Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Invisibility of lions, etc.
 Bears in Britain, etc.
 Adaptation of colours, etc.
 Wolves, etc.
 Antiquity of horsemanship,...
 New species, etc.
 Rapacious birds, etc.
 Spaniards in Mexico, etc.
 Crocodiles, etc.
 Back Cover

Title: Curious and instructive stories about wild animals and birds
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083213/00001
 Material Information
Title: Curious and instructive stories about wild animals and birds
Alternate Title: Wild animals and birds
Physical Description: 340 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wolf, Joseph, 1820-1899 ( Illustrator )
W.P. Nimmo, Hay & Mitchell ( Publisher )
Morrison and Gibb ( Printer )
Publisher: W.P. Nimmo, Hay, & Mitchell
Place of Publication: Edinburgh
Manufacturer: Morrison and Gibb
Publication Date: [1895?]
Subject: Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animal behavior -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Behavior -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Prize books (Provenance) -- 1895   ( rbprov )
Genre: Prize books (Provenance)   ( rbprov )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Scotland -- Edinburgh
Statement of Responsibility: with illustrations by Wolf.
General Note: Date of publication from prize inscription.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083213
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002225132
notis - ALG5404
oclc - 229342886

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Half Title
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Title Page
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    Invisibility of lions, etc.
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Bears in Britain, etc.
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
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        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Adaptation of colours, etc.
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
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        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Wolves, etc.
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
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        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Antiquity of horsemanship, etc.
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
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        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    New species, etc.
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
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        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
    Rapacious birds, etc.
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
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        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
    Spaniards in Mexico, etc.
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
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        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
    Crocodiles, etc.
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
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        Page 323
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        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
    Back Cover
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
Full Text

S. *ttinns as' ? risF I

(Si.urcl S ntban Sc iool's.


for P tu i ,

., d ,

CL k r.' ra /",2 -"/.

The Baldwin Library

I II i': .






The mother leading away the young, the noble father covering the rear,
and the hold two hundred and fifty warriors in hot flight, dotting the ground
in the distance."-CuRlous AND INSTRUCTrvi STORIES, page 26.





"The study of the works of Nature is the most effectual way
to open and excite in us the affections of reverence and gratitude
towards that Being whose wisdom and goodness are discernible
in the structure of the meanest reptile."--IZAAK WALTON.




Invisibility of Lions.-Their Eyes.-Stormy Nights.-A cool
Lion.-Gregarious Spirit.-Mr. Gordon Cumming.-Voice
of Lion.-A pleasant Party.-Three jolly Lions.-First
Menagerie.-The Lion Tower.-" The Lions."-Anecdote.
-A Sick Lion.-Sir E. Landseer and his early Visitor.-
Ancient Remedy for an Invalid.-The Tongue in the Fe-
linse.-Stillness.-The Lion's Tail.-Man-eaters.-Fearful
Death.-Adventure of Captain Woodhouse.-The Gentle
Lion.-A Noble Lion.-The Retreat of the Leonidie.-
How to Face a Lion.-An Adventure.-Forbearance of
the Lion.-Mungo Park.-An Affectionate Captive.-An
Adventure.-Strength of Lions.-Pumas.-Ferocity of
Puma.-Edmund Kean's Puma.-Zoological Gardens .

Bears in Britain.-Our Ancestors and their Bears.-Bear-
baiting. Zoological Gardens. The Grizzly Bear. -
Strength of Grizzly Bear.-Anecdote.-Adventure.-Ur-
sine Interments.-Shooting Grizzly Bears.-Bears at the
Gardens. Operations for Cataract. A Chloroformed
Bear.-Operation on another Bear.-Arctic Expedition.-
A Crafty Intruder.-Lapland Hunters.-Mutual Polite-
ness.-The two Friends.-An Ill-assorted Couple.-An
Adventure.-A Narrow Escape.-Swedish Skalls.-An
Accident.-Jan Svenson.-The Bear and the Chasseur.
-A Scalp.-An Awful Situation.-The General and the
Bear.-Wolves and Bears.-A Swiss Myth.-The Oxford
Bear.-Tiglath-pileser.-An Ursine Undergraduate.-A
Bear in a Bed-room.-An Unexpected Visitor.-Tig on
Horseback.-A Bear among the Savants.--A Broken Heart 39


Adaptation of Colours.-Highland Tartans.-Varieties.-
Tempers.-Tame Leopards.-The Milliners' Friends.-
Fair Retaliation.-Anecdote of a Panther.-Sai and his
Keeper.-An Alarm.-Affection of a Panther.-Sai and
the Orang.-Short Allowance.-Mr. Orpen's Encounter.-
Tenacity of Life.-A Conflict.-Major Denham.-Lurking
Panthers.-Trapping a Leopard.-South African Leopard.
-Pleasant Surprise.-Tree Tigers.-Eager Sportsmen.-
The Tree Tiger and Artillerymen.-A Practical Joke.-
Scenery of the Orinoco.-An Agreeable Neighbourhood.-
Jaguar and Vultures.-Al Fresco Troubles.-A Bold
Thief.-Jaguar and Turtle.-Mode of Attack.-Sacrilege.
-Favourite Trees.-Leopards in Trees.-The Guacho
and the Leopard.-Narrow Escape.-Poisoned Arrows.-
A Rough Playfellow.-Advantage of Politeness.-Value
of Skins ........... .... 78

Wolves.-Origin of Dogs and Wolves.-Points of Differ-
ence.-Varieties. Ancient Superstitions. Myths. -
Charms.-Wolves in Britain.-Ancient Laws.-The Last
Wolf Cunning. An Unwelcome Visitor. A Clever
Performer.-A Sociable Animal.-Value of Skins.-Cross
Breed.-An Adventure.-Traps.-Wolf and Reindeer.-
Boldness.-Dogs killed by Wolves.-Cunning of Foxes.-
A Midnight Struggle.-An Affectionate Wolf.-Tussa.-
Theft of an Infant.-Taste for Pork.-An Awkward Pre-
dicament.-A Fierce Pig.-A Soldier devoured.-Cry of
the Jackal.-The Old Quarter-master.-An Attractive Fi-
gure.-The Sailor and the Beef.-Utility of Wolves 12

Antiquity of Horsemanship.-Bucephalus.-British War.
chariots.-Aboriginal Ponies.-Stone Horse-collars.-First


Racers.-Master of the Horse.-Arabians.-Lord Burgh-
isy.-Lord Herbert of Cherbury.-Speed of Horses.-Go-
dolphin Arabian.-Eagerness of Horses.-An Old Warrior.
-A Surprise.-First Horse in America.-A Domidor.-
Breaking a Horse.-South American Steeds.-Turning the
Tables.-Swimming.-Turkuman Horses.-A Heroine. -
Abd-el-Kadir.-Arab Maxims.-The Warriors of the De-
sert.-A Fight.-The Defeat.-A Complimentary Excuse.
-A Nice Distinction.-Mungo Park and his Horse.-A
Sad Loss.-A Noble Animal.-Robbors of the Desert.-A
Pet.-The Camanchees.-" Smoking" Horses.-" Char-
ley."-The Faithful Steed.-Wild Horses.-A BoldStroke.
-A Gallant Charger.-Corunna. -Nebuchadnezzar 153


New Species.-Ancient Knowledge of the Giraffe.-Pliny.
-Lorenzo the Magnificent.-Giraffe at Paris.-George the
Fourth.-Capture of Giraffes-Singular Procession. -Great
Attraction.-The First Birth.-Accident.-A Dainty Dish.
-Tongue of Giraffe.-Petty Larceny.-The Peacock un-
tailed.-Movements of Giraffe.-Gentleness.-Sir Corn-
wallis Harris.-First View.-A Disappointment.-Vexa-
tious Incidents.-Coolness of Hottentots.-Another Troop.
-Hostile Rhinoceros.-Hot Chase.-The Death.-A De-
serter.-Adaptation of Form.-Reflections .. .197


Rapacious Birds.-The Eagles of Antiquity.-C-esar's Stan-
dard-bearer.-Waterloo.-The Death of .Eschylus.-The
Maid of Sestos.-The Phoenix.-Flight of the Eagle.-
Gluttons.-Miserable Death.-Anecdote.-Golden Eagle.
-The Eagle of Westminster.-A Nocturnal Alarm.-A Ty-
rant.-An Uninvited Guest.-An Escape.-Tame Eagle.-
A Useful Neighbour.-A Mountain Larder.-The Cat-
Killer.--unting in Couples.-The Invocation.-Americ, ,

Indians.-Eagles and Reindeer.-The Garter.-Skua Gull.
--Crest of the Stanleys.- The Eagle's Nest.-The Child
Stealer.-A Brave Lad.-A Battle with a Turbot.-Acute
Vision.-Bald Eagle.-Wilson the Poet.-Niagara.-Ben-
jamin Franklin.-The Valiant Thomas.-The Devoted
Parents. -Australian Eagles.-The Future .. .229

Spaniards in Mexico.-Ancient Mexicans.-Feather Em-
broidery. Montezuma's Aviary. Gorgeous Array.-
Works of Art.-Distribution of Humming Birds.-Ra-
pidity of Flight.-Nests.-Courting.-Singular Bower.-
Actions of Polytmus.-Nest-raking.-Anecdote.-Mode
of Capture.-Witty Epitaph.---The Philosopher and the
Middies.-Pets.-Trochilus in Captivity.-Song.-Blue-
fields Ridge.-Gorgeous Scene.-Pugnacity of Humming
Birds.--A Combat. -The "Doctor Bird." -Favourite
Resort.-Tameness-A Bold Bird.-Interesting Birds.-
Notes for Ornithologists.-Tongue of Humming Bird.-
Birds and Spiders.-Mode of Taking Food.-Mr. Gould's
Collection.-Elegant Arrangement.-' The Trochilidw.'-
Domestication . . . .268

Crocodiles.-Ancient Writers.-Mode of Capture.-Sacred
Crocodiles.-Tentyrites.-Rare Book.-Indian Worship.
-Medicinal Virtues.-Crocodiles and Alligators.-Anato-
mical Peculiarities.-Teeth.-Nidification.-Crocodile and
Trochilus.-The Ziczac.-Crocodile Bird.-Hybernation.-
JacarBs of the Amazon.--Poachers.-Mr. Spruce.-Anec-
dote.-Search for Victoria Regia.-A Disagreeable Neigh-
bour.-The Battle.-The Death.-A Dainty Luncheon.-
Alligators and Dogs.-Mr. Waterton.-Riding on Croco-
diles.- -A Bold African.-Alligator Tank.-The Subaltern's
Sport.-Conclusion . . 0








"Thou makest darkness, and it is night, wherein all the beasts
of the forest do creep forth. The young lions roar after their
prey, and seek their meat from God.
"The sun ariseth, they gather themselves together, and lay
them down in their dens."-PsALM civ.

IT would be difficult to find language which more
simply and elegantly describes the habits of the Mon-


arch of the Forest than these words of the Psalmist,
and they are strictly in accordance with truth. Du-
ring the day, the lion lies concealed beneath the
shade of some thick, stunted tree, or buries himself
in a covert of lofty reeds or thick grass ; but when the
sun goes down, and the shades of evening fall, he
sallies forth to prowl during the hours of night. The
tawny colour of his hide is admirably adapted for his
concealment. Mr. Gordon Cumming (whose remark-
able work* contains the best information on the
habits of the South African wild animals,) states that
he has often heard lions lapping water at a less dis-
tance from him than twenty yards, and, although
blessed with the keenest vision, he was unable to
make out even the outlines of their forms. Their
eyes, however, glow like balls of fire, which may be
thus explained. In many animals, the inner surface
of the back of the eye presents a membrane called
tapetum lucidum, which, in the lion and cat tribe, is
of a yellow colour and brilliant metallic lustre, like a
concave mirror; it is the reflection from this which
causes the glare" of their eyes; thus are they pe-
culiarly fitted for nocturnal habits, but ill-adapted to
bear strong sunlight. Some travellers have described
what would certainly appear, at first sight, to have
been cowardly retreats on the part of lions; but
A Hunter's Life in South Africa.


