• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Note
 A summer school
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Flower families
 Definitions
 Buttercups
 Peas and clover
 Violets
 Roses and rose legends
 Some practical blossoms
 Curious things about plants
 Green things growing
 Only a bean
 Dorothy's promise, and how she...
 One little dandelion
 The tiger-lily's mission
 A closing sermon. Jack in...
 Back Cover






Title: A bunch of wild flowers for the children
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083214/00001
 Material Information
Title: A bunch of wild flowers for the children
Physical Description: vi, 139 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Whitcomb, Ida Prentice, 1843-1931
A.D.F. Randolph & Co ( Publisher )
John Wilson and Son ( Printer )
University Press (Cambridge, Mass.) ( Printer )
Publisher: Anson D.F. Randolph & Co.
Place of Publication: New York
Manufacturer: University Press ; John Wilson & Son
Publication Date: c1894
 Subjects
Subject: Flowers -- Guidebooks -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Wild flowers -- Guidebooks -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Botany -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1894
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
United States -- Massachusetts -- Cambridge
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Ida Prentice Whitcomb.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083214
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002239638
notis - ALJ0172
oclc - 36577000

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Note
        Page iii
        Page iv
    A summer school
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
    List of Illustrations
        Page viii
    Flower families
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Definitions
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Buttercups
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Peas and clover
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Violets
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Roses and rose legends
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Some practical blossoms
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Curious things about plants
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Green things growing
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Only a bean
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Dorothy's promise, and how she kept it
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    One little dandelion
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    The tiger-lily's mission
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    A closing sermon. Jack in the pulpit
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text









































The Baldwin Library
Univensiy
mn Of
RmBid














Ii r ~i

61%6qi.













Wheel.







S Trumpet.


Ray.


Gourd.


Cross.








Funnel.
Bell.


Capsule.




'- Pod.


Pome.


Drupe.


Flowers of various Shapes, and Fruits of different Forms.


Salver


Cone.









BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS



for te Cq1ilbren




BY

IDA PRENTICE WHITCOMB


NEW YORK
ANSON D. F. RANDOLPH & COMPANY
(INCORPORATED)
182 FIFTH AVENUE


























Copyright, 1894,

BY ANSON D. F. RANDOLPH & CO.
(INCORPORATED.)



















JOHN ib rsit, C ss:
JOHN WILSON AND SON, CAMBRIDGE, U.S.A.










NOTE.




JOHN BURROUGHS says, "Nothing is be-
neath notice; and the closer we look, the
more we shall learn about the ways and doings
of nature."
Very true is this of the flowers, for the study
of them never fails to be rewarding.
Children are always attracted by their per-
fume and bright colors, and delight to gather
them; but often only to scatter them thought-
lessly in their path; for it is difficult to give the
closer intelligent look, because the long names
and classifications of Botany are bewildering.
In the following pages, I have arranged a
tiny bunch of the commonest wild flowers found
daily in our summer rambles, and have endeav-





NOTE.


ored to tell their stories and to trace their family
resemblances, in a way which may prove simple
and suggestive. Such talks have brought me
many times into touch with the children, tempt-
ing them to examine more closely the curious
habits and exquisite dress of the flowers.
Of course it has been necessary to use a few
botanical terms, but there has been no attempt
to present the subject in a scientific way. If to
any child these chapters introduce new and
attractive flower friends, or make old ones yet
more familiar, in garden, field, or wood, and
then kindle a desire in later years to interpret
more fully the mysteries of the Land of Flora,

my aim will be fulfilled.
I. P. W.
BROOKLYN, N. Y.












A SUMMER SCHOOL.


Mrs. June is ready for school;
Presents her kind regards,
And for all her measures and rule
Refers to the following Card: -

To parents and friends, Mrs. yune,
Of the firm of Summer and Sun,
Announces the opening of her School,
Established in the year One.

An unlimited number received;
There is nothing at all to pay ;
All that is asked is a merry heart,
And time enough to be gay.


The lectures are thus arranged: -
Professor Cherry-Tree
Will lecture to the Climbing Class ;
Terms of instruction, -free.





A SUMMER SCHOOL.


Professor De-Forest Spring
Will take the class on Drink,
And the class in Titillation,
Sage Mr. Bobolink.

Young Mr. Ox-Eye Daisy
Will demonstrate each day
On Botany, on native plants,
And the properties of hay.

Miss Nature the class in Fun
(A charming class to teach) ;
And the Swinging Class and the Bird's-Nest Class,
Miss Hickory and Miss Beech.

And the Sleepy Class at night,
And the Dinner Class at noon,
And the Fat and Laugh Class, and Roses Class,
They fall to Mrs. June.

And she hopes her little friends
Will be punctual as the Sun ;
For the term, alas is very short,
And she wants them, every one.


SUSAN COOLTDGE.















CONTENTS.




CHAPTER PAGE
I. FLOWER FAMILIES ... . 9
II. DEFINITIONS .... ..... 13
III. BUTTERCUPS . . 21
IV. PEAS AND CLOVER . . 29
V. VIOLETS . . 37
VI. ROSES AND ROSE LEGENDS ... .45
VII. SOME PRACTICAL BLOSSOMS . 59
VIII. CURIOUS THINGS ABOUT PLANTS .69
IX. GREEN THINGS GROWING ..... .8I
X. ONLY A BEAN . . 91
XI. DOROTHY'S PROMISE, AND HOW SHE
KEPT IT .. . .... 99
XII. ONE LITTLE DANDELION .. 109
XIII. THi TIGER-LILY'S MISSION ... 123
XIV. A CLOSING SERMON. JACK IN THE
PULPIT . .... I.t














LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.




PAGE
FLOWERS OF VARIOUS SHAPES, AND FRUITS OF
DIFFERENT FORMS . .. Frontispiece.
ILLUSTRATION OF THE PARTS OF A FLOWER. 12
RANUNCULACEI . .. ... 20

LEGUMINOSiE . . . 28

VIOLACE .E . . . 36

ROSACEE . . . 44

SOME PRACTICAL BLOSSOMS. I. .. ... 56
SOME PRACTICAL BLOSSOMS. II. .... ... .57
SOME PLANTS WITH CURIOUS HABITS . 68
LEAVES OF DIFFERENT SHAPES AND KINDS .. 78

ROOTS, STEMS, AND BRANCHES .... 79
THE SEED AND ITS PLANTLET . 90

HORSE-CHESTNUT BUD ... . .98
COMPOSITIE . . . IO8

LILIACEE .............. 122

ARACEE . . . 132












A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS

FOR THE CHILDREN.

