• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 The sword of Robert Lee
 Birth and youth
 A young engineer
 A cavalry officer
 A Confederate general
 A college president
 A people's hero
 General R. E. Lee's farewell address...
 Lee to the rear
 The conquered banner
 Music in camp
 The South
 Back Cover






Group Title: The life of Gen. Robert E. Lee : for children, in easy words
Title: The life of Gen. Robert E. Lee
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083208/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life of Gen. Robert E. Lee for children, in easy words
Physical Description: 183 p., 3 leaves of plates : ill., ports, maps. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Williamson, Mary Lynn Harrison, 1850-1923
B.F. Johnson Publishing Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: B.F. Johnson Publishing Co.
Place of Publication: Richmond Va
Publication Date: c1895
 Subjects
Subject: Generals -- Juvenile literature -- Confederate States of America   ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Children's poetry   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- United States -- Civil War, 1861-1865   ( lcsh )
Children's poetry -- 1895   ( lcsh )
Biographies -- 1895   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1895
Genre: Children's poetry
Biographies   ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Virginia -- Richmond
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Mary L. Williamson ; illustrated.
General Note: Contains prose and verse.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083208
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002239796
notis - ALJ0331
oclc - 02630073
lccn - 00001899

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Frontispiece
        Page 3
    Title Page
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Preface
        Page 6
    The sword of Robert Lee
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Birth and youth
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    A young engineer
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 20a
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    A cavalry officer
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    A Confederate general
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 80a
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 98a
    A college president
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    A people's hero
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    General R. E. Lee's farewell address to his soldiers
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Lee to the rear
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    The conquered banner
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Music in camp
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
    The South
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
    Back Cover
        Page 184
        Page 185
Full Text

















17















Ul
































- / I

--4 '0 ,?
~ LA ---


/.


--F~


C A -~<~

I



I


The Baldwin Library
Unmverry
Fm of


L_ ~ I II P~1 Il-%I~I


*





THE LIFE

N. ROBRT L,


OGn. DOBE T E. LEE,


FPO CHILD EN,

IN EASv \WORDS.

ILLUSTRATED.



MRS. MARY L. WILLIAMSON.


B. r. JOHNSON PUBLISHING CO.
RICHMOND, VA.







































Copyright, 1895, ,
BY
MRS. MARY L. WILLIAMSON.


O


os-a-. P.









PREFACE.


In preparing the "Life of Lee for Children," for use
in the Public Schools, I beg leave to place before teachers
good reasons for employing it as a supplementary reader.
First, I urge the need of interesting our children in
history at an early age. From observation I find that the
minds of children who study history early expand more
rapidly than those who are restricted to the limits of
stories in readers. While teaching pupils to read, why
not fix in their minds the names and deeds of our great
men, thereby laying the foundation of historical knowl-
edge and instilling true patriotism into their youthful
souls ?
Secondly, In looking over the lives of our American
heroes we find not one which presents such a picture of
moral grandeur as that of Lee. Place this picture before
the little ones and you cannot fail to make them look
upward to noble ideals.
This little book is intended as auxiliary to third
readers. I have used the diacritical marks of Webster,
also his syllabication. In compiling this work I referred
chiefly to Gen. Fitzhugh Lee's "Life of Lee," and
Rev. J. William Jones' "Personal Reminiscences of
R. E. Lee."
MARY L. WILLIAMSON.
NEW MARKET, VA.,











The Sword of Robert Lee.

FATHER RYAN

Forth from its scabbard, pure and bright,
Flashed the sword of Lee!
Far in the front of the deadly fight,
High o'er the brave, in the cause of right,
Its stainless sheen, like a beacon light,
Led us to victory.
Out of its scabbard, where full long
It slumbered peacefully-
Roused from its rest by the battle-song,
Shielding the feeble, smiting the strong,
Guarding the right, and avenging the wrong-
Gleamed the sword of Lee!
Forth from its scabbard, high in air,
Beneath Virginia's sky,
And they who saw it gleaming there,
And knew who bore it, knelt to swear
That where that sword led they would dare
To follow and to die.
Out of its scabbard Never hand
Waved sword from stain as free,
Nor purer sword led braver band,
Nor braver bled for a brighter land,
Nor brighter land had a cause as grand,
Nor cause a chief like Lee!
Forth from its scabbard! All in vain!
Porth flashed the sword of Lee!
'Tis shrouded now in its sheath again,
It sleeps the sleep of our noble slain,
Defeated, yet without a stain,
Proudly and peacefully.









The Life of Gen. Robert E. Lee.


CHAPTER I.
Birth and Youth.

ROBERT EDWARD LEE was born at Stratford,
Westmoreland county, Virginia, on the 19th
of January, 1807.
His father, General Henry Lee, had been
a great chief in Washington's army. They
sometimes call him "Light-Horse Harry
Lee." While with Washington, he was ever
in front of the foe, and his troopers were
what they always should be-the eyes and
ears of the army.
After the war he was Governor of Vir-
ginia, and then a member of Congress. It
was he who said in a speech made before
Congress after the death of Washington, that
he was "First in war, first in peace, and






10 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
first in the hearts of his countrymen." He
also said, "Virginia is my country; her will
I obey, however sad the fate to which it may
subject me."
The long line of Lees may be traced back
to Launcelot Lee, of Loudon, in France, who
went with William the Conqueror upon his
expedition to England; and when Harold
had been slain upon the bloody field of Hast-
ings, Launcelot was given by William the
Conqueror an estate in Essex. From that
time the name of Lee is ever an honorable
one in the history of England.
In the time of the first Charles, Richard
Lee came to the New World and found a
home in Virginia. He was a man of good
stature, sound sense, and kind heart. From
him the noble stock of Virginia Lees began.
He was the great-great-grandfather of Robert,
who was much like him in many ways.
Robert's mother was Anne Hill Carter,
who came from one of the best families of
Virginia. She was a good and noble woman,






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


who lived only to train her children in the
right way.
Stratford, the house in which Robert was
born, is a fine old mansion, built in the shape
of the letter H, and stands not far from the




















were summer houses, where the band played,
IRSI

!.~-:: ,.=....,,.. 5, .




STRATFORD.

banks of the Potomac River and near the
birthplace of Washington. Upon the roof
were summer houses, where the band played,
while the young folks walked in the grounds
below, and enjoyed the cool air from the river
and the sweet music of the band.






12 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
He had two brothers and two sisters. His
brothers were named Charles Carter and Sid-
ney Smith, and his sisters Anne and Mildred.
When Robert was but four years of age
his father moved to Alexandria, a city not
very far from the Stratford House, where he
could send his boys to better schools. But
he was not able to stay with them and bring
them up to manhood. Shortly after he had
moved to Alexandria, he was hurt in Balti-
more by a mob of bad men, and he was
never well again.
When Robert was six years old, his father
went to the West Indies for his health.
While there he wrote kind letters to his son,
Charles Carter Lee, and spoke with much love
of all. Once he said, "'Tell me of Anne. Has
she grown tall? Robert was always good."
He wished to know, also, if his sons rode and
shot well, saying that a Virginian's sons should
be taught to ride, shoot, and tell the truth.
When he had been there five years, and
only grew worse, he made up his mind to






THE LIFE OF GEN ROBERT E. LEE.


return home. But he grew so ill that he
was put ashore on Cumberland Island at the
home of a friend. He soon gave up all hope
of life. At times his pain was so great that
he would drive his servants and every one
else out of the room. At length an old
woman, who had been Mrs. Greene's best
maid, was sent to nurse him. The first
thing General Lee did when she came into
the room was to hurl his boot at her head.
Without a word, she picked up the boot and
threw it back at him. A smile passed over
the old chief's face as he saw how brave she
was, and from that time to the day of his
death none but Mom Sarah
could wait on him. Two
months after the sick soldier -
landed he was dead. His
body was laid to rest amid
the cedars and flowers of *
the South, and it has never MOM SA
been moved to Virginia.






14 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
At this time Robert was only eleven years
old. If he was a good boy, it was his mother
who kept him so, for he never knew a father's
care. His mother once said to a friend,
"How can I spare Robert! He is both a
son and a daughter to me."
About that time the girls and other boys
were away from home, and she had no one
but Robert to care for her. He took the
keys and "kept house" for her when she
was sick, and also saw to all of her outdoor
work. He would run home from school to
ride out with her, so that she might enjoy
the fresh air and sunshine. When she
would complain of the cold or draughts, he
would pull out a great jackknife and stuff
the cracks with paper, for the coach was an
old one.
So he grew up by her side, a good and
noble boy. At first he went to school to a
Mr. Leary, who was ever his firm friend.
Then he went to the school of Mr. Benjamin






THE LIFE OF GEN ROBERT E. LEE.


