system on the organization as a whole offer a potentially rich areas for the anthropological study of modern organizations and complex society.