------ -


CHAPTER FIRST.

FLOWER FAMILIES.


SN bright summer days, in every country
ramble, we may discern new beauties,
and learn about the flowers.
It is true that we already know many of them
by their common names; but until we study
their dress, habits, and associations, they are
comparative strangers to us. So we take as
our text, that flowers, like children, belong to
separate families; and as children in the same





tO, A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

household often look and dress alike, so do
the flowers.
We compare a tulip and a lily, and trace
the resemblance, or a sweet pea and a bit of
wistaria; but we know at once that tulips and
sweet peas cannot be related.
Flower families are large, and resemblances
among their members are easily traced. Their
histories, too, are very brief, and there are no
two just alike. Leaf, bud, and flower appear,
next the ripened fruit, holding seed for a new
year's planting; and then the story begins over
again. Let us try to know more about the
flowers, and so more fully enjoy the loveliness
that graces the roadside, or that peeps from
the woody cleft.






N
N' '


( ,I ,






Section of flower, with i.
merous stamlens anll
merons pistils; the liat
held in its calyx, or ci


Stamen, throwing pollen
upon the pistil.


Illustration of the Parts of a Flower.


f }


c,. Section of 1 .
cal flower,
polysepalous ca,
.' lyx, or cup; polvi'
/ pe etalous .... 1'i
S/ or crown; rih,
.. 1 stamens, with fila
inents and ani-
thers; one pistil,
with ova .i 1.
and five -r,. ,
\' i


Perianth.











CHAPTER SECOND.


DEFINITIONS.


BOTANICAL names are difficult to learn,
but we must use just a few of them, in
order to describe properly the rose, lily, violet,
buttercup, and other flowers contained in our
little bunch.
The rose is called perfect, for it has all the
parts possessed by any flower. A green calyx,
or cup, with pointed sepals, holds its bright
corolla, which is divided into petals, not rose-
leaves, as children sometimes call them.
This corolla, or crown of the flower, is often
very gay in color. The lily is enclosed only by
a perianth, and hence we may rightly term it
imperfect. This perianth, when not of spotless
2





14 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

whiteness, is often dotted and striped in gor-
geous colors.
Yet within the corolla of the rose and the
perianth of the lily, often so showy in exterior,
are contained the needful working organs, -
stamens and pistils. The former have thread-
like filaments and yellow anthers. The anthers
are little bags, full even to bursting of yellow
pollen, once called by a child "the bread and
milk of the flowers," and then she added, be-
cause it's what they must eat to grow." The
rose has many stamens, while the lily has but
few; but those of the latter are so large, and
their anthers so full of pollen, that it seems as if
they would give out enough to satisfy the most
hungry of flowers. Within the stamens are
found the pistils. In the rose they consist of a
quantity of tiny, pouch-shaped sacs, each hold-
ing a single ovule; but in the lily there is but
one pistil, with three distinct divisions, ovary,





DEFINITIONS.


style, and stigma. The lower, pod-like part, the
ovary, holds the tiny ovules, in each of which is
concealed the true life of a future plant. Like
treasures safely hidden away, they lie carefully
protected in their little boxes, in the very heart
of the flower.
From the ovary extends the slender style,
and this broadens at the top into an open-
mouthed stigma, which usually is moistened by
a sweet, clammy juice.
It is interesting to watch the work of the
different flower-organs. Ovules must be fed, in
order to ripen into seeds. To this end, pollen
from a ripened stamen must, in some way, fall
upon a stigma, be digested there, and send
down through the style a juice which touches
and fertilizes the ovules in the ovary, that
in time they may become seeds.
Very frequently stamens are so placed that
they may not throw over the pollen; but for





16 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

doing this, Nature has provided other means.
Sometimes it is carried by the careless winds,
and sometimes by thoughtless insects, -both
doing an important work, of which they know

nothing. Often, too, the flower prefers the pol-
len of another flower, and by it is nourished;
and insects are busy carrying it to and fro
among the various blossoms, the commerce
of the flowers," as one has well described it.
Flowers, in return, secreting in their dainty cups
little glands of sweet nectar, are useful to the
insect. Thrusting its head into the heart of the
flower, the little creature unconsciously strikes
the stamens, powdering its body all over with
pollen while sipping its own dinner, and then off
it flies to the next blossom, and there, dusting
the pollen over the stigma, it again greedily
seeks more honey. Insects are unerring little
messengers, never going to the wrong flower
family.





DEFINITIONS.


The story of the mission of a single flower is
very brief, but how often and how silently it is
repeated in just one summer! The bright
corolla or more widely spread perianth soon
fades, stamens distribute their pollen and dry
away, sun and moisture do their work, and we
have the ripened fruits, in which ovules have
become seeds.
It is interesting to study flowers in blossom
time, when stamens and pistils are feeding
and growing; and then we almost forget about
them until, in the autumn, we gather pods, or
berries, or luscious fruits. The great downy
peach holds its one seed in a pretty box with
strong-ribbed walls; the plum encloses its treas-
ure in a plainer case; roses form red globes,
and so firm are they that even winter snows
and winds do not break them.
The poppy provides itself with a box, with
a beautifully carved lid, and it is full to the





18 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

brim of brown seeds. The chestnut-tree stores
her treasures in the burr, the oak in the acorn,
and beech-trees rustle with their hard-shell
caskets; and autumn with chilling frosts opens
them all.
The careless wild flower must do its own plant-
ing, and Nature makes it ready for its work, often
by a curious elastic arrangement, by which the
seed-boxes burst at the proper time, and then
the seeds are scattered.
Some seeds are provided with wing-like scales,
and others with a hairy pappus, under which
they float away under a silken canopy; they
alight, and plant themselves, seemingly at
random.
So appear, in beautiful order, flower, fruit, and
seed; and then Mother Nature does not close
the book, but only turns the leaf, and continues
the marvellous and unending story of growth.





















Anemone, with a bunch of
its ripe carpels, or fruits.


Columbine.


Hepatica.


Ranunculacem.












CHAPTER THIRD.


BUTTERCUPS.

"Who does not recollect the hours
When luring words and praises
Were lavished on those showy flowers,
Buttercups and daisies !'