H. Hallowell, who always spoke of him as a
fine young man.
Robert was fond of hunting, and would
sometimes follow the hounds all day. In
this way he gained that great strength which
was never known to fail him in after life.
The old home, in Alexandria, where his
mother had lived, was always a sacred place
to him. Years after, one of his friends saw
him looking sadly over the fence of the gar-
den where he used to play. "I am lookii.-,"
he said, "to see if the old snow-ball trees are
still here. I should be sorry .to miss them."
When he was eighteen years old, he went
to West Point to learn to be a -,,1li,. He
was there four years, and in that time never
got a bad mark or demerit. His clothes
always looked neat and clean, and his gun
bright. In short, he kept the rules of the
school and studied so well that he came out
second in his class.
When he came home from West Point, he
ound his mother's old coachman, Nat, very






16 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.

ill. He took him at once
to the South and nursed
him with great care. But
the spring-time saw the
good old slave laid in the
grave by the hand of his
S kind young master.
-- Not very long after, his
UNCLE NAT.
dear mother grew quite ill.
He sat by her bedside day and night, and
gave her all her food and medicine with his
own hand. But his great care and love could
not save her. He was soon bereft of her to
whom he used to say he "owed everything."
Some one has said, "Much has been writ-
ten of what the world owes to 'Mary, the
mother of Washington'; but it owes scarcely
less to 'Anne, the mother of Lee.'"

Gen'-er-al, the head of an army.
Ex'-pe-df-tion, a voyage; a trip, with an aim in
view.
Stat'-ure, height.
Droughts (drafts), currents of air.






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE. 17

Tell what you remember about-
Robert's father.
Robert's mother.
The situation of his home.
Robert's kindness to his mother.
His life at West Point.





18 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


CHAPTER II.

A Young Engineer.

IN 1829, when twenty-two years old, Robert
entered the Engineer Corps of the United
States, and thus became Lieutenant Lee.
It is the duty of these
engineers in time of peace,
to plan forts, to change
the course of rivers which
make sand-banks at wrong
places, and to do other
\i -\ work of the same kind.
k, Lieutenant Lee was sent
ROBERT E. LVE, at once to Hampton Roads,
of Engineers in Virginia, to build strong
works, not dreaming that in after years it
would be his fate to try to pull them down.
Lieutenant Lee was married on the 30th
of June, 1831, to Mary Custis, who was the
great-granddaughter of Mrs. Washington,






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


and the only child of George Parke Custis,
the adopted son of Washington. She lived
at a fine old place on the Virginia bank of
the Potomac River, called Arlington. At
this time Lieutenant Lee was very handsome
in face and tall and erect in figure.
Two years after his marriage he was sent
to the city of Washington. This change
was pleasant to him, for he was then near
the home of his wife:
In 1837 he was sent to St. Louis to find
means to keep the great Mississippi River
in its own bed. It was a hard task, but he
at last forced the mighty river into the
channel he wished. While at work, some
men, who did not know what great things
he could do, tried to drive his workmen
away, and even
brought up can- .. -
non. Lee did ., r -
not mind them, -t : i ,
but went on -. -
with his work, AINGTON.






20 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
and soon had the great river to flow in the
right place.
From St. Louis he was sent to New York
to plan and build new forts to protect that
great city. He was now a captain of engi-
neers, and was soon to try the horrors of
war.
In 1846, a war broke out between the
United States and Mexico. "Engineers are
of as much use to an army as sails to ships."
They have to make roads and bridges, to
plant big guns and draw maps, and guide
the men when going to fight.
At first, Captain Lee was sent to join Gene-
ral Wool, in the north of Mexico. Not long
before the battle of Buena Vista (Bwa'-na-
vees-ta), General Wool sent Lee to see where
Santa Anna, the general of the Mexicans,
had placed his army. News had come that
he was not far off.
Lee rode, with only one man to guide
him, into the mountains. After he had -been
riding for some hours, he saw on a hill-side

































































~~,~~~~~..,.~~~ ~ ---nr~r,,i:='l~n:~'





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


the smoke of fires, and objects which he
thought were tents. He went on, in a very
cautious way, till he had gotten quite near.
Then, he saw the white objects were only
flocks of sheep and herds of cattle and mules
on the way to market. He found out from
the men driving them that Santa Anna had
not crossed the mountains, and then went
back to his friends, who thought that they
would never see him again.
Though he had ridden forty miles that
night, he rested but three hours before
taking a troop of horsemen and going far
into the mountains to find out just where
Santa Anna had gone with his army.
Soon after this brave deed, Captain Lee
was sent to join General Scott in the south
of Mexico. He was put to work at Vera
Cruz (YV-ra-kro-s), a large town on the coast.
There was a high wall, with strong forts
around Vera Cruz. General Scott wished
to take this city from the Mexicans. So
Captain Lee had to plant big guns and





22 THE LIFE OF GEN ROBERT E. LEE.
build forts; and to do this he worked night
and day.
As they were short of men, he was told to
take some sailors from a man-of-war to help
with the work. These men began to com-
plain loudly. "They did not enlist to dig
dirt, and they did not want to work under
a landlubber anyhow." Their captain said
to Lee, "The boys don't want any dirt to
hide behind; they want to get on the top,
where they can have a fair fight." Lee
quietly showed his orders, and told the old
"salt" he meant to carry them out, and
pushed on the work 'mid curses both loud
and deep.
Just as the work was done, the Mexicans
began to fire their guns at that point, and
these brave sons of the sea were glad enough
to hide behind the "bank of dirt." Not
long after, their captain met Captain Lee and
said, "I suppose the dirt did save some of
my boys. But I knew that we would have
no use for dirt-banks on shipboard, that





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


there what we want is a clear deck and an
open sea. And the fact is, Captain, I don't
like this land fighting anyway; it 'aint clean."
Vera Cruz was taken by General Scott in
two weeks' time. Then the men went on
over hills and vales, till they came to the
strong fort on Cerro Gordo. Captain Lee
then found a way to lead the Americans to
the rear of the Mexicans, who soon broke
and fled.
While this battle was raging, Captain Lee
heard the cries of a little girl, and found by
the side of a hut a Mexican drummer boy.
His arm had been badly hurt and a large
Mexican, who had been shot, had fallen on
him. Captain Lee stopped, had the big
Mexican thrown off of the boy, and the little
fellow moved to a place of safety.
His little sister stood by. Her large
black eyes were streaming with tears, her
hands were crossed upon her breast, and her
hair in one long plait reached to her waist.
Her feet and arms were bare. She was very






24 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.

thankful to Captain Lee for saving her
brother.
In a letter to his son from this place, he
says: "I thought of you, my dear Custis,


CAPTAIN LEE RESCUING DRUMMER BOY.


on the 18th in the battle, and wondered,
when the musket balls and grape were
whistling over my head, where I could put
you, if with me, to be safe. I was truly






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


thankful you were at school, I hope, learning
to be good and wise. You have no idea
what a horrible sight a battle-field is."
From Cerro Gordo, they went on fighting
battles until they came to the large and rich
city of Mexico.
On this march, Captain Lee was always
at the front to .guide the men. Once, when
one part of General Scott's army had lost its
way, General Scott sent seven engineers to
guide it into the right road. They had to
cross a huge, rough bed of lava and rock.
Six of them went back to camp, saying that
they could not get across; but, Captain Lee
pressed on in the dark, alone and on foot,
and brought the men out in safety. Gen-
eral Scott once said that it was the greatest
feat done by any one man during the war.
There were many battles fought, but at
last the city of Mexico was taken by Gen-
eral Scott. In after years, this great man
was heard to say that his great success in
Mexico was largely due to the skill and






26 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
valor of Robert E. Lee, and that he was the
best soldier that he ever saw in the field.
In the midst of all this fighting, his boys
were ever in his thoughts. This is a part of
what he wrote to his son Custis on Christmas-
Eve, 1846:
"I hope good Santa Claus will fill my
Rob's stocking to-night; that Mildred's,
Agnes's, and Anna's may break down with
good things. -I do not know what he may
have for you and Mary, but if he leaves you
one-half of what I wish, you will want for
nothing. I think if I had one of you on
each side of me, riding on ponies, I would
be quite happy."
Not long after, he wrote to his boys thus:
"The ponies here cost from ten to fifty
dollars. I have three horses, but Creole is
my pet. She is a golden dun color, and
takes me over all the ditches I have yet
met with."
When the war was at last ended, in 1848,
Captain Lee went home for a short rest, after






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


which he was sent to West Point, as the
Superintendent of the Academy from whose
walls he had gone forth twenty-three years
before. His duty was to watch over the
studies and training of the boys who would
one day be officers in the army.