doubtless, in the majority of instances where they
have turned tail on inferior antagonists, they were
conscious of the disadvantage under which they la-
boured from their eyes being dazzled by the intense
glare of an African sun reflected from the burning
sands of the desert.
It is on dark and stormy nights that
Through the gloom,
Loading the winds, is heard the hungry howl
Of famished monsters."
Then it is that the lions, like the witches of old, hold
their hideous revels! Then does it behove the tra-
veller to watch with unceasing vigilance, and, if in a
district populous with lions, he may esteem himself
fortunate should he escape with minor losses. The
sentry, as he walks his round, runs much risk of being
carried off:
"And while his thoughts oft homeward veer,
A well-known voice salutes his ear,"
in the terrific and heart-paralyzing roar with which
the lion springs upon his prey. The journal of the
Landrost Jah. Sterneberg, affords a painful example
of such a calamity.
The waggons and cattle had been comfortably put
up for the night, when about midnight they got into
complete confusion. About thirty paces from the
tent stood a lion, which, on seeing us, walked very


deliberately about thirty paces further behind-a small
thorn-bush, carrying something with him, which I
took to be a young ox. We fired more than sixty
shots at the bush. The south-east wind blew strong,
the sky was clear, and the moon shone very bright, so
that we could perceive anything at a short distance.
After the cattle had been quieted again, and I had
looked over everything, I missed the sentry from before
the tent. We called as loudly as possible, but in vain;
nobody answered, from which I concluded he was car-
ried off. Three or four men then advanced very cau-
tiously to the bush, which stood right opposite to the
door of the tent, to see if they could discover anything
of the man, but returned helter-skelter, for the lion,
who was still there, rose up, and began to roar. About
a hundred shots were again fired at the bush, without
perceiving anything of the lion. This induced one of
the men again to approach it with a firebrand in his
hand; but as soon as he approached the bush, the lion
roared terribly, and leaped at him, on which he threw
the firebrand at him, and the other people having
fired about ten shots at him, he returned immediately
to his former station; the firebrand, which he had
thrown at the lion, had fallen into the midst of the
bush, and, favoured by the wind, it began to burn with
a great flame, so that we could see very clearly into it
and through it. We continued our firing into it; the


night passed away and the day began to break, which
animated every one to fire at the lion, because he
could not lie there without exposing himself entirely.
Seven men, posted at the furthest waggons, watched
to take aim at him as he came out; at last, before it
became quite light, he walked up the hill with the
man in his mouth, when about forty shots were fired
without hitting him." The end was, that he made his
escape in perfect safety. In this narrative it is hard
to say which is most to be marvelled at, the wonder-
fully bad shooting of the men, or the cool, dogged
obstinacy of the lion. He seemed to be quite aware
of the sort of men he had to deal with, and to have
diverted himself with their fears. Not less than three
hundred shots must have been fired at him, and yet
unscathed he carried off the wretched man.
The late Sydney Smith, in his witty and able
'Sketches of Moral Philosophy,' thus argues, when
comparing mankind with the brute creation:-" His
gregarious nature is another cause of man's supe-
riority over all other animals. A lion lies under a
hole in a rock, and if any other lion happen to pass
by, they fight. Now, whoever gets a habit of lying
under a hole in a rock, and fighting with every gen-
tleman who passes near him, cannot possibly make
any progress. If lions would consort together,
and growl out the observations they have made about


killing sheep and shepherds, the most likely place for
catching a calf grazing, and so forth, they could not
fail to improve." Unfortunately for the argument, it
was based upon a fallacy, for the observations of Mr.
Cumming prove that lions live and hunt in troops,
and, for aught we know, may benefit by that very
gregarious spirit which the worthy Canon imagined
them to want. "It is a common thing," says Mr.
Cumming, to come upon a full-grown lion and lioness
associating with three or four large young ones, nearly
full-grown. At other times, full-grown males will be
found associating and hunting together in a happy
state of friendship; two, three, and four, may thus be
discovered consorting together." To that intrepid
sportsman, the grandest music was the roar of troops
of lions, as three or four of these advanced from
different quarters to the same watering-place, and no
description could more accurately convey an idea of
this terrible though sublime sound than this.
"One of the most striking things connected with
the lion is his voice, which is extremely grand, and
peculiarly striking. It consists, at times, of a low
deep moaning repeated five or six times, ending in
faintly audible sighs. At other times, he startles the
forest with loud, deep-toned, solemn roars, repeated
five or six times in quick succession, each increasing
in loudness to the third or fourth, when his voice dies


away in five or six low muffled sounds, very much re-
sembling distant thunder. At times, and not unfre-
quently, a troop may be heard roaring in concert, one
assuming the lead, and two, three, or four more, re-
gularly taking up their parts, like persons singing a
catch. Like our Scottish stags at the rutting-season,
they roar loudest in cold frosty nights; but on no oc-
casion are their voices to be heard in such perfection,
or so intensely powerful, as when two or three strange
troops of lions approach a fountain to drink at the
same time. When this occurs, every member of each
troop sounds a bold roar of defiance at the opposite
parties, and when one roars, all roar together, and each
seems to vie with his comrades in the intensity and
power of his voice."
The following powerfully drawn picture, conveys a
most accurate idea of the fearful banquets held in the
primeval forests of Africa, and at the same time is
full of interest, from the light it throws on the habits
of the carnivora. Mr. Cumming had shot three rhi-
noceroses near a fountain, and soon after twilight had
died away, he came down to the water to watch for
lions. With him was his Hottentot, Kleinboy. On
reaching the water, I looked towards the carcase of
the rhinoceros, and, to my astonishment, I beheld the
ground alive with large creatures, as though a troop
of zebras were approaching the water to drink; Klein-


boy remarked to me that a troop of zebras were stand-
ing on the height: I answered 'Yes,' but I knew very
well that zebras would not be capering around the
carcase of a rhinoceros. I quickly arranged my blan-
kets, pillow, and guns, in the hole, and then lay down
to feast my eyes on the, interesting sight before me; it
was bright moonlight, as clear as I need wish. There
were six large lions, about twelve or fifteen hymnas,
and from twenty to thirty jackals, feasting on and
around the carcases of the three rhinoceroses. The
lions feasted peacefully, but the hymnas and jackals
fought over every mouthful, and chased one another
round and round the carcases, growling, laughing,
screeching, chattering, and howling, without any inter-
mission. The hymnas did not seem afraid of the lions,
although they always gave way before them; for I
observed that they followed them in the most disre-
spectful manner, and stood laughing, one or two on
either side, when any lions came after their comrades
to examine pieces of skin or bones which they were
dragging away."
Lions will occasionally give chase to deer or buf-
faloes which have been wounded, and a very remark-
able "course" of this description occurred to Mr.
Oswell, an officer of the East India Company's service.
This gentleman had wounded a buffalo when shooting
on the banks of the river Limpopo in South Africa,


and with a companion was galloping in pursuit, when
suddenly three lions appeared, and, without observing
the sportsmen, gave chase to the buffalo, which held
on stoutly, followed by the three jolly lions, the sports-
men bringing up the rear; the lions very soon sprang
on the huge buffalo, and pulled him down, when a ter-
rific scuffle ensued; after admiring the fun for a short
time, the sportsmen thought it well to interfere, and
accordingly opened their fire on the lions: as these
were struck by the balls, they seemed to consider
hem as pokes from the buffalo, and redoubled their
attentions to him accordingly; at length two of the
lions were killed, and the third, finding the ground too
hot, made of, exceedingly puzzled at the unexpected
death of his royal brothers.
According to Pliny, Hanno the Carthaginian was
the first man to tame a lion:-" Primus hominum
leonem manu tractare ausus, et ostendere mansuefac-
tum, Hanno & clarissimis Poenorum traditur."
The reign of Henry the First saw the first mena-
gerie established in England; this monarch made at
Woodstock a park, walled round with stone, seven
miles in circumference, laying waste much fertile land,
and destroying many villages, churches, and chapels;
in the words of the old chronicler, "He appointed
therein, beside great store of deer, divers strange
beasts to be kept and nourished, such as were brought


to him from far countries, as lions, leopards, lynxes,
porpentines, and such other."
The origin of the "Lion Tower," in the Tower of
London, was a present from the Emperor Frederick II.
to Henry III. in 1235, of three leopards, to which he
assigned quarters in that fortress. It appears that, in
the reign of Edward III., one lion, one lioness, one
leopard, and two "cattes lions," formed the mena-
gerie, and were formally handed over to the custody
of Robert, the son of John Bowie.
In the reigns of the first three Edwards, the allow,
ance for each lion was sixpence a day, the wages oi
the keeper being three halfpence. At later periods
the office of keeper of the lions was held by some per-
son of quality about the king, with a fee of sixpence a
day for himself, and the same for every lion under his
charge. In 1657, there were six lions in the Tower,
and not less than eleven in 1708. On the establish-
ment of the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, the
animals were transferred to them by William IV.
It was a curious coincidence that one of the finest
litters of cubs whelped in the Tower, was born on the
anniversary of Lord Howe's victory, in 1794, and the
next litter was presented to the nation by the lioness,
on the 20th October, 1827, the day of the battle of
There were three very handsome young lions in the


Zoological Gardens, which were brought over from
Grand Cairo by the head keeper about ten years
since; he was anxious to obtain a fine female cheetah,
or hunting leopard, from a person who possessed it,
but he declined to part with it unless the cubs were
taken also; two were mere little playthmgs, scarce
bigger than good-sized kittens; the third, Sampson,*
was larger, and had been kept chained up, which he
resented exceedingly. During their voyage to England
the lion cubs were great favourites, especially with the
sailors, and, by way of a treat, they were now and then
favoured with a fowl. The door of the poultry hutch
would be opened, and out would fly a hen, cackling
and rejoicing at her liberty; in a second, however, a
cub would bound across the deck, make a spring, and
cut short the paean and the life of the poor hen to-
When newly whelped, the fur of the lion is brindled
with a deep brown, especially on the legs,-and there is
a line of the same colour running along the back; these
markings disappear during the second year. Some
time since, the Society lost a lion whose history was

This noble lion, sole survivor of the three, fell a victim to the
severity of the present winter; he was apparently quite well in
the evening of one of the bitterest December nights, and next
morning was found dead in his den. A post-mortem examination
disclosed the sad fact, that he had died from the intense cold, no
organic disease being detected. (January, 1861.)


remarkable. Two gentlemen, brothers, were crossing a
desert in Barbary, on camels, when suddenly a lioness
sprang on the foremost camel; the rider of the one
behind immediately fired two balls into her body with
fatal effect; on examining her it was discovered that
she was suckling, and two helpless young cubs were
found and secured; one died, the other was reared
and presented to the Gardens, where he fell a victim
to the scrofulous disease, which has deprived the So-
ciety of many of their finest animals. We saw him
the day before he died; he lay on his bacK with a deep
and gaping wound in his neck, which he had consider-
ably increased by licking with his rough tongue. It
was suggested that if it could be touched with lunar
caustic it might assist its healing. Why, sir," said
the keeper, "he'd be sure to bolt the caustic, for the
part is so sore, and he's so irritable, that he won't
allow nothing to come nigh him, but would bite at it
directly." Chloroform was suggested, but the diffi-
culty of applying it to a lion rendered savage by pain,
was the objection. Everything practicable was done,
but he died the next day.
Those who visited the Gardens some years ago, may
remember a remarkably fine and majestic lion, called
Albert. It is not generally known that he furnished
the subject for the picture by Sir E. Landseer, of the
"Desert," exhibited in 1849. We were greatly amused


at some of the criticisms passed on this fine portrait.
"That a dead lion!" said one, with a knowing look;
"I am sure he never saw a dead lion who painted
that." Some objected to the drawing, others to the
colouring; some had no patience with the background;
and a few, especially wise in their generation, consi-
dered the picture as a gigantic caricature. This pic-
ture, painful to those who, like the writer, had often
admired the magnificent proportions and majestic gait
of this noble lion when in health, and who recognized
in it a faithful delineation of nature, originated pretty
much as follows. The lion was attacked with inflam-
mation of the lungs and died; intimation was sent to
the most eminent zoologist of the day, with a request
to know if he wished to dissect it. Having had much
experience in the anatomy of lions, he declined the
opportunity, but suggested that it should be placed at
the disposal of the great artist. Accordingly, about
half-past five the following morning, there was a knock
at Sir Edwin's bedroom door.
"Halloo! who's there F"
"Please, sir, have you ordered a lion?" was the
"Ordered a what?"
A lion, sir: have you ordered a lion ? 'cos there's
one come to the back-door, but he doesn't know
whether you ordered him or not.'