T HUS sings the English poetess; and echo-
ing her words, we will first examii-;
one of the blossoms that "knits so strong _
tie with childhood's love."
The buttercup belongs to the Ranunculace:
family of flowers. Ranunculus is a long word,
but it means only "a little frog," and it i3 so
named because some of the blossoms live in
frog-ponds.
We love to see the buttercups dancing about
us in the summer field; no bouquet of wild





22 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

flowers seems complete without them; and
gathered in a bunch, they are almost as beau-
tiful as a mass of golden daffodils. The butter-
cup has but few petals, and at the base of each
one is a tiny, three-cornered honey sac. Insects
can find this more easily than children, and
from it they suck sweet nectar. Within the
petals are many stamens, and forming the
centre of the flower are many one-ovuled,
pouch-shaped pistils. The buttercup's life is
very short, for the petals soon fade, the sta-
mens give their pollen, and the pistils ripen
into a bunch of dry, one-seeded fruits called
" akenes."
This stylish little flower has a quaint relative
in the old-fashioned larkspur, the pride of the
country garden. Its many stamens and pistils
are aided in their fertilizing work by the insects.
The honey, as if to make the insect earn its
food, is placed in the ends of the long





BUTTERCUPS.


spurs of the petals; and so, while struggling
to get it, the little creature dusts itself all
over with pollen, and in helping itself feeds
the ovules.

"The clematis, the fragrant flower
That boasts the name of virgin's bower,'"

is also a Ranunculus; the word means a tendril,
or climbing plant. Its fruits are also akenes;
and, fledged with feathery tails, they take flight
in the wind, and plant themselves anywhere.
If we had not chosen the familiar buttercup
for our typical flower, we might first have
described the anemones, as they give the ear-
liest greeting to spring, -

The coy anemone, that ne'er uncloses her lips,
Until they're blown on by the wind."

The word "anemone" comes from a Greek
word meaning wind," from the idea that the
flowers open only when the wind blows. April





A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.


woods are soft with them, in their delicate

pink and white beauty; and near them we find

the purple hepaticas, so frail that they fade
at our tenderest touch.

A strong resemblance is traced among all

the blossoms of this family of flowers. They

have but few sepals and petals, and sometimes

one set is wanting; but there are always many

stamens and pistils, and in fruit they become

either pods, akenes, or berries.

In closing our sketch, we may learn from

the buttercup the lesson of contentment so

wisely taught by Sarah Orne Jewett: -

"Down in a field, one day in June,
The flowers all bloomed together,
Save one who tried to hide herself,
And drooped, that pleasant weather.

A robin that had flown too high,
And felt a little lazy,
Was resting near a buttercup
Who wished she were a daisy.






BUTTERCUPS.


" For daisies grew so straight and tall!
She always had a passion
For wearing frills around her neck
In just the daisy's fashion.

" And buttercups must always be
The same old tiresome color;
While daisies dress in gold and white,
Although their gold is duller.

Dear Robin,' said the sad young flower,
Perhaps you'd not mind trying
To find a nice white frill for me,
Some day when you are flying.'

"' You silly thing,' the robin said,
I think you must be crazy !
I 'd rather be my honest self
Than any made-up daisy.

"' You're nicer in your own bright gown;
The little children love you;
Be the best buttercup you can,
And think no flower above you.

"' Though swallows leave us out of sight,
We'd better keep our places;
Perhaps the world would all go wrong,
With one too many daisies.






26 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

Look bravely up into the sky,
And be content with knowing
That God wished for a buttercup
Just here, where you are growing.' "
















Clover. -


Sensitive Plant.


I' I

L.- .. -^ 1.. I
--" .,.-2L_' -" I. *' ;*, _- "
,,- I ^^ ~~ -
} '_ 7:_, '!;;-' J. )


Pea-blossom.


Ten stamens, and
pod-shaped pistil.


Leguminose.


Banner, wings,
and keel.











CHAPTER FOURTH.


PEAS AND CLOVER.


W E may think of an army with banners
when we look at a bunch of fluttering
sweet peas, or see the wistaria hanging grace-
fully over a stone wall. These blossoms belong
to the papilionaceous, or butterfly, branch of the
Leguminosse. As if in response to the name,
a child once called a butterfly a flying flower."
Among the members of the family are the
pea, bean, clover, and locust.
The pea has a small calyx, and a corolla of
five petals. One of them, the standard or ban-
ner, is so erect that every blossom seems to carry
its flag, which, in many cases, is as bright and
varied as our own Stars and Stripes; surely,





30 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

if the rose becomes our national flower, the sweet
pea must be our flag-bearer. At the sides of the
banner petal are two wings, carrying between
them a perfect keel. This is formed by ten sta-
mens united around a pod-shaped pistil, which
resembles a long canoe, satin-lined and water-
proof. Flowers thus formed are so beautiful
that it will repay us to examine their parts with
a pocket microscope.
The bright banner petal attracts the insect,
which alights suddenly on the keel and bursts
it open; and while the now freed stamens
dust the little creature with pollen, it enjoys
its dinner.
In visiting the fields in the evening with a
lantern, it is curious to study the changes which
have come over some of the flowers. Blossoms
which greet us in the day-time are drooping
and nodding, some even looking as if they
were fast asleep. We do not know the reason





PEAS AND CLOVER.


for this; perhaps it is to avoid the dew and
the night insects. The family of the Legumi-
nosse is indeed a drowsy one, and the clover,
its' most sleepy member. The blossoms hide
themselves nightly beneath the leaves, but in
the morning they straighten up -again, and are
wide-awake all day.
Many fanciful stories are told of four-leaved
clover, one that it will enable its wearer to
see the fairies; and yet another that if a lover,
on leaving his sweetheart for a far country, will
wear the leaf in his shoe, he will surely come
again. Truly good luck it brings to him who
finds it. Yet it often conceals itself, as if to
play hide-and-seek, and many fail to discover its
lurking-place. Have you, too, not tried and
been disappointed?
Belonging to another division of the Legumi-
nosae, is the sensitive plant, surely the irritable
member of the family, for it closes its leaflets
at our slightest touch.





32 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

Insects are very fond of the Leguminosae.
How strange seems the instinct that through all
ages has led them to select their food from
certain flower families, and to avoid those that
they do not like! Hovering about the blos-
soms in gay dress and apparent disorder,
they were really making the most careful
divisions of the plants long before books were
written. "Prehistoric botanists," Gibson calls
them.
The tendrils of the Leguminosae, like those
of other flowers, seem almost human in their
action; they climb, seeking a support; they
try one, -if it prove weak, they swing loosely
around it; and on they reach until a proper
twig is found, and to this they firmly cling.
The bean and hop always turn in different
directions, one to the right, the other to the
left, and no human power can make either
change its course.






PEAS AND CLOVER.


The Leguminosoe are found everywhere; in

the Holy Land the husks that the swine did

eat," with their great pods, belong to this

family.