Corps (kore), a body of troops.
Officer, one who has charge of soldiers.
Lava, melted matter flowing from a volcano.
Feat, a great deed.
Lieuten'ant (luten'ant), an officer next below a
captain.
Tell me-
When Robert became Lieutenant Lee.
Whom he married.
Where he was sent in 1837.
What war broke out in 1846.
About a great feat performed by Captain
Lee.
Where he was sent in 1848.





28 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


CHAPTER III.

A Cavalry Officer.

AFTER being three years at West Point,
Captain Lee was sent to Texas as Lieuten-
ant-Colonel (kiurnel) of the Second Regiment
of Cavalry.. Cavalrymen are soldiers who
fight on horseback and who carry sabers,
and pistols, and short guns, called carbines.
- Colonel Lee did not wish to leave the
Engineer Corps, as he had become very fond
of the work, and had won a high rank in it;
but, as he had been promoted to a higher
place, he thought it best to take it. When
at West Point, he had been a fine horseman.
He was still fond of horses and liked to see
them fed and well taken care of. Though
now forty-six years of age, he still had a firm
seat in the saddle and rode well. His regi-
ment was sent to the new State of Texas,






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


where his duty was to watch the Indians
and keep them from killing the whites.
I have no doubt that Colonel Lee enjoyed.


LEE CHASING THE INDIANS.
riding over the vast plains of Texas, but life
in the forts was not very pleasant to such a
man as Lee. The forts were in the midst of
dreary plains, and there were only a few men


P
5~s~l~
~DC~--~
...1





30 THE LIFE OF GEX~ ROBERT E. LEE.
at each post. The scouting parties were led
by lieutenants, and the higher officers would
remain at the forts to see that all went right.
Such a lonely life did not suit our hero, but
he made the best of it.
Near his first post, Camp Cooper, was
an Indian Reserve, where the Indians
would come to be fed by the Govern-
ment. When it was cold and food was
scarce, they would come in; but when
the grass grew in the spring and the game
was fat, they would go off and become wild
and savage enough to kill those who had
been kind to them.
Catumseh, a Comanche chief, was at the
Reserve when Lee was at Camp Cooper.
Lee thought it would be better to visit him
and tell him that he would trust him as a
friend so long as he behaved; but if he did
not behave he would take him for a foe.
Catumseh was not much pleased with Lee's
speech, but gave an ugly grunt and said
that, as he had six wives, he was a "big





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


Indian." Lee had better "get more wives
before he talked." This visit did not do
much good. Catumseh was no doubt taking
the measure of Lee's scalp, while Lee was
displeased with the sly and filthy savage.
The Comanche Indians were then the
fiercest tribe in that region. They ate raw
meat, slept on the ground, and were great
thieves and murderers. They were fine horse-
men, and moved swiftly from place to place
on their ponies.
In June, 1856, Lee was sent with four
companies of his regiment on an expedition
against the Comanches, but they could not
be found. The wily savages had fled to
their desert retreats, where foot of pale face
had never trod.
From Camp Cooper he writes to Mrs. Lee:
"My Fourth-of-July was spent after a
march of thirty miles in one of the branches
of the Bra'zos, under my blanket, which
rested on four sticks driven in the ground,
as a sun-shade. The sun was fiery hot, the





32 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
air like a furnace, and the water salt; still
my love for my country was as great, my
faith in her future as true, as they would
have been under better circumstances."
The change of weather in Texas is some-
times very great.
In another letter, ne tells his wife about a
cold wind or norther. "I came here in a
cold norther, and though I pitched my tent
in the most sheltered place I could find, I
found this morning, when getting up, my
bucket of water, which was close by my bed,
so hard frozen that I had to break the ice
before I could pour the water into the basin."
While Colonel Lee rode with his troopers
from fort to fort, a dreadful disease broke out
among them. Many died, but Colonel Lee
did not catch the disease, though he lived
among his men and ran great risks. In
these sad times, his thoughts were ever with
his dear ones at home.
In a letter dated Camp Cooper, June 9,






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


1857, he tells about the sickness of the
troopers:
"The great heat has made much sickness
among the men. The children, too, have
suffered. A bright little boy died from it a
few days since. He was the only child, and
his parents were much grieved at his loss
* *. For the first time in my life, I
read the service of our Church over the grave
to a large number of soldiers." A few days
after, he again read the service over a little
boy who had died with the disease.
In a long letter from Fort Brown, Texas,
December, 1856, he says:
"I thought of you and wished to be with
you." He wrote again: "Though absent,
my heart will be in the midst of you; I can
do nothing but love and pray for you all.
My daily walks are alone, up and down the
banks of the river, and my chief pleasure
comes from my own thoughts, and from the
sight of the flowers and animals I meet with
here."





34 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
In the midst of this wild, lonely life he
was ever true to his faith in Christ, which
he had professed after the Mexican war.
There was at Arlington a large yellow cat,
called Tom Tita. All the family were fond
of him, and Colonel
Lee among the rest.
SThis led him to
write home about
the cats he saw in
TOM TITA. his travels. He
told once of a cat called by his mistress Jim
Nooks. He was a great pet, but at last died
from eating too much. He had coffee and
cream for breakfast, pound cake for lunch,
turtle and oysters for dinner, buttered toast
and Mexican rats, taken raw, for supper.
He was very handsome, but his "beauty
could not save him." The kindness of his
mistress was his ruin.
Again he told his little girl about a cat
which was dressed up. He had two holes
bored in each ear, and in each wore bows of






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


pink and blue ribbon. He was snow-white
and wore a gold chain on his neck. His
tail and feet were tipped with black, and his
eyes of green were truly cat-like.
In the summer of 1857, he was made
Colonel (kir'nel) of his regiment. The next
fall his father-in-law, Mr. Custis, died, and
Colonel Lee went home for a short time.
Mr. Custis left Arlington and the rest of his
land to Mrs. Lee, and he also willed that at
the end of five years all of his slaves should
be set free. He had chosen Colonel Lee to
see that his will was carried out.
Colonel Lee stayed as long as he could
with his lonely wife, and then went back to
his post in Texas. It must have been far
from easy for him to go back to the wild,
hard life on the plains. There were then
no railroads. The United States mail was
carried on mules, -by armed soldiers who
rode in a gallop from place to place. Often
they were slain by the Indians, who would
scalp them and leave their bodies to be





36 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
found by the troopers as they chased the
savages back to their retreats.
Two years more were spent in Texas,
when, in October, 1859, we find him again
at home, and taking part in a great tragedy.
A man, named John Brown, made a plan
to set free the negro slaves who were then in
the South, and to kill all the whites. This
plot did not succeed, and John Brown and
his men took refuge in the Round House at
Harper's Ferry. Colonel Lee, who was then
at home on a furlough, was ordered to take a
band of soldiers and capture these bold men.
He went at once to Harper's Ferry and
quickly took them prisoners. They were
then tried and hung for treason.
Just here, I must tell you that the slaves
were blacks, or negroes, who had first been
brought to this country from Africa, in 1619,
by the Dutch, and sold to the Virginia
planters. At first, the planters bought them
out of pity, as they were badly treated by
the Dutch. But after a time it was found


































,- .-


-.


N-oom


COL. R. E. LEE AT JOHN BROWN'S FORT, HARPER'S FERRY.