"Oh, very well! take him in; I'll be down di-
rectly." And the artist, rightly supposing that some
friend had borne him in remembrance, but not having
the most remote idea whether it was a living or a de-
funct lion which had thus unexpectedly paid him an
early visit, hurried his toilet, and descending to his
back yard, beheld the grisly monarch stretched at
length upon the stones; a few minutes sufficed to
arrange his materials, and so struck was he with the
noble object before him, that he ceased not from his
work till the picture, as exhibited, was completed.
The veterinary art must have been rather low among
the Romans, if we may judge from the following ludi-
crous prescription for a sick lion, given us by Pliny.
"The lion is never sicke but of the peevishness of his
stomacke, loathing all meat; and then the way to cure
him, is to ty unto him certain shee apes, which, with
their wanton mocking and making mowes at him, may
move his patience, and drive him from the very indig-
nitie of their malapert saucinesse into a fit of mad-
nesse, and then, so soon as he hath tasted their bloud,
he is perfectly wel again; and this is the only help." *
To be licked by the tongue of a dog is a mark of
affection; but such a demonstration from a lion would
be productive of unpleasant consequences. The tongue
in the lion and tiger tribes is covered with a thicket
Holland's Pliny, chapter xvi.: ed. 1635.


of strong horny papills, the points directed backward,
fitting it rather for sweeping off fragments of meat
from bones, for which it is especially employed, than
for gustatory enjoyment or expression of endearment.
The sense of taste is very low in all the feline, of which
an example is presented in that favourite amusement
of cats, called dressing their fur." When changing
their coats the hairs are swept off in hundreds by the
rough tongue without causing the slightest annoyance,
whereas the presence of even a single hair in the hu-
man mouth, is notoriously unpleasant-simply from
the greater perfection of the nervous influence.
One of the most remarkable things connected with
the larger feline, is the absolute stillness with which
they, huge though they be, steal upon their prey. To
enable them to do this we fitd a special organization:
the strong movable erectile hairs called whiskers, are
connected with large highly sensitive nerves, so that
the slightest touch is instantly felt; by the aid of
these they steer their way in the darkness through the
thickets without rustling a leaf. Their heavy paws
also are muffled with soft fur, and their sharp claws
retracted in sheaths, so that their tread is absolutely
noiseless. When we consider the extraordinary acute-
ness of hearing and watchfulness in wild animals ge-
nerally, and the great fleetness of many, we can un-
derstand why these great carnivora are furnished with


such admirable means for surprising, as well as over-
powering, them.
The younger Pliny, whose work on Natural History
is full of information mixed up with the quaintest
stories, remarks that the test of a lion's temper is his
tail. "At first," says this writer, "when he entreth
into his choler, he beateth the ground with his taile;
when he growth into greater heats he flappeth and
jerketh his flanks and sides withall, as it were to
quicken himself, and stir up his angry humour."
Pliny, however, does not appear to have been aware
of the existence of a peculiarity in'the lion's tail,
which was known to Didymus Alexandrinus, was sub.
sequently denied, and rediscovered by Mr. Bennett in
1882. This is a claw at the tip of the tail, which, al-
though not always present, undoubtedly exists in the
majority of lions. Whether it has any effect in raising
the "choler" of the lion it is difficult to say, but the
ancient Assyrians were well acquainted with this claw,
as is proved by the sculptures on the Nineveh marbles,
where it is distinctly represented.
Pliny, too, picked up another story, which, although
it has been ridiculed, is certainly founded on fact.
"Polybius, who accompanied Scipio JEmylianus in his
voiage of Africke, reporteth of them (the lions), that
when they be growne aged they will prey upon a
man; the reason is, because their strength will not


hold out to pursue in chase any other wild beasts.
Then they come about the cities and good towns of
Africke, lying in wait for their prey, if any folke come
abroad; and for that cause he saith that while hee was
with Scipio hee saw some of them crucified and hanged
up, to the end that, upon the sight of them, other lions
should take example, and be scarred from doing the
like mischiefe." A lion in the form of a spread eagle
must have been an edifying spectacle, and it is to
be hoped that the other members of the royal family
profited by the example. Be that as it may, these
anthropophagi still exist, and are the most dreadful
scourges imaginable. The wretched Hottentots in the
interior of Africa are unable to destroy them with
their imperfect weapons, and night after night some
poor inhabitant of the kraal is carried off, until the
miserable remnant are driven to seek a precarious
safety by quitting the spot, and removing perhaps to
a distance of two or three hundred miles. The follow-
ing account of an attack by one of these man-eaters,
as they are called (for having once tasted human flesh
they will eat nothing else if it can be obtained), makes
the blood run cold. Mr. Cumming and his party had,
unknown to them, pitched their camp in the proximity
of a lion of this description; all had retired to rest,
when (says Mr. C.) suddenly the appalling and mur-
derous voice of an angry bloodthirsty lion burst upon


my ear, within a few yards of us, followed by tho
shrieking of the Hottentots. Again and again the
murderous roar of attack was repeated. We heard
John and Ruyter shriek, 'The lion! the lion!' Still
for i few moments we thought he was but chasing one
of the dogs round the kraal, but the next instant
John Stofauls rushed into the midst of us, almost
speechless with fear and terror, his eyes bursting from
their sockets, and shrieked out, 'The lion! the lion!
he has got Hendrick! he dragged him away from the
fire beside me. I struck him with the burning brands
upon his head, but he would not let go his hold.
Hendrick is dead, 0 God! Hendrick is dead! Let us
take fire and seek him.' The rest of my people rushed
about shrieking and yelling as if they were mad. I
was at once angry with them for their folly, and told
them that if they did not stand still and keep quiet,
the lion would have another of us, and that very likely
there was a troop of them. I ordered the dogs, which
were nearly all fast, to be made loose, and the fire
to be increased as far as could be. I then shouted
HIendrick's name, but all was still. I told my men
that Hendrick was dead, and that a regiment of sol-
diers could not now help him, and hunting my dogs
forward, I had everything brought within my cattle
kraal, when we lighted our fire, and closed the en-
trance as well as we could.


It appeared that when the unfortunate Hendrick
rose to drive in the ox, the lion had watched him to
his fireside, and he had scarcely lain down when the
brute sprang upon him and Ruyter (for both lay
under one blanket,) with his appalling, murderous
roar, and roaring as he lay, grappled him with his
fearful claws, and kept biting him on the breast and
shoulder, all the while feeling for his neck, having
got hold of which he at once dragged him away
backwards round the bush into the dense shade. As
the lion lay on the unfortunate man, he faintly
cried, Help me! help me! oh, God! men, help me!'
after which the fearful beast got hold of his neck,
and then all was still, except that his comrades heard
the bones of his neck cracking between the teeth of
the lion."
It is satisfactory to know that, on the following
day, Mr. Cumming took revenge on the lion, whose
huge grisly hide was to be seen in his collection.
The following adventure with a lion, related by
the sufferer to :Mr. Waterton, presents one of the
most remarkable examples of courage and presence
of mind under dreadful suffering on record;-
In July, 1831, two fine lions made their appear-
ance in a jungle some twenty miles distant from the
cantonment of RajcotB, in the East Indies, where
Captain Woodhouse and his two friends, Lieutenants


Delamain and Lang, were stationed. An elephant
was despatched to the place in the evening on which
the information arrived; and on the morrow, at the
break of day, the three gentlemen set off on horse-
back, full of glee, and elated with the hope of a
speedy engagement. On arriving at the edge of the
jungle, people were ordered to ascend the neighbour-
ing trees, that they might be able to trace the route
of the lions in case they left the cover. After beating
about in the jungle for some time, the hunters started
the two lordly strangers. The officers fired imme-
diately, and one of the lions fell, to rise no more.
His companion broke cover, and took off across the
country. The officers now pursued him on horseback
as fast as the nature of the ground would allow, until
they learned from the men who were stationed in the
trees, that the lion had got back into the thicket.
Upon this the three officers returned to the edge of
the jungle, and having dismounted from their horses,
they got upon the elephant, Captain Woodhouse
placing himself in the hindermost seat. They now
proceeded towards the heart of the jungle, in the ex-
pectation of rousing the royal fugitive a second time.
They found him standing under a large bush, with his
face directly towards them. The lion allowed them
to approach within range of his spring, and then he
made a sudden dart at the elephant, clung on his


trunk with a tremendous roar, and wounded him just
above the eye. While he was in the act of doing
this, the two lieutenants fired at him, but without
success. The elephant now shook him off, but the
fierce and sudden attack on the part of the lion
seemed to have thrown him into the greatest conster-
nation. At last he became somewhat more tractable,
but as he was advancing through the jungle, the lion,
which had lain concealed in the high grass, made at
him with redoubled fury. The officers now lost all
hopes of keeping their elephant in order. He turned
round abruptly, and was going away quite ungovern-
able, when the lion again sprang at him, seized him
behind with his teeth, and hung on, until the affrighted
animal managed to shake him off by incessant kicking.
The lion retreated further into the thicket, Captain
Woodhouse in the meantime firing a random shot at
him, which proved of no avail. No exertions on the
part of the officers could now force the terrified ani-
mal to face his fierce foe, and they found themselves
reduced to the necessity of dismounting. Deter-
mined, however, to come to still closer quarters with
the formidable king of quadrupeds, Captain Wood-
house took the desperate resolution to proceed on foot
in quest of him; and after searching about for some
time, he saw the lion indistinctly through the bushes,
and discharged his rifle at him, but was pretty well


convinced that he had not hit him, as he saw him re-
tire with the utmost composure into the thicker parts
of the brake. After some time lost in searching, the
Indian gamefinder espied the lion in the cover, and
pointed him out to the Captain, who fired, but unfor-
tunately missed his mark. Having retired to reload
his rifle, he was joined by Lieutenant Delamain, who,
on going eight or ten paces down a sheep track, got a
sight of the lion, and discharged his rifle at him. This
irritated the mighty lord of the woods, and he rushed
towards him, breaking through the bushes in most
magnificent style. Captain Woodhouse now found
himself placed in an awkward situation. He was
aware that if he retraced his steps to place himself in
a better position to attack, he would just get to the
point from which the lieutenant had fired, and to
which the lion was making. Whereupon he instantly
resolved to stand still, in the hope that the lion would
pass by at a distance of four yards or so without per-
ceiving him, as the intervening cover was thick and
strong. In this, however, he was unfortunately de-
ceived, for the enraged lion saw him in passing, and
flew at him with a dreadful roar. In an instant, as
though by a stroke of lightning, the rifle was broken
and thrown out of the Captain's hand, his left arm
being at the same instant seized by the claws, and his
right by the teeth of his desperate antagonist. Lieu-


tenant Delamain now ran up, and discharged his piece
full at the lion, which caused him and the Captain to
come to the ground together, while Lieutenant Dela-
main hastened out of the jungle to reload. The lion
now began to craunch the Captain's arm, but as he
had the cool, determined resolution to lie perfectly
still notwithstanding the dreadful pain this caused
him, the lion let the arm drop out of his mouth, and
quietly placed himself in a crouching position, with
both of his paws upon the thigh of his fallen foe. The
Captain now unthinkingly raised his hand to support
his head, but no sooner had he moved it than the lion
seized the lacerated arm a second time, craunched it
as before, and fractured the bone still higher up. This
additional memento mori was not lost upon Captain
Woodhouse, who remained perfectly still, though
bleeding and disabled under the foot of a mighty and
irritated enemy. Death was close upon him, armed
with every terror that could appal the heart, when,
just as this world was on the point of vanishing for
ever, he heard two faint reports which he thought
sounded from a distance, but was totally at a loss to
account for them. He afterwards learned that the
reports were caused by his friend at the outside of the
jungle, who had flashed off some powder in order to
be quite sure that the nipples of his rifle were clean.
The two lieutenants were now hastening to his as-


distance, and he heard the welcome sound of feet ap.
preaching, but they were in a wrong direction, as the
lion was between them and him. Aware that if his
friends fired, the balls would hit him after they had
passed through the lion's body, Captain Woodhouse
quietly pronounced in a low tone, To the other side!
to the other side!" Hearing the voice, they looked
in the direction from whence it proceeded, and to their
horror saw their brave comrade in his utmost need.
Having made a circuit, they cautiously came up on
the other side, and Lieutenant Delamain fired from a
distance of about a dozen yards, over the person of
his prostrate friend. The lion merely quivered: his
head dropped upon the ground, and in an instant
he lay dead on his side close to his intended victim.
Happily Captain Woodhouse, though much injured,
recovered from his wounds.
In 1823, General Watson being out one morning
on horseback in Bengal, armed with a double-barreled
rifle, was suddenly attacked by a large lion, which
bounded out from the thick jungle at the distance
of only a few yards; he fired, and the lion, pierced
through the heart, fell dead at his feet; but almost
instantly a not less terrible opponent appeared in the
lioness, who was furious at the death of her mate;
but the General again fired, and wounded her so se-
verely, that she retreated into the thicker; having


loaded his rifle, he traced her to her den, and quickly
gave the coup de grdce. In the den were found a pair
of beautiful cubs, male and female, about three days
old. These the General brought away with him, and
fed them by means of a goat, who was prevailed on
to act as their foster-mother. They were brought to
England, and placed in the Tower, where both at-
tained maturity, the lion being long known by the
name of George." He was the gentlest creature
imaginable, allowing himself to be treated with the
greatest familiarity by the keepers and those with
whom he was acquainted: the lioness was not quite
so manageable. On one occasion, when nearly full
grown, she had been suffered, through inadvertence,
to leave her den, when she was by no means in good
temper. The under-keeper, however, alone, and armed
only with a stick, had the boldness to undertake to
drive her back. It was a service of no ordinary peril,
for she actually made three springs at him, which he
was fortunate enough to avoid; and by a bold front
and determined bearing he eventually succeeded in
lodging her in her place of confinement. George"
was afterwards removed to the Zoological Gardens,
but did not long survive the change of quarters.
The instinct which renders the protection of the
young paramount to every other consideration, is
strongly evinced in the lion tribe, and of this an in-


teresting example is narrated by Mr. Cumming. One
day, when out elephant-hunting, accompanied by two
hundred and fifty men, he was astonished suddenly to
behold a majestic lion slowly and steadily advancing
towards the party with a dignified step and undaunted
bearing, the most noble and imposing that can be
conceived; lashing his tail from side to side, and
growling haughtily, his eyes glaring, and his teeth dis-
played, as he approached. The two hundred and fifty
valiant men immediately took to their heels in head-
long flight, and, in the confusion, four couples of dogs
which they had been leading for the sportsman were
allowed to escape in their couples. These instantly
faced the lion, who, finding that by his bold bearing
he had succeeded in putting his enemies to flight, now
became solicitous for the safety of his little family
with which the lioness was retreating in the back-
ground. Facing about, he followed after them with
a haughty and independent step, growling fiercely at
the dogs which trotted along on either side of him.
Having elephants in view, the sportsman, with heart-
felt reluctance," reserved his fire, and we think that
most of our readers will rejoice with us that this gal-
lant and devoted lion was permitted to escape scot
free. It would be a subject not unworthy of Land-
seer, this "retreat of the Leonide." The mother
leading away the young, the noble father covering the