Wherever we may wander in the summer,

we shall surely find some of the blossoms with

their characteristic banner-wings and keel; and

as we shell the beans for dinner, or put the

fragrant clover into our linen press, or gather a

bouquet of sweet peas, we may examine very

fully both flowers and fruit.

After dandelions, buttercups,
And after buttercups, clover !
One blossom follows another one,
Over, and over, and over.
And the sweet, satisfying green,
Is round about them all,
First to be here in the spring-time,
Staying last in the fall.
Just as God's love is first and last,
With human loves between,
Successive blossoms which he sends,
Through his all-present green.







34 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

"After dandelions, buttercups,
Then the daisies and clover;
One blossom follows another one,
Over, and over, and over.
But oh behind, beyond, around,
Between them and above,
Rises the satisfying green
Of everlasting love."






















Wood Viol,
Section of
capsule.


















Pansies.


Capsule.


Violaceee.













CHAPTER FIFTH.


VIOLETS.

They 're hastening up across the fields,
I see them on their way !
They will not wait for cloudless skies,
Nor even a pleasant day,
For Mother Earth will weave and spread
A carpet for their feet;
Already voices in the air
Announce their coming sweet.
Lucy LARCOM.

SHE Violaceas may surely boast as long a
name as any flower family; yet, notwith-
standing this claim to equality with statelier
blossoms, all the members are very coy and
timid, and so they have earned for them-
selves the winning title modest," the world
over. After the cold winter we wait impa-





38 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.


tiently for April, sure that she will bring to
us the wild violets in the fields and under the
hedges. Sometimes they are so hidden by
their hooded leaves that we first detect them
by their perfume; when they do greet us, it
is with a daintiness and loveliness peculiar
to themselves. The poet Herrick, who was
always writing about blossoms, says quaintly:

Welcome maids of honor !
Ye do bring in the Spring,
And wait upon her.
She has virgins many,
Fresh and fair; yet you are
More sweet than any."

The Violacese wear always the same form of
dress, and it is a graceful costume, all their own.
We see this whether we examine the proud

pansy, or pens6e, regally attired in purple and
gold, or her shy little sister of the woods in a
simple gown of pale blue. The five sepals, with
ear-shaped lobes, are attached to the five petals:





VIOLETS.


of these, the broadest and gayest is over two of
the sepals; each of the next two petals, colored
alike, rests on its own sepal; while the other
pair, plainer in color, are both attached to one
sepal. This arrangement gives rise to one
of the German names for the pansy, "the
little step-mother." The largest and brightest
petal is supposed to be the cruel mother, who
dresses gayly and seats herself haughtily on
two chairs; on the two sepals beside her are
seated her own children, while the two plainly
dressed little step-children are huddled together
on one seat, or sepal.
In the pansy -the largest petal is the most
brilliant, and it carries at its base a spur, or we
may call it a pot, of delicious honey. With its
showy yellow centre this petal makes a light-
house for the insect, showing it where to strike
for the honey-pot. Insects prove themselves
excellent little mariners, steering with straight





A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.


course for the centres of the flowers while busy
in their fertilizing work. The stamens of the
Violaceae are usually broad, their anthers united
around a club-shaped style. The ovary, when
cut open, appears through the microscope like
a tiny bird's-nest filled with eggs. Such is the
simple dress, alike in form, though different in
coloring, worn by the Violaceae.
The Arabs, with gentle courtesy, liken the
eye of a beautiful woman to a violet; and in
both art and literature many illustrations are
suggested by the blossom. Mythology, too,
has woven it into a pretty legend; it tells
us that Io, the daughter of Atlas, in fleeing
from Apollo was changed by Diana into a
violet, and that she always hung her head be-
neath her hooded leaves to avoid the scorch-
ing glances of Phcebus.
History pays many tributes to the Violacee.
"Violet-crowned Athens" always gave to the





VIOLETS.


blossom the first place in her floral wreaths;
and the Romans, on the "Dies Violaris,"
decorated the tombs with violets. Pliny speaks
of their virtue as a medicine, and their use in
all ages proves the truth of his words. The
blossom seems very unlike ambitious Napo-
leon, but he loved it, and was often called
" Corporal Violet; and when, after his exile to
Elba, loving hearts turned toward him, ladies
wore violets, and sketches were circulated, in
which the face of the Emperor appeared sur-
rounded by petals.
Wordsworth and Tennyson, in some of their
sweetest verses, express their love for the
violet; and the poem by Louise Chandler
Moulton, which we add, is always redolent of
the "shy little blossom."
I found a shy little violet root
Half'hid in the woods, on a day in spring;
And a bird flew over and looked at it too,
And for joy as he looked, began to sing.





42 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

"The sky was the tenderest blue above,
And the flower like a bit of the sky below;
And between them the wonderful winds of God
On heavenly errands went to and fro.

"Away from the summer and out of the South
The bird had followed an instinct true,
As out from the brown and desolate sod
Stepped the shy little blossom with eye of blue.

"And he sang to her, in the young spring day,
Of all the joy in the world astir;
And her beauty and fragrance answered him,
As the Spring and he bent over her."







~


Rose and rose-hips.


Apple blossom and fruit.


Rosacee.












CHAPTER SIXTH.


ROSES AND ROSE LEGENDS.


F LOWER families have their gay seasons,
and roses choose the early summer
months, in which to appear in their brightest
dress; for always

"June, with her cap crowned with roses,
Stands in her holiday dress in the field."

Among the Rosacee we find many of our
best-known flowers, one of which is the fra-
grant apple-blossom. Its pink and white petals
are short-lived; and when they fade, the sepals
of the green calyx close around the central
pistil, and the. tiny, urn-shaped ball, gorging
itself with pulp, commences to swell, first into
the littld>green apple with which small children
4





46 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

are often too sadly familiar, and later into a
large, ripe, luscious fruit.
Some kinds of berries belong to this family.
After the flower fades, a quantity of small, one-
seeded pistils, or carpels, ripen into pulpy seed-
bags, and in one strawberry we eat a bunch
of little red fruits, each holding its straw-
colored seed; in the raspberry and blackberry
the bags are in the form of balls or knobs.
Birds eagerly peck at these seeds in their pulpy
deposits, and often carry them away and plant
them in distant regions. The fragrant, luscious
Rosaceae have many insects devoted to them.
There is a special moth which hovers about
apples and cherries; and unfortunately it knows
them as well as we, always selecting these fruits
in which to deposit its eggs.
Among the numerous blossoms, the wild rose
shall be our typical flower, for in it we find many
family traits. Its calyx holds five bright petals;





ROSES AND ROSE LEGENDS.