FIf -
;.'* i '





38 THE LIFE OF GE:. ROBERT E. LEE.
that the negroes worked well in the corn and
tobacco fields, and that they made money for
their masters.
Many men at the North were sea-going
men, and they soon found out that, by sail-
ing over the ocean to Africa and catching
the blacks, they could sell them at a great
profit to themselves. This they did,, and
men both at the North and South bought
them, though, even then, there were some
people at the South who thought it wrong to
buy and sell human beings.
In the State of Georgia it was for a time
against the law to hold negro slaves.
After a while, it was found that the
climate at the North was too cold for the
negro to thrive. It did not pay the men at
the North to keep them, and so they were
sold to the Southern planters.
In the South, the climate was hot, like
that of their native Africa, so they did well
in that sunny land.
In 1808, it was made unlawful to bring






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT L. -EE.


any more slaves from Africa to the United
States. The people at the South were glad
that the trade in slaves was stopped, but
the Northern traders were of course sorry
that they could make no more money in that
way.
When the negroes were first brought from
Africa, they were heathen savages; but, after
a few years, they learned the speech and
customs of the whites; and, more than all,
the worship of the true God. In thinking
of this, we have to admit that slavery must
have been permitted by the Lord in order to
bring a heathen people out of darkness into
the light of the Gospel.
There were now four millions of negroes
in the South. There was great love between
the blacks and their masters, as we have
seen when John Brown tried to get the
former to rise up and slay the whites. For
years, there had been a feeling in the North
that it was wrong to own slaves, and some






40 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
of the people began to hate the South and
to try to crush it.
The South felt that they owned the slaves
under the law, or Constitution of the United
States, and that they ought to be let alone.
They also claimed that the slaves, as a. class,
were better treated than any other working
people in the world. They, moreover, said
that the Southern States had a perfect right
to go out of the Union, if they wished, and
set up a government for themselves. This
the North denied; and thus they quarreled
about the rights of States, and slavery, and
other things, until they began to think of
war.
In a short time after the John Brown Raid,
Colonel Lee was back at his post in Texas,
but he was much troubled at the state of his
dear country. He loved the Union and had
lived nearly all his life in its service; but he
knew that Virginia was in the right, and
that he could not fight against his native
State.






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LE. 41
So, when the war came, he left the United
States Army to fight for Virginia and the
South.
He was offered the chief command of the
United States Army if he would remain in the
"Union" service. He knew that if he went
with the South he would lose his rank, and also
his lovely home-Arlington, but "'none of
these things moved him'; his only wish was to
know, that he might walk the path of dzity."
He said to Mr. Blair, who came to offer
him the command of the army: "If I
owned the four millions of slaves in the
South, I would give them all up to save the
Union, but how can I draw my sword upon
Virginia, my native State?" So, when Mr.
Lincoln called for troops to send against the
South, Lee turned his back upon "wealth,
rank, and all that a great power could give
him, and offered his stainless sword to his
native State." His great soul was wrung
with grief, but he obeyed the call of duty.
He went at once to Richmond, and was






42 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.

made Major-General of the Virginia troops.
His three sons also joined the Confederate
army.
General Lee was now fifty-four years old.
He had been thirty-two years in the service
of the United States.
The great "Civil War" now began. The
eleven Southern States which had left the
"Union" were now called "The Confederate
States of America"; Mr. Jefferson Davis
was made President of them, and Richmond
in Virginia was made the capital city.




Sa'bers, swords with broad blades.
Furlough (fur'lo), a leave of absence.
Trea'son (tre'zon), the act of being false to
one's country.
Promoted, raised to a higher rank.
Reg'iment, a body of troops under a colonel.
Tragedy, an action in which the life of a per-
son is taken.















''II
I l~~iiilri


VIRGINIA STATE CAPITOL, FORMERLY OCCUPIED BY THE CONFEDERATE CONGRESS.


.1 1





44 THE LIFE OF GENr ROBERT E. LEE.


What do you know about-
Cavalrymen ?
Colonel Lee's life in Texas?
Catumseh ?
The Comanche Indians?
The negroes ?
John Brown ?
The wish of Lee?
What he deemed his duty?
The great Civil War" ?


ciAr





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


CHAPTER IV.

A Confederate General.

IN this little book I cannot tell all that
happened during the Civil War, but only as
much as will relate to our hero, General Lee.
There were now two governments-one at
the North; the other at the South. Mr.
Abraham Lincoln was President of the North,
or Federal, while Mr. Jefferson Davis was
the President of the South, or Confederates.
The first thought of the North was to defend
Washington, their capital city; while the
South was just as busy taking care of Rich-
mond, and getting arms and troops ready
for war.
In this war, brother fought against brother,
and friend against friend. It was a time of
great trouble all over the land. At the
North, one hundred thousand men were
enlisted in three days. At the South, the





46 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
feeling was more intense. Men rushed to
arms from all parts of the country.
You must notice that from the first of the
war, the South was much poorer in the num-
ber of men and arms than the North. There
were at the North eighteen millions of whites;
while at the South, there were only six millions.
Through all the South, there could be found
only fifteen thousand new rifles and about
one hundred thousand old muskets.
The Federals wore a uniform of blue, while
the Confederates.were clad in gray; hence
they were sometimes called "the blue" and
"the gray."
The first blood which flowed in this war
was shed in Baltimore. The Sixth Massa-
chusetts Regiment, as it was passing through
the city on its way south, was attacked by a
band of men who loved the South and could
not bear to see them marching on to fight
their brethren. In the fierce street fight
which followed, several men were killed.
This happened on April the 19th, 1861.












































GEN, R. E. LEE IN WEST VIRGINIA.






48 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
The first gun of the war was fired at half-
past four o'clock April 12, 1861, at Fort
Sumter, in South Carolina. This fort was
taken by the Confederates after a fight of
thirty-four hours, in which no one was hurt
on either side.
During the first months of the war, Gen-
eral Lee was kept in Richmond to send Vir-
ginia men, who came to fight for the South,
to the places where they were most needed.
All around Richmond were camps, where
men were trained for war. The largest of
these camps was called "Camp Lee," after
our hero. But in July, 1861, Lee was sent
to Western Virginia, and was, for the first
time, commander of troops in the field.
Just then, there were heavy rains and a
great deal of sickness among the men of his
small army, so that he was not able to attack
the enemy, as he had planned.
After some time, it was thought best to
give up Western Virginia, and General Lee
went back to Richmond, where he stayed





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


only a short time. In November, 1861, he
was sent south to build a line of forts along
the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia.
In four months' time he did much to show
his skill as an engineer.
But a large Northern army, under General.
McClellan, was at the gates of Richmond, and
Lee was sent for to take charge of all the
armies of the South. Very soon, a battle
was fought at Seven Pines, May 31st, which
stopped General McClellan's "On to Rich-
mond." In that battle General Johnston,
the commanding general, was badly wounded,
and General Lee was put in his place. Lee
was swift to plan and as swift to act. His
task was hard. The hosts of the North
were at the gates of Richmond. The folks
on the house-tops could see their camp-fires
and hear the roar of their cannon. Lee at
once began to make earth-works, and to
place his men for battle. Every day, now, a
fine-looking man, clad in a neat gray uniform,
might be seen riding along the line.





50 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
He wished to know what was going on in
the camp of the foe, and now the right man
came forward. His name was J. E. B.
Stuart, best known as Jeb Stuart. He led
his brave troopers quite around the army of
the North and found out all that Lee wished
to know. He was ever after this, until his
death, the "eyes and ears" of Lee.
"Stonewall" Jackson now came from the
Valley with his brave men, and Lee at once
began the "Seven Days' Battle." Stuart was
"the eyes and ears" of Lee, and Jackson
was his "right arm," as you will learn be-
fore you get through with this little book.
For seven days the battle went on, and at
last the Army of the Potomac, under General
McClellan, was forced back to the James
river, and Richmond was saved from the foe
by the skill of Lee and the valor of his men.
Lee now marched north towards Wash-
ington City, and in August, 1862, met the
army of General Pope and fought the Second
Battle of Manassas. Lee had made a bold






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


plan to put the army of Pope to flight. He
sent Stonewall Jackson fifty-six miles around
to the rear of Pope, while he (Lee) kept him
in check in front.
Jackson's men marched so fast that they
were called "foot cavalry." They ate apples
and green corn as they marched along, for
they had no time to stop. Only one man
among them knew where they were going.
Little cared they, for Stonewall Jackson led
the way.
On the evening of the second day, Jackson,
with twenty thousand men, was between
Pope and Washington .city. Lee was in
front of Pope with the rest of the army.
General Jackson fell upon Manassas Junc-
tion and took three hundred prisoners and
many car-loads of food and clothes. After
the men had eaten what food they wanted,
they burned the rest and moved away.
Jackson found a good position from which
to fight, and when Pope's men came up was
ready for them. They fought all day, and






52 THE LIFE OF GE. ROBERT J. LEE.
when the powder and shot -gave out the
Southern men fought with stones.
All this time Lee, with most of the men,
was coming round to help Jackson. How
eagerly Jackson looked for help! He had
only twenty thousand men against three
times that many. At last Lee came up,
and the battle was won (August 30th).
Many brave men were killed on both sides,
but Lee was the victor. In three months'
time he had driven the foe from Richmond,
and was now in front of Washington with
his army.
He now sent General Jackson to Harper's
Ferry, where he took as prisoners twelve
thousand men of the North, September
15th. Jackson then hurried back to Lee,
who had crossed the Potomac and gone over
into Maryland, on September 5, 1862.
At Sharpsburg sometimes called Antietam
(Ante'tam), he again met the fresh army of
McClellan and fought one of the most bloody
battles of the war. Lee had only half as




























If~d~g~





;2.
Q ~'7
.~l~~r~~T~Y ~E9fi


I
~~
i

~r I p~P:c`:l~ld~e~ p:

I'r b
ir1'.;1~7i;99C~FI~); ~3~! :

:~~I ~J~ ~:~R~:sl.~;~,~,Fb~;:~F.
:tr
I

i '
e
.. I r
:

~mir~N~sk~ ~af~er~o~i;z:'



.~ S~c,
';~T~g~gtic~-:
~~.44~


-~"pS:irX. 5 :ii~S\b~i~


LAST MEETING OF LEE .AD JACKSON.