rear, and the bold two hundred and fifty warriors in
hot flight, dotting the ground in the distance. An-
other instance of the magnanimous conduct of the lion,
is related in the case of a boer, who might well have
exclaimed, Heaven defend me from my friends!" A
party of boers were out lion-hunting, when one of
them, who had dismounted from his horse to get a
steady shot at the lion, was dashed to the ground by
him before he could regain his saddle; the lion, how-
ever, did not attempt to injure him further, but stood
quietly over him lashing his tail and growling at the
rest of the party, who had galloped to a distance in
violent consternation. These fine fellows, instead of
coming to the rescue of their comrade, opened their
fire at an immense distance, the consequence of which
was, that they missed the lion, and shot the man dead
on the spot! The lion presently retreated, and none
daring to follow him, he made good his escape.
Lichtenstein* says that the African hunters avail
themselves of the circumstance that the lion does not
attempt to spring upon his prey till he has measured
the ground and has reached the distance of ten or
twelve paces, when he lies crouching on the ground,
gathering himself up for the effort. The hunters, he
says, make a rule never to fire upon a lion till he lies
down at this short distance, so that they can aim di-
Travels in Southern Africa,


rectly at his head with the most perfect certainty.
He adds, that, if a person has the misfortune to meet
a lion, his only hope of safety is to stand perfectly
still, even though the animal crouches to make his
spring: that spring will not be hazarded if the man
has only nerve enough to remain motionless as a
statue, and look steadily in the eyes of the lion. The
animal hesitates, rises, slowly retreats some steps look-
ing earnestly about him-lies down-again retreats,
till having thus by degrees quite got out of what he
seems to feel as the magic circle of man's influence, he
takes flight in the utmost haste.
The Field-Commandant Tjaard Van der Wolf and
his brother, not far from their dwelling-house on the
eastern declivity of the Snowy Mountains, followed
the track of a large lion to a ravine overgrown with
They took their stations on each side the entrance
of the ravine, sending in their dogs; and presently the
lion rushed towards the brother, crouched, and at the
same instant received a shot from him; the shot, how-
ever, only slightly wounded him, and he made towards
his assailant, who had barely time to leap on his horse
and endeavour to fly. The lion was instantly after
him, and sprang upon the back of his horse, who, over-
powered with the burden and with fear, could no
longer move. The enraged animal now stuck his claws


into his victim's thigh, tearing his clothes with his
teeth. The man clung with all his force to the horse,
that he might not be torn off, and called to his brother
for God's sake to fire, not regarding who or what
he might hit. The brave Tjaard descended instantly
from his horse, and taking his aim coolly, shot the lion
through the head, the ball fortunately lodging in his
brother's saddle without injuring either horse or rider.
Less fortunate was a person of the Zwarte-Ruggens,
by name Rensburg, who, with a cousin, set out on a
lion-hunt. The adventure took exactly the same turn
as the former, only that the lion instead of springing
on the back of the horse sprang on his side, and fas-
tened his teeth in the left arm of the rider. But how
different was the conduct of this man's relative, to
that of the brave Tjaard Instead of coming to the
rescue, he ran away to call some Hottentots. Rens-
burg, in the meantime, while the creature tore and
craunched his left arm, drew a knife from his pocket
with his right hand, with which he stabbed the foe
in several places; and when those who were called to
the rescue at length came up,-they found the poor man
torn from his horse and swimming in blood, his left
arm and side shockingly mangled, and the dead lion
with the knife still in his throat, fallen upon him.
He was not then dead, but expired in a few minutes,
exhausted with loss of blood.


Diederik Miiller, who, next to Mr. Cumming, ranks
as one of the most intrepid and successful lion-hunters
in South Africa, came suddenly on a lion, who at once
assumed an aspect of defiance. Diederik instantly
alighted (for the boers do not seem to be in the habit
of firing from a horse's back), anid took deliberate aim
with his rifle or roer at the forehead of the lion who
was couched in the act of springing, but at the mo-
ment the trigger was drawn the hunter's horse started
and caused him to miss his aim. The lion bounded
forward, but stopped within a few paces, confronting
Diederik. The man and the lion stood looking each
other in the face for some minutes, and at length the
lion moved backwards as if to go away. Dicderik
began to load his gun, the lion looked over his shoul-
der, gave a deep growl, and returned. Diederik stood
still. The lion again moved cautiously off, and the
boer proceeded to ram down his bullet. Again did
the lion look back and growl angrily; and this was re-
peated until the animal had got off to some distance,
when he took to his heels and bounded away.
Instances might be brought forward of the forbear-
ance of lions, some of whom seem to possess a large
amount of what may be termed generosity. If fairly
attacked, they will fight it out; but, unless impelled
by hunger, there is ample evidence to show that many
are slow to destroy. Of the dangers through which


the adventurous Mungo Park passed, not the least
was the following.* "As we were crossing a large
open plain where there were a few scattered bushes,
my guide, who was a little way before me, wheeled
his horse round in a moment, calling out something
in the Foulah language, which I did not understand.
I inquired in Mandingo what he meant. Wara bill
billi' (a very large lion), said he, and made signs for me
to ride away. But my horse was too much fatigued,
so we rode slowly past the bush from which the ani-
mal had given us the alarm. Not seeing anything
myself, however, I thought my guide had been mis-
taken, when the Foulah suddenly put his hand to his
mouth, exclaiming, 'Soubah an Allah!' (God preserve
us!), and to my great surprise, I then perceived a
large red lion at a short distance from the bush, with
his head crouched between his fore-paws. I expected
he would instantly spring upon me, and instinctively
pulled my feet from my stirrups to throw myself on
the ground, that my horse might become the victim
rather than myself. But it is probable the lion was
not hungry, for he quietly suffered us to pass though
we were fairly within his reach. My eyes were so
riveted on this sovereign of the beasts, that I found
it impossible to remove them until we were at a con-
Travels in the Interior Districts of South Africa, by Mungo


siderable distance." Lions are also capable of strong
attachment, differing in both these respects from the
tiger, who is faithless, crafty, and sanguinary. A
striking illustration of this difference is afforded by a
circumstance which occurred in the seventeenth cen-
tury. The plague broke out at Naples with great
virulence, and Sir George Davis, the English Consul
there, retired to Florence. It happened that, from
curiosity, he one day went to see the Grand Duke's
collection of wild beasts: at the further end, in one
of the dens lay a lion, which for three years had re-
sisted every art and gentleness, continuing savage
and untamable. No sooner, however, did Sir George
appear in front of the den, than the lion ran to him
with every mark of joy and transport. He reared
himself up and licked his hand, which he had put in
through the grating. The keeper, affrighted, pulled
him away, begging him not to hazard his life by go-
ing so near the fiercest lion that ever entered those
dens. HIowever, nothing would satisfy Sir George but
he must go into the den to him: the very instant he
entered the lion threw his paws upon his shoulders,
licked his face, and ran to and fro in the den, fawning
and full of joy like a dog at the sight of his master.
The Grand Duke, hearing of this, requested an expla-
nation, which Sir George gave as follows. A cap-
tain of a ship from Barbary gave me this lion when


he was a young whelp. 1 brought him up tame, but
when I thought him too large to be suffered to run
about the house, I built a den for him in my court-
yard. From that time he was never permitted to go
loose except when I brought him within-doors to show
him to my friends. When he was five years old, in
his gamesome tricks he did some mischief by pawing
and playing with people. Having griped a man one
day a little too hard, I ordered him to be shot; upon
this a friend who was at dinner with me begged him.
How he came here I know not." It appeared that
the gentleman who begged the lion had presented him
to the Grand Duke.
With reference to the generosity of the lion, an im-
portant point turns upon the line of conduct to be pur-
sued if a person happens to come in collision with an
animal of that species, or with one of the dog tribe.
With the lion, perfect quiet affords the best chance
of escape. With the dog, on the contrary, resistance
Sl'outrance is necessary-it must be "death to the
knife" with him-for if he overcomes his opponent,
he will not cease to worry and tear so long as life
exists. Some years ago, when in Lisbon, we made a
short cut one night, and passing by a ruined convent
which had been destroyed in the great earthquake,
we suddenly came upon a pack of the savage half-wild
dogs with which that city, like Constantinople, is in-


tested. They are the scavengers of the place, invisi-
ble. during the day, but, when night falls, coming out
of their lurking-places and prowling in packs, dis-
puting with the rats the offal which the idle inhabi-
tants throw into the streets in abundance; cowards
though they are singly, they are formidable in num-
bers, especially to solitary passengers. There were
a dozen or so in the pack the writer disturbed whilst
greedily devouring some garbage, and they at once
made at him. There was nothing for it but defence,
so placing his back against the wall, and twisting his
cloak around his left arm, a sweeping stroke with a
formidable stick drove them back a few paces. Their
leader was a mangy old brute with one ear and scarred
in many a fight, and it was clear that the greatest
danger lay in that quarter. A sharp eye was kept
on him, and every time he attempted to spring he
was beaten back with a blow on the nose, the others
meanwhile ramping and raging in a semicircle just
out of reach of the stick. This exciting amusement
continued about five minutes, when fortunately a
picket of soldiers turned the corner, and the curs at
once fled howling. This was the first and last short
cut attempted by the writer in that interesting but
unclean city.
Though the lion is considerably under four feet
in height, he has no difficulty in overcoming the


most lofty and powerful giraffe, whose head towers
above the trees, and whose skin is nearly an inch in
thickness. He also, when his teeth are unbroken,
generally proves a match for an old bull buffalo, which
in size, strength, and fierceness, far surpasses the
largest European cattle. A lion having carried off a
heifer two years old, was tracked for full five hours
by a party on horseback, and throughout the whole
distance the carcase of the heifer was only discovered
to have touched the ground twice.
The lion of South Africa is, in all respects, more
formidable that the lion of India; in colour it is
darker, and of greater strength; the mane, the cha-
racteristic of the male, appears about the third year;
at first it is of a yellowish colour, in the prime of life
nearly black, then, as he becomes aged and decrepit,
it assumes a yellowish-grey or pepper-and-salt colour.
The manes and coats of lions frequenting plains are
richer and more bushy than those of their brethren
of the forest. If the lion is thirsty, he stretches out
his massive arms, lies down on his breast, and in
drinking makes a loud lapping noise, pausing occa-
sionally for breath; the tongue curls the contrary
way to that of the dog during drinking.
Visitors to the Zoological Gardens cannot fail to
have remarked the elegant grey Pzunas lounging on
the branches in their den, or gamboling with most


graceful action. These are the representatives of the
lion tribe in the New World. They have a wide geo-
graphical range, being found from the equatorial fo-
rests as far south as the cold latitudes of Tierra del
Fuego. In La Plata the puma chiefly preys on deer,
ostriches, and small quadrupeds, and is never dange-
rous to man; but in Chili it destroys horses and men.
It is asserted that it always kills its prey by springing
on the shoulders, and drawing back the head with one
of the paws, till the neck is dislocated. Although
excellent climbers, these creatures are often captured
with the lasso by the guachos; at Tandeel as many
as one hundred have been destroyed in three months.
In Chili they are more frequently driven into trees
and there shot. The puma is an exceedingly crafty
animal; when pursued often doubling, and then sud-
denly making a powerful spring on one side, it waits
till its pursuers have passed by. The flesh is eaten,
and Mr. Charles Darwin gives in his Journal an amu-
sing account of an epicurean surprise he encountered
on the Rio Tapalguea. "At supper, from something
which was said, I was suddenly struck with horror at
thinking I was eating one of the favourite dishes of
the country, namely, a half-formed calf, long before its
proper time of birth. It turned out to be a puma.
The meat is very white, and remarkably like veal in
taste. Dr. Shaw was laughed at for stating that the


flesh of lion is in great esteem, having no small affi-
nity with veal, both in colour, taste, and flavour. Such
certainly is the case with the puma. The guachos
differ in opinion whether the jaguar is good eating,
but are unanimous in saying that the cat is excel-
Although easily tamed if captured when young, the
puma is exceedingly bloodthirsty and ferocious with
its prey. Of this, Colonel Hamilton Smith witnessed
an extraordinary instance. A puma which had been
taken, and was confined, was ordered to be shot, and
was so, immediately after it had received its food.
The first ball went through his body, but the only
notice the animal took was by a shrill growl, redou-
bling his efforts to devour his food, which he conti-
nued to swallow with quantities of his own blood, till
a better directed shot laid him dead.
Those who enjoyed the society of the celebrated
Edmund Kean, will remember his tame puma. This
fine creature was so docile and gentle, that he was
often introduced to the company in the drawing-room.
He was capable of strong attachment, and would lie
down on his back between the feet of those he liked,
and play with their garments like a huge kitten. He
especially delighted in leaping and swinging about
the joists of a large unoccupied room in the old Col-
lege at Edinburgh. During his voyage to England


this puma was on terms of intimacy with several m uen
keys, but a goat or a fowl was utterly irresistible; a
spring, and a blow with his powerful paw, and all was
over! One night, whilst in London, he made his es-
cape into the street, but allowed himself to be taken
into custody by a watchman without even a show of
resistance, trotting along by his side in the most
amicable manner. After the death of this fine fellow
it was discovered that a musket-ball had injured the
skull, a circumstance not known during his lifetime.
When the Zoological Gardens were first estab-
lished, it was considered that those animals which
were natives of the Tropics required warmth, and
they were, therefore, kept in close and heated rooms.
The mortality was excessive, as must always be the
case with animals and human beings, when densely
packed in ill-ventilated dwellings; on just grounds,
therefore, it was decided to try the effect of abundance
of fresh air. This has answered beyond expectation,
the carnivora and monkeys (among whom was the
greatest mortality) having since enjoyed excellent
health, and, the past winter excepted, being perfectly
indifferent to cold. In their roomy dens there are
large branches of trees, which, by inducing the ani-
mals to take exercise, have been found very beneficial.
The daily allowance of food for the larger carnivora is
about seven pounds of meat and bone. A good sup.


ply of water, perfect cleanliness, thorough ventilation,
and careful drainage, are points specially attended to,
and it would be difficult to find animals in confine-
ment more healthy, or apparently more happy, than
those which constitute the interesting collection in
the Regent's Park.