within these a circle of golden-tipped stamens
surround the pistils or carpels. The fading flower
gives place to the ripening fruit, which in time
becomes a hip. The contrast, between the wild
rose in its purity and innocence, and its gaudy
sister of the garden, is striking; the latter is so
changed by cultivation that many of its stamens
are turned to petals, while others are in a state
of transition. In the green rose, stamens have
turned not only into petals, but also into leaves.
It seems very difficult to decide about our
national flower. Committees have been ap-
pointed from societies of florists and from
educational associations, and even children in
the public schools have cast their votes. Eng-
land has her rose, Scotland her thistle, Ireland
her shamrock, and France her lily; and surely
our great Republic should not have delayed
so long before choosing a flower. Some have
selected the pansy, others the trailing arbutus,





A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.


and yet others the golden-rod. The last is
a true emblem of democracy, for it grows
everywhere, careless of soil and surroundings;
and being a Composite, every stem holding
tiny florets, it seems fitly to represent many
States in one." Yet, with all that can be said
in its favor, the rose thus far has claimed the
most votes. All honor to our beautiful queen
of the field and the roadside!
It is said that nowhere have roses bloomed so
luxuriantly as in China; and the gardens of the
Emperor of the Flowery Kingdom are most
gorgeous. A large revenue is yearly obtained
from rose-water, and it is used only by the
nobles. Among the poorer classes, rose-leaves
are sought as amulets, and a bag of them hung
over the door is said to keep away evil spirits.
Rose-water is sent from Persia to all parts of
the world; and from Syria, the "Land of
Roses," comes both the Damask rose and the





ROSES AND ROSE LEGENDS.


Damson plum, each taking its name from
Damascus.
There are many stories and legends about
the rose, for it is perhaps used in history, art,
and literature more than any other flower.
Greeks and Romans made it their special
emblem of pleasure. We are not sure of the
origin of sub rosa," but we know that at the
Roman feast, garlands were festooned over the
table, and any secret told beneath them must
never be repeated. Nero caused showers of
roses to be sprinkled over his guests, and the
even more horrible Heliogabalus sometimes
suffocated his enemies with the petals.
In English history, in the fifteenth century,
we read of the terrible Wars of the Roses, in
which red and white roses were the emblems;
and the strife ended only when Henry the
Seventh united the rival Houses of York and
Lancaster.





A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.


From such scenes we turn with pleasure
to saintly legends; for in art the rose is the
emblem of love, wisdom, and innocence. The
Virgin is "The Rose of Sharon;" and about
the lives of Saints Cecilia, Dorothea, and
Elizabeth cluster sweet stories. Saint Cecilia,
the patroness of music, invented the organ,-
by which instrument alone could she express
the music of her soul. Through her influence
the noble Valerian was converted, and after his
baptism they knelt together, and were crowned
by an angel with immortal roses, which bloom
only in paradise.

The story of Saint Cecilia seems very real
when we visit her tomb, and the scene of her
martyrdom, in the church at Rome which bears
her name. Again we feel her influence as we
gaze at Raphael's picture at Bologna, where,
dropping her instruments of earthly music, she
is entranced by the heavenly.





ROSES AND ROSE LEGENDS.


"Glory celestial o'er thee shall play,
Roses eternal thy crown for aye."

Saint Dorothea was another Roman maiden,
and when asked, as she was about to be mar-
tyred, to give to a gay young friend some
fruits from the garden of paradise, she sent a
basket given her by an angel, holding three
roses and three apples, and Theophilus was
converted.
But perhaps the romance of roses in the
legend of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary is love-
liest of all. She was-good to the poor, but her
husband Ludwig did not care for them. When
he was absent, she devoted herself to charitable
works. One day, when taking food to the hun-
gry, Ludwig approached and asked what she car-
ried. She pressed her robe very closely around
her, and lo! when she opened her skirt, it was
filled with exquisite red and white roses; for
a miracle had produced them from the bounty





A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.


which she was carrying to the sick. Then a
halo of glory surrounded Elizabeth; Ludwig
took a rose, and went on his way, pondering

on the mercies of God.
Literature is full of the love and sentiment

that cluster around the rose; and Herrick's
little poem,-
Gather ye rosebuds while ye may,
Old Time is still a flying,"--

brings to the maiden of to-day as true a warn-
ing as to the one of two hundred years ago,
to whom he dedicated so many blossoms.
We travel through the Trossachs in June,
and find

The rose, in all her pride,
Painting the hollow dingle's side'"

as profusely as when Scott described it in
The Lady of the Lake," through which poem
the perfume of "wild rose, eglantine, and broom "
will ever linger.





ROSES AND ROSE LEGENDS.


In closing our sketch, we lay aside all art

and sentiment, and, with the children of a

hundred years ago, draw a lesson from quaint

Dr. Watts: -

How fair is the rose what a beautiful flower!
The glory of April and May!
But the leaves are beginning to fade in an hour,
And they wither and die in a day.

Yet the rose has one powerful virtue to boast
Above all the flowers of the field;
When its leaves are all dead, and fine colors are lost,
Still how sweet a perfume it will yield.

Then I 'll not be proud of my youth or my beauty,
Since both of them wither and fade,
But gain a good name, by well doing my duty,
That will scent, like a rose, when I 'm dead."

















". W


Shepherd's-purse, with pouch-
shaped pod, called a silicle.
Cruciferce.


Brunella, with lipped-corolla.
Labialce.


Mustard blossom, with creeping rootstock,
and its ripened pod, called a silique.
Crucifer(e.


Some Practical Blossoms.



















Trailing Arbutus.
Ericaceae.


Chickweed, with star-shaped blossom. Wild Carrot blossom.
Caryophgllacece.





Some Practical Blossoms.












CHAPTER SEVENTH.


SOME PRACTICAL BLOSSOMS.


SOME flowers cannot call to their aid
poem or legend to make them inter-
esting, but they are so useful that we admire
them, and have added a few, feeling sure that
they will be recognized as old friends, we meet
them so constantly in our country rambles.
Almost anywhere, in the grass or by the
roadside, the short, close spike of the purple
brunella lifts its quaint head. The word comes
from the German for quinsy," and the French
have a proverb, -"No one needs a surgeon who
keeps prunelle." We, too, know its value, and
call it "self-heal," or heal-all." The Labiat@e
family, of which it is a member, is a very im-





60 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

portant one, and it has furnished the world
with many flower doctors. It claims among
its blossoms all the mints; and oils and drugs
from them fill the medicine-chests of many
old-fashioned country households. Milton in
his L'Allegro speaks of

"Herbs and other country messes
Which the neat-handed Phyllis dresses."