54 THE LIFE OF GE : ROBERT E. LEE.
many men as McClellan, but when, after the
battle, Lee thought it best to return to Vir-
ginia, McClellan did not follow him. Lee
led his army back to Virginia without the
loss of a gun or a wagon, and they rested
near Winchester, Virginia.
General Lee, in his tent near Winchester,
heard of the death of his daughter Annie.
She had been his dearest child, and his grief
at her death was great; but he wrote thus
to Mrs. Lee:
"But God in this, as in all things, has
mingled mercy with the blow by selecting
the one best prepared to go. May you join
me in saying 'His will be done!'"
It was now McClellan's turn to attack
Lee, but he was slow to move-so slow that
Mr. Lincoln sent him word "to cross the
Potomac and give battle to the foe, and
drive him south." But still he. did not
move, and Lee, who was also wanting to
move, sent Jeb Stuart over into Maryland to
find out what McClellan was doing. That





THE LIFE OF GEN. BOBERT E. LEE. 55
gallant man again went around the whole
Northern army, and came back safe to Lee,
having found out what Lee wished to know.
The Northern army now came back to
Virginia and Lee moved to Fredericksburg,
a town on the Rappahannock river.
Burnside was .now put at the head of the
Northern army in the place of General
McClellan, whom Mr. Lincoln accused of
being too slow.
Lee placed his men on the heights above
the river, on the south side, while Burnside's
hosts were on Stafford Heights and' the plains
below.
At daylight on December 13, 1862, the
battle began, and was fought bravely by both
sides. But Burnside's men had little chance,
since Lee's men from above poured the shot
and shell so fast that they could not move
forward.
The noise of this battle was terrible, as
there were three hundred cannon roaring at
once.






56 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
Cooke, a great writer, tells us that as
Burnside's guns were fired directly at the
town, the houses were soon on fire and a
dense cloud of. smoke hung over its roofs
and steeples. Soon the red flames leaped
up high above the smoke and the people
were driven from their homes. Hundreds of
women and children were seen wandering
along the frozen roads, not knowing where
to go.
General Lee stood upon a ridge which is
now called "Lee's Hill," and watched this
painful scene. For a long time he stood
silent, and then, in his deep, grave voice,
said these words, which were the most bitter
that he was ever known to utter: "These
people delight to destroy the weak, and those
who can make no defence; it just suits
them."
When the day was done, Lee was again
victor.
In less than six months Lee had fought
four great battles-all victorious to his arms,



























































































LEE AT 'FREfDRICKSBURG-


; I .





58 THE LIFE OF CGEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
except that of Sharpsburg, which was neither
a victory nor defeat. The Southern army
was now full of hope and courage. At the
battle of Fredericksburg, Lee had only sixty
thousand men, while Burnside's army num-
bered over one hundred thousand. In this
battle Lee lost five thousand men, while
twelve thousand of Burnside's men lay stark
and cold upon the bloody field.
Lee grieved over the loss of his brave men,
and for the good people of Fredericksburg
who had lost their homes by fire during the
fight. He now waited day after day for
Burnside to attack, but in vain. At length
Lee went into winter quarters in a tent at
the edge of an old pine field near Fredericks-
burg, and began to get ready for fight when
the spring came. It was at this time that
among a number of fowls give to Lee, was
a fine hen which began the egg business be-
fore her head came off, and Bryan, Lee's ser-
vant, saved her for the egg which 'he found
each day in the General's tent. Lee would






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


leave the door of the tent open for the hen
to go in and out. She roosted and rode in
the wagon, and was an eye-witness of the











-J


;;"_ --,_-- ,- I. ,, _-- :---:--.... --- -...........-
GEN. LEE'S HEN.

battle of Chancellorsville. She was also at
the battle of Gettysburg; but when orders
were given to fall back, the hen could not
be found. At last, they saw her perched on
top of the wagon, ready to go back to her
native State.
In 1864, when food began to get scarce






60 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
and Bryan was in sore need for something
nice for guests, he killed the good old
hen unknown to her master. At dinner,
General Lee thought it a very fine fowl, not
dreaming that Bryan had killed his pet.
It was now time for Lee to carry out the
will of old Mr. Custis and set free his slaves.
Many of them had been carried off by the
Northern men, but now he wrote out the
deed and set them free by law. He wrote
thus of them to Mrs. Lee:
"They are all entitled to their freedom,
and I wish them to have it. Those that
have been carried away I hope are free and
happy."
He had set free his own slaves years before.
Lee had proved so great a leader that the
people of the South began to look to him
with great love and hope.
During these battles, of which I have told
you, one-half of the Southern men were in
rags, and many were without shoes. Yet
shoeless, hatless, ragged and starving, they






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


followed Lee and fought his battles. Their
pet name for him was "Marse Robert."
They knew that their great chief cared for
them, and would not send them into danger
if he could help it; and it was no fault of
his if their food was scant and poor. They
learned to love and trust him. "Marse
Robert says so," was their battle-cry.


President, the head of a free people.
Mer'cy, kindness.
Gallant, brave; daring in fight.
Vic'tor, one who wins.
Position, place.
Tell about-
The two governments.
The first blood shed.
The first gun fired.
Camp Lee."
Where General Lee was first sent.
The On to Richmond."
Jeb Stuart. "Stonewall" Jackson.
The Second Battle of Manassas.
Sharpsburg. Fredericksburg.
The will of Mr. Custis.
The soldiers' love for Lee.






62 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E.,LEE.


CHAPTER V.

A Confederate General.
(Continued.)

WHEN the spring of 1863 came, the two
armies were still in sight of each other near
Fredericksburg. A new man, General Hooker,
sometimes called "Fighting Joe," had been
put at the head of the army of the North.
Take note that he was the fourth general
that President Lincoln had sent forth within
a year to conquer Lee.
Lee watched his new foe, and when he
had found out his plans was ready for him.
He fell back to a place called Chancellors-
ville, and there, in the midst of a dense
forest, the fight took place (May 2, 3).
While the battle was going on, Lee sent
Jackson to the rear. to cut Hooker off from
a ford in the river. Jackson's men moved
through the forest so swiftly and with so






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


little noise that they fell upon Hooker's men
with a loud yell before he knew they were
near. They rushed out like a thunder-bolt
and swept down upon the line like a flash
of lightning. The foe did not wait, blit
turned and fled.
It was now nearly dark, and, as Jackson
rode forward to view the way, he was shot
by his own men, who, in the dim light,
thought that he and his aids were a squad
of Northern cavalry. He was shot in three
places-in his right hand, his left forearm,
and again in the same limb near the shoulder.
He was placed in a litter and taken from the
field. All care was taken of this great and
good man, but he died the next Sunday. His
last words were:
"Order A. P. Hill to prepare for action.
Pass the infantry to the front. Tell Major
Hawkes"-he stopped and then said, as if
the fight was over, "Let us pass over the
river and rest under the trees."






64 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
Thus passed away the great Stonewall
Jackson, the "right arm of Lee."
For two days after Jackson was wounded,
the fight went on and raged with great fury.
General Hooker was struck by a piece of
wood split off by a cannon ball, and for a
time was thought dead.
Lee made bold plans and his brave men
carried them out. Stuart, who had taken
Stonewall Jackson's command, led his men
to battle, singing "Old Joe Hooker, won't
you come out of the wilderness."
At last the battle of Chancellorsville was
won and Hooker was forced back to his old
camp at Fredericksburg.
Chancellorsville was Lee's greatest battle,
but its glory was clouded by Jackson's death.
General Lee wrote to his wife, May 11, 1863:
"You will see we have to mourn the loss
of the good and great Jackson. I
know not, how to replace him, but God's
will be done."
In this battle Lee had only fifty-three























11 MI ?
Mi :


GEN. STONEWALL JACKSON






66 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
thousand men, one-third as many men as
Hooker.
In June, 1863, Lee again crossed the Po-
tomac and met an army under General
Meade at Gettysburg, in Pennsylvania.
Lee had two reasons for this move. One
was to get food for his men and horses; and
the other to draw the Northern army away
from its strong forts around Washington
city. He gave strict orders to his men not
to steal and rob. This is a part of his order:
"The commanding, general thinks that no
greater disgrace could befall the army, and
through it our whole people, than to com-
mit outrages on the innocent and defence-
less. It must be remembered
that we make war only upon armed men."
This order, with its noble Christ-like spirit,
will remain the "undying glory of Lee "; for
all his property had been taken by the
Federal. His wife and daughters were
homeless, yet he did not fail to return good
fo'r evil.






THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


When Lee started into Maryland, he sent
Jeb Stuart on ahead to guard the right flank
of his army. By some mishap, he crossed
the Potomac too far to the east, and soon
found that the whole Federal army was be-
tween him and General Lee. By hard fight-
ing and riding he at last joined Lee at Get-
tysburg, but not until after the fight had
begun. Lee was thus without his "eyes and
ears," as we have called General Stuart, and
could not tell just where the foe was. Neither
Lee nor Meade had planned to fight at Get-
tysburg, but they fell.upon each other pretty
much like two men groping in the dark.
For the first two days (July 1, 2) Lee's
men drove back the enemy. On the third
day, at 1 o'clock P. M., Lee began to fight
with one hundred and fifty big guns. For
two hours the air was alive with shells.
Then, out of the woods swept the Confederate
battle line, over a mile long, under General
Pickett. A thrill of wonder ran along the
Federal lines as that grand column of fifteen





68 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT P. LEJ.
thousand men marched, with ragged clothes,
but bright guns and red battle-flags flying,
up the slope of Cemetery Ridge. Down upon
them came shot and shell from guns on the
heights above and round them.
The line was broken, but on they went.
They planted their Confederate flags on the
breast-work; they fought hand to hand and
killed men at the cannon with the bayonet;
but down from the hill rushed tens of thou-
sands of Federals, and many who were not
killed were taken prisoners. Few got back
to tell the story. That night the stars
looked down upon a field of dead and dying
men and also upon a sad general. Lee's
orders had not been obeyed, and, for the first
time, he had been foiled.
Lee afterwards said to a friend, "Had I
had Stonewall Jackson at Gettysburg, I would
have won a great victory."
He had made a bold plan to attack early
in the day; but it was not done, and thus
Meade got time to bring up his troops.





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE. 69
Meade did not attack Lee, who rested that
night upon the same ground as the night
before.
Lee now had but little powder and shot.
On the next day, the 4th of July, he started
his long trains of wounded and prisoners
towards Virginia; and, at the same time,
buried his dead. That night, in a storm,
the army began its homeward march, and
reached the Potomac river to find it too high
to. cross. Calm and brave, Lee sent his
wounded over in boats and got ready for
Meade. But Meade was in no mood to
attack Lee and'came up slowly.
While waiting- for the river to fall, Lee
heard of the capture of his son Gen. W. H. F.
Lee.
On the 13th, Lee's men began to cross
the river, and by the next night they were
again safe in Virginia.
The men lost at Gettysburg were never
replaced, for the South had sent forth all her
fighting men and had no more to give.





70 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
The rest of the year passed without any
great battle. Lee's chief concern was to
get food and clothes for his men and to watch
Meade, who would not give battle.
About this time the city of Richmond pre-
sented to Lee a house. This he kindly but
firmly refused to take, and begged that what
means the city had to spare might be given
to the families of his poor soldiers.
Late in November, General Meade moved
towards Lee, who had built strong forts at Mine
Run. But Meade found the forts too strong
for attack and withdrew during the night.
The next year a new man was sent against
Lee-Ulysses S. Grant. Lee had now only
sixty-two thousand men to meet Grant, who
had one hundred and twenty-five thousand men,
and a wagon train that reached sixty-five
miles.
With this large army, Grant crossed the
Rapidan river, and marched on to give Lee
battle. Lee did not wait for Grant, but
went forward and met his hosts in a place





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


called the Wilderness, which was a vast
forest full of underbrush, and with only nar-
row roads here and there. It was a bad
place in which to fight a battle, for no man
could see but a few yards around him. Can-
non and horsemen were of no use, because
they could not move through the tangled
bushes.
Grant did not know that Lee's men were
so near. But when they rushed into these
wilds and boldly began the fight he had to
give battle. For two days, May 5th and
6th,. 1864, two hundred thousand men in
blue and gray fought breast to breast in the
thickets. Men fell and died unseen, their
bodies lost in the bushes and their death-
groans drowned in the roar of battle.
In the midst of these horrors, the woods
caught on fire and many of the wounded
were, burnt alive. Lee, however, pressed'for-
ward, and when night closed had taken a
portion of the Federal breast-works.
During the fight of the 6th, General Lee





72 THE LIFE OF GEIV. ROBERT E. LEE.
placed himself at the head of some men from
Texas to lead the charge. "Hurrah for
Texas!" he cried, and ordered the charge.
But the soldiers, anxious for their dear gen-
eral, shouted, "Lee to rear! '" A gray-haired
soldier seized his bridle, saying, "General
Lee, if you do not go back, we will not go
forward!" So General Lee reined back his
horse and the brave Texans swept on to vic-
tory and death.
On the morning of the 7th, Grant made
no motion to attack Lee, but that night
marched towards Spotsylvania Court-House.
Lee at once found out his plans and began
a race to reach there first. When the front
of Grant's army reached the Court-House the
next morning, they found Lee's men behind
breast-works and ready for the fight. Lee
had gotten between Grant and Richmondl
That evening the two great armies were
again facing each other on the banks of the
Po river. Here they threw up breast-works,
which may yet be seen.






THE LIFE OF GEf. ROBERT E. LEE.


For twelve days, Grant made many at-
tacks upon Lee's lines. Early on the morn-
ing of the 12th his men made an opening in
Lee's lines iad pio'ul- il 1y
Th 11 usands 11 d Lee's. mien


LEE IN' FIONT OF HIS TROOPS.

ran up quickly and soon a most terrible fight
took place. The trenches ran with blood
and the space was piled with dead bodies,
whose lips were black with powder from bit-
ing cartridges.






74 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEA.

Though Grant held that position, he could
not break through the second line. The
little army in gray stood as firm as the
mountains.
In the fight of which I have just told you,
General Lee again rode in front, with hat
off, to lead the charge; but General Gordon
dashed up and said:
These are Virginians and Georgians who
have never failed. Go to the rear, General
Lee."
Then he said to the men:
"Must General Lee lead this charge?"
"No! No!" they cried; "we will drive
them back if General Lee will go to the
rear."
They rushed off and once more hurled back
the Federal troops.
Grant now sent his cavalry general, Sher-
idan, on a raid near Richmond. A fierce
battle was fought at Yellow Tavern, in which
the famous Jeb Stuart was wounded so that






TIE LIFE OF fGE BOBERT E. LEE. 75
he died the next day. Alas for Lee! Jackson
and Stuart were both gone.
Grant again moved to the rear, and Lee
next moved to the North Anna river. While
Grant was again trying to flank, Lee got to
the 'ld works at Cold Harbor. Grant made
an attack at daylight. His troops, sinking
into a swamp, were killed by thousands,
while Lee lost but few men.
A second assault was ordered, but the men
would not move forward. About thirteen
thousand of their comrades had been killed
in less than half an hour, and they could no
longer stand the awful fire.
We are told by General Fitzhugh Lee that
Lee's men were hungry and mad. One
cracker to a man, with no meat, was a
luxury. One poor fellow, who had his
cracker shot out of his hand before he could
eat it, said: "The next time I'll put my
cracker in a safe place down by the breast-
works where it won't get wounded, poor
thing!"