THosE who ramble amidst the beautiful scenery of
Torquay, who gaze with admiration on the bold out-
lines of the Cheddar Cliffs, or survey the fertile fen
district of Cambridgeshire, will find it difficult to be-
lieve that in former ages these spots were ravaged by
bears surpassing in size the grizzly bear of the Rocky
Mountains, or the polar bear of the arctic-regions;
yet the abundant remains found in Kent Hole, Tor-


quay, and the Banwell Caves, together with those pre-
served in the Woodwardian Museum at Cambridge,
incontestably prove that such was the case. Grand
indeed was the Fauna of the British Isles in those
early days! Lions-the true old British lions-as
large again as the biggest African species, lurked in
the ancient thickets; elephants, of nearly twice the
bulk of the largest individuals that now exist in Africa
or Ceylon, roamed here in herds; at least two species
of rhinoceros forced their way through the primeval
forests; the lakes and rivers were tenanted by hip-
popotami as bulky and with as great tusks as those of
Africa. These statements are not the offspring of
imagination, but are founded on the countless remains
of these creatures which are continually being brought
to light, proving from their numbers and variety of
size that generation after generation had been born,
and lived, and died in Great Britain.*
It is matter of history, that the brown bear was
plentiful here in the time of the Romans, and was
conveyed in considerable numbers to Rome to make
sport in the arena. In Wales they were common
beasts of chase; and in the history of the Gordons it
is stated that one of that clan, so late as 1057, was
directed by his sovereign to carry three bears' heads
See 'A History of British Fossil Mammals,'by our great
zoologist, Professor Owen.


on his banner, as a reward for his valour in killing a
fierce bear in Scotland.
In 1252, the sheriffs of London were commanded
by the king to pay fourpence a day for "our white
bear in the Tower of London and his keeper;" and
m the following year they were directed to provide
" unum musellum et unam cathenam ferream "-An-
glice, a muzzle and an iron chain, to hold him when
out of the water, and a long and strong rope to hold
him when fishing in the Thames. This piscatorial
bear must have had a pleasant time of it, as compared
to many of his species, for the barbarous amusement
of baiting was most popular with our ancestors. The
household book of the Earl of Northumberland con-
tains the following characteristic entry :-" Item, my
Lorde usith and accustomith to gyfe yearly when hys
Lordshipe is atte home to his barward, when hee
comyth to my Lorde at Oristmas with his Lordshippes
beests, for making his Lordschip pastyme the said xij
days xxs."
In Bridgeward Without there was a district called
Paris Garden; this, and the celebrated Hockley in
the Hole, were in the sixteenth century the great re-
sorts of the amateurs in bear-baiting and other cruel
sports, which cast a stain upon the society of that pe-
riod,-a society in a transition state but recently
emerged from barbarism, and with all the tastes of


a semi-barbarous people. Sunday was the grand day
for these displays, until a frightful occurrence which
took place in 1582. A more than usually exciting
bait had been announced, and a prodigious concourse
of people assembled. When the sport was at its
highest, and the air rung with blasphemy, the whole
of the scaffolding on which the people stood gave way,
crushing many to death, and wounding many more.
This was considered as a judgment of the Almighty
on these Sabbath-breakers, and gave rise to a general
prohibition of profane pastime on the Sabbath.
Soon after the accession of Elizabeth to the throne,
she gave a splendid banquet to the French ambassa-
dors, who were afterwards entertained with the bait-
ing of bulls and bears (May 25, 1559). The day
following, the ambassadors went by water to Paris
Garden, where they patronized another performance
of the same kind. Hentzer, after describing from
observation a very spirited and bloody baiting, adds,
"To this entertainment there often follows that of
whipping a blinded bear, which is performed by five
or six men, standing circularly with whips, which they
exercise upon him without any mercy, as he cannot
escape because of his chain. He defends himself with
all his strength and skill, throwing down all that come
within his reach, and are not active enough to get out
of it, and tearing their whips out of their hands and


breaking them." Laneham, in his account of the re-
ception of Queen Elizabeth at Kenilworth, in 1575,
gives a very graphic account of the righte royalle
pastimes." It was a sport very pleasant to see the
bear, with his pink eyes leering after his enemies' ap-
proach; the nimbleness and wait of the dog to take
his advantage, and the force and experience of the
bear again to avoid his assaults. If he were bitten in
one place, how he would pinch in another to get free;
that if he were taken once, then by what shift with
biting, with clawing, with roaring, with tossing and
tumbling he aould work and wind himself from them,
and when he was loose, to shake his ears twice or
thrice with the blood and the slaver hanging about his
These barbarities continued until a comparatively
recent period, but are now, it is to be hoped, exploded
for ever. Instead of ministering to the worst pas-
sions of mankind, the animal creation now contri-
bute in no inconsiderable degree to the expansion of
the mind and the development of the nobler feelings.
Zoological collections have taken the place of the
Southwark Gardens and other brutal haunts of vice,
and, we are glad to say, often prove a stronger focus
of attraction than the skittle-ground and its debasing
society. By them laudable curiosity is awakened, and
the impression, especially on the fervent and plastic


minds of young people, is deep and lasting. The
immense number of persons of the lower orders who
visit the London Gardens prove the interest excited.*
The love of natural history is inherent in the human
mind; and now, for the first time, the humbler classes
are enabled to see to advantage, and to appreciate the
beauties of animals of whose existence they were in
utter ignorance, or if known, so tinctured with the
marvellous, as to cause them td be regarded mainly as
objects of wonder and of dread.
California is hardly less remarkable for its bears
than for its gold. The Grizzly Bear, expressively named
'*rsus ferox and Ursus horribilis, reigns despotic
throughout those vast wilds which comprise the Rocky
Mountains and the plains east of them, to latitude 610.
In size it is gigantic, often weighing 800 pounds; and
we ourselves have measured a skin eight feet and a
half in length. Governor Clinton received an account
of one fourteen feet long, but there might have been
some stretching of this skin. The claws are of great
length, and cut like a chisel when the animal strikes
a blow with them. The tail is so small as not to be
visible; and it is a standing joke with the Indians
(who with all their gravity are great wags), to desire
one unacquainted with the grizzly bear to take hold

The number of visitors to the Zoological Gardens, Regent's
Park, during 1850, was 360,402; in 1851. 667,243.


of its tail. The strength of this animal may be esti-
mated from its having been known to drag easily, to
a considerable distance, the carcase of a bison, weigh-
ing upwards of a thousand pounds. Mr. Dougherty,
an experienced hunter, had killed a very large bison,
and having marked the spot, left the carcase for the
purpose of obtaining assistance to skin and cut it up.
On his return the bison had disappeared! What had
become of it he could not divine; but at length, after
much search, discovered it in a deep pit, which had
been dug for it at some distance by a grizzly bear,
who had carried it off and buried it during Mr.
Dougherty's absence. The following incident is re-
lated by Sir John Richardson:-" A party of voyagers,
who had been employed all day in tracking a canoe up
the Saskatchewan, had seated themselves in the twi-
light by a fire, and were busy preparing their supper,
when a large grizzly bear sprang over their canoe that
was tilted behind them, and seizing one of the party
by the shoulder, carried him off. The rest fled in ter-
ror, with the exception of a Metif, named Bourasso,
who, grasping his gun, followed the bear as it was re-
treating leisurely with its prey. He called to his un-
fortunate comrade that he was afraid of hitting him
if he fired at the bear; but the man entreated him
to fire immediately, as the bear was squeezing him
to death. On this he took a deliberate aim, and dis-


charged his piece into the body of the bear, which
instantly dropped his prey to follow Bourasso, who
however escaped with difficulty, and the bear retreated
to a thicket, where it is supposed to have died." The
same writer mentions a bear having sprung out of
a thicket, and with one blow of his paw completely
scalped a man, laying bare the skull and bringing the
skin down over the eyes. Assistance coming up, the
bear made off, without doing him further injury; but
the scalp not being replaced, the poor man lost his
sight, though it is stated the eyes were uninjured.
Grizzly bears do not hug, but strike their prey with
their terrific paws. We have been informed by a
gentleman who has seen much of these creatures (hav-
ing indeed killed five with his own hand), that when a
grizzly bear sees an object, he stands up on his hind
legs, and gazes at it intently for some minutes. He
then, whether it be a man or a beast, goes straight on,
utterly regardless of numbers, and will seize it in the
midst of a regiment of soldiers. One thing only scares
these creatures, and that is the smell of man. If in
their charge they should cross a scent of this sort,
they will turn and fly.
Our informant was on one occasion standing near
a thicket, looking at his servant cleaning a gun. He
had just dismounted, and the bridle of the thorough-
bred horse was twisted round his arm, Whilst thus


engaged, a very large grizzly bear rushed out of the
thicket, and made at the servant, who fled. The bear
then turned short upon this gentleman, in whose hand
was a rifle, carrying a small ball, forty to the pound;
and as the bear rose on his hind legs to make a stroke,
he was fortunate enough to shoot him through the
heart. Had the horse moved in the slightest at the
critical moment, and jerked his master's arm, nothing
could have saved him; but the noble animal stood like
a rock. On.another occasion, a large bear was shot
mortally. The animal rushed up a steep ascent, and
fell back, turning a complete somersault ere he reached
the ground. The same gentleman told us two curious
facts, for which he could vouch; namely, that these
bears have the power of moving their claws indepen.
dently. For instance, they will take up a clod of
earth which excites their curiosity, and crumble it to
pieces by moving their claws one on the other; and
that wolves, however famished, will never touch a car-
case which has been buried by a grizzly bear, though
they will greedily devour all other dead bodies. The
instinct of burying bodies is so strong with these bears,
that instances are recorded where they have covered
hunters who have fallen into their power and feigned
death, with bark, grass, and leaves. If the men at-
tempted to move, the bear would again put them
down, and cover them as before, finally leaving them
comparatively unhurt.


The grizzly bears have their caves, to which they
retire when the cold of winter renders them torpid;
and this condition is taken advantage of by the most
intrepid of the hunters. Having satisfied themselves
about the cave, these men prepare a candle from wax
taken from the comb of wild bees, and softened by the
grease of the bear. It has a large wick, and burns
with a brilliant flame. Carrying this before him, with
his rifle in a convenient position, the hunter enters
the cave. Having reached its recesses, he fixes the
candle on the ground, lights it, and the cavern is soon
illuminated with a vivid light. The hunter now lies
down on his face, having the candle between the back
part of the cave where the bear is, and himself. In
this position, with the muzzle of the rifle full in front
of him, he patiently awaits his victim. Bruin is soon
roused by the light, yawns and stretches himself, like
a person awaking from a deep sleep. The hunter now
cocks his rifle, and watches the bear turn his head
and with slow and waddling steps approach the candle.
This is a trying moment, as the extraordinary tenacity
of life of the grizzly bear renders an unerring shot
essential. The monster reaches the candle, and either
lifts his paw to strike, or his nose to smell at it. The
hunter steadily raises his piece; the loud report of the
rifle reverberates through the cavern; and the bear
falls with a heavy crash, pierced through the eye, one


of the few vulnerable spots through which he can be
The Zoological Society have at various times pos-
sessed five specimens of the grizzly bear. The first
was old Martin, for many years a well-known inhabi-
tant of the Tower Menagerie. We remember him
well, as an enormous brute, quite blind from cataract,
and generally to be seen standing on his hind legs,
with open mouth ready to receive any titbit a com-
passionate visitor might bestow. Notwithstanding
the length of time he was in confinement (more than
twenty years), all attempts at conciliation failed, and
to the last he would not permit the slightest famili-
arity, even from the keeper who constantly fed him.
Some idea may be formed of his size, when we say that
his skull (which we recently measured) exceeds in
length by two inches the largest lion's skull in the
Osteological Collection, although several must have
belonged to magnificent animals.
After the death of Old Martin, the Society received
two fine young bears from Mr. Catlin, but they soon
died. Their loss, however, was replaced by three very
thriving young animals from the Sierra Nevada, about
eight hundred miles from San Francisco, and were
brought to this country by Mr. Pacton. They were
transported with infinite trouble across the Isthmus
of Panama, in a box carried on men's shoulders, and