In these Labiate flowers the corolla is lipped,
resembling the mouth of an animal; from
between the lips dangle the stamens, and the
fruit holds four tiny nutlets. The stem is four-
sided, and the flower has an aromatic odor.
Another blossom, the mustard, we add to our
bouquet, and also to the medicine-chest, for
even its name means "to blister." Although
so democratic that we often find it revelling
in heaps of ashes and broken glass, yet it is
graced by the attractive family name of the Cru-





SOME PRACTICAL BLOSSOMS.


ciferae, cross-bearers," the four petals being
arranged like a Maltese cross. The pale yellow
flower is known easily, whether we find it tall
and loosely branched, or smaller and gathered
into a close cyme. There are always four
petals and six stamens; the fruit is a kind of
pod, and the stem has a pungent taste. An in-
teresting member of the Crucifera, to be found
everywhere, is the shepherd's-purse, so called be-
cause its tiny pod resembles a leather pouch.
Among all flower families, resemblances in
form and habit are constantly suggesting names
for blossoms and fruits. The wild geranium, for
example, whose showy blossoms brighten the
woods and shaded roadsides in the early sum-
mer days, takes the name of crane's-bill," from
the fancied resemblance of its fruit to the beak
of a bird. And chickweed is stellariaa," be-
cause of its exquisite, star-shaped flower. How
thoughtlessly we pass this so-called weed! and
5





62 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

yet its every tiny blossom is as wonderful an
evidence of divine power as the brightest star
in the sky. Cool and shaded places are its
chosen haunts, and it is a tempting treat for
the chickens and chickadees.
Another flower family, difficult to examine in
detail, is styled the Umbellifera, because the
flowering is so umbrella-like. The wild carrot,
one of its blossoms, is known to every one.
How crisp and fresh we find it in the earliest
weeks of summer; and then, later, how forlorn
it looks by the roadside, scorched by the blaz-
ing sun, and so covered by dust, that it loses
entirely the cobwebby appearance which has

given to its delicate flowers the title, "Queen
Anne's lace." As the carrot goes to seed, its
clusters become concave, and resemble very
closely a bird's-nest; the farmers call it a
vicious weed, for it is almost impossible to
root it out. There are many varieties of the





SOME PRACTICAL BLOSSOMS.


Umbellifera; among them are caraway, parsley,
and parsnips.
Our chapter has been so full of pungent
odors and medicinal flavors that we must close
it with a bit of sweetness brought to us by the
flowers of the Ericacea, or Heath family.
Among them is the trailing arbutus, always
the glad sign that the winter is past," and
"the time of the singing of birds is come."
In New England it is the mayflower, the first
flower to welcome the Pilgrims after their bleak
and desolate winter.
In what a sweet poem has our "Quaker
Poet," himself a lover of bloom and beauty,
woven the story of the joy and gratitude of
our sturdy forefathers: -


"Yet, God be praised! the Pilgrim said,
Who saw the blossoms peer
Above the brown leaves, dry and dead,
'Behold our mayflower here!






64 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

"' God wills it here our rest shall be,
Our years of wandering o'er;
For us the Mayflower of the sea
Shall spread her sails no more.'

sacred flowers of faith and hope,
As sweetly now as then
Ye bloom on many a birchen slope,
In many a pine-dark glen."

In flowers of the Heath family the corollas

have either four or five lobes, or the same
number of petals, and either five or ten sta-

mens; while the tiny ovaries already suggest

in shape and number of cells the ripened blue-

berry or wintergreen berry.
A prominent member of the family is the

heather, and its purple is a characteristic fea-
ture in the Scottish landscape. The moun-

taineer sleeps on his couch of heather boughs;
with them he thatches his roof, and he uses the
peat for fuel. Irving, in describing a ramble
with Scott, tells of the poet's fondness for the





SOME PRACTICAL BLOSSOMS. 65

gray mountains and wild border country of his
native land, and quotes him as saying, -
"When I have been for some time in the rich
scenery about Edinburgh, I begin to wish my-
self back again among my own honest gray
hills; and if I did not see the heather at least
once a year, I think I should die "













Ii ,' \








Plant, with insect
partner.


Pitcher Plant,
Sarraceniacece.


Water Lily,
Nymp/hIceai,.


Mountain Laurel, Orchid,
Ericacece. Orchidacece.

Some Plants with Curious Habits.


Fj-inrpfl Gonftitn,











CHAPTER EIGHTH.


CURIOUS THINGS ABOUT PLANTS.

PLANTS have very curious habits, and really
seem to sleep, eat, drink, breathe, and
turn to the light with almost the instinct of
animals; and birds and insects are their partners.
Some are so large that a hundred people may
stand on one stump; others so small that we
examine them through a microscope. Again,
some live thousands of years, and others but a
few hours. Even a brief study will reveal a
few of their strange ways; for Nature is often
frolicsome, playing astounding freaks.
Many plants are unerring weather prophets,
for theii closing is a sure sign of rain; and as
Linnaeus says, some serve as time-pieces, since





70 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

we may almost tell the hour of day by watch-
ing their changes. For example, -the morn-
ing-glory opens at dawn, the star of Bethlehem
at ten, the ice-plant at noon, the four o'clock,
of course, at four; and the water lily closes at
sunset, sinking beneath the water for the night,
and then floating upward, and opening again in
the morning to greet the new-born day.
Plants which open at night are commonly
white or yellow, and have usually a strong
fragrance, so that they are easily found by
the insects that are prowling around. It is
fascinating to watch their unfolding, slowly,
as if impelled by an unseen force. The moon-
flower expands in a few seconds; while the
petals of the evening primrose are so hooked
into the calyx that it sometimes takes much
longer to free themselves, and spread out into
full beauty.
We examine now some of the "beef-eaters,"





CURIOUS THINGS ABOUT PLANTS.


as they are often called. Among these, the
pitcher-plants always excite wonder; along the
edges of the pitcher are honey-glands, just
arranged, it would seem, to attract the care-
less insect. Its story is short; it alights, is
lured into the trap, from which it never escapes.
In the island of Ceylon these plants are
named monkey cups," because the little
pitchers, which are kept open when it rains,
are useful to the thirsty monkeys; for they
raise the lids most skillfully, and take a drink.
The innocent-looking sundew is another snare;
but its beauty is often marred by the dead insects
sticking to it. It has hairs fringing its edges,
which exude tiny secretions of glutinous fluid;
but these specks, glistening like dew-drops,
prove both enticing and fatal to the confiding
creature. We watch it gayly sipping the sweet-
ness; soon comes the struggle; the hairy ten-
tacles close around it, its fate resembling