76 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
Lee again stood in Grant's way to Rich-
mond. In the battles from the Wilderness
to Cold Harbor, Grant had lost sixty thou-
sand men, while Lee's loss was eighteen
thousand.
Just before the battle of Cold Harbor,
Grant had looked for Sigel to move up the
Valley and fall upon Lee's rear. But Sigel
was met at New Market on May 15th by
Breckenridge with five thousand troops,
among which was a band of cadets from the
Virginia Military Institute at Lexington.
These boys fought like heroes, fifty of them
being killed and wounded. Sigel was sent
running back down the Valley, and Brecken-
ridge then marched to the help of Lee.
Grant then, on the night of June 12th,
began to move his army south of the James
river to march towards Petersburg, a city
about twenty-one miles south of Richmond.
The famous General Beauregard (Bo're-
gard) was at Petersburg with only about
two thousand men, as he had sent the most





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE. 77
of his troops to the north side of the James
river to the 'help of Lee.
Against these, on the 15th, General Grant
sent eighteen thousand men.
Beauregard held these men in check until
Lee sent troops to aid him. Lee then came
up with the main army, and Grant, having
lost ten thousand men, now began to make
trenches and build forts to protect his men,
as he was going to lay siege to Petersburg,
the key to Richmond.
Lee had to defend both Richmond and
Petersburg with lines thirty-five miles long,
against Grant's army, which was twice as
large as his own. In fact, Grant had all
the men that he asked for; while Lee's
ranks were thin and food was scarce. A fourth
of a pound of meat and one pound of flour
was all that each soldier had for one day.
In this stress, it is said that Lee thought
it best to give up Richmond and march south
to join the army there. I do not know the
truth of that statement. At any rate, he





78 THE LIFE OF EN. ROBERT E. LEE.
did not go, but went to work to make his
lines stronger and to get in food for his men.
One of his great cares was to keep Grant
from getting hold of the railroads which
brought food from the South and other parts
of the country.
Just here, it will be well to give you some
of the war prices at that time. Flour brought,
in Confederate money, two hundred and fifty
dollars per barrel; meal, fifty dollars; corn,
forty; and oats, twenty-five dollars per bushel.
Brown sugar cost ten dollars per pound;
coffee, twelve dollars; tea, thirty-five dollars;
and they were scarce and hard to get.
Woolen goods were scarce; calico cost thirty
dollars per yard, and lead pencils one dollar
a-piece. Women wore dresses that were
made of cloth spun, woven and dyed by
their own hands. Large thorns were used
for pins and hair-pins, and shoes were made
with wooden soles. Hats were made by girls
out of wheat straw, plaited into a braid and
then sewed into shape.





THE LIFE OF GEN ROBERT E. LEE..


Those were indeed hard times; but in spite
of want and care, the spirits and courage of
the Southern people did not flag. All food
that could be spared was sent to Richmond,
and every one hoped for the best.
Time after time Grant's men made attacks
upon Lee's works, but were always sent back
faster than they came, by his watchful men.
The shells from Grant's big guns fell into
the city of Petersburg day after day, burst-
ing into the churches and houses, and making
the people flee for their lives.
One day, as General Lee was sitting on a
chair under a tree at his headquarters, the
"Clay House," the balls fell so thick about
him that his aids begged him to seek a safer
place. He at last mounted his horse and
rode away. A moment after, a gay young
soldier sat down in the chair and tilted it
back, saying, "I'll see if I can fill Lee's place
for awhile." Just then a ball struck the
front round of the chair and cut it in twain.
If Lee had been there, with the chair upon





80 THE LIFE OF GEN ROBERT E. LEE.
the ground, he would have been badly hurt.
All thanked God that he was safe.
On June 22d, the Confederates under
General Mahone made a sally from their
lines and gave the Federals a great surprise.
As the Southern shot and shell burst upon
them, they fled back into their lines and the
Confederates brought off two thousand prison-
ers, four cannon and eight flags.
On the same day, there was a fight at
Reams' Station, in which the Federals were
put to flight and lost twelve guns and one
thousand men.
All this time, Grant was making earth-
works and forts, and at last carried out a
very cruel plan. From a spot out of sight,
he had a mine dug until it reached under
one of the Confederate forts. In that hole
he had caused to be placed a .blast of eight
thousand pounds of powder. His plan was
to blow a hole in Lee's lines and then rush
in with a large band of men and take the
city.

















t

h



u
~ct
P





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


General Lee found out that they were dig-
ging the mine and where it was, and had a
strong line made in the rear, while big guns
were placed so as to fire across the breach
when the mine was sprung.
At that time there were only thirteen
thousand men in the trenches at Petersburg,
as General Lee had been forced to send some
of his troops to the north of the James to
check a move which Grant had made on
purpose to draw off Lee's men from the mine.
Just at dawn, July 30th, the blast was
fired. A great roar was heard, and then
two hundred and fifty-six men from South
Carolina and twenty-two from Petersburg,
with guns, large masses of earth, stones and
logs, were thrown high into the air. A
breach one hundred and thirty-five feet long,
ninety feet wide, and thirty feet deep, had
been made in the Confederate lines. Those
near the spot were at first stunned, and
those far away could not think what the
noise meant.






82 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.

Grant's guns fired at once all along the
line, and a band of men marched out to rush
in through the breach. When they had
rushed across the space to the gap, they
found a deep pit at their feet.


EXPLOSION OF THE CRATER.


The Confederates had now gained their
wits, and at once opened fire. The storm of
shot and shell forced the Federals down into
the pit for shelter; but when there, they could
not get out. Band after band of Federals were
sent forward to charge the works, but they





THE LIFE OF GEN ROBERT E. LEE.


either fell into the Crater or ran back to their
own lines.
Two hours had now passed, when black
troops were sent to seize the guns which
were doing such deadly work. They marched
bravely up, but the Confederate fire was too
hot for them and they ran for their lives-
some into the Crater, and some back to their
own lines. White troops were again sent
forward, but they, too, were driven back.
All this time the Crater was full of wounded,
struggling and dying men, upon whom the
hot sun beat and shot poured down.
Soon General Lee rode up, and by his
orders, General Mahone, with Weisiger's and
Wright's brigades, came up and charged with
a yell upon the Federals who had for the
first time reached the breast-works. There
was a fierce hand-to-hand fight,, but the
Federal were quickly forced back.
All honor is due to the few men who had
so bravely held the breach until help came.
Just at this time a white flag was seen to





84 T=E LIFE OF GEN, ROBERT E. LEE.
float above the side of the Crater, which told
that some were alive down there and ready
to give up.
In this strange fight Grant lost about four
thousand men and Lee about four hundred.
The pluck and skill of Lee and a few men
had foiled a well-laid plan and showed what
these brave heroes could do after years of toil
and battle.
Lee now thought that if he would again
send troops to threaten Washington, he
might cause Grant to move some of his
large army there, and thus give him (Lee) a
chance to hurl back the hosts of Grant from
Richmond. So he sent General Early down
the Valley into Maryland with only ten thou-
sand men.
They went as fast as they could, and on
July 9th met, at Monocacy Bridge, General
Lew Wallace with seven thousand men.
Having whipped him and taken from him
two thousand, men, Early marched on to
Washington.





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


On the 10th, his troops marched thirty
miles, and on the llth were in front of
Washington. But his force was too small
and too much worn out to try to attack the
city. He coolly camped in front of it all
day, and at night after a fight with some
Federal troops sent to catch him, went back
into Virginia.
This raid of Early's did not move Grant.
He left Mr. Lincoln to take care of Washing-
ton and kept the most of his men massed in
front of Lee's lines.
It was about this time that the Federal
General Sheridan passed up the Valley and
burned two thousand barns filled with wheat
and hay, and seventy mills filled with flour.
He also drove off and killed four thousand
head of stock. The boast was that "if a
crow wants to fly down the Valley he must
carry his food along."
This was a part of the plan to crush and
starve Lee, for a great part of his flour and
meat was sent from the Valley.