were certainly the first of their race who have per-
formed the overland journey. The price asked was
600, but they were obtained at a much less sum.
An additional interest attaches to these animals from
two of them having undergone the operation for
Bears are extremely subject to this disease, and of
course are thereby rendered blind. Their strength
and ferocity forbade anything being done for their re-
lief, until a short time ago, when, by the aid of that
wonderful agent, chloroform, it was demonstrated that
they are as amenable to curative measures as the hu-
rnan subject.
On the 5th of November, 1850, the first operation
of the sort was performed on one of these grizzly
bears, which was blind in both eyes. As this detracted
materially from his value, it was decided to endeavour
to restore him to sight; and Mr. White Cooper hav-
ing consented to operate, the proceedings were as fol-
low:-A strong leather collar, to which a chain was
attached, was firmly buckled around the patient's neck,
and the chain having been passed round one of the
bars in front of the cage, two powerful men endea-
voured to pull him up, in order that a sponge contain-
ing chloroform should be applied to his muzzle by
Dr. Snow. The resistance offered by the bear was as
surprising as unexpected. The utmost efforts of these


men were unavailing; and, after a struggle of ten
minutes, two others were called to their aid. By their
united efforts, Master Bruin was at length brought
up, and the sponge fairly tied round his muzzle.
Meanwhile the cries and roarings of the patient were
echoed in full chorus by his two brothers, who had
been confined to the sleeping den, and who scratched
and tore at the door to get to the assistance of their
distressed relative. In a den on one side was the
cheetah, whose leg was amputated under chloroform
some months before, and who was greatly excited by
the smell of the fluid and uproar. The large sloth
bear in a cage on the other side, joined heartily in the
chorus, and the Isabella bear just beyond, wrung her
paws in an agony of woe. Leopards snarled in sym.
pathy, and laughing hyenas swelled the chorus with
their hysterical sobs. The octobasso growling of the
polar bears, and roaring of the lions on the other side
of the building, completed as remarkable a diapason
as could well be heard.
The first evidence of the action of the chloroform
on the bear, was a diminution in his struggles; first
one paw dropped, then the other. The sponge was
now removed from his face, the door of the den opened,
and his head laid upon a plank outside. The cataracts
were speedily broken up, and the bear was drawn into
the cage again. For nearly five minutes he remained,


as was remarked by a keeper, without knowledge,
sense, or understanding, till at length one leg gave a
kick, then another, and presently he attempted to
stand. The essay was a failure, but he soon tried to
make his way to his cage. It was Garrick, if we re-
member right, who affirmed that Talma was an in-
different representative of inebriation, for he was not
drunk in his legs. The bear, however, acted the part
to perfection, and the way in which (like Commodore
Trunnion on his way to church) he tacked, during his
route to his den, was ludicrous in the extreme. At
length he blundered into it, and was left quiet for a
time. He soon revived, and in the afternoon ate
heartily. The following morning, on the door being
opened, he came out, staring about him, caring nothing
for the light, and began humming, as he licked his
paws, with much the air of a musical amateur sitting
down to a sonata on his violoncello.
A group might have been dimly seen through the
fog which covered the garden, on the morning of the
15th of the same month, standing on the spot where
the proceedings above narrated took place ten days
previously. This group comprised Professor Owen,
Mr. Yarrell, Count Nesselrode, Mr. Waterhouse, Cap-
tain Stanley, R.N., and two or three other gentlemen.
They were assembled to witness a similar operation on
another of the grizzly bears. The bear this time was


brought out of the den, and his chain passed round
the rail in front of it. Diluted chloroform was used,
and the operation was rendered more difficult by the
animal not being perfectly under its influence. He
recovered immediately after the couching needle had
been withdrawn from the second eye, and walked
pretty steadily to his sleeping apartment, where he
received the condolences of his brethren, rather un-
graciously, it must be confessed, but his head was far
from clear, and his temper ruffled. It is a singular
fact that those which had been chloroformed, subse-
quently grew with much greater rapidity than their
brother, so that there was a marked difference in size
between them; but they all ultimately died from an
affection resembling epilepsy, to which bears are very
A recent Arctic Expedition afforded an insight into
the habits and proceedings of the bears which inhabit
those inhospitable regions, and the following interest-
ing anecdotes are taken from the published report.
Two bears advanced towards the exploring party com-
manded by Mr. 3I'Dougall, who thereupon shot the
smaller bear through the back, paralyzing its hind
quarters. On this both animals began to retreat, the
wounded one being assisted by its dam in the follow-
ing manner. Placing herself in such a position as to
enable her cub to grasp with its forepaws her hind


quarters, she trotted on with her burden faster than
the party could walk, turning occasionally to watch
their proceedings. At length, being wounded in the
back and foot, she, maddened with rage and pain, ad.
vanced rapidly towards the party. At this critical
moment Mr. M'Dougall fired and struck her in the
head, from which blood flowed in large quantities.
Shaking her head, and rubbing the wounded side oc-
casionally in the snow, she now made off, leaving her
young one to its fate, which was soon decided by a
Lieutenant M'Clintock says, "Shortly after pitch-
ing our tents a bear was seen approaching. The guns
were prepared, men called in, and perfect silence main-
tained in our little camp. The animal approached
rapidly from to leeward, taking advantage of every
hummock to cover his advance until within seventy
yards, then, putting himself in a sitting posture, he
pushed forward with his hinder legs, steadying his
body with his forelegs outstretched. In this manner
he advanced for about ten yards further; stopped a
minute or two, intently eyeing our encampment, and
snuffing the air in evident doubt. Then he com-
menced a retrograde movement by pushing himself
backward with his fore-legs, as he had previously ad-
vanced with the hinder ones. As soon as he presented
his shoulder to us, Mr. Bradford and I fired, breaking


a leg and otherwise wounding him severely, but it was
not until he had got three hundred yards off, and re-
ceived six bullets, that we succeeded in killing him."
The wooded districts of the American continent
were tenanted, before civilization had made such gi-
gantic strides, by large numbers of the well-known
black bear, Ursus Americanus. Some years ago, black
bears' skins were greatly in vogue for carriage hammer-
cloths, etc.; and an idea of the animals destroyed, may
be formed from the fact, that in 1783, 10,500 skins
were imported, and the numbers steadily rose to 25,000
in 1803, since which time there has been a gradual
decline. In those days, a fine skin was worth from
twenty to forty guineas, but may now be obtained for
five guineas.
The chase of this bear is the most solemn action of
the Laplander; and the successful hunter may be
known by the number of tufts of bears' hair he wears
in his bonnet. When the retreat of a bear is disco-
vered, the ablest sorcerer of the tribe beats the runic
drum to discover the event of the chase, and on which
side the animal ought to be assailed. During the
attack, the hunters join in a prescribed chorus, and
beg earnestly of the bear that he will do them no
mischief. When dead, the body is carried home on a
sledge, and the rein-deer employed to draw it is ex-
empt from labour during the remainder of the year.


A new hut is constructed for the express purpose of
cooking the flesh, and the huntsmen, joined by their
wives, sing again their songs of joy and of gratitude
to the animal, for permitting them to return in safety.
They never presume to speak of the bear with levity,
but always allude to him with profound respect, as
"the old man in the fur cloak." The Indians, too,
treat him with much deference. An old Indian, named
Keskarrah, was seated at the door of his tent, by a
small stream, not far from Fort Enterprise, when a
large bear came to the opposite bank, and remained
for some time apparently surveying him. Keskarrah,
considering himself to be in great danger, and having
no one to assist him but his aged wife, made a solemn
speech, to the following effect:-" Oh, bear! I never
did you any harm; I have always had the highest
respect for you and your relations, and never killed
any of them except through necessity. Pray, go away,
good bear, and let me alone, and I promise not to
molest you." The bear (probably regarding the old
gentleman as rather a tough morsel) walked off, and
the old man, fancying that he owed his safety to his
eloquence, favoured Sir John Richardson with his
speech at length. The bear in question, however, was
of a different species to, and more sanguinary than,
the black bear, so that the escape of the old couple
was regarded as remarkable.


The Ursus Americanus almost invariably hybernates;
and about a thousand skins have been annually im-
ported by the Hudson's Bay Company, from these
black bears destroyed in their winter retreats. A spot
under a fallen tree is selected for its den, and having
scratched away a portion of the soil, the bear retires
thither at the commencement of a snow-storm, and the
snow soon furnishes a close warm covering. When
taken young, these bears are easily tamed: and the
following incident occurred to a gentleman of our ac-
quaintance. A fine young bear had been brought up
by him with an antelope of the elegant species called
Furcifer, the two feeding out of the same dish, and
being often seen eating the same cabbage. He was
in the habit of taking these pets out with him, leading
the bear by a string. On one occasion he was thus
proceeding, a friend leading the antelope, when a large
fierce dog flew at the latter. The gentleman, embar-
rassed by his charge, called out for assistance to my
informant, who ran hastily up, and in doing so acci-
dentally let the bear loose. He seemed to be per-
fectly aware that his little companion was in difficulty,
and rushing forward, knocked the dog over and over
with a blow of his paw, and sent him off howling.
The same bear would also play for hours with a bison
calf, and when tired with his romps, jumped into a
tub to rest; having recovered, he would spring out


and resume his gambols with his boisterous play-
fellow, who seemed to rejoice when the bear was out
of breath, and could be taken at a disadvantage, at
which time he was sure to be pressed doubly hard.
There was a fine bear of this description in the old
Tower Menagerie, who long shared his den with a
hymna, with whom he was on good terms except at
meal-times, when they would quarrel in a very ludi-
crous manner, for a piece of beef, or whatever else
night happen to form a bone of contention between
them. The hyena, though by far the smaller, was
generally master, and the bear would moan most
piteously in a tone resembling the bleating of a sheep,
while the hyana quietly consumed the remainder of
the dinner.
The following is an account of an adventure which
occurred to Frank Forester, in America. A large
-bear was traced to a cavern in the Round Mountain,
and every effort made for three days without success
to smoke or burn him out. At length a bold hunter,
familiar with the spot, volunteered to beard the bear
in his den. The well-like aperture, which alone could
be seen from without, descended for about eight feet,
then turned sharp off at right angles, running nearly
horizontally for about six feet, beyond which it opened
into a small circular chamber, where the bear had
taken up his quarters. The man determined to de.


scend, to worm himself, feet forward, on his back, and
to shoot at the eyes of the bear, as they would be
visible in the dark. Two narrow laths of pine-wood
were accordingly procured, and pierced with holes,
in which candles were placed and lighted. A rope
was next made fast about his chest, a butcher's knife
disposed in readiness for his grasp, and his musket
loaded with two good ounce bullets, well wrapped
in greased buckskin. Gradually he disappeared,
thrusting the lights before him with his feet, and
holding the musket ready cocked in his hand. A
few anxious moments-a low stifled growl was
heard-then a loud, bellowing, crashing report, fol-
lowed by a wild and fearful howl, half anguish, half
furious rage. The men above wildly and eagerly
hauled up the rope, and the sturdy hunter was whirled
into the air uninjured, and retaining in his grasp his
good weapon; while the fierce brute rushed tearing
after him even to the cavern's mouth. As soon as the
man had entered the small chamber, he perceived the
glaring eyeballs of the bear, had taken steady aim at
them, and had, he believed, lodged his bullets fairly.
Painful meanings were soon heard from within, and
then all was still! Again the bold man determined to
seek the monster; again he vanished, and his musket
shot roared from the recesses of the rock. Up he was
whirled, but this time the bear, streaming with gore,


and furious with pain, rushed after him, and with a
mighty bound cleared the confines of the cavern. A
hasty-and harmless volley was fired, whilst the bear
glared round as if undecided upon which of the group
to wreak his vengeance. Tom, the hunter, coolly
raised his piece, but snap! no spark followed the blow
of the hammer! With a curse Tom threw down the
musket, and drawing his knife, rushed forward to
encounter the bear single-handed. What would have
been his fate, had the bear folded him in his deadly
hug, we may be pretty sure; but ere this could hap-
pen, the four bullets did their work, and he fell: a con-
vulsive shudder passed through his frame, and all was
still. Six hundred and odd pounds did he weigh, and
great were the rejoicings at his death.
The wild pine-forests of Scandinavia yet contain
bears in considerable numbers. The general colour of
these European bears is dark brown, and, to a great
degree, they are vegetable feeders, although exceed-
ingly fond of ants and honey. Their favourite food is
berries and succulent plants; and in autumn, when
the berries are ripe, they become exceedingly fat. To-
wards the end of November the bear retires to his den,
and passes the winter months in profound repose.
About the middle of April he leaves his den, and roams
about the forest ravenous for food. These bears attain
a large size, often weighing above four hundred pounds;


and an instance is on record of one having weighed
nearly seven hundred and fifty pounds. The best in-
formation relative to the habits and pursuits of these
Scandinavian bears is to be found in Mr. Lloyd's
' Field Sports of the North of Europe,' from which
entertaining work we shall draw largely.
When a district in Sweden is infested with bears,
public notice is given from the pulpit during divine
service, that a skWll or battue is to take place, and
specifying the number of people required, the time
and place of rendezvous, and other particulars. Some-
times as many as fifteen hundred men are employed,
and these are regularly organized in parties and
divisions. They then extend themselves in such a
manner that a cordon is formed, embracing a large
district, and all simultaneously move forward. By
this means the wild animals are gradually driven into
a limited space, and destroyed as circumstances ad-
mit. These skUlls are always highly exciting, and it
not unfrequently happens that accidents arise, from
the bears turning upon and attacking their pursuers.
A bear which had been badly wounded, and was hard
pressed, rushed upon a peasant whose gun had missed
fire, and seized him by the shoulder with his fore-
paws. The peasant, for his part, grasped the bear's
ears. Twice did they fall, and twice get up, without
loosening their holds, during which time the bear had


bitten through the sinews of both arms, from the
wrists upwards, and was approaching the exhausted
peasant's throat, when Mr. Falk, 6fwer jig mistare,"
or head ranger of the Wermeland forests, arrived, and
with one shot ended the fearful conflict.
Jan Svenson was a Dalecarlian hunter of great re-
pute, having been accessory to the death of sixty or
seventy bears, most of which he had himself killed.
On one occasion he had the following desperate en-
counter:--Having, with several other peasants, sur-
rounded a very large bear, he advanced with his dog
to rouse him from his lair; the dog dashed towards the
bear, who was immediately after fired at and wounded
by one of the peasants. This man was prostrated by
the infuriated animal, and severely lacerated. The
beast now retraced his steps, and came full on Jan
Svenson, a shot from whose rifle knocked him over.
Svenson, thinking the bear was killed, coolly com-
menced reloading his rifle. He had only poured in
the powder, when the bear sprang up and seized him
by the arm. The dog, seeing the jeopardy in which
his master was placed, gallantly fixed on the bear's
hind quarters. To get rid of this annoyance, the bear
threw himself on his back, making with one paw a
blow at the dog, with the other holding Svenson fast
in his embraces. This he repeated three several times,
handling the man as a cat would a mouse, and in the


intervals he was biting him in different parts of the
body, or standing still as if stupefied. In this dread-
ful situation Svenson remained nearly half an hour;
and during all this time the noble dog never ceased
for a moment his attacks on the bear. At last the
brute quitted his hold, and moving slowly to a small
tree at a few paces' distance, seized it with his teeth;
he was in his last agonies, and presently fell dead to
the ground. On this occasion Svenson was wounded
in thirty-one different places, principally in the arms
and legs. This forest monster had, in the early part
of the winter, mortally wounded another man who was
pursuing him, and from his great size was an object
of general dread.
Lieutenant Oldenburg, when in Torp in Norrland,
saw a chasseur brought down from the forest, who had
been desperately mangled by a bear. The man was
some distance in advance of his party, and wounded
the animal with a ball. The bear immediately turned
on him; they grappled, and both soon came to the
ground. Here a most desperate struggle took place,
which lasted a considerable time, sometimes the man,
who was a powerful fellow, being uppermost, at other
times the bear. At length, exhausted with fatigue
and loss of blood, the chasseur gave up the contest,
and turning on his face in the snow, pretended to be
dead. Bruin, on this, quietly seated himself on his


body, where he remained for near half an hour. At
length the other chasseurs came up, and relieved their
comrade by shooting the bear through the heart.
Though terribly lacerated, the man eventually re-
Captain Eurenius related to Mr. Lloyd an incident
which he witnessed in Wenersborg, in 1790:-A bear-
hunt or sk1ll was in progress, and an old soldier placed
himself in a situation where he thought the bear
would pass. He was right in his conjecture, for the
animal soon made his appearance, and charged directly
at him. He levelled his musket, but the piece missed
fire. The bear was now close, and he attempted to
drive the muzzle of the gun down the animal's throat.
This attack the bear parried like a fencing-master,
wrested the gun from the man, and quickly laid him
prostrate. Had he been prudent all might have ended
well, for the bear, after smelling, fancied him dead, and
left him almost unhurt. The animal then began to
handle the musket, and knock it about with his paws.
The soldier seeing this, could not resist stretching out
his hand, and laying hold of the muzzle, the bear hav-
ing the stock firmly in his grasp. Finding his anta-
gonist alive, the bear seized the back of his head with
his teeth, and tore off the whole of his scalp, from the
nape of the neck upwards, so that it merely hung to
the forehead by a strip of skin. Great as was his


agony, the poor fellow kept quiet, and the bear laid
himself along his body. Whilst this was going for-
ward, Captain Eurenius and others approached the
spot, and on coming within sixteen paces, beheld the
bear licking the blood from the bare skull, and eyeing
the people, who were afraid to fire lest they should
injure their comrade. Captain Eurenius asserted,
that in this position the soldier and bear remained for
a considerable time, until at last the latter quitted his
victim, and slowly began to retire, when a tremendous
fire being opened, he fell dead. On hearing the shots,
the wretched sufferer jumped up, his scalp hanging
over his face, so as to completely blind him. Throw-
ing it back with his hand, he ran towards his comrades
like a madman, frantically exclaiming, "The bear!
the bear!" The scalp was separated, and the Captain
described it as exactly resembling a peruke. In one
respect the catastrophe was fortunate for the poor sol-
dier; it was in the old days of pipeclay and pomatum,
and every one in the army was obliged to wear his
hair of a certain form, and this man being, for satis-
factory reasons, unable to comply with the regulation,
and a tow wig not being admissible, he immediately
received his discharge.
Mr. Paget, in his interesting work on Hungary and
Transylvania, gives the following amusing account of
an adventure with a bear, which took place in the


neighbourhood of Kronstadt:-" General V- the
Austrian commander of the forces of the district, had
come to Kronstadt to inspect the troops, and had
been invited by our friend (Herr von L- ), to
join him in a bear-hunt. Now the General, though
more accustomed to drilling than hunting, accepted
the invitation, and appeared in due time in a cocked
hat and long grey coat, the uniform of an Austrian
general. When they had taken up their places, the
General, with half-a-dozen rifles arranged before him,
paid such devoted attention to a bottle of spirits he
had brought with him, that he quite forgot the object
of his coming. At last, however, a huge bear burst
suddenly from the covert of the pine forest, directly in
front of him: at that moment the bottle was raised so
high that it quite obscured the General's vision, and
he did not perceive the intruder till he was close upon
him. Down went the bottle-up jumped the asto-
nished soldier, and forgetful of his guns, off he started,
with the bear clutching at the tails of his great coat
as he ran away. What strange confusion of ideas was
muddling the General's intellect at the moment, it is
difficult to say: but I suspect he had some notion that
the attack was an act of insubordination on the part
of Bruin, for he called out most lustily as he ran along,
'-Back, rascal! back! I am a General!' Luckily a
poor Wallach peasant had more respect for the epau-


lets than the bear, and throwing himself in the way
with nothing but a spear for his defence, he kept the
enemy at bay till our friend and the jigers came up
and finished the contest with their rifles."
A curious circumstance is related by Mr. Lloyd,
showing the boldness of wolves when pressed by hun-
ger. A party were in chase of a bear, who was tracked
by a dog. They were some distance behind the bear,
when a drove of five wolves attacked and devoured the
dog. Their appetites being thus whetted, they forth-
with made after the bear, and coming up with him, a
severe conflict ensued, as was apparent from the quan-
tity of hair, both of the bear and wolves, that was
scattered about the spot. Bruin was victorious, but
was killed a few days afterwards by the hunters. The
- wolves, however, had made so free with his fur, that
his skin was of little value. On another occasion, a
drove of wolves attacked a bear, who, posting himself
with his back against a tree, defended himself for some
time with success; but at length his opponents con-
trived to get under the tree, and wounded him despe-
rately in the flank. Just then some men coming up
the wolves retreated, and the wounded bear became
an easy prey.
It occasionally happens that cattle are attacked by
bears, but the latter are not always victorious. A
powerful bull was charged in the forest by a bear,


when, striking his horns into his assailant, he pinned
him to a tree. In this situation they were both found
dead,-the bull from starvation, the bear from wounds.
So says the author above quoted.
The hybernation of bears gives rise to a curious
confusion of cause and effect in the minds of the Swiss
peasantry. They believe that bears which have passed
the winter in the mountain caverns, always come out
to reconnoitre on the 2nd of February; and that they,
if the weather be then cold and winterly, return, like
the dove to the ark, for another fortnight; at the end
of which time they find the season sufficiently ad-
vanced to enable them to quit their quarters without
inconvenience; but that, if the weather be fine and
warm on the 2nd, they sally forth, thinking the winter
past. But on the cold returning after sunset, they
discover their mistake, and return in a most sulky
state of mind, without making a second attempt until
after the expiration of six weeks, during which time
man is doomed to suffer all the inclemencies conse-
quent on their want of urbanity. Thus, instead of
attributing the retirement of the bears to the effects
of the cold, the myth makes the cold to depend on
the seclusion of the bears.
The fat of bears has, from time immemorial, enjoyed
a high reputation for promoting the growth of hair;
but not a thousandth part of the bear's grease sold in


shops comes from the animal whose name it carries,
In Scandinavia, the only part used for the hair is the
fat found about the intestines. The great bulk of the
fat, which in a large bear may weigh from sixty to
eighty pounds, is used for culinary purposes. Bears'
hams, when smoked, are great delicacies, as are also
the paws; and the flesh of bears is not inferior to
excellent beef.
On a certain memorable day, in 1847, a large ham-
per reached Oxford, per Great Western Railway, and
was in due time delivered according to its direction at
Christchurch, consigned to Francis Buckland, Esq., a
gentleman well known in the University for his fond-
ness for natural history. He opened the hamper,
and the moment the lid was removed, out jumped a
creature about the size of an English sheep-dog, co-
vered with long shaggy hair, of a brownish colour.
This was a young bear, born on Mount Lebanon, in
Syria, a few months before, who had now arrived to
receive his education at our learned University. The
moment that he was released from his irksome attitude
in the hamper, he made the most of his liberty, and
the door of the room being open, he rushed off down
the cloisters. Service was going on in the chapel, and,
attracted by the pealing organ, or some other motive,
he made at once for the chapel. Just as he arrived at
the door, the stout verger happened to come thither


from within, and the moment he saw the impish look-
ing creature that was running into his domain, he
made a tremendous flourish with his silver wand, and
darting into the chapel, ensconced himself in a tall
pew, the door of which he bolted. Tiglath Pileser (as
the bear was called) being scared by the wand, turned
from the chapel, and scampered frantically about the
large quadrangle, putting to flight the numerous par-
ties of dogs, who in those days made that spot their
afternoon rendezvous. After a sharp chase, a gown
was thrown over Tig, and he was with difficulty se-
cured. During the struggle, he got one of the fingers
of his new master into his mouth, and-did he bite it
off? No, poor thing! but began vigorously sucking
it, with that peculiar mumbling noise for which bears
are remarkable. Thus was he led back to Mr. Buck-
land's rooms, walking all the way on his hind legs, and
sucking the finger with all his might. A collar was
put round his neck, and Tig became a prisoner. His
good-nature and amusing tricks soon made him a prime
favourite with the under-graduates; a cap and gown
were made, attired in which (to the great scandal of
the dons) he accompanied his master to breakfasts
and wine parties, where he contributed greatly to
the amusement of the company, and partook of good
things, his favourite viands being muffins and ices.
He was in general of an amiable disposition, but sub-


ject to fits of rage, during which his violence was ex-
treme; but a kind word, and a finger to suck, soon
brought him round. He was most impatient of soli-
tude, and would cry for hours when left alone, parti-
cularly if it was dark. It was this unfortunate pro-
pensity which brought him into especial disfavour with
the late Dean of Christchurch, whose Greek quantities
and hours of rest were sadly disturbed by Tig's la-
On one occasion he was kept in college till after the
gates had been shut, and there was no possibility of
getting him out without the porter seeing him, when
there would have been a fine of ten shillings to pay,
the next morning; for during this term an edict had
gone forth against dogs, and the authorities, not being
learned in zoology, could not be persuaded that a bear
was not a dog. Tig was, therefore, tied up in a court-
yard near his master's rooms, but that gentleman was
soon brought out by his piteous cries, and could not
pacify him in any other way than by bringing him in-
to his rooms; and at bed-time Tig was chained to the
post at the bottom of the bed, where he remained quiet
till daylight, and then shuffling on to the bed, awoke
his master by licking his face: he took no notice, and
presently Tig deliberately put his hind legs under the
blankets and covered himself up; there li remained
till chapel time, when his master left him, and on his


return found that the young gentleman had been amu-
sing himself during his solitude by overturning every-
thing he could get at in the room, and, apparently,
had had a quarrel and fight with the looking-glass,
which was broken to pieces and the wood-work bitten
all over. The perpetrator of all this havoc sat on the
bed, looking exceedingly innocent, but rocking back-
wards and forwards as if conscious of guilt and doubt-
ful of the consequences.
Near to Tig's house there was a little monkey tied
to a tree, and Jacko's great amusement was to make
grimaces at Tig; and when the latter composed him-
self to sleep in the warm sunshine, Jacko would cau-
tiously descend from the tree, and twisting his fingers
in Tig's long hair, would give him a sharp pull and in
a moment be up the tree again, chattering and clat-
tering his chain. Tig's anger was most amusing: he
would run backwards and forwards on his hind legs,
sucking his paws, and with his eyes fixed on Jacko,
uttering all sorts of threats and imprecations, to the
great delight of the monkey. He would then again
endeavour to take a nap, only to be again disturbed
by his little tormentor. However, these two animals
established a truce, became excellent friends, and would
sit for half an hour together confronting each other, ap-
parently holding a conversation. At the commence-
ment of the long vacation, Tig, with the other mem-


bers of the University, retired into the country, and
was daily taken out for a walk round the village, to
the great astonishment of the bumpkins. There was
a little shop, kept by an old dame who sold whipcord,
sugar-candy, and other matters, and here, on one oc-
casion, Tig was treated to sugar-candy. Soon after-
wards he got loose, and at once made off for the
shop, into which he burst, to the unutterable terror
of the spectacled and high-capped old lady, who was
knitting stockings behind the counter;-the mo-
ment she saw his shaggy head and heard the appalling
clatter of his chain, she rushed upstairs in a delirium
of terror. When assistance arrived, the offender
was discovered seated on the counter, helping himself
most liberally to brown sugar; and it was with some
difficulty, and after much resistance, that he was
dragged away.
Mr. Buckland had made a promise that Tig should
pay a visit to a village about six miles distant, and
determined that lie should proceed thither on horse-
back. As the horse shied whenever the bear came
near him, there was some difficulty in getting him
mounted; but at last his master managed to pull him
up by the chain while the horse was held quiet. Tig
at first took up his position in front, but soon walked
round and stood up on his hind-legs, resting his fore-
paws on his master's shoulders. To him this was ex-


ceedingly pleasant, but not so to the horse, who, not
being accustomed to carry two, and feeling Tig's claws,
kicked and plunged to rid himself of the extra pas-
senger. Tig held on like grim death, and stuck in his
claws most successfully; for in spite of all the efforts
of the horse he was not thrown. In this way the
journey was performed, the countryfolks opening their
eyes at the apparition.
. This reminds us of an anecdote mentioned by Mr.
Lloyd. A peasant had reared a bear, which became
so tame that he used occasionally to cause him to stand
at the back of his sledge when on a journey; but the
bear kept so good a balance that it was next to im-
possible to upset him. One day, however, the pea-
sant amused himself by driving over the very worst
ground he could find, with the intention, if possible, of
throwing Bruin off his equilibrium. This went on
for some time, till the animal become so irritated that
he gave his master, who was in front of him, a tre-
mendous thump on the shoulder with his paw, which
frightened the man so much, that he caused the bear
to be killed immediately; this, as he richly deserved
the thump, was a shabby retaliation.
When term recommended, Tiglath Pileser returned
to the University, much altered in appearance, for
being of the family of silver bears of Syria, his coat
had become almost white; he was much bigger and


stronger, and his teeth had made their appearance, so
that he was rather more difficult to manage; the
only way to restrain him, when in a rage, was to hold
him by the ears; but on one occasion, having lost
his temper, he tore his cap and gown to pieces.
About this time the British Association paid a visit
to Oxford, and Tig was an object of much interest.
The writer was present on several occasions when he
was introduced to breakfast parties of eminent sa-
vants, and much amusement was created by his tricks,
albeit they were a little rough. In more than one
instance he made sad havoc with book-muslins and
other fragile articles of female attire; on the whole,
however, he conducted himself with great propriety,
especially at an evening meeting at Dr. Daubeny's,
where he was much noticed, to his evident pleasure.
However, the authorities at Christchurch, not being
zoologists, had peculiar notions respecting bears; and
at length, after numerous threats and pecuniary penal-
ties, the fatal day arrived, and Tig's master was in-
formed that either he or the bear must leave Oxford
the next morning." There was no resisting this, and
poor dear Tig was accordingly put into a box-a much
larger one than that in which he had arrived-and
sent off to the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park.
Here he was placed in a comfortable den by himself;
but, alas! he missed the society to which he had been


accustomed, the excitement of a college life, and the
numerous charms by which the University was en-
deared to him: he refused his food: ran perpetually
up and down his den in the vain hope to escape, and
was one morning found dead, a victim to a broken



TIERE is no class of animals which combines, in such
a marked degree, beauty of form, with a wily and sa-

vage nature, as that to which the Leopard tribe be-

longs. The unusual pliability of the spine and joints
with which they are endowed, imparts agility, elas-

ticity, and elegance to their movements, whilst the

happy proportions of their limbs give grace to every
attitude. Their skins, beautifully sleek, yellow above


and white beneath, are marked with spots of brilliant
black disposed in patterns according to the species;
nor are those 'spots for ornament alone; as was re-
marked by one of the ablest of the writers in the
'Quarterly,' the different and characteristic mark-
ings of the larger feline animals bear a direct relation
to the circumstances under which they carry on their
predatory pursuits. The tawny colour of the lion har-
monizes with the parched grass or yellow sand, along
which he steals towards, or on which he lies in wait to
spring upon, a passing prey; and a like relation to the
place in which other large feline animals carry on their
predatory pursuits, may be traced to their different
and characteristic markings. The royal tiger, for in-
stance, which stalks or lurks in the jungle of richly-
wooded India, is less likely to be discerned as he glides
along the straight stems of the underwood, by having
the tawny ground-colour of his coat variegated by dark
vertical stripes, than if it were uniform like the lion's.
The leopard and panther again, which await the ap-
proach of their prey crouching on the outstretched
branch of some tree, derive a similar advantage, by
having the tawny ground-colour broken by dark spots
like the leaves around them; but amidst all this va-
riety, in which may be traced the principles of adap-
tation to special ends, there is a certain unity of plan,
the differences not being established from the begin-


ning. Thus the young lion is spotted during his first
year with dark spots on its lighter brown, and transi-
torily shows the livery that is most common in the
genus. It is singular that man has, in a semi-bar-
barous state, recognized the same principle as that
which constitutes these differences, and applied it to
the same purpose. It is well known that the setts, or
patterns, of several of the Highland tartans were ori-
ginally composed with special reference to conceal-
ment among the heather. And with the Highlanders,
perhaps, the hint was taken from the ptarmigans and
hares of their own native mountains, which change
their colours with the season, donning a snow-white
vest when the ground on which they tread bears the
garb of winter, and resuming their garments of grey-
ish brown when the summer's sun has restored to the
rocks their natural tints.
There are three species sufficiently resembling each
other in size and general appearance, to be con-
founded by persons unacquainted with their charac-
teristics, namely, the leopard, the panther, and the
jaguar. The precise distinction between the first two
is still an open question, although the best authori-
ties agree in considering that they are distinct ani-
mals; still confusion exists. An eminent dealer in
furs informed us that in the trade, panther skins
were looked upon as being larger than leopards', and


the spots more irregular, but the specimens produced
were clearly jaguar skins, which made the matter
more complicated.
The panther, Felis pardus, is believed to be an in-
habitant of a great portion of Africa, the warmer
parts of Asia, and the islands of the Indian Archi-
pelago; while the leopard, Felis leopardus, is thought
to be confined to Africa. The jaguar, Felis onca, is
the scourge of South America, from Paraguay almost
to the Isthmus of Darien, and is altogether a larger
and more powerful animal than either of the others.
Though presenting much resemblance, there are
points of distinction by which the individual may be
at once recognized. The jaguar is larger, sturdier,
and altogether more thickset than the leopard, whose
limbs are the beau ideal of symmetry and grace.
The leopard is marked with numerous spots, ar-
ranged in small, irregular circles on the sides, the
ridge of the back, the head, neck, and limbs being
simply spotted, without order. The jaguar is also
marked with black spots, but the circles formed by
them are much larger, and in almost all a central
spot exists, the whole bearing a rude resemblance to
a rose; along the back, the spots are so narrow and
elongated, as to resemble stripes. The tail of the
jaguar is also considerably shorter than that of the
leopard, which is nearly as long as the whole body.


Leopards and panthers, if taken quite young, and
treated with kindness, are capable. of being tho-
roughly tamed; the poet Cowper describes the great
difference in the dispositions of his three celebrated
hares; so it is with other wild animals, and leopards
among the rest, some returning kindness with the
utmost affection, others being rugged and untamable
from the first. Of those brought to this country, the
characters are much influenced by the treatment they
have experienced on board ship; in some cases, they
,have been made pets by the sailors, and are as tract-
able as domestic cats; but when they have been
teased and subjected to ill-treatment during the voy-
age, it is found very difficult to render them sociable;
there are now (1852) six young leopards in one den
at the Zoological Gardens: of these, five are about
the same age, and grew up as one family; the sixth
was added some time after, and being looked upon as
an intruder, was quite sent to Coventry, and even ill-
treated by the others; this he has never forgotten.
When the keeper comes to the den, he courts his
caresses and shows the greatest pleasure; but if any
of his companions advance to share them with him,
he growls and spits, and shows the utmost jealousy
and displeasure.
In the same collection there is a remarkably fine,
full-grown leopard, presented by her Majesty, which is


as tame as any creature can be; mutton is his fa-
vourite food, but the keeper will sometimes place a
piece of beef in the den; the leopard smells it, turns
it over with an air of contempt, and coming forward,
peers round behind the keeper's back to see if he has
not (as is generally the case) his favourite food con-
cealed. If given to him, he lays it down, and will
readily leave it at the keeper's call to come and be
patted, and whilst caressed he purrs, and shows the
greatest pleasure.
There were a pair of leopards in the Tower before
the collection was broken up, which illustrated well
the difference in disposition; the male, a noble ani-
mal, continued to the last as sullen and savage as on
'the day of his arrival. Every kindness was lavished
upon him by the keepers, but he received all their
overtures with such a sulky and morose return, that
nothing could be made of his unreclaimable and un-
manageable disposition. The female, which was the
older of the two, on the contrary, was as gentle and
affectionate as the other was savage, enjoying to be
patted and caressed by the keeper, and fondly lick-
ing his hands; one failing, however, she had, which
brought affiction to the soul of many a beau and
lady fair; it was an extraordinary predilection for the
destruction of hats, muffs, bonnets, umbrellas, and
parasols, and indeed, articles of dress generally,


seizing them with the greatest quickness, and tearing
them into pieces, almost before the astonished victim
was aware of the loss; to so great an extent did she
carry this peculiar taste, that Mr. Cops, the superin-
tendent, used to say that she had made prey of as
many of these articles as there were days in the year.
Animals in menageries are sometimes great enemies
to the milliner's art; giraffes have been known to
filch the flowers adorning a bonnet, and we once saw
a lady miserably oppressed by monkeys. She was
very decidedly of "a certain age," but dressed in the
extreme of juvenility, with flowers and ribbons of all
the colours of the rainbow. Her complexion was
delicately heightened with rouge, and the loveliest
tresses played about her cheeks. As she languidly
sauntered through the former monkey-house at the
gardens, playfully poking the animals with her pa-
rasol, one seized it so vigorously, that she was drawn
close to the den; in the twinkling of an eye, a dozen
little paws were protruded, off went bonnet, curls and
all, leaving a deplorably grey head, whilst others
seized her reticule and her dress, pulling it in a very
unpleasant manner. The handiwork of M:. Vouillon
was of course a wreck, and the contents of the reti-
cule, her purse, gloves, and delicately-scented hand-
kerchief, were with difficulty recovered from out of
the cheek-pouch of a baboon.


On another occasion we saw the elephant, that fine
old fellow who died some years ago, administer sum-
mary punishment to a weak-minded fop, who kept
offering him cakes, and on his putting out his trunk,
withdrawing them, and giving him a rap with his
cane instead. One of the keepers warned him, but
he laughed, and after he had teased the animal to his
heart's content, walked away. After a time he was
strolling by the spot again, intensely satisfied with
himself, his glass stuck in his eye and smiling blandly
in the face of a young lady who was evidently offended
at his impudence, when the elephant, who was rocking
backwards and forwards, suddenly threw out his trunk
and seized our friend by the coat-tails; the cloth gave
way, and the whole back of the coat was torn out,
leaving nothing but the collar, sleeves, and front. As
may be supposed, this was a damper; indeed, we
never saw a man look so small, as he shuffled away
amidst the titters of the company, who enjoyed his
just reward.
That very agreeable writer, Mrs. Lee, formerly Mrs.
Bowdich, has related, in the first volume of the Ma-
gazine of Natural History,' a most interesting account
of a tame panther which was in her possession several
months. He and another were found very young in
the forest, apparently deserted by their mother; they
were taken to the King of Ashantee, in whose palace


they lived some weeks, when our hero, being much
larger than his brother, suffocated him in a fit of
romping, and was then sent to Mr. Hutchinson, the
resident left by Mr. Bowdich at Coomassie, by whom
he was tamed. When eating was going on, he would
sit by his master's side, and receive his share with
gentleness. Once or twice he purloined a fowl, but
easily gave it up on being allowed a portion of some-
thing else; but on one occasion, when a silly servant
tried to pull his food from him, he tore a piece of
flesh froni the offender's leg, but owed him no ill-will
afterwards. One morning he broke the cord by which
he was confined, and the castle-gates being shut, a
chase commenced; but after leading his pursuers se-
veral times round the ramparts, and knocking over
a few children by bouncing against them, he suffered
himself to be caught, and led quietly back to his
quarters, under one of the guns of the fortress. By
degrees all fear of him subsided, and he was set at
liberty, a boy being appointed to prevent his intruding
into the apartments of the officers. His keeper, how-
ever, like a true negro, generally passed his watch in
sleeping, and Sai, as the panther was called, roamed
at large. On one occasion he found his servant sitting
on the step of the door, upright, but fast asleep, when
he lifted his paw, gave him a pat on the side of the
head which laid him flat, and then stood wagging his

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