72 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.


that told in the woful story of "The Spider
and the Fly."
But of all "beef-eaters," the "Venus's fly-
trap" has the most ingenious contrivance for
taking its prey. This is a curious trap at the
end of the leaf, always ready for the hapless
victim. The insect is drawn within, crushed
to death, and quickly converted into juice to
feed the plant.
Cross-fertilization is one of the most remark-
able things about the flowers. In very many
of them the stamens are so situated that they
cannot throw pollen over into the pistils; and
so the insect, completely dusted with it, carries
it sometimes from the stamens to the pistils of
the same flower, and again to those of another
of a similar variety, for very often, as we
know, flowers are fed with the pollen of their
neighbors. Insects are always busy in this
work, their instinct, strange to say, showing





CURIOUS THINGS ABOUT PLANTS.


them that pollen must reach the stigmas, or
ovules never can ripen into seeds.
In many plants, Nature has arranged ingenious
ways, by which insects are dusted with pollen
while in quest of honey. The Kalmia, or
American laurel has its anthers secreted in
tiny pockets of the corolla; the touch of the
insect suddenly releases them; they spring
forward, and dust at once both stigma and
insect.
Mountain plants are interesting in their
habits. It is said that in Alpine regions the
delicate fringed gentian turns back its petals
with the sun, and shuts them with the snow-
storm, and that often in one day it opens and
closes several times. The snow-plant of the
Yosemite regions is found in most gorgeous
coloring eight thousand feet above the sea-
level; the contrast between its brilliant red
blossoms and the dazzling whiteness of the





74 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

snow is most beautiful. Another contrast,
found in mountain regions, though of much
quieter coloring, is perhaps as striking. Some-
times in partial clearings, charred and still
retaining the odor of the burning, are found
delicate ferns of the richest green, growing with
the purple fireweed. Both spring right out of
the dense blackness, all the brighter for their
dismal surroundings. Surely we may learn the
beauty of the cheerful word and loving deed
put into a life shadowed by care and sorrow.
It would be difficult for the child to study the
habits of the smaller water-plants; but the way
in which the seeds of the pond-lily are dis-
persed is both peculiar, and easy to know.
The flower produces its seeds under water, in a
thin bag filled with air, -this acting as a sort
of float, or life-preserver. Directly this is re-
leased from the mother plant, it rises to the
surface and drifts away, driven by wind or





CURIOUS THINGS ABOUT PLANTS.


current; presently it bursts, the seeds sink into
the mud, and there, hidden away, they make
ready to germinate.
A famous botanist has compared orchids to
people, in their various mimicking forms and
hues of dress. They are indeed surprising and
charming, and may fitly be called "the fancy-
dress party of the floral world," since all are
robed in such fantastic costumes, and act as if
wishing to play some unusual part. In form
they imitate many living things, such as ants,
bees, and spiders; and then, as if to resem-
ble birds and butterflies more closely, some live
high in the air, hanging loosely, and dangling
their naked roots. The pouch of sweet honey
is always provided for the insect partners which
are so necessary to their growth.
Many illustrations might be added, showing
the peculiarities of plants; perhaps, however,
enough has been said to incite young people






76 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

to study more earnestly the individualities of
such flowers as come in their way.

"In all places, then, and in all seasons,
Flowers expand their light and soul-like wings,
Teaching us, by most persuasive reasons,
How akin they are to human things."















































Palmate, with
leaflets.


Arrow.


Leaves of Different Shapes and Kinds.


Heart.








Oblong.















Branching.


p-shaped. C





















Branch, with terminal
and lateral buds.


Thread-like.


one-shaped.








Cornm or solid bulb.


Stems.


Roots, Stems, and Branches.











CHAPTER NINTH.


GREEN THINGS GROWING.


SE know full well that the
"Pit, pat, patter, clatter,
Sudden sun, and clatter, patter,"

of the April rains, will give us, in due time, the
" bursting bud and smiling flower." Then is

"The beautiful world, so fair and free,
Full with its wonders to hear and see,

Sweet to think it is ours indeed! "

The little bunch of flowers which we have
examined should have a fit setting of growth
and greenness: and we add a few facts about
seeds, roots, stems, buds, and leaves.
Seeds vary in size, from those as large as a
cocoanut to others so tiny that we discover them





82 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

only through the microscope; and yet always
the miniature plantlet is held within. Some-
times this is kept alive for thousands of years,
as has been proved by the germination of seeds
dropped from mummy cases.
John Keble says: -

"We scatter seeds with careless hands,
And dream we ne'er shall see them more;
But for a thousand years their fruit appears
In weeds that mar the land, or healthful store."

Some seeds have hooks which hold them to
the ground; and others are carried by birds
that plant them in far-away climes. Many a
flower, blossoming in some land to which by
nature it is a stranger, owes its growth there
to a gay and thoughtless bird. Seeds are very
persistent things. A story illustrating this is
told, in England, of the old Findern family. No
record could be found of its history, either in
stone or church annals; but the Findern flowers





GREEN THINGS GROWING.


which Sir Godfrey had brought, hundreds of
years before, on his return from the Crusade to
the Holy Land, yet bloomed on the terrace
of the ruined castle, and the sexton said, It's
all we have of the Finderns, their flowers, -
and do what we may, we cannot get rid of
them."
When the plantlet first bursts from the seed, it
sends downward little roots, which perform two
duties. They hold the plant firmly in place,
and draw food from the soil through their
hungry mouths. The roots grope in the earth,
usually in gray working-dress, while leaves and
blossoms are gathering beauty and vigor from
air and sunshine.
Some plants have one central root, shaped
perhaps like a cone, turnip, or spindle, while
others have a bundle or net-work of far-reach-
ing fibres. Sometimes roots are pushed out
into the air; and many kinds live on other





84 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

plants. The mistletoe gathers from the tree
which it embraces the nourishment for its white
berries and shining leaves. The thief-like
dodder trails its yellow roots, and tangles them
around everything which it meets,--a most
uncomfortable plant to stumble upon in the
woods.
While the radicle sends roots down into the
ground, the stem, bearing its one or two seed-
leaves, pushes up, its mission being to lift
into the air and hold there leaves and flowers
and fruits. Stems assume all positions, some
even weakly creeping along above the ground,
while others run beneath the earth, making
there a kind of iootstock; and on this tubers
may grow,- of which the potato is a common
illustration.
The bulb is a kind of rootstock, very short
and thick, and sometimes enwrapped in scales.
From the History of Holland, in the Seven-





GREEN THINGS GROWING.


teenth Century, there has come to us a famous
story of tulip bulbs. It tells us that they
had become so valuable that it was the
fashion to speculate in them, to the neglect
of all other business, and that at one time
they sold even for five or six thousand dollars
apiece. But -the "tulip mania," like other
speculations, soon passed; prices fell, and for-
tunes were lost as speedily as they had been
gained. But even now the finest tulip blos-
soms that grace our American parks and gar-
dens are raised from bulbs imported from
Holland.
Stems may be either exogenous, outside
growing," or endogenous, "inside growing."
Those of the first kind are formed of bark,
wood, and pith; and we may know the age of
a tree by its number of woody rings, for a
new one forms every year. In such plants
the leaves are usually net-veined, the parts of





86 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

the flowers are in four or five divisions, and the
seed carries in its embryo plantlet two seed-
leaves.
Endogenous stems, on the contrary, have no
circles of different growths, but are cellular
throughout, the leaves are usually parallel-
veined, the parts of the flowers are generally
in three divisions, and the seed carries but one
seed-leaf. If we examine through the micro-
scope sections of the stems of a rose and of
a lily, we may at once recognize the difference
between exogenous and endogenous.
The long stems of water-plants allow the
blossoms to float carelessly in the sunshine,
while they, acting like ropes, moor themselves
to roots in the ground.
Buds are of all kinds, from the scaly ones of
winter, so carefully protected from the cold, to
the naked ones which appear in spring and sum-
mer. They are supposed to spring from the





GREEN THINGS GROWING.


axils of the leaves; but they play all kinds of
tricks with the plant, appearing often in most
unexpected places.
A careful examination of leaves proves them
to be most interesting; and they especially at-
tract us by their many and curious shapes. To
the careless glance, all kinds may seem similar;
but search for varieties, and the number is
surprising. So strongly do the leaves resem-
ble objects familiar to us, and from which
they have borrowed their names, that we are
at once impressed with the likeness. We easily
discover the heart-shaped," spear-shaped,"
"wedge-shaped," and others, as shown on the
page of illustrations. Leaves delight us, too,
by their wonderful veining, and by their rich
and varied coloring.

So, if we will, we may study the green things
growing," seeds, roots, stems, buds, and leaves,
and if we could know the process which goes






88 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

on in just one plant from the time it first springs

from the ground until it deposits its own seed,

we should indeed be wise.

Tennyson wrote: -

"Flower in the crannied wall,
I pluck you out of the crannies;
Hold you here, root and all, in my hand,
Little flower; but if I could understand
What you are, root and all, and all in all,
I should know what God and man is."









Bean. Bean, holdimg
tillny pla tl;i.















The plantlet, with radicle or root, two seed-leaves or cotyledons, and
plumule of two tiny leaves folded within them.
















Seeds showing embryo, surrounded by the starchy nourishment on
which the tiny plantlets at first must feed.


The Seed and its Plantlet.











CHAPTER TENTH.'


ONLY A BEAN.


rTHE Botany class gathered around the table,
and ten pairs of bright eyes gazed in dis-
appointment upon one dirty bean.
The children had just commenced the study
of flowers; they had learned about petals, and
stamens, and pistils, and to illustrate these had
been shown bright pictures of roses and tulips;
and, of course, they expected something gay
and striking every time. No wonder, then, that
the speckled little thing on the table seemed
most unattractive.
We will talk about the bean to-day," said
Miss Lansing, as she took her seat; it is soiled,

1 A few practical experiences of an imaginary Botany
class.





92 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

for it has been for several days in a pot of earth,
because I wished it to swell before showing it
to you."
It does not look as if it would be very in-
teresting," said Florence, who, being the youngest
member of the class, always felt privileged to
express her candid opinion.
Wait a little," replied Miss Lansing. I
think that it will interest you more than any-
thing that we have yet talked about." The
class looked rather incredulous, but Miss Lan-
sing proceeded. Do you know that safely
tucked away in this bean is a tiny plantlet,
all ready to push its way out and begin to
grow?
It consists of two little white leaves on the
end of a miniature stem; and when it bursts
from the bean and sends down a root to hold
it to the ground, it will be almost strong enough
to care for itself.





ONLY A BEAN.


The bean contains sufficient nourishment,
however, to feed the plantlet until the roots
take food from the earth, and the leaves reach
up into the air."
All the children now were gazing intently at
the bean, as if they thought it would suddenly
spring open by fairy magic. The magic," how-
ever, proved to be Miss Lansing's penknife; and
ten heads were bent very closely together as she
carefully cut the bean and revealed the plant-
let. It was all there, just as she had said, -
the leaves folded together on the end of a
stout little stem.
"Does every bean carry a miniature plant
inside?" exclaimed Elsie.
"Yes," replied Miss Lansing, and every
other seed that grows holds one as well.
If I had left it longer in the pot, it would
have burst from its prison and commenced to
strike root; but it would have clung closely





A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.


to the bean, to be fed by it until it was able to
seek its own food from air and earth. After
that, the bean having done its work, and its
starchy nourishment being all gone, its empty
and useless coats would fall away."
I suppose that the leaves are very white
and weak when they first appear above the
ground," said Harry.
Yes," replied Miss Lansing, "like children
who live in cellars and crowded tenements, and
whose little pale faces often show the need of
fresh air and sunshine.
We shall now examine our plantlet through
the microscope; and in doing this, we may see
how perfect it is, even to the veining." And
then another pleasure awaited the class; for
how many delights the microscope always re-
veals to the young scientist.
When the children had taken their seats,
Florence exclaimed enthusiastically, This is,





ONLY A BEAN.


after all, quite the nicest lesson we have had,
it has been so full of surprises." And her feel-

ing was echoed by the other children.
"Now," added Miss Lansing, "if we had
more time, we might continue our story of the
bean until it grew and blossomed into papilio-
naceous flowers, with their banners, wings, and
keels, and later ripened into pods full of beans.
Examine some seeds yourselves," she added;
" seek the plantlet in a peanut, almond, or even
in the tiny apple-seed, and you will find that
it is always perfectly formed. Remember, too,
that some of the things that we most admire
in nature have as humble a covering as our
plain little bean. Its story reminds me of a
bit of poetry, which I will repeat to you in
closing: -

"A little flower so lowly grew,
So lonely was it left,
That heaven looked like an eye of blue,
Down in its rocky cleft.






96 A BUNCH OF WILD FLOWERS.

"What could the little flower do,
In such a darksome place,
But try to reach that eye of blue,
And climb to kiss heaven's face!


And there's no life so lone and low
But strength may still be given
From narrowest lot on earth to grow
The straighter up to heaven."




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