86 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
After many trials, on August 18th Grant
at last got hold of the Weldon railroad, which
brought supplies from the south. This was
a great blow to Lee.
In the fall of this year, when meat was
scarce, General. Wade Hampton sent a note
to General Lee, telling him that there was a
large drove of beeves in the rear of Grant's
army and asked leave to take a force of
horsemen and drive out the cattle. General
Lee at last told him to go, but urged him to
take great care not to be caught.
The men were well on their way when day
broke, and rode on until dark, when they
came to a halt in a road overhung by the
branches of trees. Here they slept, men
and horses, till just at dawn they sprang to
their saddles, and with the well-known yell
dashed into the camp of the foe. The Fed-
erals made a good fight for their meat; but
at last fell back, and the Confederates cap-
tured and drove out more than two thousand
beeves. These they brought safe into camp





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


after having two fights and riding one hun-
dred miles.
This fresh meat was a great treat to Lee's
men and the cause of much fun.
Lee's lines were so close to Grant's at one
point that the men would often call over to
each other. The Federals
called the Confederates
Johnny Rebs, while the Con-







JOHNNY REB AND BILLY YANK.
.- federatee name for the
Federal was Billy Yanks. On the day after
the beef raid, one of Grant's men called out:
"I say, Johnny Reb, come over. I've got
a new blue suit for you."
"Blue suit?" growled out Johnny.
"Yes," said the other, "take off those





88 THE LIFE OF GEN ROBERT E. LEE.
greasy butternut clothes. I would, if I were
you."
"Never you mind the grease, Billy Yank,"
drawled out the Confederate, "I got that
out'n them beeves 'o yourn"
Pop! went the Federal's gun, and the Con-
federate was not slow to pop back at him.
General Lee's life was now full of care;
as soon as one attack on his lines was over,
another was begun. He lived in a tent and
would go down to the trenches himself to see
how his men were getting on.
An old soldier relates that one day he
came into the trenches when the firing was
quite rapid. The men did not dare to cheer,
lest they might bring a hotter fire from the
foe, but they crowded around him and begged
him to go back. But he calmly asked after
their health and spoke words of cheer. Then
he walked to a big gun and asked the lieu-
tenant to fire, so that he might see its range
and work. The officer said, with tears in his
eyes, "General, don't order me to fire this





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


gun while you are here. They will open fire
over there with all those big guns and you
will surely get hurt. Go back out of range
and I'll fire all day." General Lee was
greatly touched by this, and went back,
while the men quickly fired off the huge gun.
Lee needed not only men, but food for
those he had. Many men died from cold
and want.
The winter of 1864 and '65 was a sad one
for Lee and the South. There were no more
men in the South to take the place of those
who had been killed.
The corn and wheat of the South had been
burnt and the cattle killed by the Northern
armies. The people sat down to empty
tables and had no more food to send their
men.
Mrs. Lee, in her sick chair in Richmond,
"with large heart and small means" knit
socks, which she would send at once to the
bare-footed men.





90 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
On January 10, 1865, General Lee writes
to Mrs. Lee:
"Yesterday three little girls walked into
my room, each with a small basket. The
eldest had some fresh eggs, the second some
pickles, and the third some pop-corn, which
had grown in her garden. They had
with them a young maid with a block of soap
made by hermother. They were the daugh-
ters of a Mrs. Nottingham, a refugee from
Northampton county. I had not
had so nice a visit for a long time. I was
able to fill their baskets with apples, and
begged them to bring me hereafter nothing
but kisses, and to keep the eggs, corn, etc.,
for themselves."
Lee's men were ragged and starving, but
they fought on till April 1st, 1865, when,
at Five Forks, the left wing of Grant's large
army swept around the right and rear of
Lee, and made him give up Richmond and
Petersburg.
When the Southern troops were leaving





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


Richmond, by law of Congress the tobacco
houses were set on fire to keep them from
falling into the hands of the foe. The fire
spread, and Mrs. Lee's house was in danger
of being burnt.' Friends came in and
wished to move her to a place of safety, but
she was loath to go. The fire had no terror for
her as she thought of her husband with his
band of ragged, starving men marching with
their "faces turned from Richmond." White
clouds of dense smoke, with the light of fire
in their folds, hung above the city as the
Federal army, with waving flags and clash-
ing music, marched-in and stacked arms in
the Capitol Square,
In the meantime, Lee marched on towards
Amelia Court-House, where he had ordered
meat and bread to be sent for his men. But
when he got there he found that it had been
sent elsewhere, and now real want set in.
His men had nothing to eat but corn, which
they would parch at night and eat as they
marched along. General Lee's plan had





92 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
been to march south and join General John-
ston, but some time had been lost in looking
for food, and General Grant's hosts were near
at hand.
So Lee fell back towards Lynchburg, but
on April 9th, 1865, being entirely surrounded
by Grant's vast army, he and his few ragged
men surrendered to General Grant at Appo-
mattox Court-House. Lee had only eight
thousand men, while Grant's army numbered
about two hundred thousand.
In all these battles, of which I have told
you, General Lee had never been really de-
feated; but he gave up at last because he
had no more men and no more food. The
Northern generals had all the men and food
they asked for, as they had the world to
draw from; but the South, being blockaded,
or shut in by Northern ships of war, could
not get what she needed from other lands.
Lee did all that courage and genius could
do against such odds, and was, without doubt,
the greatest commander of his time.





THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.


Colonel Venable, an officer on General
Lee's staff, tells this story of the surrender:
"When I told General Lee that the troops
in front were not able to fight their way out,
he said 'Then, there is nothing left me but
to go and see General Grant, and I would
rather die a thousand deaths.'"
Another officer says that when Lee was
thinking of the surrender he exclaimed,
"How easily I could get rid of all this and
be at rest! I have only to ride along the
lines and all will be over. But," he added
quickly, "it is our duty to live, for what will
become of the women and children of the
South if we are not here to support and pro-
tect them?"
So, with a heart bursting with grief, he
once more did his duty. He went at once
to General Grant and surrendered himself
and his few remaining men.
By the terms of the surrender, Lee's men
gave up their fire-arms, but all who had






94 TBE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
horses took them home, "to work their little.
farms."
General Grant, it must be said, was most
kind to General Lee and his men. He did
not ask for General Lee's sword, nor did Lee
offer it to him; neither did he require Lee's
men to march up to stack their guns between
ranks of Federals with flags flying and bands
playing. Lee's men simply went to places
which were pointed out and stacked their
guns. Their officers then signed a parole
not to fight again against the United States.
They were then free to go back to 'their
homes, which, in some cases, were burnt-
blight and want being on every side.
After all, Grant did not go to Lee's camp
or to Richmond to exult over the men who
had so often met him in battle; but he
mounted his horse, and, with his staff, rode
to Washington. Before going, he sent to
Lee twenty-five thousand rations; for, as I
have told you, Lee's men had nothing to eat
but parched corn.






THE LIFE OF GE. ROBERT E. LEE.


After the surrender, Lee rode out among
his men, who pressed up to him, eager to
"touch his person, or even his horse," and
tears fell down the powder-stained cheeks of
the strong men. Slowly he said:
"Men, we have fought the war together;













LEE LEAVING APPOMATTOX C. H.
I have done my best for you; my heart is
too full to say more."
"And then in silence, with lifted hat, he
rode through the weeping army towards his
home in Richmond."
As General Lee rode on towards Rich-





96 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.
mond he was calm, and his thoughts dwelt
much more on the state of the poor people'
at whose houses he stopped than upon his
own bad fortune. When he found that all
along the road the people were glad to see
him and gave him gladly of what they had to
eat, he said, "These good people are kind-
too kind. They do too much-more than
they are able to ,do-for us."
At a house which he reached just at night,
a poor woman gave him a nice bed; but,
with a kind shake of the head, he spread
his blanket and slept upon the floor.
The next day he stopped at the house of
his brother, Charles Carter Lee; but, when
night came, left the house and slept in his
old black wagon. He could not give up at
once the habits of a soldier.
When, at last, the city of Richmond was
in sight, he rode ahead with a few of his
officers. A sad sight met his view. In the
great fire of the 3d of April, a large part of
the city had been burned, and, as he rode





THE LIFE OF GE BOBERT E. LEE.


Sup Main street, he saw only masses of black
ruins.
As he rode slowly, some of tne people saw
him, and at once the news flashed through
the streets that General Lee had come.
The people ran to greet him, and showed
by cheers and the waving of hats and hand-
kerchiefs how much they loved him.
General Lee now went home and there
again took up his duty. He had fought for
the South, which had failed to gain the vic-
tory. He thought that it was now the duty
of every good man to avoid hate and malice
and do all that he could to build up the
waste places of his dear land. He had been
a soldier for forty years, and, for the first
time since manhood, was in private life.
He now enjoyed the company of his wife
and children, and as long as he kept his
parole and the laws in force where he lived,
was thought to be safe. There were, how-
ever, steps taken to try him for treason; but
General Grant went to the President and





98 THE LIFE OF GEN. ROBERT E. LEE.

told him that his honor was pledged for the
safety of General Lee, and that he wished
him to be let alone. So, General Grant's
request was granted and no trial took place.
After some months the Lee family left
Richmond and went to live at the house of
a friend in Powhatan county.
The spring and summer of 1865 was spent
by our hero in taking the rest which he so
much needed.

Refugee', one who leaves home for safety.
Siege, the act of besetting a fortified place.
Hfrled, thrown.
Genius, a great mind.
Surrender, the act of yielding to another.
What do you remember about-
Chancellorsville ?
The death of General Jackson ?
Gettysburg ?
The Wilderness?
"Lee to the rear.?"
Cold Harbor ?
The siege of Richmond and Petersburg?
The surrender?
General Grant's kindness?




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs